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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.

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WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac

Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
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Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
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Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster, and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up.

Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “System and Maintenance”, click “Back up your computer”. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. To backup specific files, you may use the “Back up files” button. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up, click “Change settings”. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. Click “Change backup settings”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. In the displayed window, specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process.
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Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web, many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. Verify the files and click “OK”. In the displayed window, click “Delete Files”. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed.

Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. A track is a concentric ring. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i.e. sectors that are adjacent to each other. However, this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented, into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. Whenever a file is retrieved, it is reconstructed from the fragments. After a period of time, the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment, click “Select volumes”. To start the defragmentation process, click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window.
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Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. When several utility programs are combined into a single package, it is known as a “Utility Suite”. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office, Norton SystemWorks and V Communications. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses.

Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. They also compress and make backups of programs, as well as clean up your hard disk. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files, history files and cookies. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations, locate lost files and repair damaged files. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added
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to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
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restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.

Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.

Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.

Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
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the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.

Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
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select “3D Text” from the list. In the “Wait” field, specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. To clear the screen saver after it has started, simply move your mouse or press any key. To change the setting options for your screen saver, click “Settings”. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text, say “Good Morning!”. In the “Rotation Type” box, select “See-saw”. Now click “OK”. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. Click “OK” to save your settings. In this way, you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. In the “Customize” box, you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. Click on one and then click “Open”. Click “OK” to save your settings. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. At higher resolutions, items appear smaller, so more items fit on the screen. At lower resolutions, fewer items fit on the screen, but they are larger and easier to see. Under “Resolution”, move the slider to the resolution you want. In the displayed figure, you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. At higher resolutions, items appear smaller, so more items fit on the screen. At lower resolutions, fewer items fit on the screen, but they are larger and easier to see. Under “Resolution”, move the slider to the resolution you want. In the displayed figure, you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor.

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To get the best color display from your monitor, you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. If the refresh rate is too low, the monitor can flicker, causing eye strain and headaches. Click “Advanced Settings”. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. To save your settings, click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows, as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. To use your computer, you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. As you learn more about Windows Vista, you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. You can add programs to the pinned items list. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol, a submenu with additional options is displayed. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. It is a convenient place to store documents, graphics, or other files you want to access quickly. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. From within “Pictures”, you
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can view photos at different sizes, rotate them, view a slide show, print photos or copy photos to a CD. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. To play a particular audio file that you have saved, simply double-click on it. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives, printers and other hardware, the “Control Panel” and other system applications. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers, printers, and other resources on the network. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource, such as a printer or shared folder. Control Panel: Using the Control panel, you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. From the Control Panel, you can access hardware settings for the keyboard, mouse, printers and modem; as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista, obtain troubleshooting information, receive support and more.

All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time, click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock, Language, and Region → Date and Time”. On the “Date and Time” tab, click on “Change date and time”. Now click the correct day, month, and year under “Date” to set the date. To set the time, enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. To change only the hour, double-click the hour, and then click the arrows to increase or

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decrease the value. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes, seconds and the AM/PM indicator. Now click “OK”. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. To change your time zone, click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. For this, make sure you are connected to the Internet. On the “Internet Time” tab, click “Change Settings”. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty, click on it. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. Select “Control Panel → Clock, Language, and Region → Regional and Language Options”. On the “Formats” tab, select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar, enlarge it to fill the whole screen, and close it, respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable, you can move and size windows. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can
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minimize the window, maximize the window to its largest size, restore the window to the original size or close a window. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. Moving a Window: To move a window, point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen, scroll bars appear on the window. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. To choose an arrangement, right-click on an empty area of the taskbar, then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”, “Show Windows Stacked”, or “Show Windows Side by Side”. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question, allows you to select options to perform a task, or provides you with information. Data may be entered using push buttons, option buttons, check boxes, text boxes, list boxes, combo boxes and other such controls. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands, change settings, or perform other actions related to the working of the window. Let us have a look at some of them. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items, menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”. To choose a command listed in a menu, click on it. If a command is shown in gray, it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command, whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options.

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Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. They are also called “radio buttons”. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only, you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. This is the most commonly used windows control. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. Here, options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. The other options are displayed when you click the control. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. Unlike a drop-down list, some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. Tabs: In some dialog boxes, information is displayed on multiple tabs. The currently selected tab appears at the front. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features, you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. In the “Search Help” text box, you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. You may perform tasks related to Security, Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends, Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online.

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Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work, allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer, in this case, the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. Double-click on it. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. There are now three programs running at the same time, “Windows Help and Support”, “Computer” and “Document1”. As more windows are opened, the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. The “Document1” window is the active window, that is, the window currently in use. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once, but only one window is active at a time. When a new window is opened, it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. To switch to a specific program, just click its taskbar button. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. This is now the “active” window. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons, then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group, then select an item to make it the active window.
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Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. While holding down the Windows logo key, press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. Alternatively, click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. To turn off your computer, click the “Start” button, and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button, you see various options. Let us see what each of them does. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else, select “Log Off”. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. Restart: This closes all open programs, shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. It saves all open documents and programs, and allows you to resume working within seconds. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely, use this option. It closes all open programs, shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders

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In a computer, a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. Examples of files are text documents, spreadsheets, digital pictures, and even songs. Your computer represents files with icons. By looking at a file icon, you can tell what kind of file it is. Some common file icons are displayed. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window, click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk, hard disks, CD-ROM drive, and network drives. You can also search for and open files and folders, and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents, Pictures, Music and others that you can use to organize your files. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. At the top, commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. This displays the “Folders list”, where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. When you click a location in the Navigation pane, the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. In the Folder List, folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list, you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. Click the triangle to expand the folder. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. To close the Folders list, click “Folders” again. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus, a Details Pane, a Preview
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Pane, and/or the Navigation Pane. Let us select “Menu Bar”. You can now see a menu with the items File, Edit, View, Tools and Help. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons, Large Icons, Medium Icons, Small Icons, List, Details and Tiles. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. Using Windows Explorer, you can copy, move, rename, and search for files and folders. For example, you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move, and then drag the file to another folder or drive. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list, you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. Let us click on “Documents”. To create a new folder, select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. You may type a new name for this folder. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created, it must be assigned a name. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently, drag it to the Favorite Links area. These links let you open folders quickly, no matter which folder you are presently in. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder, click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. Alternately, you may select the folder, right-click and select “Rename”. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files, all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. Select the folder that you wish to delete. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. Working with Files

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The name of a file consists of two parts, the File Name and the Extension. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. For example, a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “.docx”, while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “.txt”. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. For this, click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. The file that was copied remains at the original location. A copy of it is created at the new location. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. For this, click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. The “Move Items” window is displayed. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. First, select the item to be copied or moved. Then, point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder, you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. To select all the files and folders in the window, click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder, you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. Type anything you can remember about the file, such as part of its name. If you do not know which folder to search, you can use the Start menu to search instead. Type in the Search box, and then click a result to open it.
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Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. To access the location of this file quickly, you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. To create a shortcut to your folder, locate the folder you have created to save your work. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name, right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again.

Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. To start Notepad, click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. If necessary, re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. When the application first opens, a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. In the open Notepad, type your Name and then press “Enter”. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. For this, select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. In the “Font” window, select the font along with the style and size you require. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. If you fail to save the file, all the changes you have made will be lost. Select “File → Save As”. In the “Save As” window, you may specify the location

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where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. Click “Save”. Your file is stored with the extension “.txt”. Printing a Document: Now, you may want to print a copy of your document. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting, you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. To start WordPad, click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. A new blank document is displayed. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks, such as creating or saving a file. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. Each menu has different menu items. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. You may create, open, save and print your documents using this menu. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar, format bar, status bar and the ruler. The “Insert”
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menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. Entering text: As you type, the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. Editing text: After you have entered your text, you may need to make some modifications. This is called “Editing” text. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. Click at the beginning of your text. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document, ready for you to begin entering text. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. After looking over the text, you may decide to remove a word. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point, or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. To select text, drag from one end of the area of text to the other. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. You want to center it between the margins, make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. Before you can apply the formatting effects, you first need to select the text you want to format. Since you want to select the entire title, you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. To further enhance the appearance of the title, you would like to increase the font size. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. Font size is measured in points, which refers to the height of the character, with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. Finally, you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. The title now appears in the selected color.
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Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. If you plan to use this file again shortly, you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. To save the document, select “File → Save As…” from the menu. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. Your file is stored with the extension “.rtf”. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. To open this file, double-click on the file name on the desktop. The associated program, WordPad in this case, is started, and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters, select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. Moving, Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location, select the text, and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. To copy text for writing to another location, select the text, and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. To paste text you have cut or copied, place the insertion point where you want to paste the text, and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu.

Creating a graphic using Paint
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Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”, a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. To start Paint, click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. Generally, when we create a file, we open the application first, and then create and save the file. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. Select “File → Save”. The “Save As” window is displayed. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. Your file is stored with the extension “.bmp”. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". Since the file is blank, the desktop icon displays a blank square. Now, you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. Let us create a logo for your organization, which is the picture of a palm tree. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic, you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. Paint has many of the same features, including a title bar, menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree, similar to the one shown above, that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. The Paint program also includes a toolbar, called a toolbox. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes, fill shapes with colors, edit the drawing and so on. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. First, you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area, it changes to a plus (+). To begin drawing, move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. A circle or

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ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. Notice the three additional buttons, called “fill-style” buttons, displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. The color box consists of two areas, the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. If you select colors before creating a shape, the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color, while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. To set the background color, right-click in the color palette. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next, you want to create two tree trunks. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. You may change the foreground color to brown. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. To clean up the drawing, you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. The eraser uses the background colors. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally, you want to create the palm fronds. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. To use the background color, drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited, you may create a custom color. Double-click on a color in the color box. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors,

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many of which are displayed in the color box. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. This is a color matrix. To define a custom color, you may click anywhere on the matrix. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements, such as hue and saturation, associated with the selected color. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. Your logo is now ready. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name, automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox, click the “Line” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. Drag the mouse to draw the line. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox, click the “Curve” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox, click a line width. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be, and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. You can only create two curves for each line. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox, click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape, or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. At the bottom of the toolbox, click a fill style. To draw a rectangle, hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. To draw a square, press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox, click the “Polygon” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox, click a fill style. To draw the polygon, hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. Repeat these steps and double-click when done.

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Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox, click the “Text” icon. To create a text frame, hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. On the text toolbar, click the font, size and style you require. Click inside the text frame to type text. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture, select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. Enter the dimensions you require. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. To do this, you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space, you may select the entire drawing area. A dotted line identifies the selected area, in this case the entire picture. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting, linking or embedding it. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. Select “Edit → Paste”. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows.

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Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic, you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. To edit an embedded object, you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. Paint, the server application is opened within WordPad, and the graphic appears in its own editing window. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down, the text of your document is still displayed. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. When adding text, you first create a box, called a text frame and then type the text inside it. If you do not like how your text box looks, you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. The text frame displays an insertion point, and the “Fonts” window is displayed. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. Before typing the text, you can also choose a color for the text. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. To make the background the same as the grass, you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. You may verify that the original file created using Paint, containing the palm tree, has not changed. Since no changes were made to the file, you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. WordPad is displayed again, because it was the last-used application. Previewing, Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document, you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste, it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu.
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The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. To save the current document, click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. Open the folder where you save your files. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. It performs basic arithmetic, such as addition and subtraction, as well as functions found on a scientific calculator, such as logarithms and factorials. To start Calculator, click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition, subtraction, multiplication or division, perform the following steps: First, type the first number in the calculation. Then, click “+” to add, “-” to subtract, “*” to multiply, or “/” to divide. After that, type the next number in the calculation. Type other operators and numbers in the same way. Finally, click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number.

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CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. C --> Clears the entire calculation. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. % --> Calculates percentages. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. For this, select “View → Scientific” from the menu. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal, Decimal, Octal and Binary. In addition to handling simple calculations, the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations, programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation.

Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting, editing, printing etc. Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters, form letters, brochures, faxes and even professional manuals. Through a word processor you can create, modify, store, retrieve and print part or all of a document. With a few keystrokes, you can easily correct errors, move paragraphs and reprint your document. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates, for example, an invoice form. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. Creating and Editing a Document

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Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. To start the Microsoft Word application, click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. You can also create your own templates. Additionally, you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames, graphics, tables, etc. integrated into it. The text frames can be linked anywhere, even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. This contains commands for opening, saving, printing, and closing a file. In Word, a file is called a “document”. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen, displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save, Undo, and Redo. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar, click the arrow on the right. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name, such as “New”, from the menu that appears. Once the “New” icon is added, you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document.

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Now, click “More Commands”. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. Click “OK”. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. To remove an icon, right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. For example, the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”, “Font”, “Paragraph”, “Styles” and “Editing” groups. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”, “Cut”, “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands, styles, bullets, and copy/paste. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file, such as pictures, clip art, pages, and text boxes. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin, orientation, and spacing properties. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper, including footnotes, citations, table of contents, and index. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. The “Review” tab contains spell check, thesaurus, and track changes. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. When you move your mouse over most command buttons, a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. This provides a detailed description of what the button does.

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Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. The tabs, groups, and command buttons change as you take on various activities. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab, which includes the most commonly-needed commands. At the right end of the Ribbon, you see a question mark symbol. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. They relate directly to the tabs, commands, and other things that you see on the screen. You first need to press the “Alt” key. You then see little labels, or badges, showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. After you press a key to activate a particular tab, the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. Every single command on the Ribbon, the Microsoft Office Button menu, and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key, and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. For this, right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. To restore the Ribbon, right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again.

Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. We shall now learn step-bystep, how to include all such features into your document. When you first start Word, a new blank document is opened. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. When an existing word document is open, to create a new blank document, click the Office Button and select “New”. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window.
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A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax, invoice or business letter. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. To insert a blank line, press “Enter” once again. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. Let us insert some more text. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. Selecting Text: To select a section of text, click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. When text is selected, a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. For now, let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. On the “Home” tab, in the “Font” group, from the drop-down menu, move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text, without actually applying it. Click on the font you would like. Similarly, you may change the Font Size. To make the text appear in italics, click the “Italic” icon. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display, on the “Home” tab, click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. To make existing text bold, select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. Underlining: To underline your text, select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. Justifying Text:

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Select the text you would like to justify. In the “Paragraph” group, you may select Align Text Left, Center, Align Text Right or Justify. Click on Center. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text, such as paragraph marks, line breaks, tab stops and spaces. For this, click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. To remove the display, click on this button once again. Saving, Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “.docx”. There are three ways to save a document. 1. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. 2. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. 3. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. When you save a new file for the first time, the “Save As” window is displayed. Enter the name, folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. Closing a File: To close a file, click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. Alternatively, you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. Alternatively, you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. Then, navigate to the location of your document, select the file and click “Open”. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text.

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Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point, it is shaped as an I-beam. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. Click the Office Button, and then click “Word Options”. Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. On the “AutoCorrect” tab, you may check the boxes against the options you require. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. As it is typed, you can see that it is corrected. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”, they are replaced by the text “First”. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Text” group, click “Quick Parts”, and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. In the Create New Building Block window, enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field, say “Global Tours Logo”. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. Now click “OK”. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Text” group, click “Quick Parts”, and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created; type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. The building block is inserted.

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When you begin typing in the name of a month, such as “January”, Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. If you then press “Enter”, Word automatically finishes the name. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button, and then click “Word Options”. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. Let us leave the default settings. Simply click “OK”. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. You can see that as soon as this word is entered, it is underlined with a red wavy line. Once you correct the spelling, the wavy line is removed. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. This time, a green wavy underline appears. Re-enter “Discounts”. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. Some of them are as follows: 1. Use the Up, Down, Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. 2. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. 3. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. 4. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. To display the line numbers in a document, click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. Let us move to a specific line number. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window, click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. Your cursor moves to the specified line. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. You can also navigate to a specific page, section, footnote, endnote etc. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window.

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To remove the display of line numbers, click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document, you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text, you may select it and press “Delete”. To remove individual characters, you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. To delete an entire word, you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. To delete a blank line, click on that line and press “Delete”. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes, you may decide they are not necessary after all. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. Let us first delete a line of text. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. Now to undo this action, you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. The line is displayed once again. You can also redo an action that has been undone. For this, select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. The line that was displayed is now deleted. Working with graphics

Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. Click the “Picture” icon. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box, specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. The picture now appears in your document. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size, location, color etc. To change the size, click on the picture. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. To move your

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picture, place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. To view a document in the Print Preview mode, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. To display Multiple Pages, click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. To specify the number of pages to view, click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. 2. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. The “Print” window is displayed. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change, In the “Name” field, you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. Under “Print Range”, you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. In the “Number of copies” box, you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print.
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Under “Zoom”, in the “Pages per sheet” box, you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. After you have entered your options, click “OK” to print the document. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document, number of copies and other such things. REVISING
AND

REFINING

A

DOCUMENT

Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. On the “Review” tab, in the “Proofing” group, select “Spelling & Grammar”. 2. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize, it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box, with the most likely match highlighted. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. When the checking is completed, you are informed accordingly. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. Some words, such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. 1. On the “Review” tab, in the “Proofing” group, select “Thesaurus”. 2. Press “Shift+F7”.

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You now see a panel on the right. In the “Search for:” text box, enter your expression, say “Contact”. Select “Thesaurus: English (U.S.)” from the dropdown list below. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. You may choose from the options Insert, Copy and Look Up. When you select “Insert”, the word is inserted at the current cursor position. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. The document itself does not change, but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. You may use any of the following methods: 1. On the “Home” tab, in the “Clipboard” group, select “Copy”. 2. Press “Ctrl+C”. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. On the “Home” tab, in the “Clipboard” group, select “Paste”. 2. Press “Ctrl+V”. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document, moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice. On the other hand, the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location, leaving the original location unchanged. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. On the “Home” tab, in the “Clipboard” group, select “Cut”. 2. Press “Ctrl+X”. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste.

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Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Let us now move the text back to its original location. First, select the item to be copied or moved. Then, point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. A blank document is displayed in a new window. This becomes the “active” program. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages, you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. To insert a Page Break, place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. Alternatively, you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Enter some text, say “office” and click “Find Next”. Click “Find Next” once again. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected.

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Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it, say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Select the format you require. If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes, check the “Update automatically” box. This updating is seen when you next open your document. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins, select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. On the “Margins” tab, you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. Click “OK”. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size, select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may click on any of the
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available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. On the “Paper” tab, you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4, A5, etc. from the drop-down list. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. Click “OK” to save your settings. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. Select a paragraph of text. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. In the “Paragraph” group, you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. Alternatively, you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words, it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon, click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab, click on the arrow at the bottom right. This brings up the “Paragraph” window. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab, click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. In the “Default tab stops” box, enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. Now enter the text as shown, pressing the “Tab” key after each word. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”, although this method is not as precise. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. You can see that this time, the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. Character Formatting in detail

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Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. Select the text “Time Table”. Now, click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. You may select an option from the menu displayed. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. Effects: On the “Home tab, in the “Font” group, click on the arrow at the bottom right. This brings up the “Font” window. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. First, let us change the font color of a section of text. Now to copy the formatting of this text, select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. Now, drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. Numbered List: Alternatively, you may decide to go in for a numbered list. In that case, click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering, continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”, “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. Also, the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current
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document, another document or to a Web site. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table.docx” which contains the complete time table. This document exists in the same folder as your document. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. In this case, we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. Select this text. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. 2. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Because you wish to create a link to another document, click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table.docx”. Click “OK”. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text, you can view the time table document. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text, right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. To make this banner more attractive, make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. Let us add some text to this banner. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. Now enter your text. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. To view a document in the Print Preview mode, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode.

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When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. Click again to see it in a compressed size. When you wish to edit the document, uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. You may now save your changes. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures, video clips, a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. For this, select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. In the “Object” window, click on the “Create from File” tab. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. Now click “Insert”. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. On the “Home” tab, in the “Paragraph” group, click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. Now enter your list. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. Saving to a New Folder

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Next, you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. You will use this folder to hold related files. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. The steps to save the file are: 1. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. 2. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. 3. Click “New Folder”. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. If you wish to change your file name, make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document, you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. Click the Office Button, and then click “Word Options”. Now click “Proofing”. At the bottom of the window, check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page, switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas, the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied.
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You can use this method to quickly insert text, graphics or other items in a blank area of a document, avoiding the need to enter blank lines. Doubleclick at the center of the document. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. In the document displayed, let us apply different styles to different heading levels. Select the main heading. On the “Home” tab, in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. This style is now applied to your selected text. Similarly, you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. It shows you at a glance, the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. On the “References” tab, in the “Table of Contents” group, select “Table of Contents”. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. The “Table of Contents” window appears. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. You may enter your specifications here. For now, it is best to use the default settings. Simply click “OK”. Your table of contents is ready. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. You would need to update your table of contents. On the “References” tab, in the “Table of Contents” group, select “Update Table”. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. Formatting a Document Section

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You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. To do so, you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. Position your cursor before the first point. To insert a section in your document, select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Under “Section Breaks”, select the type of section break you wish. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. Let us select “Continuous”. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. In the “Page Setup” window, change the left margin to “5”. Under “Preview”, ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. Click “OK”. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain, comment on, or provide references for text in a document. Sometimes, meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote, position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. Type your footnote. When you are done, right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering, location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note, simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. Adding Bookmarks

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A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. Click before this text. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Bookmark” window, enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button, and then click “Word Options”. Now click “Advanced”. Under “Show document content”, check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item, the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location, the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark, select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes, you may need to change the position of a graphic, drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. Under “Picture Tools”, on the “Format” tab, in the “Arrange” group, select “Position”. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture, click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. In contrast to hyperlinks, references allow you to move within a document, but not among multiple documents. Click on the figure you want to refer to. You must now add a caption to this figure. This caption will be used for reference. Select “Insert Caption” from
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the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. In the “Caption” window, enter your caption, select the position of the caption and press “OK”. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. Enter your text, say “For your information, see “. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. In the “Cross-reference” window, select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. This displays the caption near your text. Now click “Close”. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. Inserting a Table: To insert a table, select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. In the “Insert Table” window, enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. Click “OK”. Your table is displayed on the screen. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage, click in the table. Under “Table Tools”, click on the “Layout” tab. In the “Rows & Columns” group, select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. Similarly, “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. To insert multiple rows or columns, select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. In the “Insert Cells” window, select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size, drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. Moving a table: To move your table, place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location.

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Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document, except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. You may select the cells, and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. Click in the table. Under “Table Tools”, click the Layout tab. In the “Table” group, click “Select”, and then click “Select Table”. Now, under “Table Tools”, click the “Design” tab. In the “Table Styles” group, click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. In the window that comes up, click on your choice in the “Style” box. Now let us remove the borders of the table. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts, colors, patterns, borders and alignment settings. Click in the table. Under “Table Tools”, click the “Design” tab. In the “Table Styles” group, you may make your selection. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. Click it to select the table. Under “Table Tools”, on the “Layout” tab, in the “Data” group, click “Sort”. In the “Sort” window, you may select the options that you want. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. Click “OK”. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. For this, select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. For now, let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously.

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Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. A list of header styles is displayed. Click on the first one. The header area becomes active. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. The footer area becomes active. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. For this, select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. From the list displayed, scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer, if any. Similarly, inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header, if any. Checking the document After your document is ready, you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names, special terms and abbreviations. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature, click the Office Button, and then click “Word Options”. Now click “Advanced”. Under “Editing options”, check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical, it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. In the document displayed, select the word “North”. Now, right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. You may recall that you
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learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. In the document displayed, the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document, you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. The “Print” window is displayed. Under “Print Range”, select “All” to print the entire document. To print only selected pages in your document, you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. To print a range of pages, use the format “3-6”. To print single pages, use the format “7, 9, 11”. If you want, you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages, by using the format “3-6, 8, 10, 12”. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. Click “OK” to print your document.

Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. In a newsletter, narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. Then, select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may click on the number of columns you require. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. Click “OK”. Your text is displayed in columnar format. Using Word Art

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WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. Select the text “Special Offers”. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Text” group, select “WordArt”. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Click on a style. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. You may change the font, font size and font style if you wish. Then click “OK”. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt, click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. Now select “Tight”. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. On the “Format” tab, click “3-D Effects”. To select an effect, click on the left side of the displayed box. To change the direction of the 3-D effect, click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. In this way, you may enhance your WordArt text. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document, select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. On the “Symbols” tab, click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. Then click “Close”. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged, covering several lines. Let us use a drop cap in our document. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. Leave them unchanged for now. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data, typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. The names and
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addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. The result is a personalized letter. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. A wizard guides you and in a few steps, your letters to everyone are ready. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Selecting the starting document: Now, select "Use the current document". You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Now, click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". The "New Address List" window is displayed. Enter the Title, First Name and Last Name of the first person. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. After you are done, click "OK". The "Save Address List" window appears. Enter your file name, say "List1" and click "Save". Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Inserting Fields: Now, since you are ready with your letter, you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Click after the word "Dear". Enter a space. We are now ready to insert the field names. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Click on Title, then on "Insert". Similarly, enter the fields First Name and Last Name. Now click "Close". You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. Make sure to insert a space between each field. Click "Next". Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready, you want to create labels for the envelopes.
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Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document, select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Now click "Label options". The "Label Options" window is displayed. Here, you may select the type of printer, the type of label product, and the product number. For now, select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Then click "Next". Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". In the "Select Data Source" window, navigate to the location of your list. The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Let us now include address details. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". Enter the Address Line 1, Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. After you are done, click "OK". Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Inserting Fields: Now, you may add the names and address details on the labels. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Click on the Title field, then on "Insert". Similarly, enter the fields First Name, Last Name, Address Line 1, Address Line 2 and City. Now click “Close”. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. Similarly, move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. Click "Update all labels". Click "Next". Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. Preparing and Printing Envelopes

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Sometimes, you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document, select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Now click "Envelope options". The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. On the "Envelope options" tab, select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". Now, click "Next". Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. Let us make envelopes for some of them. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". In the "Select Data Source" window, browse to the location of your list, click on "List1" and then click "Open". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". Now click "Next". Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. Click "Address block". This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. In the “Insert Address Block” window, you make changes as required. For now, simply click “OK”. You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish, as you did for labels. Click “Next”. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. For this, your system must include a compatible e-mail program, such as Microsoft Outlook. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step.
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Selecting the starting document: Now, select "Use the current document". You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Now, click "Next". Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. Let us use this list. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". In the "Select Data Source" window, browse to the location of your list, click on "List1" and then click "Open". In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window, click "OK". Now click "Next". Inserting Fields: Now, since you are ready with your message, you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Click after the word "Dear". Enter a space. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Click on First Name, then on "Insert". Now click "Close". Then, click "Next". Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. In the "To" field, verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. In the "Subject line" field, type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. In the "Mail format" field, select the mail format you want to use. Under "Send records”, select the records you want to merge. Then click "OK". Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts, key assignments, menus, page layout, special formatting and styles. You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes, Brochures and Reports. Let us create a new document based on an existing template. Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. In the right left panel, under “Templates”, click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. Replace body text with your own text. You may make changes if required.
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Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. Now click “Word Document”. In the “Save As” window, enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. Your document is created based on the template you selected. To exit the Word application, click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. Hence, before you can start using some languages on your computer, you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock, Language, and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. Click on the “Start” button. Then click “Control Panel”. If you see the “Classic View” displayed, click “Control Panel Home”. Now, click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock, Language, and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Now click “Change keyboards”. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window, the box at the top displays the default input language. In the box at the bottom, you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. Click “Add” to add a new language. In the “Add Input Language” window, let us add the Arabic language as an example. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. Now, click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Finally, click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. Now start typing your text. You can see that your text appears in the new language.

SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. Currently the school records are maintained on paper
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forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. Although the information is well organized, it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations. You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program, and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. To start the Microsoft Excel application, click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger, consisting of rows and columns. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns, filled with numerical or textual data. This data can be edited, new data can be added, and unwanted data can be deleted. Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: - It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize, calculate and analyze data. - It is very easy to manage, since you can add, change, update and delete data with a few keystrokes. - You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. - You can create charts to represent data more effectively. - All data is stored in the computer, therefore there is no paper used. Whenever a hard copy is required, whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon
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The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. This contains commands for opening, saving, printing, and closing a file. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen, displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save, Undo, and Redo. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons, like those for cutting and pasting information, formatting your data, and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables, graphics, charts, and hyperlinks. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. You can specify margins, paper orientation, and other page settings. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information, like sorting, filtering, and grouping. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface, please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document
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Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007, a single file or document is called a workbook. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and, optionally, chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets, Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. Specifically, the Excel 2007 grid is 1,048,576 rows by 16,384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. The columns are named as A, B, C,… AA, AB, …AZ, BA, BB,… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. Each cell has its own address called the cell address. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. By default, Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook.

Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. To enter data in a cell, you must first move to the cell. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. You can use the arrow keys to move left, right, up or down. As you move from one cell to another, the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column, the address of that cell will be E3.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible, use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. To move among the worksheets in your workbook, you need to click the worksheet tabs. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet.
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- Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen - Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row - Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and - “Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. To activate a particular cell, use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. To select a group of cells, click in the cell you want to begin, drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.

CREATING

AND

EDITING

Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel, a new blank Excel workbook is opened. It is here that you will be entering the data. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. Click the Office Button and select “New”. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. For example a Sales Report, Balance Sheet, Expense Statement, etc. Whenever you create a new workbook using a template, the same default settings are used. A template file has an extension “.xltx”. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet, you can enter data in it. To enter data, move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry. The cell pointer will move down one row. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. When you finish entering data in one column, activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A.
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While entering the data in the “Name” column, you will see that the data overflows into the next column, that is, column C. Leave it as it is for now. We will see later on, how to adjust the column width. Enter data in all five columns as shown. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data, if you make a typing mistake, use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. For this, double-click on the cell. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. You may make the changes you require. To remove individual characters, press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Below the Ribbon, you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data, instead of editing directly in your worksheet. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. When you start typing in the formula box, a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry, or "X" to roll it back. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell, you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. To adjust the height of the formula box, move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. To accommodate long names, you can also resize the name box. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it.

Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. When the cursor
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shape changes, click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. Enter the column width and press “OK”. Saving, Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered, you must save the file. To save a file, click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. Your file is stored with the extension “.xlsx”. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. Now close the file. To close the file, click the Office Button and select “Close”. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. As soon as you have opened a new file, save it. Keep saving it as you work. Once a file has been saved, to save it again, click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut, “Ctrl+S”. Another way to save is file is, to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. To open an existing workbook, click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. From the window that is displayed, browse to select the file you want to open. Now click “Open”. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. To do so, you must make place on the worksheet. Select all the data you have entered, by placing the mouse in cell A1. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. To do so, you must make place on the worksheet. Select all the data you have entered, by placing the mouse in cell A1. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard”
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group on the “Home” tab. A moving border appears around the selection. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. As soon as you click on the icon, all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. Do the same for the other headings – , Exam Record and Class VIII – B, one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. In the cell above Sub1, type ‘Marks’. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down, as shown in the figure. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. In Excel, a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +, -, *, /, %, and ^ to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, percent and exponentiation respectively. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent, exponentiation, multiplication and division, addition and subtraction. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence, they are evaluated from left to right. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. When you begin typing a formula, Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items, including a description of each item. When you see the item you want, press Tab to enter it into your formula. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. In regular Mathematics, Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. To do this in Excel, you have to make use of a formula. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248.
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You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. In regular Mathematics, Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82.66667. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet, all related formulas are recalculated automatically. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. This is called “What-If Analysis”. Let us change the marks of one student. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. Select cells F10 and G10. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. Alternatively, you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. A moving border appears around the selection. This indicates that the contents have been copied. Select all cells from F11 to G19. Right click in anywhere in the selection. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. The contents of several continuous cells, that is, a range, can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet, another worksheet, another workbook or in a totally different application,to cancel the moving border, press Esc key. In the Formula Bar, observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining.
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In formulas, an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. Now select C14:F21. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (,) like A4, C7, E9. Click on the first cell, press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. In regular English, you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35, the student will be declared “PASSED”, otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. In Excel, you will use the “IF” function. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. =IF(G10>=35,"Pass", "Fail"). Press “Enter”. The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. The results for all students are displayed. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80, A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75, A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60, B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50, C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35, Pass grade All others fail. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. This is called “nested IF”. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. =IF(G10>=80, "A+", IF(G10>=75, "A", IF(G10>=60, "B", IF(G10>=50, "C", IF(G10>=35,"PASS", "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. The grades for all students are displayed.

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Now to find the maximum, minimum and average marks scored by the students, you can make use of some statistical functions. Type ‘Maximum marks’, ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22, B23, and B24 respectively. To insert a function in cell C22, activate it. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. From the window that opens, click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. Select the “Statistical” category. From the “Select a function” list, select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now, to find the minimum marks, you have to use “MIN” function. Activate cell C23. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used, the “Statistical” category will already be selected. If the category is something else, select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. From the “Select a function” list, select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. The Function Arguments window is displayed. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. To find the average marks, you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. Activate cell C24, and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. The result is displayed in cell C24. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them.
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Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. A theme consists of a color palette, font set, and effects. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center, you must first select all of them. To select all headings, click in cell A1. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4, A5. With the Ctrl key still held down, select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. To bring the headings to the center, click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. All the headings are centered. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. While the headings are still selected, you can make them bold. If the headings are not selected, select them first, then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. A list of fonts is displayed. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. A window of colors is displayed. Select “Blue”. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. Select the range of Percent marks. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens, click on the “Number” tab. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. Click “OK”. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places.
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Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts

You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears

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in the Formula Bar at the top. Press “Enter”. The chart title is displayed above your chart. Similarly, to enter the description for the X-axis, select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”; type “Names” and press “Enter”. To enter the description for the Y-axis, select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”; type “Marks” and press “Enter”. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. You can now see the actual marks of each student. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow, drag it to a position of your choice. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow, drag to a suitable size. To print only the chart, select it by clicking in the chart area. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. For this, click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. Now, on your worksheet, select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. This time, select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. After a chart has been created, you can even change the Chart Type. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”, select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. Now click “OK”. Your chart appears as a bar chart. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. Managing a Workbook
Correcting Errors

While entering data, if some spelling mistakes have been made, the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling.

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Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. If a spelling is found to be wrong, options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. In that case, select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly, click on the “Change All” button. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason, click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. When you click on any button such as “Change”, “Ignore” etc., the spelling checker moves to the next word. If you change a word which you did not want to, click on “Undo Last”. Some words, such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet, a message saying so is displayed. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. You can use the same format of the worksheet. You do not have to type all the headings once again. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. On the sheet tabs below, click on Sheet2. The Sheet2 will be displayed. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. Select the “Paste” option. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. All you need to do is to add data. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. Select the “Move or Copy” option. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. In the “To book” list, select the book you want to move the sheet to. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. From the “Before sheet” list, select the sheet. To copy the sheet, click in the “Create a copy” check box. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse
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button. While you drag, a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. When you release the mouse, the sheet will be moved to the new location. To copy a sheet with the mouse, hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. When you copy, another copy of the sheet is made. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets, it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. You can name the sheet accordingly, to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet, without opening the sheets. Double-click on the name of the sheet. The name will be highlighted. Simply type the new name. The name of the sheet is changed. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab, a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. Through the options in this window, you can insert, delete, rename, move or copy, select all sheets, and change the tab color. If you select “Insert”, the “Insert” window is displayed, from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet, a chart or something else. If you select “Delete”, the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. For this, right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. To deselect the sheets, right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. You will see a black plus sign. This is the fill handle. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. Other such autofill entries are - days of the week in short, names of the months in short, number series like 1000, 2000, 3000, etc. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. To stop
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the automatic relative cell references, type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. This makes the cell reference absolute. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet, the cell reference does not change. For the Final exam, 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space, starting with cell ‘J1’. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names, but data for marks will have to be typed. Now, to calculate 20% marks, activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’, you have made the column and the row references absolute. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. Although the formula has been copied, the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. This is called referencing multiple sheets. Now, Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. Let us now go to Sheet3. Here, in the cell A1, enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007, there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. At such times, you can change the display percentage of the sheet. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. If you reduce the percentage, more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. At such times, you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet, while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally, vertically or both horizontally and vertically. To split the window vertically, place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but
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individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. To split the window horizontally, place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically, place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically, the top left pane freezes. Also, if you click on the top left cell, selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. To remove a split, select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option, you can freeze either, or both, rows and columns. This means that, regardless of where you are in the worksheet, you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. To freeze the left pane of the window, place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. To freeze the top pane of the window, place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. For this, click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. As you scroll through your worksheet, you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. To freeze the top row or first column, select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To remove the freeze, select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab.
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Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. During analysis, you often come across situations, where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. If you know the result that you want from a formula, but not the input value the formula needs to get that result, you can use the Goal Seek feature. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. For example, if a student has failed, you want to find out, how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. You now want to find out, how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. You can do this with Goal seek. Activate cell F16, containing the “Total” marks of the student. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. In the “Goal Seek” window, type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16, the cell with the marks below pass level. Click “OK”. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. Click “OK”. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. Headers, Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print, you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. If there is more data to be fitted on one page, you can change the page orientation to landscape. The default setting is “Portrait”. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. If the data is not properly visible on the page, you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Header and Footer: Before you print your data, you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. The page number is usually given as the footer. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook, you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page.
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Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. Here, you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. Now press the “Tab” key. This displays another box to the right. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”, click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. This will insert the date. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. For this, click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. In the “Print” window, select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. In the “Print What” section, click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”.

Presentation Graphics
Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good, you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation, whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures, text, movies and sounds, charts and tables. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change, correct and update the presentation. In addition, a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience.

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Each presentation is divided into slides. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application, click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening, saving, printing, and closing a file. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save, Undo, and Redo. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs, Groups and Command buttons. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way.

You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface, you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. Click on the Office Button and select “New”.

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In the left panel, under “Templates”, click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. You can make changes as required. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View, Slide Sorter View, and Slide Show View. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation, Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it, making it easy to reorder, add, or delete slides. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. This is the main editing view. It has three working areas. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. You can also rearrange, add or delete slides. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. In the Normal View, on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”, which displays a large view of the current slide. On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. This view takes up the full computer screen, like an actual slide show presentation. In this full-screen view, you see your presentation the way your audience will. You can see how your graphics, timings, movies, animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. To actually run a slide show, you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. Now, if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs, you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. Here, you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. For example, you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. Creating your First Slide
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You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. When you start PowerPoint, you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. In the Slide Pane on the right, you see two boxes. These are called “Placeholders”. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. Click on the “Design” tab. In the “Themes” group, click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. Now click on a theme of your choice. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. In the existing slide, let us assume you need to make changes to the title. First, click on the text in the title. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. You may now edit the text as you wish. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately, you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts, tables, and pictures. Click on the title text. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. To move a placeholder, click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow, you can drag to the location you wish. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. To rotate a placeholder, drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. Saving and Opening a Presentation

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To save your presentation, you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. Now click “Save”. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. Your file is stored with the extension “.pptx”. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. To open a file that you have previously saved, click the Office Button and select “Open”. In the “Open” window, browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements, such as text, pictures, tables, charts and movies, on a slide. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. Click on the “Home” tab. In the “Slides” group, click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. The available layouts are displayed. Select a suitable one. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. Enter the title and text as shown. Similarly, create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. Enter the title and text as shown. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide, click the picture icon. In the “Insert Picture” window, browse to the location of your picture file. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Now click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Illustrations” group, select “Picture”. As you did earlier, in the “Insert Picture” window, browse to the location of your picture file. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. You may change the size and position as required. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. Click on the picture. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. In the “Picture Styles” group, click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. You may click on a style of your choice. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. Changing Fonts and Formatting
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Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Now click on the “Home” tab. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive, readable and user-friendly is called formatting. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group, you may select other effects such as Bold, Italic, Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”, “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Let us center the title of the slide. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. Let us create such a list on the third slide. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Now to create a bulleted list, select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. Similarly, to create a numbered list, you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides, click on the “Design” tab. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. Checking Spellings

As you may have entered the information on previous slides, you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. To correct the misspelled words, click on the “Review” tab. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time.

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For each word that is misspelled, a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. If you do not wish to change what you have typed, click “Ignore”. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly, you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. When your entire presentation has been scanned, you will be informed accordingly. Inserting, Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. To insert a slide between two slides, click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View, select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab, and drag to a new location. To select multiple slides in a row, press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation, you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted, click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want, you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to
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run a presentation, click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group, click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so, on the “Slides” tab, click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides, you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper, it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page, you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. In the window displayed, click “Customize” in the left pane. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. From the list displayed below, select “Web Page Preview”. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. The “Print” window is displayed. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. You may print all slides, the current slide only or any selection of slides. Print what: Here, you may specify whether you wish to print the slides, handouts, notes pages or outline view.
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Color/grayscale: Here, you may choose the color quality of the prints. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. Enter your options and click “OK”. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. Click on the “Home” tab. In the “Editing” group, click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. Enter some text and click “Find Next”. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Replacing Text: Click "Replace". In the "Replace" window, you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. Finding and Replacing: Alternatively, to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document, another document or to a Web site. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Text” group, click “Text Box". Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox.

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Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point, indicating that you can enter text in it. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. As you type the text in the text box, it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. Now click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Links” group, click “Hyperlink”. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window, under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. Under “Select a place in this document”, click on “First Slide”. Now click “OK”. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. When you run the slide show, clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. To insert a table, click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Tables” group, click “Table”. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. In the “Insert Table” window, enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. Select a suitable one. You may size or move your table as required. Now you are ready to enter the table content. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. Let us change the style of the heading text. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. Using SmartArt graphics, you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. You may choose from various categories such as Process, Hierarchy, Cycle, Relationship and others. Each category contains several different layouts.

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Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. Click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Illustrations” group, click “SmartArt”. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window, select a category. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. In the graphic displayed on your slide, you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. Alternatively, you may click “Text Pane”, in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab, under “SmartArt Tools. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”, click “Change Colors”. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. In the “SmartArt Styles” group, click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. A “Clip” may be a single media file, including art, sound, animation or movies. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. Now click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Illustrations” group, click “Clip Art”. Let us first insert a small clip. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. In the panel displayed on the right, in the “Search for” box, enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers, let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. In the “Search in” list box, ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. For this, in the “Results should be” list
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box, check the box against “Movies”. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. Now click “Go”. A number of related clips are displayed. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. You may change the size of the clip as required. Let us now insert some Clip Art. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. To insert Clip Art, check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. Now click “Go”. From the pictures displayed, drag a suitable one onto your slide. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing, you need to run the slide show. For this, click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. In the “Drawing” group, click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. Under “Basic Shapes”, click on “Hexagon”. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. You may size and position the shape as required. Adding Text: To add text within the shape, simply start typing as shown in the figure. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. To enter a title above the shape, you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides, you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. Click on the “Design” tab. In the “Themes” group, click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. Now click on a theme of your choice. On the “Slides” tab, you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides.
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Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme, click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. It is applied to all slides. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. First, click on the graphic. You can see it is surrounded by a box. Now click on the “Animations” tab. In the “Animations” group, click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. Now, click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. In the panel at the right, click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. Now click “Play” to view your animation. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. On the “Animations” tab, in the “Transition to This Slide” group, click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. Click on a suitable one. To associate a sound with your transition, select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide, whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. This ensures consistency and saves time. To see the Slide Master, click on the “View” tab. In the "Presentation Views" group, click “Slide Master”. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. If you move your mouse over them, screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts.

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Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. You see the master slide in the right pane. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. Let us change the background style. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. On the “Slides” tab, you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation, or for your audience. In Normal View, use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. To view your notes page, click the “View” tab. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one, two, three, four, six, or nine miniature slides on a page. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. The “Print” window is displayed. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. You may print all slides, the current slide only or any selection of slides. Print what: Select “Handouts”. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. Let us select 4. Order: Select the order of printing the slides, whether horizontal or vertical. Let us select “Vertical”. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper.
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Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers, the time and date, a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation, or to bottom of a slide, handout or notes page. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. In the “Text” group, select “Header & Footer”. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window, check the box against “Footer”, and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. To insert the date, time and slide number on the slide, check the appropriate boxes. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. To display the same footer information on all slides, click “Apply to All”. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window, on the “Notes and Handouts” tab, select the “Header” or “Footer” check box, and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide, click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group, select “Header & Footer”. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window, clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. To hide the footer on the title slide, check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation, if you need to duplicate a slide, it can be quite easily achieved. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. On the “Slides” tab, click the slide you wish to copy. Click the “Home” tab. In the “Slides” group, click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience, you may hide the slide. To hide a slide, right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”.

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The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. When you run your presentation, this slide will not be displayed. To show a slide that you have previously hidden, right-click the slide that you want to show, and then click “Hide Slide”. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. Then on the Ribbon, click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. The hidden slide icon is then removed. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. For example, if someone has a question about a previous slide, you can go backwards and redisplay it. You may move to any slide in your presentation. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. A menu is displayed as shown. Use the “Next”, “Previous”, “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation, you may want to point to an important word, underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. For this, right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. Also, you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. These may be a descriptive title, the author name, the subject, and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. Before saving the completed presentation, you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. In the “Document Information Panel”, click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change, for example, “Advanced Properties”. In the window displayed, click on the “Summary” tab. Enter your details on this tab. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel.
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Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier, you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. To do this, on the “Slides” tab, right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. In the “New Presentation” window, select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. You may make any changes with respect to colors, themes etc that you require. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes, you may save the file as a new presentation. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation, simply save the presentation with a new name. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. Click “Save”. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. Your original presentation does not get affected. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds, moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. Click the “Insert” tab. In the “Illustrations” group, click “Shapes”. Under “Action Buttons”, click on the “Sound” icon. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. This has two tabs, “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. As the names suggest, the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. Check the box against “Play sound”. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds.
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During the slide show, when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation, it is important to rehearse the timing, so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. Click the “Slide Show” tab. In the “Set Up” group, select “Rehearse Timings”. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears, and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. After you set the time for the last slide, a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. Click “Yes”. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. Now when you run your slide show, the slides advance automatically as per these settings. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded, on the “Slide Show” tab, in the “Set Up” group, clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. Now, your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. To exit the PowerPoint application, click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right.

Internet
Internet Basics What is a Network?

When computers are connected to each other, they form a network. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world.
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A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. To understand computer networks, you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. It could be any device such as a data storage device, a printer or a computer. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. Typically, a client is a user’s microcomputer. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic, and are quite powerful. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. In decentralized organizations, computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer, usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks, let us have a look at the types of networks.
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Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. Networks may also be citywide and even international. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area, metropolitan area and wide area networks. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another, the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. When this is done over longer distances, the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity, within the same building. Typically, LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years, they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources, including a common internet connection. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. Unlike a LAN, a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. The widest of all WANs is of course, the Internet which spans the entire globe. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. This is called the network’s topology. The four principal network topologies are star, bus, ring and hierarchical. In a “star network”, a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. The hub may be a host computer or file server. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. Each connecting device is asked or
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“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. In a “bus network”, there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. In a “ring network”, each device is connected to two other devices, forming a ring. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs, data and resources can be shared. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer, just like a star network. However, these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. For example, microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. The most common network strategies are terminal, client/server and peer-to-peer. In a “terminal network”, processing power is centralized in one large computer, usually a mainframe. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. Client nodes request the services. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. In a “peer-to-peer network”, nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. For example, microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them.

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Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations, operating systems and strategies. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information, newsletters, pricing structures etc. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet, or part of an intranet, which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. Specific information such as product ranges, prices, online order forms etc. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. 2) Like the public Internet, intranets use browsers, web sites and web pages. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network, shielding it from access by unauthorized users. Firewalls can be implemented in software, hardware or a combination of both. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network, a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. It acts as a gatekeeper, mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970, the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks.
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This project was named ARPANET. Gradually, after 1970, Universities, Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network.

To send data along telephone lines, wireless telephones and even satellites, researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. Instead of having a central system of limited machines, new independent centers were created in different places. This led to the birth of the modern Internet.

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Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. You can have access to entertainment, information, companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. It has become a popular medium for business, education, shopping, playing, advertisement and news. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. Using the Internet, you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. You can find the latest local, national and international news using the Internet. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies, music and games is available using the Internet. You have additional options such as live concerts, movie previews, book clubs and more. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere, anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. You can take classes on various subjects. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for.
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Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet. With the help of Internet, monetary transactions are also being carried out. This is known as e-commerce.

Electronic Commerce i.e. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. For a buyer, it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. From the seller’s perspective, the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. Also, a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce, there are some disadvantages too. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods, the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments.

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Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online, it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind. 1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. “www.consumersearch.com” and “www.epinions.com” are examples of review sites on the Web. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product. You can enlist it to compare prices. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www.mysimon.com” and “www.shopping.yahoo.com”. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices, you need to check his reputation before placing an order. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www.gomez.com” and “www.bizrate.com”. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor, you have to place the order and make the payment. Security of your credit card number is important. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www.private.buy.com” and “www.americanexpress.com/privatepayments”. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information, transferring funds, paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research, buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. In “Web auctions”, sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically. There are two basic types of Web auction sites:

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a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. For example, a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood, paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast, secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. If it is a valid cheque, the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. This method is more secure than credit cards. For a list of digital cash providers, see the displayed figure.

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Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word, Excel and PowerPoint. A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. To use a web-based application, you must connect to the ASP’s web site. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. When you exit the program, it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the
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Internet and saving it on your computer. You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. This is called “uploading”. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe, Windows Media Player from Microsoft, QuickTime from Apple, RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them, you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure.

Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. Additionally, these programs can
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generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites, chat groups and newsgroups. For a list of some of the best known filters, have a look at the displayed figure.

Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. These programs control spam, protect against computer viruses, provide filters and much more. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. You may chat using the keyboard. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text, data files, and programs with any other user. Today, using voice chat, you can also chat

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with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. You can also play different games on the Internet. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet to connect to another computer, Newsgroups, Mailing lists, Chat groups, World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data, programs and information between two or more computers. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. Instant Messaging: This supports direct, “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. You can retrieve documents, view images, animations and videos; listen to sound files, exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused, but they are not the same thing. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires, cables and satellites. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text, graphics, video, animation and sound. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. The name of its website is http://www.w3.org. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla, Netscape, Internet Explorer, etc. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information.

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Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. Java applets are used for presenting animation, displaying graphics, providing interactive games and more. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages. This may be done by following hyperlinks, either from a search or through a series of linked pages. You may even move between pages at random, in the course of learning something, or just having fun. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial, Educational, Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea), News, Statistical Information and Personal Information. Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. Using this protocol, the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. Because these numeric addresses
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are difficult to remember, a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. For example, if you enter a URL, say “www.example.com”, a DNS might translate it to an IP address say, “198.103.132.4” before a connection can be made.

Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel. For example, when you send an e-mail, your computer would be the “sending device”. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”. At the receiving end, another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer.

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Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. There are two categories of communication channels. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. The other category is wireless. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. They include telephone lines, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. Compared to coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable.

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Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared, broadcast radio, microwave and satellite. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. Since the light waves travel in a straight line, sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i.e. wireless fidelity)”. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. For longer distances, the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. We see a large number of cables in our offices, homes and everywhere else. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. Conceived initially by Ericsson, Bluetooth is a small, cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers, printers, mobile phones, etc. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver.
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Let us look at a summary of communication channels.

Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. Computers, on the other hand, send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart.

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There are four basic types of modems: external, internal, PC Card and wireless. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. A “wireless modem” may be internal, external or a PC Card. Unlike other modems, it does not use cables. It sends and receives signals through the air. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high
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capacity. These lines are known as T1, T2, T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. While special high-speed lines are very expensive, there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service. These include DSL, cable modems, satellite and cellular services.

“Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds.

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Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. There are three categories of bandwidth. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth. This is also known as low bandwidth. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL, cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth.
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How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. With this connection, you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. In the past, wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. In the last five years, there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. Today, there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. The service provider gives you a software package, username, password and access phone number. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. Some companies also offer free Internet access. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet, you can access the Internet through the LAN. Using a telephone, you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. To do so, you need a device called the “Modem”. Using the modem and dialer software, the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. In this method, the data transmission rate is much higher. Besides these, there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. Examples are DSL, Cable Modem, Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world
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through the Internet to your computer screen. Using a browser, you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. It allows navigation from one page to another. Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. Each web site has a distinct, separate and unique address. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol. The second part presents the “domain name”. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. For example “.com” indicates a commercial site and “.in” indicates India. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). This allows easy viewing of text, images, and animations, playing audio and video files and running programs. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. Since it is created by Microsoft, it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer, you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer, click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. If you do not see this icon, click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. At the top, you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. When you want to visit a website, type the website address or URL in the address bar, for example, http://www.microsoft.com/ and press “Enter”. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar.

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To the right of the address bar, you can see the “Refresh” button. You may use this to reload a web page. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it, you may use the “Forward” button. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier, you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. Below the address bar, you can see a toolbar. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website, which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. On the “General” tab, you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. To create a new tab, click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. To close a tab, click on the “X” to the right side of it. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs, click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options, select “Tools → Internet Options”. Under “Tabs”, click “Settings”. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window, you may enter the settings you require. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses, forms data, and passwords. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options, select “Tools → Internet Options”. On the “Content” tab, under “AutoComplete”, click “Settings”. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window, you may enter the settings you require. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page, the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. When you click on the link, the web page related to the link is opened. Links may be in the form of underlined text, buttons or pictures.

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Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame, the related page is displayed in another frame. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. To view these pages in your preferred language, you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. On the “General” tab, click “Languages”. In the “Language Preference” window, click “Add”. In the “Add Language” window, select the language you want to add and click “OK”. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. If you speak several languages, you can arrange them in order of priority. If a Web site offers multiple languages, content will appear in the language that has the highest priority.

Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click, rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites..”. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. To place this favorite in an existing folder, from the “Create in” drop-down list, select the desired folder and click “Add”. Alternatively, you may create a new folder for a favorite. For this, click “New Folder”. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times, you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. To unpin it, simply click on the “X” shaped, “Close the Favorites Center” icon.

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Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. Click the “Add to Favorites” button, and then click “Organize Favorites”. In the “Organize Favorites” window, you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create, rename or delete a folder. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. For this, select “Favorites → Add to Favorites..” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. To view the History list, click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. Now, click on one of the calendar icons. History items are displayed sorted by website. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. To delete an item from the History List, right-click on it and select “Delete”. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data, such as your name, address, phone number, and so on. For example, you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. A form may have text boxes, check boxes, buttons, pop-up menus or drop-down lists. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. Once you have completed your registration, you can login to your account and use all facilities available.

Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page, select “File → Print” from the menu. The “Print” window is displayed. You may print all pages, selected text, the current page, a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”.

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Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed, you can use the Preview option. For this, select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. Now click “Save”. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. For this, position the mouse pointer over the image. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. Choose “Save Picture As”. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. Choose a folder in which to save this image. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Choose “Save Target As”. The “Save As” window is displayed. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Click “Close” when the download is completed. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know, there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. A search can be done by entering a keyword, a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. Search services can be categorized into two types, web directories and search engines. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites, but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Search services can be categorized into two types, web directories and search engines. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites, but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. In a keyword search, you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. For example, if you entered the keyword “travel” you get
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thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.

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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.

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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google

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“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www.google.com in the address box. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. You may click on the link of your choice. Click “more” to view additional links. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific, use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones, use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. Then press the “Google Search” button”. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. Click the links to visit the related web pages. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. You will not see the search results page at all, but if you do, the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search, you might want to try Advanced Search, which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. You can filter inappropriate material, set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. If you typically search only pages in a specific language, you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. At a personal level, friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. At a business level, electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers, employees and customers.

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E-mail, or electronic mail, enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. E-mail has become very popular because of its speed, low cost and absence of time restrictions. The use of e-mail in our country, especially in urban areas, has increased rapidly in recent years. Just as every web page has a unique address, similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “[email protected]”. In this, “ahmed” is the name of the person; “yahoo.com” is the name of the domain or server. When an e-mail is sent, it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available, or for his computer to be on. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. When the mail server identifies the recipient, it sends the message to his address. At the other end, the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service, all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. Some of the examples are mail.Yahoo.com, Hotmail.com, Rediffmail.com, Indiatimes.com, etc. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo.com. To go to the Yahoo home page, type “www.yahoo.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. Now, click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. You see a form displayed on your screen. The first step is to fill out your personal information. Next, enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else, try a variation of the name. After you have chosen a name, you have to create a password. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password.

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You may check the “Marketing Preferences” box if you wish to receive promotional offers from Yahoo by e-mail. To verify your registration, type the code shown in the box exactly as you see it. Read the "Terms of Service" agreement and “Privacy Policy” by clicking on the related links and check the box after “Do you agree?” to confirm that you agree to them. Now click the “Create My Account” button. Your e-mail account is then created and you may use it to send and receive messages. The different websites have different features for the e-mail facility they provide. Some of the common features are a Login Page, Inbox, Address Book, Auto Reply and Customized Signature. Besides these, many more personalization features are also provided. Login Page: To access your mail account, you must first login. For this, you have to enter the user name you selected during the registration process and also your password. The website authenticates your user login information and then provides access to your mailbox. A typical e-mail message has three basic elements: header, message and signature. The header appears first and includes the following information: Addresses: Addresses of the person sending, receiving and optionally persons receiving copies are generally included in an e-mail message. You know that an e-mail address has two parts. The first part is the user’s name and the second part is the domain name which includes the top-level domain. Subject: This is a one-line description used to present the topic of the message. Attachments: You can attach files such as documents and pictures to a mail message. If a message has an attachment, the file name is displayed in the header area on the attachment line. After the header area, comes the actual message text. Finally, the signature line provides additional information about the sender. Typically, in case of official mails, this information includes the sender’s name, address and telephone number. E-mail, like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. These are mostly related to commercial advertising, often for products of questionable quality, get-richquick schemes, or something similar. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. In an attempt to control spam, some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. A more effective approach has been
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the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www.mozilla.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. In the United States of America, the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. When the option is selected, the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups, to download and read news messages, and to post replies to them. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. To start the Microsoft Outlook application, click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. If you have not previously set up a newsreader, Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader, which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. Select “Go → News” from the menu. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook, perform the following steps. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons", and then click "Customize". Click on the "Commands" tab. In the "Categories" list, click "Go". In the "Commands" list, click "News", and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. You may then close the “Customize” window. In Windows Mail, you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. In the “Internet Accounts” window, click “Add”. In the window displayed, click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. Now, enter your e-mail address. Click “Next”. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. When “Congratulations” is displayed, click “Finish”. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. Also, a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel.

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Click “Close”. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server, ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. On the “All” tab, you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. Then click “Subscribe”. Now click “OK”. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. To unsubscribe from a group, right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. Click “OK” to confirm. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. To print this message, select “File → Print” from the menu bar. You may choose to reply to a message. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. It is similar to e-mail. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. If both parties are online at the same time, you can have a complete conversation. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger, Windows Live Messenger, ICQ, Google talk etc. To use a messenger, it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. Now, download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. Select “Start → All Programs”. In the “Windows Live” folder, click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone, you need to add his name to your list of contacts. Click the “Add a contact” button. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger, enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. If you wish, you may add additional information in the “Contact”, “Personal”, “Work” and “Notes” sections. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. In the contacts list, you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. You
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can chat with any contact who is online. When a contact comes online, you are notified about it.
Chatting with your contact: Now, you are ready to begin your chat. In the main Messenger screen, double-click the name of an online contact. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up, type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. In the same way, messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. “Emoticons”, also called “Smileys”, are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. You may send an emoticon along with your message. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. When you click “Send”, the emoticon is sent along with the text. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline, you are informed about his status. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. Click on your name at the top of the screen. Click “Change display picture”. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. The new picture is then displayed. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. For this, click on your name at the top of the screen. Click “Options”. In the window displayed, you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”, “Out to lunch” etc. For this, click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. For this, click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. Now select “File → Save”. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. In the “Save As” window, enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. After you have completed your chat, you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail, editing contact details, deleting the contact etc.

Social Networking

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One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i.e. connecting individuals to one another. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting, friend-of-a-friend and common interest. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site, you provide profile information such as your age, gender, school name etc. This information is added to the site’s database. Members can search the database to locate individuals. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. For example, a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. For example, if you are looking for business contacts, you might join LinkedIn. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group, you might join Meetup. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. For a summary of social networking sites, see the displayed table.

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DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School. Currently, the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. Although the information is well maintained, retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task.

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The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. It is an electronic database management system which can store, organize, access, manipulate, and present information in many different ways. In the following labs, you will learn how to create a database, enter data, edit data, print and preview data and much more, using Access 2007. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. Typically, the information in a database is stored in a table. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person, thing or place. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. Here, data is organized in linked tables. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application, click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. In Access, every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “.accdb”. That file contains database objects, which are simply the components of a database. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports. Tables store information. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first, before any other objects are created. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. Usually, this action involves retrieving a piece of information. However, you can also use queries to make changes to your database. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table.

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Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page, how its grouped and sorted, and how its formatted. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database, you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. -It is easy to add, delete and modify records from a table. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. -Your tables, queries, forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. By clicking the object tabs, you can easily switch between various objects. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. For example, there are templates that can be used to track issues, manage contacts, or keep a record of expenses. Template databases can be used as they are, or you can customize them to suit your needs. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”, and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning, creating, entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. You must understand the purpose of the database. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required, what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. For this you must study the existing employee records. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created, you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. The main table will include the employees’ basic information. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees.
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For now, you will create only the table containing the employee information. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database, it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. In the panel at the right, the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. Change it to “Employee.accdb”. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. In the “File New Database” window, click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. Now click “Create”. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening, saving, printing, and closing a file. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save, Undo, and Redo. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs, Groups and Command buttons. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface, you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. At the left, you see the “Navigation Pane”. When you open a database or create a new one, the names of your database objects such as tables, forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. To open a database object, double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. To apply a command to a database object, right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar, to provide you with a larger work area. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane, click the arrow in the upper corner. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane, click the arrow at the top. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. Design view allows you to create or change a table, form, or other database objects, and configure the fields. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. But you cannot change the data in design view. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. Access creates your first database object, a table named Table1 which is completely blank, with no defined fields. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. This indicates that you are
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now in datasheet view. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables, forms, and queries. In Datasheet view, you can edit fields, add and delete data, and search for data. You may also create a table using this view. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables, forms, queries and reports. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Before defining the fields in a table, you need to enter a name for the table. In the “Save As” window, the default name “Table1” is displayed. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. Before you can enter data into a table, you must create the structure of the table, meaning the fields that will hold the data. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. You must specify a primary key for all tables. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key, which makes queries and other operations fast. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field, and that it is always unique. When you create a new table, Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. You will learn about the different data types shortly. Now let us begin creating the table structure. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. The name can consist of letters, numbers, spaces, and special characters, except a period (.), an exclamation (!), and brackets([]). You cannot start the name of a field with a space. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name, Phone No, Subject1, etc. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. Following are the data types you can use. Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries, like words, combinations of words and numbers, and numbers that are not used in calculations. Examples are names and phone numbers. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field.
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Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. Summary of a book is an example. Number: It is used to store numbers only. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. Marks in an exam is an example. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. For example, Birth date, Date of joining, etc. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type, but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. For example, Price, Fees, etc. AutoNumber: It is a unique, sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No, True or False, and On or Off. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid, Pass, etc. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images, documents, graphs etc. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. Attachment: This is used to store images, spreadsheet files, documents, charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. Giving this description is optional. Type the description wherever applicable. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Select the “Text” data type. When you select a data type, its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. As you can see, the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. Each data type has its own set of field properties. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data.
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Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. This value can be changed. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. If you set it to “Yes”, it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries, sorting, and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. Now, let us change some of the defaults. Click the “Field Size” property text box. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. Do not make any other changes. In the same manner, enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. Select “General Date”. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. The structure of your table is now ready. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. But you cannot do so until you change the view. We used the Design View to define the structure. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon.

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The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row, that is, in the “Employee ID” column. Type the employee’s ID number. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. If you make a mistake while typing, use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. For the date fields, you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. Now click “Add”. In the “Choose File” window, navigate to the location of the picture file. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. Click “OK”. To see that the picture has really been inserted, double-click in the attachment field. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. You have been informed by the HR department, that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. Then you must delete that employee’s record. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. This is the small box to the left of the record. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. On the “Home tab”, in the “Records” group, click “Delete”. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. Click “Yes” to delete the record. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. You may adjust the column width. For this, position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Then drag in the desired direction, left or right until you get the desired width. Alternatively, you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. For this, right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. Then click “OK”. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. The document will be printed using the default settings. If you want to
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change some settings you may do so. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. You can see the preview consisting of one, two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. If you want to change the page orientation, click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. To close the preview, click the “Close Print Preview” icon. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. The “Print” window is displayed. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. Select “All” to print all records. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. To print pages that are continuous, enter the page range. For example, to print pages 1 to 5, in the “Pages From:” field, type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. To print selected records, select “Selected Record(s)”. After you have entered your print specifications, click “OK”. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. Select “All” to print all records. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. To print pages that are continuous, enter the page range. For example, to print pages 1 to 5, in the “Pages From:” field, type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. To print selected records, select “Selected Record(s)”. After you have entered your print specifications, click “OK”. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. To close a table, you may first click on the related tab to make it active. Since you have just one table open presently, simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. If you have made any changes that have not been saved, Access will prompt you to save them before closing. If you click “No” to discard changes, the table will close without saving the changes. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. Click “Yes” to save changes. The table tab will close. Closing the database: Next, you have to close the database. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. You are now back to the “Getting
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Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. You may create a new database or open an existing one. To exit Access, you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database, in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page, click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. Sometimes, you may not see the name of your database in this list. In such a case, click “More…” at the top of the list. In the “Open” window, navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. Your Database window is displayed. To open the “Emp Info” table, double-click the table name in the navigation pane. The table will open in Datasheet View. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table, including its structure and data. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. In the “Save As” window, you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. Let us modify the default name. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. Sometimes, you may need to copy only the structure of a table. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. This time, we shall copy the structure only. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. In the “Paste Table As” window, select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. In the document pane, you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. For this, click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. If any database
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objects are open, you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. Click “Yes”. In the “Save As” window, enter the location and the name for the new database, say “Backup_Employee.accdb” and click “Save”. The new database is created identical to the original database. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records, you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. Also, you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. You can even add and delete fields. To set the display format, you need to first change to Design View. For this, click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. To define the format, you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. So, to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase, you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. Now, you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. To do so, switch to Design View. Make “Phone” the current field. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. In the “Size” field property, type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box, type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. For example, BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT.
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Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”, “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Now switch to Datasheet View. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. While looking through the records, you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. So, by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”, you can make data entry a bit quicker. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it. Similarly, make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. Type ‘M’ in it. Switch to “Datasheet” view. Save the design changes related to default values. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. You can also add validation text, which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. If you do not give a message, Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages.

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Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. In the “Validation Rule” property box, type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box, type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only. Now, switch to Datasheet View. You will be asked to save the changes. Click “Yes”. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. When you make changes to the structure of a table, you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. For now, click “No”. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. You may change them if required. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case, except ‘F’ or ‘M’. The warning message is immediately displayed. Click “OK” to continue. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text.
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Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it, you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. Now, you have been told to make two changes. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”, “EASTSIDE” with “ES”, “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. The other is that, one of the employees, “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. You need not do this manually. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. While in the “Datasheet” view, click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. In the “Find What” box, type “Smith”, the last name of the employee. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. You want to match the whole field, not part of it. So, in the “Match” box, select “Whole field”. In the “Search” box, select “All”. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box, so, click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. Check whether it the record you are looking for. If it is, close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. Now, you have to make changes in the “State” field. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. In the “Replace With” box, type ‘BS’. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. Click “Find Next”. Clicking on the “Cancel” button, cancels the command. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace, then click on the “Replace” button. If you make changes to a single record, using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. Once you move to another record or move to another window, the “Undo” command has no effect. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Your original data appears.
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The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”, click on “Replace All”. Instantly, the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. A warning message is displayed by Access, warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. You are asked whether you want to continue, click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. If you remember, you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. In the “Default Value” property box, type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. Save the changes made to the table. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. By default, the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. If you want to search the entire table, you may select the name of the table from the list. In the “Match” list options, “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. The options are Up, Down, and All (which is the default). If you check the box against “Match Case”, the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i.e., uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. For example, a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. Sorting Records In the first lab, you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order, you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. In this case, the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. In Access, you can sort data in ascending or descending order. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. When you select multiple columns to sort, Access sorts records starting from the leftmost
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column and moves to the right across the columns. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. To return to the primary key sort order, the temporary sort must be removed. In the “Datasheet” view, observe the order of the records before sorting. They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. Now, click in the “Last Name” field of any record. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”, you need to sort on multiple fields. To sort on multiple fields, sorting is done from the leftmost field. So, “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. To change the order of fields, switch to Design View. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. This is the small box to the left of the field name. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. Then release the mouse. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. To sort on multiple fields, you need to select the two fields. To select the two columns, in Datasheet View, position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. Both the columns will be highlighted. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”, so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. To remove the temporary sorting order, select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard
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Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database, one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. To make it easy to view and use, Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text, titles, labels, lines, boxes and pictures. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. It guides you through the steps required to create a form. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. In the “Forms” group, click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. In the “Tables/Queries” list, the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. Select the fields from the list one by one. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. The other two buttons below this, as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. In the next step, the layout of the form is displayed. “Columnar” is selected by default. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. In the next step, you are asked to select the style of the form. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. The next step is the last step, where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. If not, type it and click “Finish”. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records.To close the form, click the close
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button on the form. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. Now let us change the label “Photo”. Click on it and enter “Photograph”. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. You will add this information using the form you created. To add records, you first need to open the form. In the navigation pane, double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. The form will be displayed. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. Of course, the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. In this way, you can enter and view as many records as you want. After you are done, click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Now, click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required, to see all the records that you have entered. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information, it is necessary to frame a question. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. For example, if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. But if you ask, “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. So framing a question correctly is important. In Access, to get information stored in the tables, you have to put questions in the form of queries.
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Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. Queries are used to view data in different ways, analyze and even change existing data. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. Access saves each query in your database, like any other database object. Once you’ve saved a query, you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form, which you have already done. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query, Crosstab query, Parameter query, Action query and SQL query. The most common is the “Select” query, which you are going to use. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. In the “Other” group, click “Query Wizard”. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. In the “Tables/Queries” list, the “Emp Info” table is already selected. If not, select it. In the “Available Fields” list, you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. To select the required fields, select them one by one and click on the “>” button. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”, “Last Name”, “First Name”, “Address”, “City”, and “Phone”. Click “Next”. Here, accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. The query is displayed with all the records in the table, but with selected fields. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. It was very simple. But now, you have a request from the Administrative department, they want a list of all employees, who have been in service for at least five years, for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. This is very interesting. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. While the query is open, click on the “Home” tab. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. In the document window, at the top, you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. In the lower part, the fields selected in the query are displayed. Now, to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more, you need to check their dates of joining the

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organization. For this, you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top, scroll down a bit. Then, double-click on this field. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. You must now specify a criterion for this field. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. In the criteria row, type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. As soon as you press “Enter”, Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. Running a query: To see the result of this query, click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. The records matching your criteria are displayed. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. For this, click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. Click “OK”. Now close the query tab. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement, which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Now close the query tab. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. In the “Reports” group, click “Report Wizard”. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. In the Tables/Queries list, select “Table: Emp Info”. Select fields “Last Name”, “First Name”, “Address”, “City”, “State”, “Pin code”, and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button, as you did while selecting fields for the query. Click “Next”. In the next “Report Wizard” window, there is an option for grouping fields, which you are not going to need, so click “Next”.

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The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. So, select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. In the next window, you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar, tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Click in the check box that says, “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. The next window is the last step of the wizard. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”, click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. But if you see the report properly, the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. You need to make some changes. To make these changes, you need to modify the report layout. For now, close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. Now, the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. Click on the heading “Last Name”. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow, drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely, click on it. A box appears around it. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow, drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. Similarly, where the data is not displayed completely, click on it. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields.

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To see the preview, select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. If they are still not properly visible, you may move and resize the fields again as required. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. The “Print” window is displayed. Select the printer from the “Name” list. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. Click “OK”. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. To create this report, you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. To create a report from a query, you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. The difference is that, in the “Report Wizard”, instead of the table, you will select the query. Click on the “Create” tab. In the “Reports” group, click “Report Wizard”. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. Click “Next” once again. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that, in ascending order of the “First Name”. So, select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. In the next window, you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar, tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Click in the check box that says, “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. The next window is the last step of the wizard. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”, click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. You can see in the preview, all the records of employees who have worked for five years. Close the preview. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”.

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Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. First, open the database in “Exclusive” mode. For this, click on the Office Button and select “Open”. In the “Open” window, navigate to the location of your database. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. Your database is now open. Click the “Database Tools” tab. In the “Database Tools” group, click “Encrypt with Password”. In the “Set Database Password” window, type your password in the “Password” box, and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. Now click “OK”. It is very important that you remember your password. If you forget your password, it cannot be retrieved. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it, but away from access by unauthorized people. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. The “Password Required” window appears. Enter your password and click “OK”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. Click the “Database Tools” tab. In the “Database Tools” group, click “Decrypt Database”. In the “Unset Database Password” window, type your password and click “OK”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button.

PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER
Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true; your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. You want to use tools to organize your contacts, schedules etc.
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With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007, you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments, events and meetings, and storing addresses. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application, click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007, you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail, Calendar, and Contacts etc. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar, to provide you with a larger work area. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane, click the arrow in the upper corner. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane, click the arrow at the top. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar, upcoming appointments, tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time, click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. To begin with, we shall take a look at the calendar. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. The “Day” view, having today’s date and time divisions, is displayed in the information viewer on the right. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. Let us create an Appointment. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. Select the day. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. Press “Enter”. Your appointment has now been recorded. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed.

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Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. On the “Appointment” tab, in the “Options” group, select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. To turn a reminder off, select “None”. In the “Show As” field, you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. Select “Out of Office”. In the text box below, type your notes, say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis, such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. Click the 9 am time slot. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. The current setting is “Weekly”, “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. Let us keep this setting unchanged. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. The current setting is “No end date”. You may keep this setting. Click “OK”. In the “Untitled - Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting - Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab, in the “Actions” group. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. Since it will last for at least 24 hours, such an entry is called an Event.
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Click on the Monday of two weeks later, in the date navigator window. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days, select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Changing the calendar view By default, you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. In addition, you can view your calendar based on different criteria. Select “View → Current view”.

Creating a task list
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A task is a personal work related action item. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis, such as a weekly report. For your weekly meetings with your assistants, you have several tasks that need to be completed. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously, they are displayed. To change the view to a simple list, if necessary, select “View → Current View → Simple List”. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. Press “Enter”. Your task has now been recorded. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. Meeting with the Accounts Department. 2. Meeting with the maintenance staff. 3. Meeting at the Yoga Club. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. The “Task” window is displayed. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. From the “Status” drop-down menu, choose the option “In Progress”. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. Click on “Save & Close”. To change the view to a detailed list, select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. This view shows detailed information about each task. It includes different columns for priority, subject, status, due date, percentage complete and categories. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. To set up your categories, select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. Outlook has certain predefined categories. You may make changes as per your requirements. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”.

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Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. To assign a category to this task, right-click in the “Categories” column. From the available categories list, select “Personal”. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. Similarly, assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. For example, you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. To switch to the “Detailed List” view, select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. In the “Detailed list” view, click on the column heading “Categories”. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. The next time you click, they are sorted in descending order. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view, the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. To change the view to “Task Timeline”, select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. In this view, each task will be represented by a task symbol. The subject of the task is also displayed. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view, select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. To update the status of the task, the “Status” column must be visible. For example, you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. From the drop-down list, select “Completed” and press “Enter”. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list.
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Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. Select “File → Print”. The “Print” window is displayed. Here you need to specify details about the Printer, the Print style, Print range and Copies. If necessary, select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. Here two styles are available, “Table” or “Memo”. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. Click on the “Page Setup” button. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. Let us make some changes. Type your name in the left header text box. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. Click “OK”. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Click on the “Preview” button. To display the preview in actual size, click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. If everything is OK, click on the “Print” button in the preview window. Click “OK” in the “Print” window. Similarly, to print the appointments, select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. Now, select “File → Print”. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. Type the required message and then close the window. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book, which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. You can choose to enter
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different types of information such as business and home address, phone numbers, email addresses, nick names, birth-dates and anniversaries. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. Like other outlook tools, “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”, “Address Cards”, “Phone List”, “By Category”, “By Company” and others. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact, click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. The “Untitled - Contact” window is displayed. On the “Contact” tab, you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. Here, you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”, “Company”, “Addresses”, “Phone numbers” etc. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list, right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. This is called “Exporting”. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. This is called “Importing”. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. Choose “Export to a file”. Click “Next”. Choose “Personal Folder File (.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. Click “Next”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. Click “Next”. Click on the “Browse” button. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. Click “OK”.
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Now click “Finish”. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window, click “OK”. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window, choose “Import from another program or file”. Click “Next”. Choose “Personal Folder File (.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. Click “Next”. Click on the “Browse” button. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have, you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. Now click “Finish”. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar, type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. Outlook will search all the available address books. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”), first or last name, e-mail address and company name. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for, click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list, and then select the appropriate name. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. This list is saved with a name. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. You can also enter new contacts. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list, select “File → New → Distribution List”. In the “Name” field, type a name for the mailing list. On the “Distribution List” tab, in the “Members” group, click “Select Members”. Under “Address Book”, select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. In the list below, select the
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name, and then click “Members”. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list, and then click “OK”. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. For this, click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list, double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. You can now make the changes you require. Let us delete a member from this list. For this, simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. Now click “Save & Close”. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list, click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. Now click “OK”. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. Additionally, all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. You first need to set up your mail account. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. On the “E-mail” tab, click “New”. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen, check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. Under “Choose E-mail Service”, ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen, under “User Information”, enter your name and email address. Under “Server Information”, select Account type, either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. POP3 is generally used.

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Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. Under “Logon Information”, enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. Click the “More Settings” button. On the “Outgoing Server” tab, check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. Click “Next”, and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. Now click “Close”. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. To send an e-mail, you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient, the subject and the content of the mail. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". In the “Untitled Message” window, click on the "To:" button. This brings up the “Select Names” window. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”, the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. You may add multiple names to any of the fields. Click “OK”. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field, type your message. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail, including spreadsheets, word processor documents, database files, even sound recordings and graphic images. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. While composing the message, click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. Now, click “Insert”. The list of files attached is
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displayed just below the Subject Field. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information, click the “Send” button. If you are not connected to the Internet, your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. When you connect, mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. For this, create a mail as described earlier. Instead of clicking the “Send” button, click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default, when you start Microsoft Outlook, all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. You can see this folder in the left panel. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. Reading Mail: In the center panel, click on the mail whose content you wish to see. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. It is very important to know how to view them. In order to view an attached file, the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. For example, if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment, then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. When you receive an attachment in a message, and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it, you can preview it. For this, simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. To return to the message body, click the “Message” button. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox, right click on the attachment name and select “Open”.

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Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox, right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. To reply to her mail, click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. Now click the “Reply” button. A new mail message window is displayed. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. Also, the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. You may make any changes you require. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. You may forward the mail that you have received. For this, click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. Now, enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. This may be changed if required. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. Now send it like any other mail. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. You may sort your mails by date received, subject, sender’s name etc. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk, click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. In the “Save As” window, enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. Printing Messages: To print a mail, click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail, click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. For this, right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up.
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Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views, such as Mail, Calendar and Contacts. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. Simply type a word in the search box. The moment a match is found, the related mail is displayed. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. Type your search text in the From, Body, Subject, or To fields. To display more search fields in the Query Builder, click “Add Criteria”, and then select the search fields you want from the list. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar, in your Inbox, and even in the Calendar. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. When you have taken the necessary action, you can click the flag once again. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar.

MAKING IT WORK
CD Writing What is CD Writing?

FOR

YOU

CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs - also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs - also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks, the space can only be used once, although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. On CD-RW disks,
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the space can be erased and re-used many times. However, CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. Before you can copy files to a CD, the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. By default, Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files, such as a music CD. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format, perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. This is the “Destination Drive”. In the window that appears, click “Burn files to disc”. In the “Burn a disc” window, enter a name for this disc, and click “Next”. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. When the formatting is complete, an empty disc folder opens. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. This is the “Source Drive”. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. As you drag files into the disc folder, they are copied automatically to the disc. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format, perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. In the window that appears, click “Burn files to disc”. In the “Burn a disc” window, enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. An empty disc folder opens. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn, and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. Let us delete one of the files.

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After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD, on the toolbar, click “Burn to disc”. The selected files are copied to the disc. When the disc burning is complete, the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes, burn these files to another disc”. Now, click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. If you use the Live File System format, you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. To delete a specific file on a disk, click on the file name. To select more than one file, hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. Now, press the “Delete” key. To erase all files on a disc, on the toolbar, click “Erase this disc”. In the window that is displayed, click “Next”. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. An example of an executable file is a program, COM or EXE file. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus, which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. While viruses can be intentionally destructive, for example, by destroying data, many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection", and the infected file, or executable code that is not part of a file, is called a "host". A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms, Trojan horses and other such software. A virus attaches itself to, and becomes part of, another executable program. However, a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic, whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. Viruses generally do not affect network performance, as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person, for example, using someone else’s credit card. “Adware” is a software package that
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automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertising material to a computer. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. Fortunately, Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. Today, due to the popularity of the Internet, network-borne worms are more common than viruses. Anti-virus software, originally designed to protect computers from viruses, has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware, identity theft and adware. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus, MacAfee, AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. Such analysis may include data captures, port monitoring and other methods. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches, with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses, before copying data to your hard disk. Even if CDs are read only, the files on them may already be infected. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. Once installed, the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. When a file is checked, it is compared to the profile of known viruses. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i.e. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm).

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A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. You can use it to block certain Web sites, prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. To listen to music, you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. Because these music files are compressed, a large hard drive is not required to store them. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. However, you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. You may also listen to music online. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. First, there is no download wait when streaming. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. Second, after the music has finished playing, no files are left on your computer to take up space.
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Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD, buying online is fast and convenient. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song, only to find it’s the only good song in the album. By downloading from the Internet, you can choose to purchase individual songs, if so desired. If you hear a great song on the radio, you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds.

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The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites.net and music.lycos.com. Once a song is found, listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. If it is not a free download, you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. Once downloaded, double-click the file to play it. By downloading music, you may create a large music collection on your computer. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. While downloading music, you must respect copyright laws. Although many sites offer pirated music, there are others from which you can download legal music. If you are downloading pirated digital files, you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties, and they could be exposing your computer to viruses, spyware and other unwanted software. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards, enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. The card contains a receiver, tuner, demodulator, and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. Like TV sets, each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay, or distribution to other computer users. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. Once a TV tuner card has been installed, you may view your favorite TV shows, even while running other applications. For this, click the “TV” icon on the desktop. Size and move the television window and control box window. Then select the channel. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. For this, specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. To stop recording, click the “Stop” button.

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Once you have saved the video clip, you may use it in any way you like. You may add it to a Web page, mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. Now in the “Media Clip” group, click the “Movie” icon. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. To play the video clip, you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email, paging, and voice mail systems. SMS is a very popular service, particularly among young people. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone, or from the Internet, using an "SMS gateway" website. If the phone is powered off or out of range, messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. Today, SMS is used by organizations for marketing, as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments, information about flight delays, current events, sports news and much more. What is Spam? E-mail, like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. These are mostly related to commercial advertising, often for products of questionable quality, get-richquick schemes, or something similar. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam, some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail
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program which is available for free download at “www.mozilla.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird, you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam, select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam, simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. The spam indicator is then removed. After reviewing your actions for several weeks, Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. In the left panel, under “Local Folders”, click “Junk Settings”. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i.e. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked, such as those of family and friends. To specify a white list, select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. In the left panel, under “Local Folders”, click “Junk Settings”. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. Now click “OK”. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid, they will continue to send mails. By default, Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. When you receive a message with remote images, Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked, and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. If you do want to view the remote images, all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now, you have an alternative. You can use your voice to control your computer. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to, and you can dictate text to the computer. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. For this, you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition, you need to do three things: set up your microphone, learn how to talk to your computer,
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and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.

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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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restrictions, legal or otherwise. The third feature is comments. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs, computer and video games, films, music, websites, multimedia software, etc. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. On the other hand, games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews, along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment, such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips, travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. Cyberspace

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has its own culture. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. So, always be cautious with your words. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged, but try not to hurt people’s feelings. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. For example, when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times, you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers, naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. They should not misuse this to read private email. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -- whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. Give people the benefit of the doubt. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake, point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. Technology Today Today, there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. For example, under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. As a result, mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. Even if you are not a great singer, you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. It now has an additional dimension. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures, video clips, and sound.
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It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM), Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. It is similar to e-mail. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. If both parties are online at the same time, you can have a complete conversation. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger, Windows Live Messenger, ICQ, Google talk etc. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic, we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. In the Conversation window, click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. When he does so, the file is transferred to him. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time, even if one of you is offline. Before you can share files with a contact, both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. To create a sharing folder, click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. In the “Sharing Folders” window, click the “Add Files” button. In the displayed window, browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. When your contact agrees to share the file, both you and your contact can access it. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication, Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. This enables you to see and hear your contact. For this, both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers, as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. To hold a video conference, click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. When he does so, the video conference begins. iPods, Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23, 2001. Till date, it is possibly the best-selling digital
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audio player series in history. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. They store music files internally. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. They vary in size and features. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. iPods, other than the iPod touch, can also serve as external data storage devices. iPod is a music player and more. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. It also transfers photos, videos, games, and calendars to those iPod models that support them. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. First, you need to connect to “www.apple.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes, you may create a custom CD. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. Connect your iPod to your computer. iTunes starts automatically. To transfer individual music files, click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. Put simply, podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music, talk shows or anything else. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast, but to create a podcast or even to listen to one, it is not mandatory to possess an iPod, or any portable music player .
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Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music, film reviews, radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes, Juice, Odeo, Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts, which will then be automatically downloaded for you. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. Today, using the Internet, technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational, instructional and promotional material. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired, for Commentaries, Sportscasts and lots more. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary), RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. We see a large number of cables in our offices, homes and everywhere else. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. Conceived initially by Ericsson, Bluetooth is a small, cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers, printers, mobile phones, etc. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range. Using this technology, users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer, and, in general, have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. Bluetooth vs. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications.

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Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth, but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. It covers greater distances, but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. It enables a faster connection, and offers better security than Bluetooth. Home Networking Today, computers are commonly found in homes. If you have more than one computer, you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection, you need to set up the connection first. For this, you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters, modem, and Internet connection that you have. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless, run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed, you may use it to share different resources. A home network is commonly used to share files, printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. It is a web-based free content, multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Since its creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites.

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This is a special type of website, called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. For example, if you add information to an article, you must include appropriate references. This encyclopedia can be found at www.wikipedia.com. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. Let us click on “English”. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein. Type “Einstein” into the box, and press enter or click “Go”. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages, click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. You see a page which displays links to other pages. Simply click a link to view the related page. So, using Wikipedia, you can research on any topic with great ease. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish, provided it is not potentially offensive. Started in 2005, the site was purchased one year later by Google. It can be found at www.youtube.com. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos, professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing, singing, posting video resumes, and in other creative ways. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far, none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers, preferring that they watch videos online.

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Like most other social-networking sites, YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. Because of this, the site has been banned in a few countries.

*****THE END****

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