Management Information

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Q.1. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement is determined for an organization? !"#$ DFD#$ Data flow diagrams represent the logical flow of data within the system. DFD do not explain how the processes convert the input data into output. They do not explain how the processing takes place. DFD uses few symbols like circles and rectangles connected by arrows to represent data flows. DFD can easily illustrate relationships among data, flows, external entities stores. DFD can also be drawn in increasing levels of detail, starting with a summary high level view and proceeding o more detailed lower level views. A number of guideline should be used in DFD • • • • Choose meaningful names for the symbols on the diagram. umber the processes consistently. The numbers do not imply the se!uence. Avoid over complex DFD. "ake sure the diagrams are balanced

Data Dictionary The data dictionary is used to create and store definitions of data, location, format for storage and other characteristics. The data dictionary can be used to retrieve the definition of data that has already been used in an application. The capability constraint of the human being as an information processor, a problem solver and a decision# maker. $. The nature and the variety of information in precise terms. %. &eluctance of decision#makers to spell out the information for the political and the behavioural reasons. '. The ability of the decision#makers to specify the information. There are four methods of determining the information re!uirements. They are( • • • • Asking or interviewing Determining from the existing system Analysing the critical success factors )xperimentation and modelling.

s2ing or .nter3iewing ,n this method a designer of the ",* puts !uestions or converses with the user of the information and determines the information re!uirements. -utting the !uestions is an art and it should be used properly to seek information. Determining from the Existing "ystem ,n a number of cases the existing system, which has been evolved after a number of years, and has been designed out of experience gives straightaway the re!uirement of information. nalyzing the 1ritical "uccess Factors )very business organi.ation performs successfully on efficient management of certain critical success factors. Experimentation and %odelling /hen there is total uncertainty, the designer and the user of the information resort to this method for determining the information re!uirement. The experimentation would decide the methodology for handling the complex situation. Q.'. 4hat is %."? Define the characteristics of %."? 4hat are 5asic function of %."? ,i3e some Disad3antage of %."? ns. ",* systems are extensively used in generating statistical report of any organi.ation which can be used to study management by behavior. They set ob0ectives to their employees using ratio analysis. "anagement also uses ",* for decision making from the low level management to top level management. ,n order to perform task using ,nformation systems use of technical support is re!uired. *o it is the combination of ' components i.e. organi.ation, technology and management. %." characteristics • • • • • • • ,t supports transaction handling and record keeping. ,t is also called as integrated database "anagement *ystem which supports in ma0or functional areas. ,t provides operational, tactical, and strategic level managers with east access to timely but, for the most, structured information. ,t supports decision 1making function which is a vital role of ",*. ,t is flexible which is needed to adapt to the changing needs of the organi.ation. ,t promotes security system by providing only access to authori.ed users. ",* not only provides statistical and data analysis but also works on the basis on "23.

&asic Function of %." The main functions of ",* are( • • • • • Data -rocessing( 4athering, storage, transmission, processing and getting output of the data. -rediction( -rediction is based on the historical data by applying the prior knowledge methodology by using modern mathematics, statistics or simulation. -lanning( -lanning reports are produced based on the enterprise restriction on the companies and helps in planning each functional department to work reasonably. Control( ",* helps in monitoring the operations and inspects the plans Assistance( ,t stores the related problems and fre!uently used information to apply them for relative economic benefits.

Disad3antages of %." The following are some of the disadvantages of ",*( • • • • •

",* is highly sensitive( ",* is very helpful in maintaining logging information of an authori.ed user. This needs to monitor constantly. 5uality of outputs is governed by !uality of inputs. ",* budgeting( There is difficulty in maintaining indirect cost and overheads. ",* is not flexible to update itself for the changes. The changes in the decision of top level management decrease its effectiveness. ,nformation accountability is based on the !ualitative factors and the factors like morality, confidence or attitude will not have any base.

Q.6. Explain 7nowledge 5ased system? Explain D"" and /8 9 with example? nswer# 6nowledge 2ased *ystem 762*8 62* are the systems based on knowledge base. 6nowledge base is the database maintained for knowledge management which provides the means of data collections, organi.ation and retrieval of knowledge. The knowledge management manages the domain where it creates and enables organi.ation for adoption of insights and experiences. -here are two types of 2nowledge 5ases. a: %achine reada5le 2nowledge 5ases# The knowledge base helps the computer to process through. ,t makes the data in the computer readable code which makes the operator to perform easier. *uch information are used by semantic web. *emantic web is a web that will make a description of the system that a system can understand. 5: ;uman reada5le 2nowledge 5ases# They are designed to help people to retrieve knowledge. The information need to be processed by the reader. The reader can

access the information and synthesi.e their own )xamples of 62* are intelligent systems, robotics, neural networks etc. %odel of /8 9 Decision *upport *ystems 7D**8 D** is an interactive computer based system designed to help the decision makers to use all l the resources available and make use in the decision making. ,n management many a time problems arise out of situations for which simple solution may not be possible. To solve such problems you may have to use complex theories. The models that would be re!uired to solve such problems may have to be identified. D** re!uires a lot of managerial abilities and managers 0udgment. 9ou may gather and present the following information by using decision support application( : Accessing all of your current information assets, including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts : Comparative sales figures between one week and the next : -ro0ected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions : The conse!uences of different decision alternatives, given past experience in a context that is described. summarize the 5enefits of D"" into following# : ,mproves personal efficiency : )xpedites problem solving : Facilitates interpersonal communication : -romotes learning or training : ,ncreases organi.ational control : 4enerates new evidence in support of a decision : Creates a competitive advantage over competition : )ncourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker : &eveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space

Q.). 4hat are <alue 1hain nalysis & descri5e its significance in %."? Explain what is meant 5y &90? 4hat is its significance? ;ow Data warehousing & Data %ining is useful in terms of %."? nswer# <alue 1hain nalysis# The activities performed by a particular enterprise can be analy.ed into primary activities, which directly adds value to the enterprise;s factors of production, which are together referred to as the <value chain;, and supporting activities. An enterprise;s value chain for competing in a particular industry is embedded in a larger stream of activities. /hat -orter termed as <value system;, may be referred to as the <industry value#chain;. This chain consists of mainly the suppliers and distribution channels. Any activity of an organi.ation is sub0ected to one or more of the following 1 = !ew technologies : "hifting 5uyer needs = <ariation in industry segmentation = 1hanges in the costs = 1hanges in go3ernment regulations &90 The existing system in the organi.ation is totally reexamined and radically modified for incorporating the latest technology. This process of change for the betterment of the organi.ation is called as 2usiness process re#engineering. This process is mainly used to moderni.e and make the organi.ations efficient. 2-& directly affects the performance. ,t is used to gain an understanding the process of business and to understand the process to make it better and re#designing and thereby improving the system. "ignification of &90 2usiness process are a group of activities performed by various departments, various organi.ations or between individuals that is mainly used for transactions in business. There may be people who do this transaction or tools. /e all do them at one point or another either as a supplier or customer Data 4arehousing + Data /arehouse is defined as collection of database which is referred as relational database for the purpose of !uerying and analysis rather than 0ust transaction processing.

Data warehouse is usually maintained to store heuristic data for future use. Data warehousing is usually used to generate reports. ,ntegration and separation of data are the two basic features need to be kept in mind while creating a data warehousing. Data %ining + Data mining is primarily used as a part of information system today, by companies with a strong consumer focus # retail, financial, communication, and marketing organi.ations. ,t enables these companies to determine relationships among =internal= factors such as price, product positioning, or staff skills, and =external= factors such as economic indicators, competition, and customer demographics. And, it enables them to determine the impact on sales, customer satisfaction, and corporate profits. Q.> Distinguish 5etween closed decision ma2ing system & open decision ma2ing system? 4hat is ?4hat + if? analysis? 4hy is more time spend in pro5lem analysis & pro5lem definition as compared to the time spends on decision analysis? !". /9E! DE1."./! % 7.!, >et?s start with an assumption( /ar is a contest of minds. Therefore, the process of using minds ## decision#making ## is the core process upon which all warfare is built. /eapons, tactics, methods, systems, organi.ations, strategies, etc. are all derivative of this fundamental framework. Therefore, a narrow view of warfare is that it is a race to make decisions that optimi.e these derivatives within there strictions imposed by access to resources and the other side?s attempt to do the same 7friction8. @ohn &oydAs pproach

@ohn 2oyd, arguably the greatest military strategist produced by America, produced the background material core to this argument. ,n =Destruction and Creation,= 2oyd lays out the philosophical elements of decision#making that limit potential optimi.ation and eventually forces the creation of more effective mental models to explain the environment. ,n the =Conceptual *piral,= he the process of decision#making that produces new mental models. -he 9ro5lem This gets us to the nexus of our current problem. The environment within which we fight war is getting more complex, uncertain, and incomplete at a faster rate than the mental constructs we use to model it are being improved. 4hy?

The reason is likely due to the limits of a unitary decision making system. )ven under the most ideal conditions, its dubious whether the A* military?s decision making loop can even closely approximate the re!uirements of the rapidly evolving global environment we currently find ourselves in. 4hat -his %eans 4iven a situation where decision making is falling behind the re!uirements of the environmental reality, we can expect inevitable catastrophic failure at some point in the future. /hen this occurs, one of the following new approaches will emerge( A8 &adical limitations on the environment within which the A* military operates. ,n short, reduce the re!uired effort. 28 Decentrali.ed decision making within the current structure. This is the approach advocated by the proponents of maneuver warfare 7and 2oyd himself8. This is accomplished by ensuring all of the component decision making bodies share a common outlook 7a harmoni.ation of orientation8. C8 Decentrali.ed decision making via a market mechanism or open source framework. This approach is similar to process =2= detailed above, except that a much wider degree of diversity of outlookBorientation within the contributing components is allowedBdesired. Q.B. 4hat is E09? Explain its existence 5efore and its future after? 4hat are the ad3antages & Disad3antages of E09? 4hat is rtificial .ntelligence? ;ow is it different from !eural !etwor2s? nswer# E09 # The initials )&- originated as an extension of "&- 7material re!uirements planning then manufacturing resource planning8. )&- systems now attempt to cover all basic functions of an enterprise, regardless of the organi.ation;s business or charter. on#manufacturing businesses, non#profit organi.ations and governments now all utili.e )&- systems. E09 &efore and fter &efore -rior to the concept of )&- systems, departments within an organi.ation would typically contain information on the department, reporting structure, and personal details of employees. fter )&- software, among other things, combined the data of formerly separate applications. This made the worry of keeping numbers in synchroni.ation across

multiple systems disappears. ,t standardi.ed and reduced the number of software specialties re!uired within larger organi.ations. d3antages and Disad3antages of E09 Advantages 1 • A totally integrated system • The ability to streamline different processes and workflows • The ability to easily share data across various departments in an organi.ation • ,mproved efficiency and productivity levels • 2etter tracking and forecasting • >ower costs • ,mproved customer service Disad3antages + • Customi.ation in many situations is limited • The need to reengineer business processes • )&- systems can be cost prohibitive to install and run • Technical support can be shoddy • )&-?s may be too rigid for specific organi.ations rtificial .ntelligence Artificial ,ntelligence is the science and technology based on various functions to develop a system that can think and work like a human being. ,t can reason, analy.e, learn, conclude and solve problems. The systems which use this type of intelligence are known as artificial intelligent systems and their intelligence is referred to as artificial intelligence. ,t was said that the computer don;t have common sense. Cere in A,, the main idea is to make the computer think like human beings, so that it can be then said that computers also have common sense. "ore precisely the aim is to obtain a knowledge based computer system that will help managers to take !uick decisions in business. rtificial .ntelligence and !eural !etwor2s Artificial intelligence is a field of science and technology based on disciplines such as computer science, biology, psychology, linguistics, mathematics and engineering. The goal of A, is to develop computers that can simulate the ability to think, see, hear, walk, talk and feel.

A, can be grouped under three ma0or areas( cognitive science, robotics and natural interfaces.

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