Marketing Management

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Question.3

3. Importance of Consumer Behavior form Markets ?

Answer: Objectives of Consumer Behavior

One of the most difficult tasks of marketing management is how to predict the consumer behavior. The objectives of the consumer behavior is to make the readers aware about consumer behavior and marketing.

The consumer is continually exposed to new experiences and different influences and as the circumstances change, new needs and wants are invoked in the customers. It is the essence of marketing centres to identify and satisfy these needs and wants. They also need to recognize what influences these needs and how consumers go about satisfying them. Consumer behavior can be formally defined as the act of individuals directly involved in obtaining and using economic goods and services, including the decision processes that precede and determine these acts. The consumer behavior is very complex and for the marketing to be successful, it is not sufficient just to recognize what customers require. It is equally important to recognize why it is required . some of the Questions that relate to consumer buyer behavior are: -Who constitutes the market? -What does the market buy ? - When does the market buy ? - Who participate in the buying ?

 

- How does the market buy ? -Where does the market buy ?

IMPORTANCESS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR FOR MARKETERS IMPORTANCE Consumer behavior helps the Marketing Manager to understand the purchase behavior and preferences of different customers. In marketing terminology, specific types or group of consumers who buy different products represents different market segments. For successful marketing to different segments, se gments, the Marketing managers need to know about appropriate ap propriate marketing strategies which can be decided only when all factors affecting consumer behaviour are recognized. To survive in the ever changing market scenario, the firm has to aware of the latest consumer trends and tastes. Consumer behavior gives clues and guidelines to marketers on new technological frontiers which they should explore. Since the consumer behaviour can be influenced to some extent e xtent by specific elements of the marketing strategy, the marketer must give significance to recognize those influencing factors. Once they are identified, a marketer can study and even manipulate these factors. Thus , the importance of consumer behaviour is that the behaviour of a person can be understood and influenced to ensure a positive purchase decision.

The modern marketing management tries to solve the basic problems of consumers in the area of consumption. To survive in the market, a firm has to be constantly innovating and understand the latest consumer needs and tastes. It will be extremely useful in exploiting marketing opportunities and in

 

meeting the challenges that the Indian market offers. It is important for the marketers to understand the buyer behaviour due to the following reasons.  

The study of consumer behaviour for any product is of vital importance to marketers in shaping the fortunes of their organisations.

 

It is significant for regulating consumption of goods and thereby maintaining economic stability.

 

It is useful in developing ways for the more efficient utilisation of resources of marketing. It also helps in solving marketing management problems in more effective manner.

 

Today consumers give more importance on environment friendly products. They are concerned about health, hygiene and fitness. They prefer natural products. Hence detailed study on upcoming groups of consumers is essential for any firm.

 

The growth of consumer protection movement has created an urgent need to understand how consumers make their consumption and buying decision.

 

Consumers’ tastes and preferences are ev er er changing. Study of consumer behaviour gives information regarding colour, design, size etc. which consumers want. In short, consumer behaviour helps in formulating of production policy.

 

For effective market segmentation and target marketing, it is essential to have an understanding of consumers and their behaviour.

 

Question.5

5. What is the role of consumer behaviour in marketing ? Explain

Answer: Consumer Behaviour refers to the study of buying tendencies of consumers. An individual who goes for shopping does not necessarily end up buying products. There are several se veral stages a consumer goes through before he finally picks up things available in the market. Various factors, be it cultural, social, personal or psychological influence the buying decision of individuals. Marketers need to understand the buying behaviour of consumers for their products to do well. It is really important for marketers to understand what prompts a consumer to purchase a particular product and what stops him from buying. buying . What marketers need to understand ? The psychology of consumers (what they feel about a particular product and their brand on the whole). How consumers are influenced by their immediate surroundings, family members, friends, co workers and so on. What a consumer thinks when he goes out for shopping ? A marketer needs first identify his target consumers and understand their to lifestyles, psychologies, income, spending capabilities, mentalities to offer them the right product. Individuals from lower income group would never be interested in buying expensive and luxurious products. He would first fulfill his basic physiological needs like food, air, water etc. Trying to sell a Mercedes or a Rado watch to someone who finds it difficult to make ends meet would definitely be a disaster. Kellogg’s K special would hardly find any takers in the low income group. In this segment, individuals would be more interested in buying fresh fruits, vegetables, pulses which are

 

necessary for their survival rather than spending on health supplements. It is really essential for the marketers to understand the needs of consumers. Find out what they are actually looking for? There are ideally two different ways which enable marketers to understand their consumers.    

Primary Research Secondary Research

Primary Research Primary Research refers to a research methodology where marketers interact with consumers directly and gather as much information as they can. Information is generally collected through surveys, questionnaires, feedback forms, interviews etc. Secondary Research Secondary Research often refers to relying on information which has been collected by others at some point of time. The background and family status of an individual also influence his/her buying behaviour. Selling a laptop to an individual who is not much educated would be pointless. Remember consumers would show interest in  your products only if they they are of any use to them or ttheir heir immediate family members. A low grade worker would never be interested in purchasing business suits or formal shirts. Canned juices are a hit among middle and higher income group where individuals are really conscious about their health and fitness. Individuals who live hand to mouth would never spend on sugar free tablets, health supplements, or for that matter “Diet Coke”.   Coke”. It is also important to give complete information to end-users. Do not hide anything from them. It is not ethical. All tobacco products come with a warning. Individuals Individuals should be familiar with not only the benefits but also the side effects of the products. Marketers must also take into account:  account: 

 

       

Age group of consumers Geographical location Lifestyle of consumers Social Status of consumers

Funky designs, loud colours would be a hit among teenagers whereas middle aged anddesigns. elderly people would prefer subtle colours and sophisticated Salwar Suits are extremely popular in North India whereas females prefer saris and skirt blouses in eastern and southern parts of India. Individuals from posh localities and good jobs would show keen interest towards buying exclusive and unique products as compared to individuals who do not come from an affluent background.

________________________________________________________

 

Question no.2 2. Explain the different Marketing Environments and the role of culture and subculture? ANSWER: THE MACRO ENVIRONMENT: The only certain thing in this world is change. Sometimes change occurs so slowly that it is virtually imperceptible. We are often unaware that change is occurring until it is too ate too late to do anything about it. At other times change is so rapid that, even though it is obvious, we find it difficult to react quickly enough. Although none of us possess the power to foresee the future , we can be sure sur e that it will be different from today, and that change is a fact of life. We have little power to stop it, and the sensible course of action is to welcome change and attemp attemptt to adapt to it. In order for a firm to be able to adapt successfully to changing circumstances, management needs to have an understanding and appreciation of the factors and forces influencing such changes, ideally a firm should be in a position to adapt to changes as they are occurring, or even in advance. Firms should attempt to capitalize upon change rather than merely reacting to it. By identifying environmental trends soon enough, management shouldare be able, at least part, to anticipate where such trends leading and in what future conditions are likely to result from such changes.

Unless firm are able to identify and react to change quickly enough , they are likely to be dictated to by circumstances beyond their control. Instead Instead of being part of the changes changes occurring , and leading the market, they will, of necessity, be forced into being market followers. Instead of adopting to change and even going some way towards influencing events, events will instead influence them, perhaps in an unfavourable way.

 

  The competiti competitive ve environment

There are very few few firms firms that are fortunate enough to have no competitors . Except in the case of th thee centrally planned planned economies , ofturn which, of course, aremechanisms. fewer and fewer as they increasingly towards freethere market On the other hand , there are very few markets which possess all the characteristics of what the economist economist calls a perfectly competitive competitive market structure where no company has any differential advantage and where all products are homogenous and companies therefore must accept the market price. Rather , most markets fall some where in between these two extremes but are characterized by intense competition. Supplier environment

Suppliers are other business firms and individuals who provide the resources needed by the marketing firm to produce goods and / or services . Nearly every firm , whether engaged in manufacturing, wholesaling wholesaling or retailing., is likely to have supplier. Large firms firms such as Marks and Spencer or tthe he Ford Motor Company are Likely to have numerous suppliers. For example, Ford must obtain glass windscreens , headlamp units brake pads, tyres, steel sheet , fabric for interior upholstery and a number of other materials in order to produce cars. Whie some of thesse product constitutents will come from major manfacturers such as British Steel Pilkington's Glass, Lucas and Dunlop, other compontents, ranging from industrial fasteners to engine gaskets, will often be supplied by a large number of smaller, less well known companies. As you will appreciate, Ford depends on possibly hundreds of suppliers for its manufacturing capability and commercial rosperity. In the same way, hundreds of firms depend on Ford for orders. The firms that supply Ford wit finished components are

 

also likely to be supplied with raw materials or semi-processed goods by a host of other suppliers.

THE DISTRIBUTIVE ENVIRONMENT:  ENVIRONMENT:  Many firms, particularly in industrial markets where prodcts are often buyer-specified market and deliver their products direct to the final cusstomer. Other firms use some form of intermediate distribution system. The distributio system is then made up of one more 'middlemen' who can be individuals or other organizations. They range from agents, distributors, factors and wole salers to retailers. Because of the seeming permanence of the distributive environment at any point in time, many firms make the mistake of thinking it is static. In fact, distribution chanels change and evolve just like any other facet of business life. As Davidson explains : Distribution channels resemble the hour hand of a watch. They are always moving, but each individual movement is so small as to be invisible in isolation. The cumulative movement over a number of years can, however, be massie. Because distribution channels change relatively slow, it is easy for manufacturers to respond re spond too slowly to their evolution. Existing channels may be declining in their popularity of efficiency, while new potential channels of distribution may be be developing, unnoticed by the marketing firm.

THE ROLE OF CULTURE:  CULTURE:  A society's culture is completely learned way of life which is handed down from generation to generation. Cultural influences give each society its own peculiar attributes. Although the norms and values with a society are the result of many years of cltural conditioning, they are not static. It is cultural changes, and the

 

resulting revised norms and values within a society, that is of particular interest to the marketing firm. Nowhere is the aspect more poignant than when the company is marketing internationally. The English anthropologist, E.B. Taylor, 10 defined culture as: that complex whole which includes knowledge, brief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habitss acquried by man as a member of society.  society.  Taylor's definition is an accepted classic in defining some of the mahor facets of culture, and in emphasizing that culture is very much a learned phenomenon. British culture has historically been largely materialstic, dericed as it is from the protestant work ethic of self-help, hard work, thrift and the accumulation of wealth. Arguably, other Western cultures such as the United States, Germany and Japan are even more materialistically oriented. This factor is often thought to be one of the reasons for these countries' superior economic performance. Cultural valyes do, however, change over time, and a number of western core values are currently undergoing major changes. Some of o f the changing cultural values are particularly prevalent among the  young include: -A questioning of materialism and itss values. -A decline in respecct for authority and the law. -A belief in the rghtness of militancy and conformation. -A desire for innovation and change. -A shift towards informality.

 

SUB CULTURAL INFLUENCES:  INFLUENCES:  With in each culture are numerous sub-groups sub -groups with their own distinguishing distinguishin g modes of behaviour. In the United States black Americans represent the largest racial/ethnic sub-culture. In the UK is the Asian community. American marketing firms realize that it is impossible to treat such a large group of consumers as a homogeneous mass, a number studies though indicate that their consumption habits are significantly different from those of the remainder of Americans. As a result, American firs are now designing products and advertising campaigns aimed specifically at this large minority markets. This has now also happend in th UK. Indeed,although the UK is more culturally homogeneous than the USA, firms can no longer ignore the cultural cul tural difference of the ethnic e thnic population. Ethnic heterogeneity is slowly being recognized by more enlightened firms as potential source of marketing opportunities. Cannon highlights a number if interesting examples of marketing opportunities and problems related to sub-cultures. - Products may need to meet special religious needs(e,g, kosher foods). - Marketing intermediaries may be different(e.g. the importance of small, Asian-run, shops) - Consumer tastes may differ(e.g. Cadbury Typhoo's poundo Yam, aimed mainly at consumers of Caribbean origin) - Language can be a problem in marketing communications(e.g.in the UK, 77percent of Pakistani-origin women and 43 percent of Pakistani-origin men cannot speak working English). The culturally aware marketing firm will recognize that sub-  cultures represent distinct market segmentss and will seek see k to increase their awarness of the needs, attitudes and motivations of sub-groups.

 

  POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT: To an increasing extent, the operation of business firms is influenced by the political framework and processes in our society. Marketingare management mustdepend be alerton to the changes in of the political attitudes 'climate', which policies the government of the day. The political environment cannot be examined in a vacuum. Political philosophies ob their own are nothing without action. The outcome of political decisions can be seen in the legislation and economic policies of government. In this sense,you will appreciate that, although for clarity of exposition we are examining e xamining the various macro-envionmental forces in isolation, in reality they are very much interrelated. Many of the legal, economic and social developments in our society and other countries are nothing more than the result of political decision put into action. For example, in the 1980s the conservative Party favored a monetarist approach to the managment of the Uk economy. It attached great importance to the control of money supply and hence government public expenditure.   expenditure.

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT: Marketing management must understan the effects of the mainly economic variables that are likely to affect their business operations. We see in the mass media that inflation is rising or falling, that exchange rates are affecting the value of the currency or influencing the level of interest rates.We hear discussion on the level of unemployment, industrial output, or the current state of the balance of payments. Such economic factors are of concern to marketing firms because b ecause they influence costs, pricess and demand. Although world economic forces are of paramont importance to marketing firms, particularly thhose involved with either

 

importing or exporting, domestic economic forces usually have the most immediate impact. The leel of domestic unemployment affects the demand for many consumer products, especially e specially those classed as 'luxury goods' . This in turn affects the demand for many industrial products, particularly manufacturing plant such as machine The of inflation and thenew costinvesment of borrowing captialtools. affect therate potential returns from and inhibit the adoption of new techologies. Governments of every persuasion attempt to encourage eonomic growt through various policy measures. Tax concessions, government grants, employment subsides and captial depreciation allowances are some of the measures that have been used.

TECHNOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGICA L ENVIRONMENT: Technology is a major environmental e nvironmental influence upin the marketing firm. It affects not only the firm's operations and product, but also consumers' life styles s tyles and consumption patterns. Management must be aware of the impact of technological te chnological changess. As Wilson explains in relation to electronics: The development of the microprocessor and its large production has revolutionized information collection, processing and dissemination which in turn is affecting th whole spectrum of marketing activity. The impact of new information technolog has been particularly marked in the marketing research area. For example, it is now possible to design and administer questionnaries via computer terminals. In the past this method has been used on a limited basis, but is being more and more frequently used. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) has revolutionized the speed with which surveys can be completed. Responses are fed immediatley into a computer and a report 'hard copy' can be available immediatley after the final interview is completed As Thomas explains:

 

 On-line interviewing is now in widespread use in the larger data gathering market research firms. Interviews, using telephone, work from a questionnaire which is displayed on a VDU and responses are keyed straight into the computer.

 

QUESTION :1 1.EXAMINE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION DESIGN ?

ANSWER:

A business organization must have a separate marketing department to focus on customer needs and expectations. Objective of this chapter is to make the reader aware about the meaning of marketing organization, basic principles of organization design, techniques and methods for designing organization structure, functional organization in marketing and strategy for for building building a companywide marketing orientation. MARKETING ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION MEANING: The recent years have seen the growth of marketing from simple sales department to a complex group gr oup of activities. The main contributing factors for this growth are the concepts of Re-  engineering, Globalizing, Globalizing, Outsourcing etc. All these require a change in the administration of marketing departments. Marketing organization deals with strategic and tactical organization, implementation, evaluation and control of the marketing activities. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION DESIGN: Traditionally, marketers played the role of middlemen, involved in realizing the customer needs and transmitting the voice of the customer to various functional areas in the organization. Today, marketing has evolved into full-fledged full -fledged departments with functions depending upon the nature of the company. Marketing departments are of the following designs: department:  Small companies with a sales 1.  Simple sales department:  vice-president who manages the sales force and also

 

performs some selling, have a simple sales department configuration. functions:  2.  Sales departments with Ancillary marketing functions:  Larger companies require conducting marketing research to learn customer needs and and services. market It also has to about advertise its products se rvices.potential. An Advertising Manager may be hired to handle these activities.

3.  Separate Marketing Department: Department: As the company grows further, it makes additional investments in marketing research, new product development, advertising and sales promotion. The CEO recognises the advantages of establishing a separate marketing department headed by a Marketing Vice President or Executive Vice-President. This recognizes sales and marketing as separate functions that work closely together. MarketingDepartment: The modern marketing 4.  Modern MarketingDepartment: department has a Marketing and Sales Executive Vice-  President with managers of all marketing functions(including sales management) reporting to them. This is to reduce friction between sales and marketing departments as all the conflicts are settled between the Executive Vice-Presidents. 5.  Effective Marketing Company:  Company:  For a company to do marketing effectively, all the departments of the company should take up responsibilities of marketing. Only when all the employees realize that their jobs are created by customers, the company becomes an effective marketer. company:  Many companies 6.  Process and outcome based company:  are shifting their structure from departmental organization to process and outcome based organization. organization. This ensures

 

that the marketing and sales people are consequently spending more time within a team as process team members. This team is also responsible for training tr aining its marketing personnel, assigning them to new teams, and evaluating their overall performance. Though all the departments of thethe company are expected e xpected to interact harmoniously to pursue firm’s overall objectives, there usually exists deep rivalries and distrust amongst them. This conflict starts from differences in opinion as to what is in the company’s best interest.  interest.  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

QUESTION: 4 DESCRIBE THE THE TECHNIQUES TECHNIQUES AND METHOHS FOR DESIGNING DESIGNING ORGANISATION STRUCTURE ?

ANSWER:

TECHNIQUES AND METHODS FOR DESIGING D ESIGING ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE:

The modern marketing department can be of the following structures based on function, geographic area, products of customer markets. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION: It is the most common form of marketing organization structure and consists of functional specialists reporting to a marketing vice-president, who coordinates their activities. GEOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION: This kind of organization structure is followed by companies selling in a national market. The functions like sales force and marketing are organized along geographic lines.Geographic organization is of the following structure.

National Sales Manager

Regional Sales Managers

Zonal Sales Managers

 

 

District Sales Managers

Sales People

Product Or Brand Management Management Organization: This kind of organization is seen in companies dealing with a wide variety of products (or brands). In this kind of structure, a Product Manager supervises product category managers, who in turn supervise specific product and brand managers. The following are the main functions performed by product and brand managers:   Developing a long range and competitive strategy for the



 



 



 



 



product. Preparation of annual marketing plans and sales forecast. Dealing with advertising and merchandising agencies. Encouraging the sales force and the distributors. Performing regular studies on product’s performance, customer and changing dealer attitudes, and new problems and opportunities.

 

  The interactions of the

Product Manager :

Advertising RESEARCH &

MEDIA

Agencies

DEVELOPME NT

MARKET PURCHASIN

PRODUCT RESEARCH

G

MANAGER

PUBLICITY

PACKAGING

SALES FORCE

Market Management Organization: This kind of organization is common in companies which sell their products to a diverse set of markets. When customer falls into different user groups with distinct buying preferences and practices, a market management organization is desirable. In this kind of organization, the following structure is preferred

Market Management organization Structure

 

 

Market Manager

Market Development

Market

Managers

Specialists

Industry Specialists

Many companies have recognized the significance of having a market entered organization and are finding a substantial positive effect of market orientation on both commodity and non-  commodity business.

Corporate Divisional Organization: This kind of organization structure is very popular with companies that grow very rapidly. They often convert their larger product or market groups into separate divisions. The divisions have their own departments and services. The potential contribution of a corporate marketing staff varies in different stages of the company’s evolution. At the beginning stages companies have weak marketing skills and require a corporate staff to guide them but in the later stages corporate marketing has much less to offer. ___________________________________________________________________________

 

Question : 6 What are the basic principles of Organisation Design ? Explain the techniques and methods for designing Organisation ? ANSWER: A business organization must have a separate marketing department to focus on customer needs and expectations. Objective of this chapter is to make the reader aware about the meaning of marketing organization, basic principles of organization design, techniques and methods for designing organization structure, functional organization in marketing and strategy for for building building a companywide marketing orientation. MARKETING ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION MEANING: The recent years have seen the growth of marketing from simple sales department to a complex group gr oup of activities. The main contributing factors for this growth are the concepts of Re-  engineering, Globalizing, Globalizing, Outsourcing etc. All these require a change in the administration of marketing departments. Marketing organization deals with strategic and tactical organization, implementation, evaluation and control of the marketing activities. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION DESIGN: Traditionally, marketers played the role of middlemen, involved in realizing the customer needs and transmitting the voice of the customer to various functional areas in the organization. Today, marketing has evolved into full-fledged full -fledged departments with functions depending upon the nature of the company. Marketing departments are of the following designs: department:  Small companies with a sales 1.  Simple sales department:  vice-president who manages the sales force and also

 

performs some selling, have a simple sales department configuration. functions:  2.  Sales departments with Ancillary marketing functions:  Larger companies require conducting marketing research to learn customer needs and and services. market It also has to about advertise its products se rvices.potential. An Advertising Manager may be hired to handle these activities.

3.  Separate Marketing Department: Department: As the company grows further, it makes additional investments in marketing research, new product development, advertising and sales promotion. The CEO recognises the advantages of establishing a separate marketing department headed by a Marketing Vice President or Executive Vice-President. This recognizes sales and marketing as separate functions that work closely together. MarketingDepartment: The modern marketing 4.  Modern MarketingDepartment: department has a Marketing and Sales Executive Vice-  President with managers of all marketing functions(including sales management) reporting to them. This is to reduce friction between sales and marketing departments as all the conflicts are settled between the Executive Vice-Presidents. 5.  Effective Marketing Company:  Company:  For a company to do marketing effectively, all the departments of the company should take up responsibilities of marketing. Only when all the employees realize that their jobs are created by customers, the company becomes an effective marketer. company:  Many companies 6.  Process and outcome based company:  are shifting their structure from departmental organization to process and outcome based organization. organization. This ensures

 

that the marketing and sales people are consequently spending more time within a team as process team members. This team is also responsible for training tr aining its marketing personnel, assigning them to new teams, and evaluating their overall performance. Though the departments of thethe company are expected to interact all harmoniously to pursue firm’s overall objectives, there usually exists deep rivalries and distrust amongst them. This conflict starts from differences in opinion as to what is in the company’s best interest.  interest. 

TECHNIQUES AND METHODS FOR DESIGING ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE:

The modern marketing department can be of the following structures based on function, geographic area, products of customer markets. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION: It is the most common form of marketing organization structure and consists of functional specialists reporting to a marketing vice-president, who coordinates their activities. GEOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION: This kind of organization structure is followed by companies selling in a national market. The functions like sales force and marketing are organized along geographic lines.Geographic organization is of the following structure.

 

 

National Sales Manager

Regional Sales Managers

Zonal Sales Managers

District Sales Managers

Sales People

Product Or Brand Management Management Organization: This kind of organization is seen in companies dealing with a wide variety of products (or brands). In this kind of structure, a Product Manager supervises product category managers, who in turn supervise specific product and brand managers. The following are the main functions performed by product and brand managers:   Developing a long range and competitive strategy for the



   





 



 



product. Preparation of annual marketing plans and sales forecast. Dealing with advertising and merchandising agencies. Encouraging the sales force and the distributors. Performing regular studies on product’s performance, customer and changing dealer attitudes, and new problems and opportunities.

 

The interactions of the

Product Manager :

Advertising RESEARCH &

MEDIA

Agencies

DEVELOPME NT

MARKET PURCHASIN

PRODUCT RESEARCH

G

MANAGER

PUBLICITY

PACKAGING SALES FORCE

Market Management Organization: This kind of organization is common in companies which sell their products to a diverse set of markets. When customer falls into different user groups with distinct buying preferences and practices, a market management organization is desirable. In this kind of organization, the following structure is preferred

 

 Market Management organization Structure

Market Manager

Market Development

Market

Managers

Specialists

Industry Specialists

Many companies have recognized the significance of having a market entered organization and are finding a substantial positive effect of market orientation on both commodity and non-  commodity business.

Corporate Divisional Organization: This kind of organization structure is very popular with companies that grow very rapidly. They often convert their larger product or market groups into separate divisions. The divisions have their own departments and services. The potential contribution of a corporate marketing staff varies in different stages of the company’s evolution. At the beginning stages companies have weak marketing skills and require a corporate staff to guide them but in the later stages corporate marketing has much less to offer.

THE

END

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