Long Beach Mineral Key

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Long Beach NSTA Area Conference, December 2014
Rock & Mineral key
1. Name: Marble
Donated by: Imerys, Sylacauga, GA
Description:
Marble is a metamorphic rock predominately composed of the mineral calcite (CaCO3).
Finely ground marble may be used as a filling and / or coating material in paper or as a
source of calcium chemicals. The stone can be used in building and sculpture, as well
as, a decorative landscape element. Many buildings such as the Lincoln Memorial in
Washington, DC are made of Georgia marble.
– See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marble
2. Name: Mica
Donated by: Imerys, Kings Mountain, NC
Mica is a mineral name given to a group of minerals that are physically and chemically
similar. They are all silicate minerals, known as sheet silicates because they form in
distinct layers. Micas are fairly light and relatively soft, and the sheets and flakes of mica
are flexible. Mica is heat-resistant and does not conduct electricity. There are 37
different mica minerals. The most common include: Purple lepidolite, black biotite,
brown phlogopite and clear muscovite (a potassium and aluminum mica).
The leading use of dry-ground mica in the US is in joint compound for filling and finishing
seams and blemishes in gypsum wallboard (drywall). The mica acts as a filler and
extender, provides a smooth consistency, improves the workability of the compound, and
provides resistance to cracking. In 2008, joint compound accounted for 54% of dryground mica consumption. In the paint industry, ground mica is used as a pigment
extender that also facilitates suspension, reduces chalking, prevents shrinking and
shearing of the paint film, increases resistance of the paint film to water penetration and
weathering, and brightens the tone of colored pigments. Consumption of dry-ground
mica in paint, the second ranked use, accounted for 22% of the dry-ground mica used in
2008.[6]
Ground mica is used in the well-drilling industry as an additive to drilling fluids. Well
drilling muds accounted for 15% of dry-ground mica use in 2008. The plastics industry
used dry-ground mica as an extender and filler. In 2008, consumption of dry-ground
mica in plastic applications accounted for 2% of the market. The rubber industry used
ground mica as an inert filler and mold release compound in the manufacture of molded
rubber products, such as tires and roofing. Dry-ground mica is used in the production of
rolled roofing and asphalt shingles, where it serves as a surface coating to prevent
sticking of adjacent surfaces. (Wikipedia)
3. Name: Kaolin
Donated by: Imerys, Sandersville, GA – packaged

Kaolin, Al2O3·SiO2·H2O, or China Clay is a commonly distributed clay mineral. When it is
found in relatively pure deposits it has value as a filling and coating material in paper, as
a component in china and industrial ceramics, and as a filler in paint, rubber, and
plastics. Kaolin is Georgia’s most valuable single mineral product.
– See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaolinite
Kaolinite is a layered silicate clay mineral which forms from the chemical weathering of
feldspar or other aluminum silicate minerals. It is usually white, with occasionally a red
color impurity due to Iron Oxide, or blue or brown from other minerals. Kaolinite has a
low shrink–swell capacity and a low cation-exchange capacity, making it ideal for many
industrial applications.
History: The name for Kaolinite is derived from the French word “kaolin” which was
named for the Chinese Kao-Ling village near Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, China.
Geology: Chemical weathering of rocks in hot, moist climates such as tropical rainforests
causes Kaolinite formations. As the climate becomes cooler or drier, kaolinite in the soil
formation is replaced by illite or smectite. These relationships to climate allow for the
study of climate changes within geologic history.
Uses: During 2013, 48% of Kaolin was used in paper production, and 52% was used for
ceramics, light bulbs, paint, rubber, adhesives, smoking pipes, white wash in masonry,
absorbents, and in soap. Within organic farming kaolinite is used as a form of pest
control.
Sources: Kaolinite is among the Earth’s most common minerals and it is mined in
Pakistan, Vietnam, France, Germany, Brazil, Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Iran, India,
Australia, Korea, China, Czech Republic, Spain and the United States.
US Sources: In 2013, clay and shale production was reported in 40 States. About 180
companies operated approximately 750 clay pits or quarries. The leading 20 firms
supplied about 61% of the tonnage and 85% of the value for all types of clay sold or
used in the United States. In 2013, sales or use was estimated to be 25.9 million tons
valued at $1.58 billion.
4. Name: Talc
Donated by: Imerys, Three Forks, MT
The term talc refers both to the pure mineral and a wide variety of soft, talc-containing
rocks that are mined and utilized for a variety of applications. Talc occurs fairly widely in
a range of purities, and it is mined on every continent. The commercially exploited ores
contain 20% to 99% of the pure mineral, and, although the trend is toward more
upgrading and higher purity, many applications require the properties of the minerals
that occur with talc.
The terms talc, steatite, and soapstone are widely used and misused in discussions of
talc, its origin, and geology.
Talc is our planet's softest known mineral. All talcs are lamellar, chemically inert,
organophilic and water repellent, but no two talcs are the same. Their unique properties
bring added performance to a wide range of products and processes.
Talc is a hydrated magnesium silicate. There are many types of talc and each ore body
has its own features, its own geology, formed many millions of years ago. As a natural

ore, talc is always found in combination with at least one other mineral. The most
common of these is chlorite, a chemically and structurally similar ore. Other associated
minerals often found with talc include dolomite and magnesite.
Although all talcs are lamellar, their platelet size differs from one deposit to another.
Small crystals provide a compact, dense ore, known as microcrystalline talc. Large
crystals come in papery layers. This form of talc is known as macrocrystalline talc. The
unique mineralogy and morphology of each type of talc determines its individual
properties, and confers specific functions to a particular end-use.
People always think of talc as white, but it can also be grey, green, blue, pink and even
black.
Talc is used in a variety of products and processes. For example, talc is used in:

Agriculture for fertilizers, animal feed, pesticides, and UV protection of fruit crops.

Ceramics for improving optical and mechanical properties of floor and wall tiles, in
refractories, catalytic converters and diesel particulate filters

Cosmetics as body powder, blush and eye shadows, and soap

Food as a coating agent and chewing gum filler

Paints as a filler and extender

Paper as a filler and for pitch control

Plastics as a reinforcing filler

Pharmaceuticals as a coating and carrier for medicated powders

Rubber for seals, hoses, membranes, cables, tires, and other mechanical rubber
goods.
– taken from www.imerystalc.com
Relationship to Mining:
Open Pit Mining:
Most talc is mined today by conventional open-pit, drill-and-blast, shovel-and-truck
techniques. The major difference from conventional technology is that blasting is
minimized to reduce breakage of soft talc ore, and all shovel work is accompanied by a
high level of selectivity to minimize cross contamination of high- and low-grade material.
Many producers analyze blast-hole cuttings to delineate ore grades and select blast
patterns accordingly.
Shovel operators can select ore or waste by color or texture for different grades.
Equipment such as 10-m3 shovels and 150-t trucks are common in North America and
Europe, while 1-m3 shovels, 20-t trucks, and even hand-carried baskets are used in Asia
and Brazil.
A typical western talc deposit is drilled on 30- to 50-m spacing, and the ore body is
characterized by mineralogy, color, and chemistry. From this, the ore body is defined and
a computer-aided mine plan is generated. Overburden is removed and stored elsewhere
for eventual use in mine reclamation. Mining is typically done on 5- to 10-m benches.
Before each blast, drill holes are analyzed and, if necessary, the shot is reconfigured to
remove potential waste or segregate a better quality of ore. After the blast, the shovel
operator will selectively scoop the rock into haul trucks and designate it as waste or as a
low or high grade of ore.
Waste-to-ore ratios are often quite high, especially for massive steatite deposits. Typical
values range from 5:15 for massive ores and 1:3 for the lower-purity ultramafic grades.
Underground mining is now less common and is declining rapidly in importance. Pure talc
is a very soft, noncompetent rock, which is often highly fractured, of varying thickness,
and in steeply dipping bodies. Where veins are thin and the surrounding rock is

competent, overhand mining is acceptable with limited timbering. In thicker veins,
underhand mining is necessary; where the veins dip steeply, shrinkage stoping is used.
Some low-grade deposits can be mined by room-and-pillar methods, for which
equipment is much smaller, blasting and mucking much more selective, and waste-toore ratios much lower than in open-pit mining. Continuous miners can be used on softer
high-grade veins.
Reclamation:
In contrast to past practice, reclamation is now an integral part of all talc mining in
developed countries. Waste piles are graded, covered with topsoil, seeded, and
monitored for a return to natural vegetation. For both surface and underground mining,
both surface and subsurface water flow is measured, monitored, analyzed, and if
necessary treated to meet local and national discharge standards. Some pits are
backfilled or converted to a beneficial long-term use, such as recreation.

5. Name: Alaskite
Donated by: Unimin, Spruce Pine, NC
In geology, leucogranites are light colored granitic rocks with almost no dark minerals.
Alaskite is a synonym.
Leucogranites have been reported from a variety of orogenies involving continental
collisions. Examples include the Black Hills (Trans-Hudson orogeny of Proterozoic age),[2]
the Blue Ridge basement complex (Grenville orogeny of Proterozoic age),[3] the
Paleozoic Appalachian orogeny in Maine, and the currently active Himalayan orogeny.
The leucogranite magmas are interpreted to have been derived by melting of pelitic
rocks in the upper portions of thickened crust. These melts result following deformation
and metamorphism, but the heat source is uncertain. Shear-heating associated with
large shear zones in the crust has been proposed as the mechanism.
– See also http://en.wikipedia.org
The Spruce Pine Alaskites consist of a mixture of quartz, feldspar, mica and some minor
minerals such as garnet. Unique deposit mineralogy and proprietary technologies yield
ultra-pure grade quartz with total impurity levels measured in parts per million. Chemical
purity and heat resistance make high purity quartz an indispensable component of
semiconductor chips, solar cell manufacturing and quartz lighting applications. Feldspar
alumino-silicates act as a flux to lower the temperature of vitrification and provide
alumina which promotes hardness, durability and resistance to chemical corrosion in
ceramic wares, electrical porcelain, and all types of glass and fiber insulation. –
www.Unimin.com
The leading use of dry-ground mica in the US is in joint compound for filling and finishing
seams and blemishes in gypsum wallboard (drywall). The mica acts as a filler and
extender, provides a smooth consistency, improves the workability of the compound, and
provides resistance to cracking. In 2008, joint compound accounted for 54% of dryground mica consumption. In the paint industry, ground mica is used as a pigment

extender that also facilitates suspension, reduces chalking, prevents shrinking and
shearing of the paint film, increases resistance of the paint film to water penetration and
weathering, and brightens the tone of colored pigments. Consumption of dry-ground
mica in paint, the second ranked use, accounted for 22% of the dry-ground mica used in
2008.[6]
Ground mica is used in the well-drilling industry as an additive to drilling fluids. Well
drilling muds accounted for 15% of dry-ground mica use in 2008. The plastics industry
used dry-ground mica as an extender and filler. In 2008, consumption of dry-ground
mica in plastic applications accounted for 2% of the market. The rubber industry used
ground mica as an inert filler and mold release compound in the manufacture of molded
rubber products, such as tires and roofing. Dry-ground mica is used in the production of
rolled roofing and asphalt shingles, where it serves as a surface coating to prevent
sticking of adjacent surfaces.

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