MAC OS X Server

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INTRODUCTION
 OS X Server, formerly Mac OS X Server, was a separately sold Unix server operating system from Apple Inc. architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart OS X—with additional server programs and management and administration tools.  Mac OS X Server was provided as the operating system for Xserve computers, rack mounted server computers designed by Apple.  Also, it was optionally preinstalled on the Mac Mini and Mac Pro and was sold separately for use on any Macintosh computer meeting its minimum requirements.  Mac OS X Server is based on an open source foundation called Darwin and uses open industry standards and protocols.  It included services and applications for file sharing, sharing contact information and calendars, schedule events, send secure instant messages, conduct live video conferences, send and receive email, contribute to and comment in wikis, publish a company-wide blog, produce and distribute podcasts, and set up websites.  A separate "server" operating system is no longer sold; the server-specific server applications and work group management and administration software tools from Mac OS X Server are now offered as OS X Server.

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VERSIONS
 MAC OS X Server 1.0 (Rhapsody)  Mac OS X Server 1.0, released on March 16, 1999, is the first operating system released into the retail market by Apple Computer based on their acquisition of NeXT.  It was the final release of the product code named Rhapsody, which was an interim combination of the OpenStep system (Mach OS and OpenStep API) and Mac OS 8.  Although Mac OS X Server 1.0's graphical "look and feel" was a variation of the Platinum theme from Mac OS 8, its infrastructure is based on the OPENSTEP (and thus, NeXTSTEP) operating system instead of the classic Mac OS.

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 Server 1.0 contains a mix of features from the classic Mac OS, NeXTSTEP and Mac OS X. Like classic Mac OS, it has a single menu bar across the top of the screen, but file management is performed in Workspace Manager from NeXTSTEP instead of the classic Mac OS Finder.  The user interface still uses the Display PostScript-based window server from NeXTSTEP, instead of the Quartz-based WindowServer which would appear a year later in Mac OS X Public Beta.  Server 1.0 also includes the first version of a NetBoot server, which allows computers to boot from a disk image over a local network.  This was particularly useful in a school or other public-machine setting, as it allowed the machines to be booted from a single OS copy stored on Server 1.0.  This made it difficult for users to damage the OS by installing software – as soon as they signed out, the machine would re-boot with a fresh OS from the NetBoot server.  To run classic Mac OS applications, Mac OS X Server 1.0 includes the "Blue Box" which essentially ran a copy of Mac OS 8.5.1 in a separate process as an emulation layer. Blue Box would eventually be retronymed as the "Classic Environment" in Mac OS X, featuring the latest version of Mac OS 9.  Rhapsody was the code name given to Apple Computer's nextgeneration operating system during the period of its development between Apple's purchase of NeXT in late 1996 and the announcement of Mac OS X in 1998.  Rhapsody was first demonstrated at the 1997 Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC).

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 MAC OS X Server 10.0 (Cheetah Server)  Mac OS X version 10.0, code named Cheetah, is the first major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server operating system.  Mac OS X v10.0 was released on March 24, 2001 for a price of US$129. It was the successor of the Mac OS X Public Beta and the predecessor of Mac OS X v10.1.  Mac OS X introduced the new Darwin Unix-like core and a totally new system of memory management.  Cheetah proved to be a rocky start to the Mac OS X line, plagued with missing features and performance issues, although it was praised for being a good start to an operating system still in its infancy, in terms of completeness and overall operating system stability.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.1 (Puma Server)  Mac OS X version 10.1, code named Puma, is the second major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system.  It superseded Mac OS X v10.0 and preceded Mac OS X v10.2. Version 10.1 was released on September 25, 2001 as a free update for Mac OS X 10.0 users.  The operating system was handed out for no charge by Apple employees after Steve Jobs' keynote speech at the Seybold publishing conference in San Francisco.  It was subsequently distributed to Mac users on October 25, 2001 at Apple Stores and other retail stores that carried Apple products.  The operating system was better received than Mac OS X 10.0, although critics claimed that the operating system was still lacking some features and was plagued with bugs.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.2 (Jaguar Server)  Mac OS X version 10.2 Jaguar is the third major release of Mac OS X, Appl e’s desktop and server operating system.  It superseded Mac OS X v10.1 and preceded Mac OS X Panther.  The operating system was initially available on August 23, 2002 either for singlecomputer installations, or in a “family pack”, which allowed five installations on separate computers in one household.  The operating system was generally well received by most Mac users as a large step forward in the areas of stability, general speed enhancements, compatibility with other flavors of Unix and the lineup of both graphical and terminal applications available.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.3 (Panther Server)  The 10.3 Mac OS X Server release includes updated Open Directory user and file management, which with this release is based on LDAP, beginning the deprecation of the NeXT-originated NetInfo architecture.  The new Workgroup Manager interface improved configuration significantly.  Many common network services are provided such as NTP, SNMP, web server (Apache), mail server (Postfix and Cyrus), LDAP (OpenLDAP), AFP, and print server.  The inclusion of Samba version 3 allows tight integration with Windows clients and servers.  MySQL v4.0.16 and PHP v4.3.7 are also included.  Since a New World ROM was required for Mac OS X Panther, certain older computers (such as beige Power Mac G3s and ‘Wall Street’ PowerBook G3s) were unable to run Panther by default.  Third-party software (such asXPostFacto) can, however, override checks made during the install process; otherwise, installation or upgrades from Jaguar will fail on these older machines.  Panther still supported the Classic environment fully for running older Mac OS 9 applications but made Classic application windows double-buffered, which interfered with some applications expecting to directly draw to the screen.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.4 (Tiger Server)  The 10.4 release adds 64-bit application support, Access Control Lists, Xgrid, link aggregation, e-mail spam filtering (SpamAssassin), virus detection (ClamAV), Gateway Setup Assistant, and servers for Software Update, iChat Server using XMPP, Boot Camp Assistant, Dashboard and weblogs.  On August 10, 2006 Apple announced the first Universal Binary release of Mac OS X Server, version 10.4.7, supporting both PowerPC and Intel processors.  At the same time Apple announced the release of the Intel-based Mac Pro and Xserve systems.  Tiger Server brings the power of 64-bit computing to mainstream servers.  For the first time, applications can unleash 64-bit performance when accessing massive amounts of memory through 64-bit addressing and also undertake high precision math calculations with 64-bit optimized math libraries, at the same time as running 32-bit applications.  Tiger Server also includes a brand new iChat Server designed for organizations that need to keep internal communication private.  Weblog Server is fully compatible with Safari in Tiger and makes it easy for nontechnical individuals to publish and syndicate content using their existing web browsers.  Tiger is the first operating system to include a built-in distributed computing architecture for both the desktop and server versions.  Both Tiger and Tiger Server include Xgrid, Apple’s easy-to-use solution for distributed computing.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.5 (Leopard Server)  Mac OS X Leopard (version 10.5) is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.  Leopard was released on October 26, 2007 as the successor of Tiger (version 10.4), and is available in two editions: a desktop version suitable for personal computers, and a server version, Mac OS X Server.  According to Apple, Leopard contains over 300 changes and enhancements over its predecessor, Mac OS X Tiger covering core operating system components as well as included applications and developer tools.  Leopard introduces a significantly revised desktop, with a redesigned Dock. Stacks, a semitransparent menu bar, and an updated Finder that incorporates the Cover Flow visual navigation interface first seen in iTunes.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.6 (Snow Leopard Server)  Mac OS X Snow Leopard (version 10.6) is the seventh major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.  Snow Leopard was publicly unveiled on June 8, 2009 at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference.  On August 28, 2009, it was released worldwide, and was made available for purchase from Apple's website and its retail stores at the price of US$29 for a single-user license.  Unlike those of previous versions of Mac OS X, the goals of Snow Leopard were improved performance, greater efficiency and the reduction of its overall memory footprint.  The release of Snow Leopard came nearly two years after the introduction of Mac OS X Leopard, the second longest time span between successive Mac OS X releases (the time span between Tiger and Leopard was the longest).

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 MAC OS X Server 10.7 (Lion Server)  In releasing the developer preview of Mac OS X Lion in February 2011, Apple indicated that beginning with Lion, Mac OS X Server would be bundled with the operating system and would not be marketed as a separate product.  However, a few months later, the company said it would instead sell the server components as a US$49.99 add-on to Lion, distributed through the Mac App Store (as well as Lion itself).  The combined cost of an upgrade to Lion and the purchase of the OS X Server add-on, which costs approximately US$50, were nonetheless significantly lower than the retail cost of Snow Leopard Server (US$499).  Lion Server came with unlimited client licenses as did Snow Leopard Server.  Lion Server includes new versions of iCal Server, Wiki Server, and Mail Server.  More significantly, Lion Server can be used for iOS mobile device management.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.8 (Mountain Lion Server)  OS X Mountain Lion was officially announced by Apple on their website on February 16, 2012, as a successor to Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, It achieved golden master status on July 9, 2012.  Named to signify its status as a refinement of the previous OS X version, Lion, Apple's stated aims in developing Mountain Lion were to allow users to more easily manage and synchronize content between multiple Apple devices and to make the operating system more familiar.  Mountain Lion Server, like Lion Server, came with unlimited client licenses, and once purchased could be run on an unlimited number of machines.  Mountain Lion sold three million units in the first four days, and has sold 28 million units as of June 10, 2013, making it Apple's most popular Mac OS release.

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 MAC OS X Server 10.9 (Mavericks Server)  OS X Mavericks was announced by Apple during the company's 2013 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) keynote, held on June 10, 2013.  OS X Mavericks (version 10.9) is the tenth major release of OS X, Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.  Mavericks marks the beginning of a change in the naming scheme of OS X, departing from the use of big cats and moving to names based on places in California.  The update places emphasis on battery life, Finder enhancements, other enhancements for power users, and continued iCloud integration, as well as bringing more of Apple's iOS apps to the OS X platform.

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VERSIONS AND RELEASE DATES
Versions
MAC OS X Server 1.0 (Rhapsody) MAC OS X Server 10.0 (Cheetah Server) MAC OS X Server 10.1 (Puma Server) MAC OS X Server 10.2 (Jaguar Server) MAC OS X Server 10.3 (Panther Server) MAC OS X Server 10.4 (Tiger Server) MAC OS X Server 10.5 (Leopard Server) MAC OS X Server 10.6 (Snow Leopard Server) MAC OS X Server 10.7 (Lion Server) MAC OS X Server 10.8 (Mountain Lion Server) MAC OS X Server 10.9 (Mavericks Server)

Release Date
March 16, 1999 May 21, 2001 September 25, 2001 August 23, 2002 October 24, 2003 April 29, 2005 October 26, 2007 August 28, 2009 July 20, 2011 July 25, 2012 October 22, 2013

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SERVER ADMINISTRATION TOOLS
 Server Admin  Server Admin is one of the remote administration/configuration tools for Mac OS X Server.  It is available on a CD with the server software and as a free download from Apple's website.  Server admin uses TCP ports 311, 660, and 687, although the Apple Firewall has been known to block the program unless you open up both TCP and UDP ports.  Server Assistant  Server Assistant is the first program that is run after an install of Mac OS X Server.  It can be run again to execute further configuration on a remote or local server.  It is also capable of executing remote installation of software onto the server as well.  Server Assistant is a software wizard that guides the administrator through setting up functions of Mac OS X Server.  Server Monitor  Server Monitor is Apple's IPMI-based tool for communicating with a remote baseboard management controller (BMC) that implements their lightsout management (LOM) system.  It can manage their Xserve line of servers which are currently their only product line that has such an LOM solution.
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 System Image Utility  System Image Utility is an application for making NetBoot and other image sets to be used with Mac OS X Server.  It is available as part of the server admin tools package on a disc with the server software and as a download from Apple's website.  Workgroup Manager  Workgroup Manager is a software program bundled as part of Mac OS X Server for directory-based management of users, groups and computers across a network.  Xgrid Admin  Xgrid is a proprietary program and distributed computing protocol developed by the Advanced Computation Group subdivision of Apple Inc. that allows networked computers to contribute to a single task.  It provides network administrators a method of creating a computing cluster, which allows them to exploit previously unused computational power for calculations that can be divided easily into smaller operations, such as Mandelbrot maps.

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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

Versions

System Requirements

Power Macintosh G3 Power Macintosh G3 (Blue & White) MAC OS X Server 1.0 (Rhapsody) RAM :- 64 MB Hard Disk :- 1 GB

MAC OS X Server 10.0 (Cheetah Server)

Power Macintosh G3 Power Macintosh G3 (Blue & White) Power Macintosh G4 Power Macintosh G4 Cube iMac PowerBook G3 RAM :- 128 MB Hard Disk :- 1.5 GB

MAC OS X Server 10.1 (Puma Server)

Power Macintosh G3 Power Macintosh G4 Power Macintosh G4 Cube iMac G3 iMac DV eMac PowerBook RAM :- 128 MB Hard Disk :- 1.5 GB

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MAC OS X Server 10.2 (Jaguar Server)

Power Macintosh G3 Power Macintosh G4 Early Power Macintosh G5 iMac eMac PowerBook G3 PowerBook G4 RAM :- 128, 256, 512 MB Hard Disk :- 1.5 GB

MAC OS X Server 10.3 (Panther Server)

Power Macintosh G3 Power Macintosh G4 Power Macintosh G4 Cube iMac iBook PowerBook G3 PowerBook G4 RAM :- 128 MB Hard Disk :- 3 GB

MAC OS X Server 10.4 (Tiger Server)

Power Macintosh G3 Power Macintosh G4 Power Macintosh G5 Built-in FireWire RAM :- 256 MB Hard Disk :- 3 GB

Power Macintosh G4 Power Macintosh G5 MAC OS X Server 10.5 (Leopard Server) RAM :- 1 GB Hard Disk :- 9 GB

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Intel Processor MAC OS X Server 10.6 (Snow Leopard Server) RAM :- 2 GB Hard Disk :- 5 GB

MAC OS X Server 10.7 (Lion Server)

Intel Core 2 Duo Intel Core i3 Intel Core i5 Intel Core i7 Xeon RAM :- 2 GB Hard Disk :- 7 GB

MAC OS X Server 10.8 (Mountain Lion Server)

iMac MacBook MacBook Pro MacBook Air Mac Mini Mac Pro Xserve RAM :- 2 GB Hard Disk :- 8 GB

MAC OS X Server 10.9 (Mavericks Server)

iMac MacBook MacBook Pro MacBook Air Mac Mini Mac Pro Xserve RAM :- 2 GB Hard Disk :- 8 GB

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INSTALLATION OF MAC OS X SERVER

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