Low poly

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Low poly
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (July 2011)

This polygon mesh representing a dolphin would be considered low poly by modern (2014) standards

Low poly is a polygon mesh in 3D computer graphics that has a relatively small number of
polygons. Low poly meshes occur in real-time applications (e.g. games) and contrast with high
poly meshes in animated movies and special effects of the same era. The term low poly is used
in both a technical and a descriptive sense; the number of polygons in a mesh is an important
factor to optimize for performance but can give an undesirable appearance to the
resultinggraphics.[1]
Contents
[hide]



1 Motivation for low poly meshes



2 Polygon budget



3 Appearance of low poly meshes



4 Low poly as a relative term



5 Low poly meshes in physics engines



6 See also



7 References

Motivation for low poly meshes[edit]
Polygon meshes are one of the major methods of modelling a 3D object for display by a
computer. Polygons can, in theory, have any number of sides but are commonly broken down
into triangles for display. In general the more triangles in a mesh the more detailed the object is,
but the more computationally intensive it is to display. In order to decrease render times (i.e.
increase frame rate) the number of triangles in the scene must be reduced, by using low poly
meshes.[2]

Polygon budget[edit]
A combination of the game engine or rendering method and the computer being used defines
the polygon budget; the number of polygons which can appear in a scene and still be rendered

at an acceptable frame rate. Therefore the use of low poly meshes are mostly confined to
computer games and other software a user must manipulate 3D objects in real time because
processing power is limited to that of a typical personal computer or games console and the
frame rate must be high.[3] Computer generated imagery, for example, for films or still images
have a higher polygon budget because rendering does not need to be done in real-time, which
requires higher frame rates. In addition, computer processing power in these situations is
typically less limited, often using a large network of computers or what is known as a render
farm. Each frame can take hours to create, despite the enormous computer power involved. A
common example of the difference this makes is full motion video sequences in computer games
which, because they can be pre-rendered, look much smoother than the games themselves.

Appearance of low poly meshes[edit]
Objects that are said to be low poly often appear blocky (such as square heads) and lacking in
detail (such as no individual fingers). Objects that are supposed to be circular or spherical are
most obviously low poly as the number of triangles needed to make a curve appear smooth is
high and polygons are restricted to straight edges. Low poly meshes do not necessarily look bad,
for example a flat sheet of paper represented by one polygon looks extremely accurate. As
computer graphics are getting more powerful, low poly graphics may be used to achieve a
certain retro style conceptually similar to pixel art orienting on 'classic' video games.

An example of normal mapping used to add detail to a low poly (500 triangle) mesh

Computer graphics techniques such as normal and bump mapping have been designed to make
a low poly object appear to contain more polygons than it does. This is done by altering the
shading of polygons to contain internal detail which is not in the mesh. [4]

Low poly as a relative term[edit]
There is no defined threshold for a mesh to be low poly; low poly is always a relative term and
depends on (amongst other factors):


The time the meshes were designed and for what hardware



The detail required in the final mesh



The shape and properties of the object in question

As computing power inevitably increases, the number of polygons that can be used increases
too. For example, Super Mario 64 would be considered low poly today, but was considered a
stunning achievement when it was released in 1996. Similarly, in 2009, using hundreds of
polygons on a leaf in the background of a scene would be considered high poly, but using that
many polygons on the main character would be considered low poly.

Low poly meshes in physics engines[edit]
Physics engines have presented a new role for low poly meshes. Whilst the display of computer
graphics has become very efficient, allowing (as of 2009) the display of tens to hundreds of
thousands of polygons at 25 frames per second on a desktop computer, the calculation of

physical interactions is still slow. A low poly simplified version of the mesh is often used for
simplifying the calculation of collisions with other meshes, in some cases this is as simple as a 6
polygon bounding box.

See also[edit]


Polygon (computer graphics)



Bump mapping



Normal mapping



Sprites


Nurbs
Low Poly was a technique originally used for making 3D models and scenes for
videogames, due to its render speed, which was achieved thanks to low
polygonal resolution.

We recently published a post about the “Geo a Day” project, which uses this
precise technique. To produce this kind of illustration, you can use basically any
3D software, but Cinema 4D is widely used because of its versatility and
simplicity when it comes to modelling, lighting and visual effects, whereas other
tools such as Maya or 3ds Max present a much steeper learning curve.

Cinema 4D for absolute beginners

Actually, this kind of scene is very easy to create compared with architectural
visualization, photorealistic renders or any animation techniques. You don't need
a lot of experience modelling or understanding cameras and materials. There are
plenty of great resources to help you learn the basics of Cinema 4D. With
"Cinema 4D for absolute beginners" you will be able to create your first scene
and try the next step: Create your own Low Poly scene.

Create your own Low Poly Illustration

If you’re interested in having a go at making any of these fantastic scenes, we
recommend a step-by-step tutorial from graycalegorilla.com which explains the
most common techniques for creating the Low Poly effect. This tutorial shows
you how to reduce the number of polygons in a mesh, randomly change the

geometry with common modifiers, add different colors to faces and create render
and illumination settings to achieve the ambience of Low Poly illustrations.

A Brief History of Pop Art, From Warhol to
Murakami
By Artspace Editors
May 21, 2013

Richard Hamilton's Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Home So Different, So
Appealing? (1956)
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What is Pop art? More than just popular art. “Once you 'got' Pop, you could never
see a sign again the same way again,” Andy Warhol once said, “and once
you thought Pop, you could never see America the same way again.”
Or just listen to Roy Lichtenstein’s take: "Pop Art looks out into the world. It
doesn't look like a painting of something, it looks like the thing itself."

But while those American masters seem synonymous with any definition of Pop
art, it all actually began in London. The term Pop art came into use in the 1950s
during discussions led by the artist collective known as the Independent Group at
London's Institute of Contemporary Arts. One of those artists in the Independent
was Richard Hamilton, widely considered the first Pop artist, and his own
definition of the term was disjointed: "Popular (designed for a mass audience);
Transient (short term solution); Expendable (easily forgotten); Low Cost; Mass
Produced; Young (aimed at Youth); Witty; Sexy; Gimmicky; Glamorous; and Big
Business."
Hamilton is often credited with creating the first piece of Pop with the collage Just
What Is It That Makes Today’s Home So Different, So
Appealing? (1956), in which glamorous cutouts of a man and woman play house
in a domestic dreamland filled with consumer goods. Front and center, gripped in
the man’s hand, is a bright red Tootsie Pop—the latter word literally “popping” out
of the frame.
Meanwhile, in the U.S., artists in the mid-1950s began to create a bridge to Pop.
Strongly influenced by Dada and its emphasis on appropriation and everyday
objects, artists increasingly worked with collage, consumer products, and a healthy
dose of irony. Jasper Johns reimagined iconic imagery like the American
flag; Robert Rauschenberg employed silk-screen printings and found
objects; and Larry Rivers used images of mass-produced goods. All three are
considered American forerunners of Pop. “Larry’s painting style was unique—it
wasn’t Abstract Expressionism and it wasn’t Pop, it fell into the period in
between,” Warhol once said of Rivers.
But it was not until the 1960s that Pop art truly exploded onto the American art
scene with "The New Realists” show at Sidney Janis Gallery in New York in
1962. The Americans in that show included Warhol alongside Jim
Dine, Robert Indiana, Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, James
Rosenquist,George Segal.
Warhol’s revolutionary Factory would go on to redefine the art of an era, casting
new light on ideas about mass production, fame, and the artist’s public persona.
Warhol’s Factory churned out assembly-line silk-screens while musicians, actors,

and writers hung around in a smoke-filled narcotic haze. His prints of celebrities
ranging from Marilyn Monroe to Elvis are some of the most recognizable
artworks of the 20th century.
Meanwhile, Lichtenstein began to use Ben-Day dots and imagery from comic
books to create alternately saccharine and histrionic panels. Oldenburg dealt in
everyday objects, blowing up hamburgers to abnormal size and showcasing
sculptures of comfort foods, while Rosenquist took his background as a
billboard painter to imagine glamorous, surrealistic mash-ups of candy-colored
cars, smiling faces, or advertisements. On the West Coast, Ed
Ruscha conceived deadpan, textual canvases. Pop art represented a rejection of
Abstraction Expressionism in favor of a complete embrace of the consumerism,
popular culture, and ironic whimsy that had begun to define postwar America.
Pop art didn’t end with the 1960s though. Born in 1958, Keith Haring, too, is
considered a seminal Pop artist, though his work did not appear until the late 1970s
and early '80s. His murals drew heavily on the breakthroughs of his predecessors,
and his flat, cartoonish forms—often filled with political and social commentary—
helped pave the way for yet another popular art form: street art.
And the genre continues to thrive today. Japanese artists Takashi
Murakami and Yoshitomo Naraserve as key examples of the
contemporary Pop artist. Murakami coined the term “Superflat” to define his
work, which makes use of cutesy, pop-culture motifs like smiling
flowers and skulls, often to satirical effect. His famed collaboration with Louis
Vuitton, in which his Superflat floral imagery appeared on luxury handbags,
perhaps confirmed Warhol premonitions that art and consumer culture would
increasingly become intertwined. “Making money is art and working is art and
good business is the best art," he said. More than a few artists today might agree.

Geometric abstraction
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kazimir Malevich, Black Square, 1915, Oil on Canvas, State Russian Museum, St.Petersburg

Geometric abstraction is a form of abstract art based on the use of geometric forms
sometimes, though not always, placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective
(non-representational) compositions. Throughout 20th-century art historical discourse, critics and
artists working within the reductive or pure strains of abstraction have often suggested that
geometric abstraction represents the height of a non-objective art practice, which necessarily
stresses or calls attention to the root plasticity and two-dimensionality of painting as an artistic
medium. Thus, it has been suggested that geometric abstraction might function as a solution to
problems concerning the need for modernist painting to reject the illusionistic practices of the
past while addressing the inherently two dimensional nature of the picture plane as well as the
canvas functioning as its support. Wassily Kandinsky, one of the forerunners of pure nonobjective painting, was among the first modern artists to explore this geometric approach in his
abstract work. Other examples of pioneer abstractionists such asKasimir Malevich and Piet
Mondrian have also embraced this approach towards abstract painting. Mondrian's
paintingComposition No. 10, 1939–1942, characterized by primary colors, white ground and
black grid lines clearly defined his radical but classical approach to the rectangle.

Theo van Doesburg, Neo-Plasticism: 1917, Composition VII (the three graces)

Mino Argento, New York, 1973[1]

Just as there are both two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometries, the abstract sculpture
of the 20th century was of course no less affected than painting by geometricizing
tendencies. Georges Vantongerloo[2] and Max Bill,[3] for example, are perhaps best known for their
geometric sculpture, although both of them were also painters; and indeed, the ideals of
geometric abstraction find nearly perfect expression in their titling (e.g., Vantongerloo's
"Construction in the Sphere") and pronouncements (e.g., Bill's statement that "I am of the opinion
that it is possible to develop an art largely on the basis of mathematical thinking.")
However, geometric abstraction cannot only be seen as an invention of 20th century avantgarde artists or movements. It is present among many cultures throughout history both as
decorative motifs and as art pieces themselves. Islamic art, in its prohibition of depicting religious
figures, is a prime example of this geometric pattern-based art, which existed centuries before
the movement in Europe and in many ways influenced this Western school. Aligned with and
often used in the architecture of Islamic civilations spanning the 7th century-20th century,
geometric patterns were used to visually connect spirituality with science and art, both of which
were key to Islamic thought of the time.
Abstract art has also historically been likened to music in its ability to convey emotional or
expressive feelings and ideas without reliance upon or reference to recognizable objective forms
already existent in reality. Wassily Kandinsky has discussed this connection between music and
painting, as well as how the practice of classical composition had influenced his work, at length in
his seminal essay Concerning the Spiritual in Art.
Expressionist abstract painting, as practiced by artists such as Jackson Pollock, Franz
Kline, Clyfford Still, and Wols, represents the opposite of geometric abstraction.
Contents
[hide]



1 Selected artists



2 See also



3 References



4 External links

Selected artists[edit]
Artists who have worked extensively in geometric abstraction include Nadir Afonso, Josef
Albers, Richard Anuszkiewicz,Mino Argento,[4] Hans Arp, Rudolf Bauer, Willi Baumeister, Karl
Benjamin, Max Bill, Ilya Bolotowsky, Patrick Henry Bruce, Kenneth Wayne Bushnell, Ilya
Chashnik,Joseph Csaky, Nassos Daphnis, Ronald Davis, Robert Delaunay, Sonia

Delaunay, Tony DeLap, Jean Dewasne, Burgoyne Diller, Theo van Doesburg, Thomas
Downing, Lorser Feitelson, Günter Fruhtrunk, Albert Gleizes, Frederick Hammersley, Mary
Henry, Bryce Hudson, Al Held, Auguste Herbin, Hans Hofmann, Budd Hopkins, Wassily
Kandinsky, Ellsworth Kelly, Hilma af Klint, Ivan Kliun, František Kupka, Pat Lipsky, El
Lissitzky, Michael Loew, Peter Lowe, Kazimir Malevich, Agnes Martin, John McLaughlin, Laszlo
Moholy-Nagy, Piet Mondrian, Barnett Newman, Kenneth Noland, Alejandro Otero, Rinaldo
Paluzzi, I. Rice Pereira, Francis Picabia,Ad Reinhardt, Jack Reilly, Bridget Riley, Alexander
Rodchenko, Morgan Russell, Sean Scully, Victor Servranckx, Leon Polk Smith, Henryk
Stażewski, Jeffrey Steele,Frank Stella, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Leo Valledor, Georges
Vantongerloo, Victor Vasarely, Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart, Charmion von Wiegand, Zanis
Waldheims, Gordon Walters, Neil Williams, Stanton Macdonald-Wright and Larry Zox among
others.

See also[edit]


Suprematism



Russian avant-garde



Constructivism (art)



Formalism (art)



Post-painterly abstraction



Shaped canvas



Park Place Gallery



Abstract art



Hard-edge painting



Concrete art



American Abstract Artists



Lyrical Abstraction

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