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CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA.
Presented to Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Management,
Ronneby, Sweden, in fulfilment of the reuirement for the Degree of Master of
Business !dministration "MB!#$
B%& DR$ '(I)*! S!M+'*
S+P'R,IS)R& T)M MI-.'*
© December 2006

ABSTRACT
-ustomer satisfaction is a fundamental marketing construct in the last three decades$ In the past,
it was unpopular and unaccepted concept because companies thought it was more important to
gain new customers than retain the e/isting ones$ .owe0er, in this present decade, companies
ha0e gained better understanding of the importance of customer satisfaction "especially ser0ice
producing companies# and adopted it as a high priority operational goal$
This study aimed at in0estigation the o0erall customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms
industry in (igeria, factors influencing satisfaction and the relationship between satisfaction and
demographics$ The results obtained in this research indicated that 123 of the respondents were
satisfied and 13 highly satisfied$ The combination of network uality, billing, 0alidity period
and customer support "mobile ser0ices attributes# showed strong relationship with satisfaction
while age, gender, location and employment 0ariables showed weak relationship$
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My sincere gratitude and appreciation to 5od, for the gift of life and lo0e$
I also wish to thank my super0isor, Tom Michel, for his suggestions and ad0ice and all the
people "Marianne, 6acueline, Margarita, 7rank, etc# who made my stay in Sweden a wonderful
e/perience$
7inally, to my wife, Temitope, thank you for being a friend and all your supports$
8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page 9
!bstract 4
!cknowledgements 8
Table of contents :
*ist of tables 2
*ist of figures ;
Preface <
CHATER ONE
9$9 Introduction 99
9$9$9 Background 99
9$9$4 )b=ecti0e and purpose of study 91
CHATER TWO
4$9 *iterature re0iew 92
4$9$9 -ustomer satisfaction 92
4$9$9a Definition 92
4$9$9b !ntecedents 44
4$9$9c !ssessment and benefits 8>
4$9$9d -onseuences 81
4$4 Demographics and customer satisfaction 8;
CHATER THREE
8$9 Research method :4
8$9$9 Research framework :4
8$9$4 Selection of inter0iewers :8
8$9$8 Selection of respondents ::
:
8$9$: Research instrument :1
8$4 Research design :;
CHATER FOUR
:$9 Data analysis and discussion :<
:$9$9 7reuency statistics :<
:$9$4 !nalysis of customer satisfaction 1>
:$4 -ustomer satisfaction among the demographic 0ariables 19
:$8 7actors influencing customer satisfaction 1:
:$8$9 Relationship between network uality and satisfaction 1:
:$8$4 Relationship between billing and customer satisfaction 11
:$8$8 Relationship between 0alidity period and satisfaction 11
:$8$: Relationship between customer support and satisfaction 1?
:$8$1 Relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period, 12
customer support and customer satisfaction
:$: Relationship between demographic 0ariables and satisfaction 1;
:$:$9 Relationship between age and customer satisfaction 1;
:$:$4 Relationship between gender and customer satisfaction 1<
:$:$8 Relationship between location and customer satisfaction ?>
:$:$: Relationship between employment and customer satisfaction ?>
:$:$1 Relationship between age, gender and satisfaction ?9
:$:$? Relationship between age, location and satisfaction ?9
:$:$2 Relationship between age, employment and satisfaction ?4
:$:$; Relationship between gender, location and satisfaction ?4
:$:$< Relationship between gender, employment and satisfaction ?8
:$:$9> Relationship between location, employment and satisfaction ?8
:$:$99 Relationship between age, gender, location, employment ?:
1
and customer satisfaction
CHATER FI!E
1$9 -onclusion ?1
REFERENCE ?;
AENDI"ES
!pp$ 9 @uestionnaire ;9
!pp$ 4 A 92 7ull details of the data analysis ;8

?
LIST OF TABLES
8$9 )perational definitions :2
:$9 7reuency statistics :<
:$4 -ustomer satisfaction freuency statistics 1>
:$8 -ustomer satisfaction with the demographic groups 19
:$: -ustomer satisfaction in 4 categories of demographic groups 14
:$1 Relationship between network uality and satisfaction 1:
:$? Relationship between billing and satisfaction 11
:$2 Relationship between 0alidity period and satisfaction 11
:$; Relationship between customer support and satisfaction 1?
:$< Relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period, 12
customer support and satisfaction
:$9> Relationship between age and customer satisfaction 1;
:$99 Relationship between gender and customer satisfaction 1<
:$94 Relationship between location and customer satisfaction ?>
:$98 Relationship between employment and satisfaction ?>
:$9: Relationship between age, gender and satisfaction ?9
:$91 Relationship between age, location and satisfaction ?9
:$9? Relationship between age, employment and satisfaction ?4
:$92 Relationship between gender, location and satisfaction ?4
:$9; Relationship between gender, employment and satisfaction ?8
:$9< Relationship between location, employment and satisfaction ?8
:$4> Relationship between age, gender, location, employment and ?:
customer satisfaction

2
LIST OF FIGURES
4$9 !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Model "!-SM# 8:
8$9 -onceptual structure of the study :8
:$9 PieAchart representation of customer satisfaction 1>
;
REFACE
The 5lobal System of Mobile -ommunications "5SM# is a digital technology with a worldwide
acceptance and plays an important role in the socioeconomic de0elopment of countries$ Thus,
se0eral management e/perts ha0e paid research attention to this industry "one of the studies done
concerns the customer satisfaction#$ -ustomer satisfaction is the assessment of the performance
of a product or ser0ice by customers and this construct is important for successful business
performance$
(igeria introduced the mobile telephony fi0e years ago and few studies ha0e been done on the
benefits and impact of its mobile telecoms de0elopment$ .owe0er, there is no research done on
the customer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry$ Therefore, there is need to
create awareness among academic institutions, regulators and mobile operators of the importance
of customers to the de0elopment of the industry$
Ob#ec$%&e A this study is aimed at in0estigating the customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms
industry in (igeria, the factors that influence it and the relationship between demographic
0ariables and satisfaction$
L%m%$'$%()* B there is no a0ailable literature on customer satisfaction of the telecoms industry in
(igeria to consult neither are the mobile operators willing to cooperate$
The summaries of the chapters of this study are as follow&
-hapter 9 A Introduction& The 5SM technology began in 'urope and less than 9> years after it
launch, it gained worldwide acceptance$ (igeria introduced the mobile telecoms in 4>>9 and
despite its economic benefits, there is no research done on the customer satisfaction of its mobile
telecoms$ This study in0estigated the customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms performance,
factors influencing it and the significant relationship between demographic 0ariables and
customer satisfaction$
-hapter 4 A *iterature re0iew& In this study, customer satisfaction definition adopted is that of
.omburg and Bruhn "9<<;# which is “an experience-based assessment made by the customer of
<
how far his own expectations about the individual characteristics or the overall functionality of
the services obtained from the provider have been fulfilled”. Its antecedent include customer
need and e/pectation, percei0ed 0alue, ser0ice uality, internal satisfaction and complaint
management$ The conseuences are customer loyalty, customer retention and profitability$ The
benefits of this concept are repurchase propensity, word of mouth recommendation, low cost of
transaction, etc$
-hapter 8 A Research method& :>> respondents were administered uestionnaires on the streets of
: different locations of *agos State "Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and ,ictoria Island# in (igeria$
The uestionnaire contained 4 sections, ! and B$ Section ! contained uestions on age, gender,
employment, location and section B contained uestions on call uality, billing, 0alidity period
"duration of use#, customer care support and customer satisfaction e0aluation$
-hapter : A Data analysis and discussion& The data collected was analysed with the Statistical
Package for Social Sciences "SPSS#$ The assessment of customer satisfaction was done with
descripti0e analysis and the relationship between mobile ser0ice attributes, demographic
0ariables and customer satisfaction was analysed with the linear regression$ 123 of the
respondents were satisfied and 13 0ery satisfied with mobile telecoms performance, network
uality, billing, 0alidity period and o0erall customer care "mobile ser0ice attributes#
demonstrated strong relationship with customer satisfaction while age, gender and employment
0ariables "demographics# showed weak relationship$
-hapter 1A -onclusion& Based on the results of the data analysis, mobile operators need to
ma/imise customer satisfaction to enhance successful business performance and an important
way to achie0e this is to impro0e on the mobile ser0ice attributes$ Secondly, mobile operators
can establish different market segments and adopt strategies to satisfy needs of different
customers$
9>
CHATER ONE
+.+ INTRODUCTION
+.+.+ BACKGROUND
The 5lobal System of Mobile -ommunications "5SM# is a secondAgeneration digital
technology, which was originally de0eloped in 'urope and in less than ten years after the
commercial launch, it de0eloped into worldCs leading and fastest growing mobile standard "5SM
!ssoc$, 4>>?#$ *onergan et al$ "4>>:# reported that at the beginning of 4>>:, there were o0er 9$8
billion mobile phone users worldwide and by 4>>2, the demand for mobile ser0ices would ha0e
grown at an a0erage annual rate of <$93$ The 5SM !ssociation estimates that the 5SM
technology is used by more than one in fi0e people of the worldDs population, representing
appro/imately 223 of the worldCs cellular market and is estimated to account for 283 of the
worldCs digital market and 243 of the worldCs wireless market "5SM !ssoc$, 4>>?#$ This growth
principally results from the establishment of new networks in de0eloping countries rather than
from an increase in mobile access lines in de0eloped countries "Serenko and Turel, 4>>?#$
!frican countries are acti0ely in0ol0ed in the establishment of the mobile ser0ices and
specifically, (igeria is the focus of this study$
5erpott et al$ "4>>9# wrote that since 9<<>s, the telecommunications sector has become an
important key in the de0elopment of the economy of de0eloped countries$ This results from the
saturated markets, deAregulation of telecommunications industry "remo0al of monopoly rights,
especially en=oyed by stateAowned telecoms networks#, increasing number of mobile ser0ice
pro0iders, enormous technical de0elopment and intense market competition$ SEyperski F
*oebbecke "9<<<# wrote that this increasing economic importance and benefits of
telecommunications firms moti0ated many management scholars "especially marketing e/perts#
to de0ote attention to this sector$ Gilfert "9<<<#H 5erpott "9<<;#H and BooE$ !llen and .amilton
"9<<1# pointed out that marketing strategies are 0ery important in telecommunications ser0ices
because once customers ha0e subscribed to a particular telecommunications ser0ice pro0ider,
99
their longAterm link with this pro0ider is of greater importance to the success of the company
than they are in other industry sectors$ .ence, ser0ice pro0iders need to form a continous lasting
relationship with their customers to know them better and satisfy their needs adeuately$
Studies conducted to e/plore factors affecting satisfaction, loyalty and retention in mobile
telecommunications industry include& 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# in0estigated customer satisfaction,
loyalty and retention in the 5erman mobile telecommunications among ?;: respondents and
reported that customer retention can not be euated with customer loyalty andIor customer
satisfaction, rather a twoAstage causal link can be assumed in which customer satisfaction dri0es
customer loyalty which in turn has impacts on customer retention$ .owe0er, these three factors
are important for superior economic success among telecommunication ser0ice pro0iders$ Jim et
al$ "4>>:# in0estigated the effects of customer satisfaction and switching barrier on customer
loyalty among 81> respondents in Jorea and reported that call uality, 0alueAadded ser0ices and
customer support ha0e significant impact on customer satisfaction$ Thus, to ma/imiEe customer
satisfaction, focus should be on ser0ice uality and customerAoriented ser0ices$ Switching barrier
on the other hand is affected by switching costs "e$g$ loss cost, mo0eAin cost, and interpersonal
relationships# and was re0ealed to ha0e an ad=ustment effect on customer satisfaction and
customer loyalty$ Serenko and Turel "4>>?# in0estigated customer satisfaction with mobiles
ser0ices in -anada and reported that percei0ed uality and percei0ed 0alue are the key factors
influencing satisfaction with mobile ser0ices$ -ustomer care is reported to be negati0ely related
to customer satisfaction, which means that a more satisfied customer is less prone to complain$
.ence, they concluded that customer satisfaction is the only single measure that better capture
the range of ser0ices, prices and uality and moreso, this measure is an important performance
indicator useful for both regulators and mobile ser0ice pro0iders$ In summary, these studies
support the theory that highly satisfied customers stay longer, buy more, less sensiti0e to price
increases from their pro0iders or price decreases from competitors$
94
(igeria, a de0eloping country, in 9<<4 introduced its first mobile phone ser0ices, through the
=oint 0enture between (IT'* and DS* of -anada to form Mobile Telecommunications Ser0ice
"MTS#, "(dukwe, 4>>1, pp 4?#$ In 6anuary 4>>9, the regulatory body (--, modernised and
e/panded the mobile telecommunications network and ser0ices by granting 5SM license to three
ser0ice pro0idersH MT( (igeria, 'conet Gireless "now ,mobile#, and the first national carrier,
(IT'* "initially MTS, pri0atised to form Mtel#$ In 4>>4, the second national carrier, 5lobacom
was also granted license to commence operation$ Since the launch of the 5SM, the number of
subscribers in (igeria has greatly increased$ (dukwe "4>>1, pp 82A8;, :># reported that between
9<<; and 4>>>, the number of mobile lines was 81,>>> but grew to o0er 99 million as of March
4>>1, with a growth rate of more than a million lines annually since 4>>4$ This translated to an
increase from the total density of >$: lines per 9>> inhabitants in 9<<; to <$:2 lines per 9>>
inhabitants currently$ !dditionally, this sector has attracted an in0estment of o0er +S K; billion
and has greatly increased the number of employed people directly "those working with the 5SM
companies# or indirectly "this includes 0arious le0els of dealerships, cell phone 0endors, repair
shops, suppliers of accessories, fi/ed and mobile call shops and street recharge card hawkers#
".off, 4>>?#$ The number of the employed people is reported to be o0er 8>>,>>> (igerians in
4>>1 "(dukwe, 4>>1#$ )ther benefits include easy, affordable and uick access to phone by
different categories of the population, reduced freuency of tra0elling, etc "!domi, 4>>8#, and all
these benefits contribute to the socioA economic de0elopment of the country$
Based on the annual growth rate of the subscribers, and increasing teledensity, (igeria is one of
the fastest growing telecoms market in !frica ".off, 4>>?#$ !dditionally, the population count of
o0er 98> million people and 5DP per capita and PPP 0aluation of +S K9,22? "estimated in
4>>1# ")'-D, 4>>?# presents a massi0e growth potential for the mobile telecoms sector and the
customer base is estimated to reach 48 million subscribers in 4>>2 and 84 million subscribers in
4>>< ".off, 4>>?#$ This anticipated increase in the customer base will translate into better social
98
and economic de0elopment, resulting from more financial in0estments from the ser0ice
operators$
Despite the economic and social benefits of the mobile telecommunications to (igerian economy
and market, unlike the de0eloped countries, there is no marketing or management research
attention to this sector$ .owe0er, it is probable that the mobile operators conduct satisfaction
sur0eys and other marketing research but contact with the mobile operators for any useful
information yielded no response
9
$ This limitation affected this study in that there are currently
no literature materials on customer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry to
consult$ The ma=ority of literature a0ailable "few in number# focuses on the study of the impact
and de0elopment of the telecommunications, mobile telephony, communications, etc$
This lack of adeuate research in the mobile telecoms sector may pre0ent it from acuiring
knowledge useful for de0elopment$ !ccording to Serenko and Turel "4>>?#, customer
satisfaction measurement addresses both users and public interests and such studies can assist in
economic and social de0elopment$ Therefore, there is need to gain more understanding in the
area of customer satisfaction$
6ackson et al$ "9<<?#, Platow et al$ "9<<2#, and .omburg and 5iering "4>>9# e/pressed that
customer beha0iours and attitudes are greatly influenced by demographic, situational,
en0ironmental and psychological factors and these factors can be used by companies and policy
makers to de0elop strategies to meet different needs of the different customer segments$ .ence,
there is need to gain more understanding of the influence of these factors on customer
satisfaction$
9 The author consulted the websites of the mobile operators to 0iew their 0arious customerAoriented practices and contacted their customer
ser0ices departments through electronic mails to introduce the study, to confirm if they conduct customer satisfaction sur0eys and ask for any
useful input, but yielded no response$
9:
+.+.2 OB,ECTI!ES AND UROSE OF STUDY
The ob=ecti0e of this research work is to in0estigate&
9$ )0erall customer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry
4$ 7actors influencing customer satisfaction
8$ The link between certain demographic 0ariables "age, gender, type of employment and
location# and customer satisfaction in the (igerian mobile telephone industry$
:$ +sing the results of the study to pro0ide strategies to impro0e the mobile telecoms
industry$
In order to e/plore the aforementioned ob=ecti0es, this study adopts the following hypotheses&
 -ustomer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry
.
9$
(igerian customers are satisfied with the mobile telecoms industry
.
4$
-ustomer satisfaction differs among 0arious groups of the demographic 0ariables "age,
gender, employment type and locations#$
 7actors influencing customer satisfaction
.
8$
There is a strong relationship between network uality and customer satisfaction
.
:$
There is a strong relationship between billing and customer satisfaction
.
1
$ There is a strong relationship between 0alidity period and customer satisfaction
.
?
$ There is a strong relationship between customer care support and customer satisfaction
.
2
$ There is a strong relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period, customer
care support and customer satisfaction
 Relationship between certain demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction
.
;
$ There is a strong relationship between age and customer satisfaction
.
<
$ There is a strong relationship between gender and customer satisfaction
.
9>
$ There is a strong relationship between location and customer satisfaction
.
99
$ There is a strong relationship between employment and customer satisfaction
91
.
94
$ There is a strong relationship between age, gender and customer satisfaction
.
98
$ There is a strong relationship between age, location and customer satisfaction
.
9:
$ There is a strong relationship between age, employment and customer satisfaction
.
91
$ There is a strong relationship between gender, location and customer satisfaction
.
9?
$ There is a strong relationship between gender, employment and customer satisfaction
.
92
$ There is a strong relationship between location, employment and customer satisfaction
.
9;
$ There is a strong relationship between age, gender, location, employment and customer
satisfaction
The purpose of this research is to&
9$ +nderstand customer satisfaction with the performance of the (igerian mobile
telephone industry$
4$ Identify factors that influence customer satisfaction in (igeria$
This study was conducted by administering :>> uestionnaires in : different locations "9>>
uestionnaires per location# of *agos State, (igeria, the commercial centre of the country$ Most
business transactions ha0e been carried out in this State since the colonial era and most industries
ha0e their headuarters sited here$ The locations includeH Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and
,ictoria Island$
The limitations encountered in this study include&
9$ *ack of a0ailable literature on customer satisfaction of the mobile telephone industry or
any other industry in (igeria$
4$ *ack of cooperation from the mobile telephone operators$
9?
CHATER TWO
2.+ LITERATURE RE!IEW
2.+.+ CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
-ustomer satisfaction, as a construct, has been fundamental to marketing for o0er three decades$
!s early as 9<?>, Jeith "9<?># defined marketing as Lsatisfying the needs and desires of the
consumer”. .unt "9<;4# reported that by the 9<2>s, interest in customer satisfaction had increase
to such an e/tent that o0er 1>> studies were published$ This trend continued and by 9<<4,
Peterson and Gilson estimated the amount of academic and trade articles on customer
satisfaction to be o0er 91,>>>$
Se0eral studies ha0e shown that it costs about fi0e times to gain a new customer as it does to
keep an e/isting customer "(aumann, 9<<1# and this results into more interest in customer
relationships$ Thus, se0eral companies are adopting customer satisfaction as their operational
goal with a carefully designed framework$ .ill and !le/ander "4>>># wrote in their book that
Lcompanies now have big investment in database marketing, relationship management and
customer planning to move closer to their customers”. 6ones and Sasser "9<<1# wrote that
Lachieving customer satisfaction is the main goal for most service firms todayM$
Increasing customer satisfaction has been shown to directly affect companiesC market share,
which leads to impro0ed profits, positi0e recommendation, lower marketing e/penditures
"Reichheld, 9<<?H .eskett et al$, 9<<2#, and greatly impact the corporate image and sur0i0al
"PiEam and 'llis, 9<<<#$
2.+.+' DEFINITION
Parker and Mathew "4>>9# e/pressed that there are two basic definitional approaches of the
concept of customer satisfaction$ The first approach defines satisfaction as a process and the
92
second approach defines satisfaction as an outcome of a consumption e/perience$ These two
approaches are complementary, as often one depends on the other$
-ustomer satisfaction as a process is defined as an evaluation between what was received and
what was expected ")li0er, 9<22, 9<;9H )lson and Do0er, 9<2<H Tse and Gilton, 9<;;#,
emphasizing the perceptual, evaluative and psychological processes that contribute to customer
satisfaction ",a0ra, 9<<2, p$ :#$
Parker and Mathews "4>>9# howe0er noted that the process of satisfaction definitions
concentrates on the antecedents to satisfaction rather than satisfaction itself$
Satisfaction as a process is the most widely adopted description of customer satisfaction and a lot
of research efforts ha0e been directed at understanding the process approach of satisfaction
e0aluations "Parker and Mathews, 4>>9#$ This approach has its origin in the discrepancy theory
"Porter, 9<?9#, which argued that satisfaction is determined by the perception of a difference
between some standard and actual performance$
-ardoEo "9<?1#H and .oward and Sheth "9<?<# de0eloped the contrast theory, which showed that
consumers would e/aggerate any contrasts between e/pectations and product e0aluations$
)lsha0sky and Miller "9<24#H and )lson and Do0er "9<2<# de0eloped the assimilation theory,
which means that percei0ed uality is directly increasing with e/pectations$ !ssimilation effects
occur when the difference between e/pectations and uality is too small to be percei0ed$
!nderson "9<28# further de0eloped this theory into assimilationAcontrast theory, which means if
the discrepancy is too large to be assimilated then the contrast effects occur$ The assimilationA
contrast effects occur when the difference between e/pectations and uality is too large to be
percei0ed and this difference is e/aggerated by consumers$
!ccording to Parker and Mathews "4>>9#, the most popular descendant of the discrepancy
theories is the e/pectation disconfirmation theory ")li0er, 9<22, 9<;9#, which stated that the
result of customersC perceptions of the difference between their perceptions of performance and
their e/pectations of performance$ Positi0e disconfirmation leads to increased satisfaction, with
9;
negati0e disconfirmation ha0ing the opposite effect$ %i "9<<># e/pressed that customers buy
products or ser0ices with preApurchase e/pectations about anticipated performance, once the
bought product or ser0ice has been used, outcomes are compared against e/pectations$ If the
outcome matches e/pectations, the result is confirmation$ Ghen there are differences between
e/pectations and outcomes, disconfirmation occurs$ Positi0e disconfirmation occurs when
product or ser0ice performance e/ceeds e/pectations$ Therefore, satisfaction is caused by
positi0e disconfirmation or confirmation of customer e/pectations, and dissatisfaction is the
negati0e disconfirmation of customer e/pectations "%i, 9<<>#$
Ghile se0eral studies support the disconfirmation paradigm, others do not$ 7or instance,
-hurchill and Surprenant "9<;4# found that neither disconfirmation nor e/pectations had any
effect on customer satisfaction with durable products$
Geiner "9<;>, and 9<;1#H and 7olkes "9<;:# proposed the attribution theory, which stated that
when a customer purchases a product or ser0ice, if the consumption is below e/pectation, the
customer is con0inced that the supplier causes the dissatisfaction$ The complaining customer is
focused on restoring =ustice and the satisfaction outcome is dri0en by percei0ed fairness of the
outcome of complaining$
Gestbrook and Reilly "9<;8# proposed the 0alueApercept theory, which defines satisfaction as an
emotional response caused by a cogniti0eAe0aluati0e process, which is the comparison of the
product or ser0ice to oneDs 0alues rather than an e/pectation$ So, satisfaction is a discrepancy
between the obser0ed and the desired$
7isk and %oung "9<;1#H Swan and )li0er "9<;1# proposed the euity theory, which stated that
indi0iduals compare their input and output ratios with those of others and feel euitable treated$
'uity =udgement is based on two stepsH first, the customer compares the outcome to the input
and secondly, performs a relati0e comparison of the outcome to the other party$
PiEam and 'llis "9<<<# reported that there are two additional distinct theories of customer
satisfaction apart from the se0en aforementioned ones and these include&
9<
9$ -omparisonAle0el
4$ 5eneraliEed negati0ityH and
The outcome approach of the customer satisfaction is defined as the endAstate satisfaction
resulting from the e/perience of consumption$ This postA consumption state can be an outcome
that occurs without comparing e/pectations ")li0er, 9<<?#H or may be a cogniti0e state of
reward, an emotional response that may occur as the result of comparing e/pected and actual
performance or a comparison of rewards and costs to the anticipated conseuences ",a0ra, 9<<2,
p$ :#$
7urthermore, Parker and Mathews "4>>9# e/pressed that attention has been focused on the nature
of satisfaction of the outcome approach which include&
9$ 'motion A Satisfaction is 0iewed as the surprise element of product or ser0ice purchase and or
consumption e/periences ")li0er, 9<;9#, or is an affecti0e response to a specific consumption
e/perience "Gestbrook and Reilly, 9<;8#$ This acknowledges the input of comparati0e cogniti0e
processes but goes further by stating that these may be =ust one of the determinants of the
affecti0e LstateM satisfaction "Park and Mathews, 4>>9#$
4$ 7ulfillment BThe theories of moti0ation state that people are dri0en by the desire to satisfy
their needs "Maslow, 9<:8# or by their beha0iour aimed at achie0ing the rele0ant goals ",room,
9<?:#$ .owe0er, satisfaction can be either way 0iewed as the endApoint in the moti0ational
process$ Thus Lconsumer satisfaction can be seen as the consumer's fulfillment responseM "Rust
and )li0er, 9<<:, p$ :#$
8$ State B )li0er "9<;<# e/pressed that there are four framework of satisfaction, which relates to
reinforcement and arousal$ Latisfaction-as-pleasureM results from positive reinforcement, where
the product or service is adding to an aroused resting state, and Lsatisfaction-as-reliefM results
from negative reinforcement $In relation to arousal, low arousal fulfillment is defined as
Lsatisfaction-as contentmentM, a result of the product or service performing ade!uately in an
4>
ongoing passive sense$ .igh arousal satisfaction is defined as Lsatisfaction as either positive
"delight# or negative surpriseM which could be a shock "Rust and )li0er, 9<<:#$
The other customer satisfaction definitions include& Satisfaction is “the cognitive state of the
buyer about the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the reward received in exchange for the
service experienced ".oward and Seth, 9<?<, pp$ 9:1#$ the evaluation of emotions ".unt, 9<22,
p$ :?>#$ the favorability of the individual's sub%ective evaluation "Gestbrook, 9<;>, p$ :<#H a
positive outcome from the outlay of scarce resources "Bearden and Teel, 9<;8a, p$ 49#H an
overall customer attitude towards a service provider "*e0esue and McDougall, 9<<?, pp$9:#H is
a %udgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provided "or is
providing# a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment, included levels of under- or
overfulfillment ")li0er,9<<2, p$ 98#$ is an experience-based assessment made by the customer of
how far his own expectations about the individual characteristics or the overall functionality of
the services obtained from the provider have been fulfilled ".omburg and Bruhn, 9<<;#H the
fulfillment of some need, goal or desire ")li0er, 9<<<#H an emotional reaction to the difference
between what customers anticipate and what they receive "Nineldin, 4>>>#H is based on a
customer&s estimated experience of the extent to which a provider&s services fulfill his or her
expectations "5erpott et al$ 4>>9#M$
7or this study, customer satisfaction definition used is that of .omburg and Bruhn "9<<;# which
is “an experience-based assessment made by the customer of how far his own expectations about
the individual characteristics or the overall functionality of the services obtained from the
provider have been fulfilled”.
The rele0ance of this definition to this study is that it indicates that customers assess the mobile
ser0ices based on e/perience of use and the rating is done in accordance with the mobile ser0ices
attributes$ In this study, customer satisfaction with the (igerian mobile ser0ices will be e0aluated
based on customers e/perience of network uality, billing, 0alidity period and customer care
support$
49
2.+.+b ANTECEDENTS
Taylor and Baker "9<<:# and Rust and )li0er "9<<:# identified se0eral factors that precede
customer satisfaction and suggested that these factors strongly influence the e/tent of customer
satisfaction$ Some of these antecedents include&
CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF CUSTOMER NEEDS AND E"ECTATIONS
The achie0ement of a strong customer satisfaction is closely related to the understanding
customer needs and e/pectations "Gilliam and Bertsch, 9<<4#$ !ccording to the Jano Model
"4>>9#, customer needs can be di0ided into&
• Basic needs B ob0ious needs of customers and if not met, he is dissatisfied, howe0er
meeting this needs may not be enough for customer satisfaction$ Its satisfaction results in
Lmust be !ualityM$
• '/pected needs B these are important needs that customers are fully aware of and
satisfaction is e/pected in e0ery purchaseH their satisfaction creates Lexpected !ualityM$
• '/citement needs B these are unconscious and unspoken needs of customers$ By
identifying and satisfying such needs, companies will ha0e added large 0alue to
customers and can win loyal customers$ This satisfaction creates Lattractive !ualityM$
Studies that supported the notion that e/pectations precede satisfaction include& !nderson,
7ornell and *ehmann "9<<:#, who conducted in0estigation on Swedish firms and reported that
there is a positi0e and significant relationship between e/pectations and customer satisfaction$
They describe e/pectation as an accumulation of information about uality from the outside
sources "e$g$ ad0ertising, word of mouth and general media# and past e/periences$ -adotte,
Goodruff, and 6enkins "9<;2# conducted in0estigation on food restaurant and reported that
44
e/pectation is significantly correlated with satisfaction$ !dditionally, e/pectation is a preA
purchase choice process and form a part of e0aluation standards of conceptualiEing satisfaction
process$ -hurchill and Suprenant "9<;4# conducted in0estigation on durable good "0ideo disc
player# and nonAdurable good "hybrid plant#$ 7or the hybrid plant study, e/pectation is reported
to ha0e a direct impact on satisfaction$ )li0er "9<;9# conducted in0estigation on retail stores and
reported that e/pectation has direct influence on satisfaction$ .owe0er, there are other research
works that disagree with this finding, e/amples include& -hurchill and Suprenant "9<;4# in their
in0estigation on 0ideo disc player, reported e/pectation to ha0e no impact on satisfaction$ Spreng
and )l0sha0sky "9<<8# conducted in0estigation on cameras and reported that there is no
significant relationship between these two 0ariables$
Gith this aforementioned literature, it is noted that customers purchase ser0ices based on their
needs and ha0e e/pectations that the purchased ser0ices will meet their needs$ -ustomers in turn
assess the ser0ice performance in accordance to how well it meets their e/pectations$ !lthough,
customer e/pectation is not a focus of this study, howe0er satisfaction measurement is useful to
understand customer e/pectations "since most times assessment is done by customers based on
past e/periences and future beliefs of ser0ice performance#$
ERCEI!ED !ALUE
Percei0ed 0alue is defined as “the results or benefits customers receive in relation to total costs
"which include the price paid plus other costs associated with the purchase# or the consumers'
overall assessment of what is received relative to what is given” ".olbrook,9<<: and Neithaml,
9<;;#$
!dditionally, Neithaml "9<;;# found out that customers who percei0e that they recei0e 0alue for
money are more satisfied than customers who do not percei0e they recei0e 0alue for money$
Se0eral studies ha0e shown that percei0ed 0alue is significant determinant of customer
satisfaction "!nderson et al$ "9<<:#H Ra0ald and 5ronroos "9<<?#H and McDougall and *e0esue,
48
4>>>#$ Turel and Serenko "4>>?# in their in0estigation of mobile ser0ices in -anada suggested
that the degree of percei0ed 0alue is a key factor affecting customer satisfaction$
Past research studies suggested that there are four features, which are key dri0ers of the customer
0alue of cellular ser0ices& network uality, price, customer care, and personal benefits "BooE,
!llen F .amilton, 9<<1, Danaher F Rust, 9<<?H Bolton, 9<<;H 5erpott, 9<<;H Gilfert, 9<<<#$
• The network uality refers to e/cellent indoor and outdoor co0erage, 0oice clarity, and no
connection breakdowns$
• Price refers to what is paid to obtain access to use the network$
• -ustomer care refers to the uality of the information e/changed between customer and
supplier or network pro0ider in response to enuiries and other acti0ities initiated by the
network pro0ider, for e/ample presentation of in0oices$
• Personal benefits refer to the le0el of perception of the benefits of mobile
communications ser0ices by indi0idual customers$
It is apparent from this re0iew that one of the factors customers use to determine satisfaction
le0el is the benefits recei0ed from a product or ser0ice in comparism with what is spent$
Percei0ed 0alue is not a focus of this study "howe0er customer satisfaction e0aluation captures
percei0ed 0alueH the assessment shows what consumers 0alue in the ser0ice recei0ed#$ The
suggested mobile ser0ices attributes "features# will be used to assess customer satisfaction in this
study$

SER!ICE -UALITY
!nother factor that contributes to satisfaction is ser0ice uality$ Ser0ice uality is defined as
“the difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service” or “as the
customers& satisfaction or dissatisfaction formed by their experience of purchase and use of the
service” "5ronroos, 9<;: and Parasuraman et al$9<;;#$
4:
)li0er "9<<8# reported that ser0ice uality is a casual antecedent of customer satisfaction, due to
the fact that ser0ice uality is 0iewed at transactional le0el and satisfaction is 0iewed to be an
attitude$ Dabholkar et al$ "9<<?# and Neithaml et al$ "9<<?# reported that the ser0ice uality
di0isions are related to o0erall ser0ice uality and or customer satisfaction$ 7ornell et al$, "9<<?#
e/pressed that satisfaction is a conseuence of ser0ice uality$ .urley and 'stelami "9<<;#
argued that there is causal relationship between ser0ice uality and satisfaction, and that the
perceptions of ser0ice uality affect the feelings of satisfaction$
There are 0arious classifications of the components of ser0ice uality in marketing science$
5ronroos "9<;:# stated that Lin service environments, customer satisfaction will be built on a
combination of two kinds of !uality aspects$ technical and functional M$ Technical uality or
uality of the output corresponds to traditional uality of control in manufacturing$ It is a matter
of properly producing the core benefit of the ser0ice$ 7unctional uality or process uality is the
way the ser0ice is deli0ered$ It is the process in which a customer is a participant and coA
producer, and in which the relationship between ser0ice pro0ider and customer plays an
important role "Giele et al$, 4>>4#$
Technical uality is related to what customer gets "transaction satisfaction#H functional uality is
related to how the customer gets the result of the interaction "relationship satisfaction#$
*ewis "9<;2# suggested that ser0ice uality can be classified as essential and subsidiary$
'ssential refers to the ser0ice offered and subsidiary includes factors such as accessibility,
con0enience of location, a0ailability, timing and fle/ibility, as well as interactions with the
ser0ice pro0ider and other customers$
The classification can also be the core "contractual# of the ser0ice, and the relational "customerA
employee relationship# of the ser0ice$ The core or the outcome uality, which refers to what is
deli0ered and the relational or process uality, which refers to how it is deli0ered are the basic
elements for most ser0ices$ "5rOnroos, 9<;1H McDougall and *e0esue, 9<<4H Parasuraman et
al$, 9<<9bH Dabholkar et al$, 9<<?#$
41
McDougall and *e0esue "4>>># in their direct approach in0estigation on four ser0ice firms
"dentist clinic, automobile shop, restaurant, and haircut salon# demonstrated that both core and
relational ser0ice uality classes ha0e significant impact on customer satisfaction$ .eskett et al$
"9<<2# conducted studies on se0eral ser0ice firms, such as airline, restaurants, etc and reported
that ser0ice uality, solely defined as relational uality, has consistent effect on satisfaction and
is regarded as key factor in deli0ering customer satisfaction$
Parasuraman et al$ "9<;;# identified fi0e dimensions of ser0ice uality "S'R,@+!*# that must
be present in any ser0ice deli0ery$ S'R,@+!* helps to identify clearly the impact of uality
dimensions on the de0elopment of customer perceptions and the resulting customer satisfaction$
S'R,@+!* include&
• Reliability A the ability to perform the promised ser0ices dependably and accurately$
• Responsi0eness A the willingness to help customers and pro0ide prompt ser0ice$
• !ssurance A the knowledge and courtesy of employees as well as their ability to con0ey
trust and confidence$
• 'mpathy A the pro0ision of caring, indi0idualiEed attention to customers, and
• Tangibles A the appearance of physical facilities, euipment, personnel and
communication materials$
The model conceptualiEes ser0ice uality as a gap between customerDs e/pectations "'# and the
perception of the ser0ice pro0idersD performance "P#$ !ccording to Parasuraman et al$ "9<;1#,
Lservice !uality should be measured by subtracting customer's perception scores from customer
expectation scores "' ( ) - *#M$ The greater the positi0e score mark means the greater the
positi0e amount of ser0ice uality or the greater the negati0e score mark, the greater the negati0e
amount of the ser0ice uality$
Neithaml et al$ "9<<># proposed a comprehensi0e perception of uality assessment and claimed
that they are other factors apart from the dimensions of Parasuraman et al$ "9<;;#&
4?
• !ccess B how easy it is to come into contact with the supplier$ This is where position,
opening hours, supplier a0ailability, and other technical facilities belong$
• -ommunication B the ability to communicate in an understandable way that is natural to
customer$
• -redibility B referring to being able to trust the supplier
• -ourtesy B refers to the supplierCs beha0iour, e$g$ politeness and kindness
Parasuraman et al$ "9<;;#, assurance dimension is a combination of the credibility and courtesy
dimensions of Neithaml et al$ "9<<>#$
PiEam and 'llis "9<<<# stated that the gap that may e/ist between the customersD e/pected and
percei0ed ser0ice uality is a 0ital determinant of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and not
=ust only a measure of the uality of the ser0ice$
Pre0ious studies on mobile telecommunication ser0ices, measured ser0ices uality by call
uality, pricing structure, mobile de0ices, 0alueAadded ser0ices, con0enience in procedures, and
customer support "Jim, 4>>>H 5erpott et al$, 4>>9H *ee, *ee, F 7reick, 4>>9).
-ustomers determine satisfaction le0el of any purchased ser0ice by the perceptions of uality
recei0ed$ Therefore, customer satisfaction assessment captures ser0ice uality and in this study,
the pre0ious factors used to measure ser0ice uality "call uality, billing, customer support, etc#
of mobile telecoms will be used to assess customer satisfaction$
INTERNAL SATISFACTION
Research works ha0e shown the importance and the link of internal "employee# satisfaction to
the e/ternal "customer# satisfaction$ .ill and !le/ander "4>>># stated that there is a positi0e
relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction and this is achie0ed in
companies that practice employee moti0ation and loyalty$ They reported that “employees that
are more motivated to achieve customer satisfaction tend to be more flexible in their approach to
42
their work, make fewer mistakes and use more initiative”$ 7ePiko0Q "4>>:# conducted studies on
the inde/ method for customer satisfaction measurement with chairs in Slo0akia and reported
that the satisfaction of internal customers is one of the basic factors to satisfy the e/ternal
customer$ Thus, she suggested that employee moti0ation and loyalty can be achie0ed through&
• Daily leadership B Top management officials moti0ate others through their performance$
• Top management communicates their e/pectations to the employees$
• De0elopment of competencies B feedback on employees performance, work efforts,
opportunity for de0elopment and impro0ement of competencies$
• -orporation and employee retention, and
• 5ood working conditions
COMLAINT MANAGEMENT
!lbrecht and Nemke "9<;1# found that of the customers who register complaints, between 1:3
and 2>3 will do business again with the company if their complaints are resol0ed$ This figure
increases to <13 if the customer feels that the complaint was resol0ed promptly$ -ustomers who
ha0e complained to a company and had their complaints satisfactorily resol0ed tell an a0erage of
fi0e people about the good treatment they recei0ed$ .art, et al$, 9<<>, reported that when the
ser0ice pro0ider accepts responsibility and resol0es the problem when customers complain, the
customer becomes LbondedM to the company$
Mc(eale "9<<:# found out that about 13 of the dissatisfied customers actually complain to the
appropriate companies but easily tell their friends, colleagues and acuaintances about their
e/periences$ Thus, companies ought to be aware or routinely in0estigate how well or badly their
customers are treated$ )0enden "9<<1# in his book about studies conducted on se0eral
companies in the +J, such as wholesaler, manufacturers, etc, argued that companies need to be
4;
aware how well or badly its customers are treated and that customers rarely complain and when
they do, it might be too late to keep such customers$
*e0esue and McDougall "9<<?# in their case study on retail banking found out that if a ser0ice
problem or customer complaint is ill or not properly handled, it has a substantial impact on the
customerCs attitude towards the ser0ice pro0ider$ .owe0er, the study did not support the notion
that good customer complaint management leads to increased customer satisfaction$ They
reported that “at best, satisfactory problem recovery leads to the same level of customer
satisfaction as if a problem had not occurred”$
(yer "4>>># e/pressed that encouraging customers to complain increased their satisfaction and
especially the most dissatisfied customers and stated that Lthe more a customer complains the
greater the increases in satisfactionM$
6ohnston "4>>9# reported that complaint management, not only results into increased customer
satisfaction, but also leads to operational impro0ement and impro0ed financial performance$
)ther suggested antecedents of customer satisfaction include& disconfirmation paradigm "%i,
9<<>, and SEymanski and .enard, 4>>9#H performance "-adotte, et al$, 9<;;, and Bolton and
Drew, 9<<9#H affects "Gestbrook and )li0er, 9<<9 and Mano and )li0er, 9<<8#H and euity
")li0er, 9<<8 and 9<<2#$
In summary, the rele0ance of this subAsection to this study is to&
• Better understanding that customers assess ser0ice performance based on their past
e/periences, benefits recei0ed, ser0ice uality and how well ueries and complaints are
treated$ Thus, customer satisfaction with the mobile ser0ices in (igeria will be assessed
based on network uality, billing, 0alidity period and customer care support and the
following hypotheses are adopted&
 (igerian customers are satisfied with the mobile telecoms industry
 There is a strong relationship between network uality and customer satisfaction
4<
 There is a strong relationship between billing and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between 0alidity period and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between customer care support and customer
satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period,
customer care support and customer satisfaction
2.+.+c ASSESSMENT AND BENEFITS
(aumann "9<<1# e/pressed that the reasons for measuring customer satisfaction may 0ary among
companies, and the success of the measurement depends on if the measurement is incorporated
into the firmDs corporate culture or not$ .owe0er, he suggested fi0e reasons for measuring
customer satisfaction or fi0e important roles of customer satisfaction measurement&
• To get close to the customer B this will help to understand customers more, their needs,
the attributes that are most important, and their effect on the customerDs decision making,
the relati0e importance of the attributes and the performance e0aluation of the firm
deli0ery of each attribute$ This process helps to pro0ide enabling communication with
customers$
• Measure continuous impro0ement A the important attributes of customers can be
incorporated into the internal measurement to e0aluate the 0alueAadded process in the
company$ This process in0ol0es comparing performance against internal standards
"process control and impro0ement#, and comparing performance against e/ternal
standards "benchmarking#$
• To achie0e customerAdri0en impro0ement B the data collected from customers can be
de0eloped into sources of inno0ations and this can help to achie0e customer dri0en
8>
impro0ement$ This reuires a comprehensi0e database and not =ust records of sales$ This
process helps to identify opportunities for impro0ement "uality costing#$
• To measure competiti0e strengths and weaknesses A determine customer perceptions of
competiti0e choices and companies$
• To link customer satisfaction measurement data to internal system
The market share is not a guage to measure customer satisfactionH rather it represents uantity of
customers$ -ustomer satisfaction is a measure of attitudes and perceptions of the uality and
performance of a ser0ice "Bhote, 9<<?#$
'd0ardson and 5ustafsson "9<<<# in their written book about studies conducted on different
products and ser0ices in Sweden and wrote that customer satisfaction measurement pro0ides
significant information for modern management processes and additionally, it pro0ides a
warning signal about the future business performance$ )li0er "9<<<# in his article on the link
between consumer satisfaction and loyalty with goods and ser0ices, e/pressed that in the last two
decades till date, customer satisfaction measurement represents an important source of re0enue
for market research firms$
Se0eral empirical findings ha0e shown that the application of customer satisfaction measurement
often does not accomplish the ob=ecti0es of the company and the reasons for this shortcoming
areH
• Many organiEations determine criteria for measurement internally without an accurate
understanding of customer priorities ".ill, 9<<?#$ This measurement is based on the 0alue
defined by organiEations and not by the customers, thereby pro0iding wrong information$
• Many companies do not measure customer satisfaction as thorough as manufacture
component and those who claim to do so, perform it an inadeuate way ".ill and
!le/ander, 4>>>#$
89
• Difficulty in translating the customer satisfaction data into action within the organiEation
"Giele et al$, 4>>4#
Gerth "4>>4# stated that many companies identify the le0el of customer satisfaction throughH
• (umber of product or ser0ice support problems
• (umber of direct complaints by phone, email, etc
• (umber of returned products or ser0ices and the reason for their return, etc
7ePiko0Q "4>>:# disagreed with this measurement procedure in that it is a measure of customer
dissatisfaction "no satisfaction# and may pro0ide wrong information with no possibility for
product or ser0ice de0elopment and inno0ation$ The criteria for measurement should be
customer defined so as to collect, analyEe the appropriate data and pro0ide rele0ant information$
Thus, to obtain the right information, efforts should be made to filter out the irrele0ant
information and concentrate on the 0aluable dimensions$ ! con0enient tool to achie0e this aim is
to first conduct a simple preAstudy and from this a more effecti0e study can be created$
Therefore, for any company to achie0e true customer satisfaction, there should be&
• -ustomerAoriented culture
• -ustomerAcentered company
• 'mployee empowerment
• Process ownership
• Team building, and
• Partnering with customers and suppliers
.e further e/pressed that the measurement research techniue include&
• Sur0ey methodologies
• 7ocus groups
• StandardiEed packages
84
• ,arious computer softwares
.owe0er, these typical measurement techniues ha0e some problems which includeH
• !nalytical B this in0ol0es techniues, formal procedures, systems, etc
• Beha0ioural B in0ol0es the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, moti0ation, commitment and
resulting beha0iour of the people in0ol0ed in the process$
• )rganiEational B in0ol0es the organiEational structure, information flows, management
style and corporate culture$
.ill et al$ "4>>8# e/pressed that one of the methods to measure customer satisfaction is through
the simple freuency statistics of the Microsoft office '/cel or that of the Statistical Package for
Social Science "SPSS#$ 7ePiko0Q "4>>:# reported that there are other methods for customer
satisfaction measurement and these includeH
9$ The indicator of customer satisfaction le0el
.aEes "9<<;# proposed that customer satisfaction could be measured as&
I
-S
R I
R-S
. 9>> S3T
I
)-S
I
-S
R increasing customer satisfaction
I
R-S
R the real 0alue of the customer satisfaction inde/ which is used routinely as a tool of
customer satisfaction measurement$
I
)-S
R the optimum 0alue of such an inde/$
4$ The inde/ of satisfaction
Bha0e "4>>4# proposed that to obtain the inde/ of satisfaction, the satisfaction score is
multiplied by the corresponding weighting factor to produce weighting score$ The inde/ of
satisfaction is the sum of the weighting score$ The o0erall satisfaction inde/ of any company
is the a0erage of e0ery respondentCs indi0idual satisfaction inde/$
88
8$ !-SM method of customer satisfaction measurement
The !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Model "!-SM# method is a set of causal euations that
link&
 customer e/pectations
 percei0ed uality,
 and percei0ed 0alue to customer satisfaction "!-SI#$




7ig$ 4$9 The !-SM model of customer satisfaction measurement by 7ornell et al$9<<?
Se0eral empirical studies done on the assessment of customer satisfaction le0els include& 5erpott
et al$ "4>>9# in0estigated the customer satisfaction le0el of ?;: residential customers of mobile
operators in 5ermany using the freuency distribution, the results showed that 4;3 of the
respondents were completely satisfied and ?$83 were slightly satisfied or not satisfied$ Turel and
Serenko, 4>>?, assessed customer satisfaction le0el of 49> young adult mobile subscribers in
-anada by adapting the !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Model, the result obtained was 1:$?23$
This score was relati0ely low compared to the ?13 obtained by !-SI organiEation for the +S!
in 4>>:$
7ornell "9<<4# in0estigated customer satisfaction with 9>> corporations in o0er 8> industries in
Sweden and e/pressed that the benefits of customer satisfaction include the followingH highly
satisfied customers A
8:
erc%e&e/
!'01e
erce%&e
/
-1'0%$2
C1*$(mer
S'$%*3'c$%()
4ACSI5
C1*$(mer
E67ec$'$%(
)
• Stay longer "i$e$ pre0ent customer churn#
• Purchase more as the company introduces new products and upgrades e/isting products
• Talk fa0orably about the company and its products or ser0ices "helps to impro0e
ad0ertisement#
• Pay less attention to competing brands
• *ess sensiti0e to price
• )ffer product or ser0ice ideas to the company
• -ost less to ser0e than new customers because transactions are routine
• 'nhances business reputation
These benefits make customer satisfaction and its measurement an important marketing
construct, which is especially essential to the mobile telecoms industry in which the longAterm
links between operators and customers are of greater importance to business performance$
2.+.+/ CONSE-UENCES
Se0eral research works ha0e shown that customer satisfaction is positi0ely associated with
desirable business outcomes namelyH -ustomer *oyalty, -ustomer Retention, and -ustomer
Profitability$ 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# reported that these conseuences are important goals for
telecommunications operators to ha0e superior economic success$
CUSTOMER LOYALTY
-oyne "9<;<# stated that customer satisfaction has measurable impact on customer loyalty in that
when satisfaction reaches a certain le0elH on the high side, loyalty increases dramaticallyH at the
same time, when satisfaction falls to a certain point, loyalty reduces eually dramatically$ %i
"9<<># e/pressed that the impact of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty by stating that
“customer satisfaction influences purchase intentions as well as post-purchase attitude”$ In
81
other word, satisfaction is related to beha0ioural loyalty, which includes continuing purchases
from the same company, word of mouth recommendation, increased scope of relationship$
7ornell "9<<4# found out that there is a positi0e relationship between customer satisfaction and
customer loyalty but this connection is not always a linear relation$ This relationship depends on
factors such as market regulation, switching costs, brand euity, e/istence of loyalty programs,
proprietary technology, and product differentiation at the industry le0el$ 6ones and Sasser "9<<1#
proposed that link between satisfaction and loyalty can be classified into four different groups&
loyalistIapostle "high satisfaction, high loyalty#, defectorI terrorist "low satisfaction, low loyalty#,
mercenary "high satisfaction, low loyalty#, and hostage "low satisfaction, high loyalty#$
Roger .allowell "9<<?# confirmed the link between customer loyalty "in the conte/t of
beha0ioural loyalty# and customer satisfaction$ )li0er "9<<<# stated that the relationship between
satisfaction and loyalty is that satisfaction is transformed into loyalty with the assistance of a
myriad of other factors$ .owe0er, this relationship is comple/ and asymmetric$
.igh le0els of satisfaction lead to high le0els of attitudinal loyalty$ !ttitudinal loyalty in0ol0es
different feelings, which create a customerCs o0erall attachment to a product, ser0ice, or
company "*o0elock et al$, 4>>9#$ 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# in their study of the 5erman mobile
telecommunication found that customer satisfaction is positi0ely related to customer loyalty, and
both factors are important paraments in the mobile telecommunications industry$ Turel and
Serenko, 4>>?, in their study of -anadian mobile telecommunications also confirmed this
finding$
CUSTOMER RETENTION
Se0eral research works ha0e shown that there is positi0e relationship between customer
satisfaction and customer retentionH customer satisfaction has a direct effect on customer
retention "Rust and Subramaman, 9<<4#H customer satisfaction is positi0ely related to customer
retention "!nderson and Sulli0an, 9<<8#H to retain a customer, it is necessary to satisfy him$
Satisfied customer is more likely to return and stay with a company than a dissatisfied customer
8?
who can decide to go elsewhere ")0enden, 9<<1#H satisfaction leads to retention and the retention
is not simply because of habit, indifference or inertia "Desai and Maha=an, 9<<;#H customer
retention is central to the de0elopment of business relationships, and these relationships depend
on satisfaction "'riksson and ,aghult, 4>>>#H customer satisfaction is an antecedent of customer
retention "!thanassopoulos, 4>>>#H customer satisfaction is a central determinant of customer
retention "5erpott et al$, 4>>9#H customer satisfaction is positi0ely related to customer retention
and the effect 0aries by customer siEe and the customerCs current le0el of satisfaction "(ira= et
al$, 4>>8#$
CUSTOMER ROFITABILITY
Research studies conducted by 5ale "9<<4# and 7ornell "9<<4# showed that higher customer
satisfaction translates into higher than normal market share growth, the ability to charge a higher
price, lower transaction costs, and a strong link to impro0ed profitability$ (elson et al$, "9<<4#
also demonstrated that customer satisfaction is related to higher profitability and pro0ed his
findings statistically$ !ndersson et al$, "9<<:# found a significant association between customer
satisfaction and accounting return on assets$ Ittner and *arckner "9<<?# found that shareholder
0alue is highly elastic with respect to customer satisfaction$ 7ornell et al$, 9<<?, found out that
customer satisfaction is significantly related to firmsC financial performance$
The 0olume of business conducted with a firm is directly related to customer satisfaction, which
in turns affect profitability "Ittner and *arcker, 9<<;#$
)ther empirical findings further demonstrated thatH customer satisfaction has greater influence
on repurchase intentions and profits for ser0ice companies "'d0ardsson et al$, 4>>>b#H customer
satisfaction affects shareAofAwallet "S)G# positi0ely "Braun and Scope, 4>>8H Jeiningham et al$,
4>>8#H customer satisfaction leads to increased profits "7ePiko0Q, 4>>:#H and customer
satisfaction is strongly associated with impro0ed shareAof Bspending "Jeiningham 4>>1#$
82
The significance of this subAsection to this study is that it helps to pro0ide better understanding
that customer satisfaction to some e/tent affects loyalty which in turn may affect retention and
profitability$
2.2 DEMOGRAHICS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
The social identity theory proposed that attitudes are moderated by demographic, situational,
en0ironmental, and psychosocial factors ".aslam et al$, 9<<8H 6ackson et al$, 9<<?H Platow et al$,
9<<2#$ !ccording to the social psychological theories, consumersC e0aluations are moderated, or
in some cases mediated, by personal feelings of euity in the e/change, disconfirmation between
desires and outcomes, indi0idual preferences, social comparisons, and other comple/
phenomena$ These theories strongly suggest that differences in these phenomena among
consumers influence their attitudes "Gilliams et al$, 9<<;#$
Se0eral empirical findings that ha0e shown the relationship between demographic 0ariables and
satisfaction include&
Bryant et al$ "9<<?# conducted a study on :>> companies using the !merican -ustomer
Satisfaction Inde/ "!-SI# and demonstrated that there is significant relationship and consistent
differences in the le0els of satisfaction among demographic groups& Se/ B positi0ely related to
satisfaction and female customers are more satisfied than the male customers$ 7emale of all ages
are more satisfied than the male$ Gomen are more in0ol0ed with the process of purchase and
possibly use the mobile phone more for relational purposes "social network de0ice# while men
use it for functional purposes "businesses, sales, etc#$ !ge B positi0ely related to satisfaction but
the relationship is not a straight line$ Satisfaction increases with age$ The ma=or increase in
satisfaction is seen within the age 11 and o0er$ Income B the higher the income, the lower the
satisfaction le0el$ *ocation "type of area# B positi0ely related to satisfaction$ -ustomers li0ing
8;
within metropolitan areas "central city and suburban areas# are less satisfied than those customers
in nonAmetropolitan areas$
Pal0ia and Pal0ia "9<<<# found out that age is a significant determinant of satisfaction with
information technology industry$ )yewole "4>>9# in his research on customer satisfaction with
airline ser0ices reported also that gender, occupation, education, and marital status ha0e
significant influence on customer satisfaction, while age and household income had no
significant influence$ .omburg and 5iering "4>>9# conducted a study on 5erman car
manufacturers using *ISR'* notation and demonstrated that it is important to study
demographic 0ariables as determinants of customer beha0iours$ The results of their study
showed that gender has significant moderating effect on satisfactionA loyalty relationship$
Gomen are satisfied with sales process while men are satisfied with the impact of the product$
!ge showed a positi0e moderating effect and income had moderating influence with high
income showing weaker effect and low income, high effect$ 6essie and Sheila "4>>9# in their
empirical work on patientsC assessment of satisfaction and uality using factor analysis and
regression, reported that age, beneficiary group, location, rank, ser0ice affiliation, education,
marital status, race, gender, health status and number of 0isits "sociodemographic 0ariables# ha0e
minimal influence on satisfaction$
!hmad and Jamal "4>>4# conducted a study on a commercial bank using a stepwise regression
and demonstrated that there is negati0e significance between age and satisfaction$ Ghen age
goes up, satisfaction le0els are likely to go down$ .owe0er, occupation and income le0els are
positi0ely related to satisfaction$ *ightner "4>>8# in his study on online e/perience using
regression, e/pressed that age is an important factor in determining satisfaction le0els and
technology perceptions$ ,an!mburg "4>>:# conducted a study on 4>> companies using the
!merican -ustomer Satisfaction Inde/ "!-SI# and demonstrated that age has a significant effect
on satisfaction$ %ounger age groups are less satisfied than older age groups across all products
and ser0ices industries$
8<
,enn and 7one "4>>1# conducted a study on patient satisfaction with general practitioner
ser0ices in Gales using logistic regression and reported that satisfaction 0aried with age, gender,
employment status, and marital status$ The results obtained indicated that higher satisfaction is
significantly related with increasing age, female gender, unemployed "those at home, disabled
and retired#, and married patients$ .owe0er, unemployed A students and those seeking work,
reported lower satisfaction$
Turel and Serenko "4>>?# in their study on customer satisfaction with mobile ser0ices in -anada
using !-SI, reported that age has a significant influence on customer satisfaction and lower
satisfaction le0el is found among young adults$
7rom this literature re0iew, it is suggested that consumers differ in beha0iors and attitudes and
one of the factors responsible for this difference is demographics$ It is therefore necessary to
in0estigate the impact of demographic factors "age, gender, type of employment and location# on
customer satisfaction of (igerian mobile telephone industry$ This in0estigation is necessary
basically for three reasons&
• It is the first academic study on (igerian customers
• Demographic factors are important factors in the society and greatly affect attitudes,
lifestyle, standard of li0ing, etc$ This study intends to in0estigate the impact of these
factors on customer satisfaction with mobile ser0ices in (igeria$
• It helps to in0estigate the different market segments so as to better understand the needs
of different customers$
The contribution of the aforementioned literature to this study is&
• Better understanding that consumer attitudes are influenced by se0eral factors$ In
accordance with this re0iew, the following hypotheses are adopted for this study&
 There is a strong relationship between age and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between gender and customer satisfaction
:>
 There is a strong relationship between location and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between employment and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between age, gender and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between age, location and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between age, employment and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between gender, location and customer satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between gender, employment and customer
satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between location, employment and customer
satisfaction
 There is a strong relationship between age, gender, location, employment and
customer satisfaction
:9
CHATER 8
8.+ RESEARCH METHOD
In order to in0estigate the ob=ecti0es of this study and answer the hypotheses, the descripti0e
research method was employed$ The uestionnaire sur0ey techniue was used to collect data and
the uestions were self constructed$ The choices of uestions for this in0estigation include
uestions on personal backgroundH ageA lowest range was 9?A41 and highest was ??A21H genderA
maleIfemaleH employment typeA employed "public, pri0ate and self#, student and unemployedH
and area of residence "Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and ,ictoria Island#$
The other uestions were on 0ariables used to assess mobile ser0ice performanceH network
ualityIa0ailability, billing, 0alidity period and customer care ser0ices$ The rating scale 0aried
from L0ery satisfiedM to Lno opinionM$ Please see the !ppendi/ 9 for full details of the
uestionnaire$
The uestionnaires were administered on the streets and the choice of this method of data
collection was of high priority because the residents of *agos State are mostly 0ery busy people,
who lea0e their homes for work or trade 0ery early in the morning "1$>>am# and return late
"some people return as late between 9>$>>A99$>>pm#$ There will probably be little or no a0ailable
time to attend to the uestionnaires if dropped at their homes and failure of power supply
"electricity# is 0ery common at nights$ !dditionally, the street inter0iews presented better chance
:4
of ha0ing high representation of the sampling population, cheaper cost and rapid speed of data
collection$
8.+.+ RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
This study is to in0estigate the le0el of (igerian customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms
ser0ices and e/plore the relationship between customer satisfaction and specific demographic
0ariables$ Pre0ious studies on mobile telecommunication ser0ices suggested that networkIcall
uality, pricing and customer careIsupport are important features of the mobile telecoms ser0ices
"BooE, !llen F .amilton, 9<<1, Danaher F Rust, 9<<?H Bolton, 9<<;H 5erpott, 9<<;H Gilfert,
9<<<H Jim, 4>>>H 5erpott et al$, 4>>9H *ee, *ee, F 7reick, 4>>9#$ .ence, this study employs
these 0ariables in its in0estigation$ 7igure 8$9 presents the conceptual structure of this study$

This diagram illustrates the ob=ecti0e of this study, which is to
in0estigate the (igerian customer satisfaction with the mobile
telecoms industry, factors influencing satisfaction and the
relationship between satisfaction and demographics$
7ig$ 8$9 -onceptual structure of this study "research framework#
:8
C1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
M(b%0e I)/1*$r2
A Ne$9(r: ;1'0%$2
A r%c%)<
A C1*$(mer C're
Dem(<r'=%c*
8.+.2 SELECTION OF INTER!IEWERS

7our people assisted in conducting the inter0iews$ They include two recent graduates and two
undergraduates, all males$ (o formal training was done apart from e/plaining briefly what the
research is all about and the locations to collect the data$ This was due to the fact that I was not
physically a0ailable in *agos State "resident in Sweden# to conduct the training and
communications were basically done on the phone with the author$ These different locations of
the author and inter0iewers made super0ision impossible$ (o compensation was gi0en to the
inter0iewers "the inter0iewers are my friends residing not too far from the locations of data
collection#$ The data was collected for four days, !pril 4>A48
rd
, 4>>? between <amA9pm in each
location$
8.+.8 SELECTION OF RESONDENTS
@uestionnaires were administered at four different locations$ Since no list of customer was used,
the residential locations were used as uota segment$ These residential locations may relate to
the le0el of income of the inhabitants and as well as to the le0el of use of the mobile ser0ices$
The residential locations are in *agos State, the commercial center, in the South Gest of (igeria
and these include&
• ,ictoria Island ".igh income#
• Ike=a "Middle#
• *agos Island "MiddleAlow#
• Mushin "*ow#
The breakdown of these locations is based firstly on my e/perience of these areas and secondly,
on the Gikipedia article "4>>?# on the history of *agos State$ ,ictoria Island is surrounded by
se0eral beaches "from the !tlantic )cean# and has been choice of residence for top federal
::
officers and diplomats since the colonial administration$ The residences in this location are for
federal parastals, diplomatic communities and rich indi0iduals$ Ike=a is the state capital and is the
choice of residence for state parastals, corporate bodies, top state officers, ci0il officers,
businessmen and a0eragely rich people$ It is a choice of residence for ci0il officers, business
people, etc$ *agos Island is the commercial center of the state$ It is the choice of residence for
corporate bodies "mostly headuarters#, big markets, traders, business people, ci0il officers, etc,
and has poorer housing structures$
Mushin is the choice of residence for traders, low ranked employees, etc$ The location has
problems of o0ercrowding, inadeuate housing and poor sanitation$
! total number of :>> people were inter0iewed for this study$ This number is in accordance with
the 0iews of Dillman "4>>># and .ill et al$ "4>>8#, who reported that a sample siEe of 9>> and
abo0e is sufficient to present good concise research findings and also, pro0ide good
representation of the population or organiEation or any sub=ect in0estigated$ Selection is by
con0enience sampling "(onAprobability sampling#H interception of mobile users "uestionnaires
were handled out to e0ery passerby and interested people waited to fill the forms# on streets in
the central areas of the chosen locations on their way to work, lunch, school and shopping
centers, etc$ The points of data collection were changed within the chosen central locations to
minimiEe bias$ 9>> respondents were administered the uestionnaires in each location$
8.+.> RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
! uestionnaire was the instrument used in this study to collect data$ The uestionnaire
employed the typical form of fi/edAresponse alternati0e uestions that reuire the respondent to
select from a predetermined set of answers to e0ery uestion$ !ccording to Malhotra and Birks
"4>>8, pp$ 44:#, this sur0ey approach is the most common method of primary data collection in
marketing research and the ad0antages are simple administration and data consistency$
:1
The sur0ey uestionnaires were administered on the streets "mode of data collection#& the
uestionnaires were filled out mostly by the people themsel0es or through the inter0iewers for
few people who could not understand 'nglish$ Malhotra and Birks "4>>8# showed in their
e0aluation of comparati0e sur0ey techniues that street inter0iews ha0e high fle/ibility of data
collection, high degree of di0ersity of uestions due to interaction and high response rate,
moderate sample control, moderate uantity of data, moderate to high great potential to probe
respondents, moderate to high great potential to build rapport, moderate to high speed and cost of
data collection$ These ualities were responsible for the choice of this sur0ey techniue for this
study$
The uestionnaires employed the *ikert nonAcomparati0e scaling techniue$ It is a widely used
rating scale which reuires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement
with each of a series of statements or uestions "!lbaum, 9<<2#$ This rating scale is easy to
construct and administer and respondents readily understand how to use the scale "Malhotra and
Birks, 4>>8, pp$ 8>1#$
The *ikert scale used in this study is odd numbered "as proposed by Spagna, 9<;:#H balanced
"the number of fa0ourable and unfa0ourable categories is eual#$ This 0iew is proposed by
Gatson "9<<4#, who reported the balanced state helps to obtain an ob=ecti0e dataH has nonAforced
choices Lno opinionM to impro0e the accuracy of the data "as proposed by .asnich, 9<<4#H and 1A
scaled categories which conforms to the traditional guidelines reported by !aker "9<<2#$ .e
proposed that the categories scale should be between 1 and <$
The uestionnaire contains two sectionsH ! and B$ Section ! has uestions on demography "age,
gender, employment and location# and the section B includes uestions on mobile pro0ider,
rating of ser0ice uality "network a0ailability, billing and 0alidity period#, customer care ser0ice
"promptness, attitude and competence#, and the rating of the ser0ice performance$ In all, the
uestionnaire contains eight uestions and the answers are L0ery satisfiedM, LsatisfiedM,
LdissatisfiedM, L0ery dissatisfiedM and Lno opinionM$ The uestionnaire was constructed entirely
:?
in 'nglish$ Please see table 8$9 for the operation definition for the content of the uestionnaires
and appendi/ 9 for a copy of the uestionnaire$
Table 8$9 )perational definitions of the content of the uestionnaire
Fe'$1re*?C()$e)$* O7er'$%()'0 /e3%)%$%()
Ne$9(r: '&'%0'b%0%$2 -all uality as percei0ed by customers and this include&
A -all clarity when calling and recei0ing
A -o0erage
B%00%)< The cost of refilling credit "pricing#&
A ,ariety of refill card
A !ffordability of the refill card
A 7reedom of choosing refill cards
A Speed of refilling
:2
!'0%/%$2 7er%(/ The period in which you can make calls and or recei0e
calls after e0ery refill
C1*$(mer C're -ustomer support and complaint management systems&
A Promptness "ability to get attendant uickly#
A !ttitude "response of the attendant#
A -ompetence "ability to pro0ide a solution#
C1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%() an e/perienceAbased assessment made by the customer of
how far his own e/pectations about the indi0idual
characteristics or the o0erall functionality of the ser0ices
obtained from the pro0ider ha0e been fulfilled

8.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
The Statistical Package for Social Sciences "SPSS# 94$> will be used to analyEe the data
collected$ The descripti0e statistics "freuencies statistics# will be applied to assess the le0el of
customer satisfaction while the relationship between the mobile ser0ices attributes, specific
demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction will be analyEed with the linear regression
model$
!ccording to the SPSS package, the linear regression is used to model the 0alue of a dependent
scale 0ariable based on its linear relationship to one or more predictors$ The Model summary
table reports the strength of the relationship between the model and the dependent 0ariable$ LRM
0alue indicates the strength of relationship with larger 0alues indicating stronger relationship and
LR
4
M is the proportion of the 0ariation in the dependent 0ariable e/plained by the regression$
Both R and R
4
the regression procedure 0alues range from > to 9$
!ccording to .air et al$ "4>>1# independent 0ariables can be classified as ordinal or nominal
0ariable$ )rdinal 0ariable allows distinction and the distinction can uantify the differences
between the 0ariables$ '/ample includes age$ In this study to perform the data analysis, the age
:;
0ariable will be ranked from 9 to 1 with the least age group 9?A41 as 9 and the highest group ??A
21 ranked 1$
(ominal 0ariable allows distinction but the distinction can not uantify the differences between
the 0ariables$ '/amples include gender, location and employment, etc$ To be able to analyEe this
0ariable, dummy 0ariable will be used$ Dummy 0ariable is 0ariable representing nominal data
encoded numerically, using the > and 9 0alues$ 7or this study, gender 0ariable will ha0e 9
dummy 0ariable& male is 9 and female is >$ *ocation will ha0e : dummy 0ariables and
employment ha0ing 1 dummy 0ariables$
The answers to uestions rated L0ery satisfiedM, LsatisfiedM, LdissatisfiedM, L0ery dissatisfiedM
and Lno opinionM will be 0alued from 9 to 1 respecti0ely$
CHATER >
>.+ DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
>.+.+ FRE-UENCY STATISTICS
! total of :>> uestionnaires were administered and collected in four different locations of
*agos State, (igeria$ The data collected was analyEed with the Statistical Package for Social
Science "SPSS#$ Table :$9 presents the descripti0e statistics "freuency statistics# of the
independent 0ariables "demographics#$
!'r%'b0e* Fre;1e)c2 erce)$ C1m10'$%&e erce)$
A<e
[email protected] ;9 4>,8 4>,8
[email protected]>0 444 11,1 21,;
>[email protected] 1? 9:,> ;<,;
[email protected] 8: ;,1 <;,8
[email protected] 2 9,; 9>>,>
[email protected] ;9 4>,8 4>,8
Ge)/er
M'0e 9;? :?,1 :?,1
Fem'0e 49: 18,1 9>>,>
Em70(2me)$
:<
1b0%c 24 9;,> 9;,>
r%&'$e 9:4 81,1 18,1
Se03 99< 4<,; ;8,8
S$1/e)$ :< 94,8 <1,1
U)em70(2e/ 9; :,1 9>>,>
L(c'$%()
I:e#' 9>> 41,> 41,>
L'<(* I*0')/ 9>> 41,> 1>,>
M1*=%) 9>> 41,> 21,>
!%c$(r%' I*0')/ 9>> 41,> 9>>,>
>.+.2 ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
The dependent 0ariable "customer satisfaction# was analyEed with the descripti0e statistics
"freuency distribution#$ Table :$4 presents the result of the analyEed o0erall customer
satisfaction$
S'$%*3'c$%() Fre;1e)c2 erce)$ C1m10'$%&e erce)$
!er2 *'$%*3%e/ 4> 1,> 1,>
S'$%*3%e/ 44; 12,> ?4,>
D%**'$%*3%e/ 982 8:,8 <?,8
!er2
/%**'$%*3%e/
; 4,> <;,8
N( (7%)%() 2 9,1 9>>,>

1>

Very satisfied
satisfied
Dissatisfied
Very Dissatisfied
No Opinion
Satisfaction

The pieAchart represents the outcome of the analysis of the (igerian
customer satisfaction with the mobile telecoms ser0ices "freuency
distribution in percentage#$
7ig$ :$9 PieAchart representation of customer satisfaction$
This result demonstrates that 123 of the respondents are satisfied, and 13 0ery satisfied with the
mobile telecoms ser0ices in (igeria and hence, supports .
9
$ !lthough this score is slightly abo0e
a0erage, it is a fairly good assessment for a mobile telecoms sector that is barely 1 years old$
The interpretation of this result could be that (igerian customers are truly satisfied with the
mobile ser0ice performance and its impact$ In line with the adopted definition, this result showed
that customers are satisfied with their e/periences of use of the mobile ser0ices "ser0ices meet
e/pectation#$ This satisfaction measure could also result from lack of 0iable competitor that the
customers can compare ser0ices with andIor could be due to the fact that customers are kind of
new to satisfaction measurement and may not be able to e/press their perceptions well$ Thus,
there is need for routine customer satisfaction measurement to better capture customers
perceptions$
.owe0er, this result supports the pre0ious studies conducted on customer satisfaction of mobile
operators in 5ermany with 4;3 of the respondents satisfied "5erpott et al$, 4>>9#, the +nited
States B ?13 of the respondents were satisfied "!-SI, 4>>:#, and in -anada B 1:$?23 of the
respondents were satisfied "Turel and Serenko, 4>>?#$
19
>.2 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AMONG THE DEMOGRAHIC GROUS
The demographic 0ariables were analysed against customer satisfaction using the cross tab of the
descripti0e analysis to show assessments of customer satisfaction among 0arious categories of
the demographic 0ariables$ Table :$8 presents the outcome of the analysis$
Cr(** $'b10'$%()
,ariables ,ery
satisfied
Satisfied Dissatisfied ,ery
dissatisfied
(o
opinion
Tota
l
Satisfaction
"3#
Age
16-25 0 46 28 0 7 81 1?$;
26-40 4 144 66 8 0 222 ??$2
41-55 16 12 28 0 0 56 1>
56-65 0 19 15 0 0 34 11$;
66-75 0 7 0 0 0 7 9>>
Gender
Male 4 123 44 8 7 186 ?;$8
Female 16 105 93 0 0 214 1?$1
Em70(2me)$ 1b0%c 0 65 7 0 0 72 <>$8
r%&'$e 16 46 65 8 7 142 :8$2
Se03 0 62 57 0 0 119 14$9
S$1/e)$ 4 37 8 0 0 49 ;8$2
U)em70(2e/ 0 18 0 0 0 18 9>>
L(c'$%() Ikeja 0 63 37 0 0 100 ?8
Lagos island 4 60 32 4 0 100 ?:
M!s"in 7 60 33 0 0 100 ?2
#ictoria island 9 45 35 4 7 100 1:
Table :$: presents the result of the assessment of customer satisfaction in 4 categories of
demographic 0ariables$
,ariables Satisfaction "Mean# "3#
A<e Y(1)< ?9$;
O0/ ?;$?
Ge)/er M'0e ?;$8
Fem'0e 1?$1
Em70(2me)$ Em70(2e/ 24
U)em70(2e/ <9$<
14
L(c'$%() H%<= %)c(me 1;$1
L(9 %)c(me ?1$1
N($eC +oung , those under -., /ld , those over -.$ *mployed , those in public, private and self
employment, 0nemployed , students, unemployed "those seeking %obs, retired, etc#$ 1igh income
, 2ke%a and 3ictoria 2sland dwellers status, 4ow income , 4agos 2sland and 5ushin dwellers
status.
This result demonstrates that customer satisfaction le0el differs among the 0arious demographic
0ariables and hence, supports .
4
$ Githin the age groups, the old people are more satisfied than
the young people$ The low satisfaction of the young people could result from the fact that they
are more demanding as a result of their greater familiarity with mobile technologies and higher
tendency to complain than the old people$ This result supports the findings of Bryant et al$, 9<<?,
which reported that satisfaction increases with age and ma=or increase seen within the age of 11
and abo0eH the younger age groups are less satisfied than older age groups across all products
and ser0ices industries ",an!mburg, 4>>:#H ,enn and 7one "4>>1# reported that higher
satisfaction is significantly related with increasing ageH and Turel and Serenko "4>>?#, in their
study of mobile telecoms re0ealed that there is lower satisfaction le0el among young adults$
Githin the gender groups, this result re0ealed that male customers are more satisfied than the
female$ The higher satisfaction reported by the male customers may imply that they are well
satisfied with the impact of the ser0ice andIor the mobile telecoms boost their functional
acti0ities "businesses, sales, etc#, while for the female customers, their low satisfaction could be
due to less or no personal interaction with sales process "mobile subscription is through 0endors
and not directly from the operators, unlike the fi/ed telecoms# or less influence of mobile
telecoms on their relational acti0ities$ This result is in contrast with the findings of Bryant et al$
"9<<?#, who re0ealed that the female customers are more satisfied than the male customers
across all industriesH ,enn and 7one "4>>1# re0ealed that higher satisfaction is positi0ely related
to female gender$
18
The result also indicates that the unemployed customers are more satisfied that the employed
ones$ 'mployment relates to education$ +nemployment results from both lack of =obs for
ualified people and lack of education$ The higher satisfaction of the unemployed customers
could be that they are truly satisfied with the ser0ices irrespecti0e of their status or their
perception is a result of their le0el of education$ This study did not e/amine the influence of
education on satisfaction and future studies could in0estigate this$ !dditionally, this result
confirms the findings of ,enn and 7one "4>>1#, which reported higher satisfaction le0el among
unemployed customers$
!ccordingly, customers li0ing within the lowAincome areas are more satisfied than those in the
highAincome areas$ .ighAincome areas dwellers ha0e greater tendency to be more familiar with
information technologies and be more demanding and these factors could be responsible for the
low satisfaction obtained in the highAincome areas$ This result confirms the findings of Bryant et
al$ "9<<?# which reported that the higher the income, the lower the satisfaction$
>.8 FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
To e/plore the relationship between mobile ser0ices attributes and customer satisfaction, the
linear regression model was applied$ R and R
4
0alues range between > and 9 with larger 0alues
indicating stronger relationship$ The following subAsections present the results$
>.8.+ Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) )e$9(r: ;1'0%$2 ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$1 presents the result of the relationship between network uality and satisfaction$
Model Summary
Mode
l R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror
of the
'stimate
9 $?81"a# $:>: $:>4 $1824;
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, (etwork
This result indicates that there is a strong relationship between network uality and customer
satisfaction and thus, supports .
8$
The implication of this result is that network uality of the
1:
telephone ser0ices is the most significant of all the mobile ser0ice attributes in (igeria$
Secondly, the result means that the customers perception of network uality strongly influence
their perception of mobile operators and their satisfaction le0el$ 7rom my e/perience of *agos
State, network uality is 0ery good, especially in the ma=or cities such as the locations used in
this study but some times, climatic conditions such as rainfall, strong wind, etc affect the call
uality$ (etwork uality in0ol0es call clarity and co0erage and mobile operators should focus on
impro0ing network uality to create higher satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ 4 for full statistical
result$
>.8.2 Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) b%00%)< ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$? presents the result of the relationship between billing and satisfaction
Model Summary
Mode
l R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror
of the
'stimate
9 $:::"a# $9<2 $9<1 $?48:>
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, Billing
This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between billing and customer
satisfaction and thus, contradicts .
:$
This finding means that billing "pricing structure# has
negligible significance out of mobile ser0ices attributes in (igeria$ Secondly, the price paid to
access the mobile ser0ices has little influence on customer satisfaction le0el$ Thirdly, the finding
could indicate that billing is meaningless without aligning it with other mobile ser0ices
attributes$ Thus, mobile operators need to pro0ide reasonable pricing that are aligned with good
mobile ser0ices attributes to ma/imise satisfaction and routine satisfaction assessment should be
conducted$ *astly, this result may probably be due to the fact that the mobile technology is new
in the country and rapidly gaining acceptance$ Please see appendi/ 8 for full statistical result$
>.8.8 Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) &'0%/%$2 7er%(/ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$2 presents the result of the relationship between 0alidity period and satisfaction$
11
Model Summary
Mode
l
R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror
of the
'stimate
9 $:>9"a# $9?9 $91< $?82:<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,alidity period
This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between the 0alidity period and
customer satisfaction and thus, contradicts .
1
$ The re=ection of this finding also means that
0alidity period has negligible significance out of mobile ser0ices attributes in (igeria$ Secondly,
the result means that the duration to call and or recei0e calls after e0ery refill whether short or
long has little influence on customer satisfaction le0el$ Thirdly, the finding could indicate that
0alidity period is meaningless without aligning it with other mobile ser0ices attributes$ Thus,
mobile operators need to pro0ide reasonable 0alidity period that are aligned with good mobile
ser0ices attributes to ma/imise satisfaction and routine satisfaction e0aluation should be done$
*astly, this result may probably be due to the fact that the mobile technology is new in the
country and rapidly gaining acceptance$
7rom my e/perience, in (igeria, after e0ery refill, I ha0e less than 8> days 0alidity period to
make and recei0e calls, after this period, an additional 9 month is gi0en to recei0e calls and if no
refill is done within the period, the line is blocked and it will take calling the mobile operator
support ser0ice to reacti0ate and load credit$ .owe0er in Sweden, after e0ery refill, 0alidity
period is one year from the date of refill$ It is therefore interesting to obser0e that 0alidity period
has a weak influence on satisfaction of the (igeria mobile telecoms industry and this may be due
to the fact that the mobile telephony is the best telephony a0ailable$ Please see appendi/ : for
full statistical result$
>.8.> Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) (&er'00 c1*$(mer c're ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$; presents the result of the relationship between o0erall customer care and satisfaction$
Model Summary
1?
Mode
l R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror
of the
'stimate
9 $8<?"a# $912 $911 $?8;;2
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, o0erall customer care
This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between o0erall customer care and
customer satisfaction and thus, contradicts .
?
$ The implication of this result is that customer
care ser0ice has negligible significance out of mobile ser0ices attributes in (igeria$ Secondly,
customer care ser0ice has little influence on (igerian customers satisfaction le0el$ Thirdly, the
result could indicate that customer care ser0ice is meaningless without aligning it with other
mobile ser0ices attributes$ Thus, mobile operators need to pro0ide reasonable 0alidity period that
are aligned with good mobile ser0ices attributes to ma/imise satisfaction and routine satisfaction
e0aluation should be done$ *astly, this result may probably be due to the fact that the mobile
technology is relati0ely new in the country$
7rom my e/perience, at times it takes about an hour of holding your call to successfully make a
uery or lodge a complain and it is therefore interesting to obser0e that customer care ser0ice has
weak influence on satisfaction$ -ustomer care ser0ice whether good or bad is demonstrated by
this study to ha0e weak influence on satisfaction but its influence on other customer attitudes
"such as word of mouth# is not in0estigated$ 7uture study can conduct this in0estigation$ Please
see appendi/ 1 for full statistical result$
>.8.A Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) )e$9(r: ;1'0%$2D b%00%)<D &'0%/%$2 7er%(/D (&er'00 c1*$(mer
c're ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$ < presents the result between the combined mobile ser0ices attributes and satisfaction
Model Summary
Mode
l R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror
of the
'stimate
9 $?2?"a# $:12 $:14 $19:?<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, )0erall customer care, Billing, ,alidity period, (etwork uality
12
This result demonstrates that the interaction of the mobile ser0ices attributes ha0e a strong
relationship with customer satisfaction and thus, supports .
2
$ The interpretation of this finding is
that the aligned mobile ser0ices attributes is significant to the assessment of the customer
satisfaction with mobile ser0ices$ Therefore, customer satisfaction with (igerian mobile ser0ices
is a function of the assessment of network uality, billing, 0alidity period and customer care
ser0ice$ Thus, mobile operators should focus on impro0ing mobile ser0ices attributes to heighten
customer satisfaction$
This strong relationship outcome supports the findings of BooE, !llen and .amilton "9<<1#H
Danaher and Rust "9<<?#H Bolton "9<<;#H 5erpott "9<<;#H and Gilfert "9<<<#, which reported
that the aforementioned attributes are key dri0ers of the customer 0alue of the mobile ser0ices
and key factors affecting customer satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ ? for full statistical result$
>.> RELATIONSHI BETWEEN DEMOGRAHIC !ARIABLES AND CUSTOMER
SATISFACTION
To e/plore the relationship between demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction, the
linear regression model was applied$ R and R
4
0alues range between > and 9 with larger 0alues
indicating stronger relationship$ The following subAsections present the results$
>.>.+ Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<e ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$9> presents the result of the relationship between age and customer satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R
R
Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $94?"a# $>9? $>98 $?<>42
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, !ge
This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between age and customer satisfaction
and hence, contradicts .
;
$ The interpretation of the result is that age has a negligible impact on
customer perception of how well the mobile ser0ices meet needs and e/pectations$ This result
1;
could probable be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early
to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need
for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$
This result supports the findings of 6essie and Sheila "4>>9# and )yewole "4>>9# which reported
that age has a minimal influence on satisfaction and contradicts the findings of Pal0ia and Pal0ia
"9<<<#, *ightner "4>>8# and Turel and Serenko "4>>?# which reported that age is a significant
determinant of satisfaction with information technology and mobile telecoms industry$ Please see
appendi/ 2 for full statistical result$
>.>.2 Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) <e)/er ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$99 presents the result of the relationship between gender and customer satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $>8<"a# $>>4 A$>>9 $?<189
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender
This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between gender and customer
satisfaction and hence, contradicts .
<
$ The re=ection of the hypothesis means that gender has
negligible influence on customer perception of mobile ser0ices performance$ This result could
also probable be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early
to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need
for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$
This result supports the findings of 6essie and Sheila "4>>9# which reported that gender has a
minimal influence on satisfaction and contradicts the findings of )yewole "4>>9# which reported
that gender has significant influence on satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ ; for full statistical
result$
1<
>.>.8 Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) 0(c'$%() ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$94 presents the result of the relationship between location and customer satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $919"a# $>48 $>91 $?;<?:
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin

This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between location and customer
satisfaction and hence, contradicts .
9>
$ The implication of this finding is that location has
negligible influence on how customers percei0e ser0ice performance$ This result could as well be
due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such
relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine
assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ This result supports the findings of 6essie and Sheila
"4>>9# which reported that location has a minimal influence on satisfaction$ Please see appendi/
< for full statistical result$
>.>.> Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$98 presents the result of the relationship between employment and customer satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $884"a# $99> $><< $?1<29
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, Self, and Pri0ate employment
This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between employment type and
customer satisfaction and hence, contradicts .
99
$ This result means that employment status has
negligible impact on how customers e0aluate ser0ice performance$ This result could as well be
?>
due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such
relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine
assessment to in0estigate this relationship$
This result also contradicts the findings of )yewole "4>>9# and !hmad and Jamal "4>>4# which
reported that occupation has a significant influence on satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ 9> for
full statistical result$
>.>.A Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD <e)/er ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$9: presents the result of the relationship between age, gender and customer satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $9:9"a# $>4> $>91 $?;<28
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender, !ge
This result demonstrates that the interaction between age and gender 0ariables ha0e a weak
influence on customer satisfaction and thus, contradicts .
94$
The interpretation of this finding
indicates that age aligned with gender has negligible effect on customer perception of ser0ice
performance and like the pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state
of the mobile industry andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$
.owe0er, routine in0estigations are needed to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/
99 for full statistical result$
>.>.6 Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD 0(c'$%() ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$91 presents the result of the relationship between age, location and customer satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted R
Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $9<>"a# $>8? $>4? $?;1;>
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, !ge, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin
?9
This result indicates that the interaction of age and location 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on
customer satisfaction and hence, contradicts .
98$
This result contradiction means that age aligned
with location has negligible impact on customer assessment of ser0ice performance, and like the
pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state of the mobile industry
andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$ .ence, routine
e0aluation should be conducted to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 94 for full
statistical result$
>.>.B Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$ 9? presents the result of relationship between age, employment and satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted R
Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $821"a# $9:> $942 $?:<49
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, Self, Pri0ate employment and !ge
This result demonstrates that the interaction of the age and employment 0ariables ha0e a weak
influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .
9:$
This finding means that age aligned with
employment status has negligible effect on customer perception of how well mobile ser0ices
satisfy needs, and like the pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state
of the mobile industry andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$
Thus, routine assessment should be conducted to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see
appendi/ 98 for full statistical result$
>.>.E Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) <e)/erD 0(c'$%() ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$ 92 presents the result of the relationship between gender, location and satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $912"a# $>41 $>91 $?;<;:
?4
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin and 5ender

The result demonstrates that the interaction of gender and location 0ariables ha0e a weak
influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .
91$
The interpretation of this result is that
gender aligned with location has negligible impact on customer ratings of ser0ice performance,
and like the pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state of the mobile
industry andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$ Please see
appendi/ 9: for full statistical result$
>.>.F Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) <e)/erD em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$ 9; presents the result of the relationship between gender, employment and satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $8??"a# $98: $949 $?1929
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Self, Public, Pri0ate employment and 5ender
The result demonstrates that the interaction of gender and employment 0ariables ha0e a weak
influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .
9?$
This finding means that gender aligned
with employment status has negligible influence on how customers percei0e ser0ice
performance$ *ike the pre0ious results, this result could as well be due to the fact the mobile
telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the
study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this
relationship$ Please see appendi/ 91 for full statistical result$
>.>.+0 Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) 0(c'$%()D em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$ 9< presents the result of the relationship between location, employment and satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $822"a# $9:4 $94: $?1>4<
?8
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin, +nemployed, Student, Public,
Self, Pri0ate employment

The result demonstrates that the interaction of location and employment 0ariables ha0e a weak
influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .
92$
The implication of this result is that
location aligned with employment status has negligible influence on customer ratings of ser0ice
performance$ *ike the other pre0ious results, this result could as well be due to the fact the
mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship
because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to
in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 9? for full statistical result$
>.>.++ Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD <e)/erD 0(c'$%()D em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()
Table :$4> presents the result of the relationship between all demographic 0ariables and satisfaction
Model Summary
Model R R Suare
!d=usted
R Suare
Std$ 'rror of the
'stimate
9 $::8"a# $9<? $921 $?8994
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Self, Public, Pri0ate, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island,
Ike=a, Mushin, 5ender, !ge
The result demonstrates that the interaction of age, gender, location and employment 0ariables
ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .
9;$
This finding indicates that
the alignment of age, gender, location and employment factors ha0e negligible impact on how
(igerian customers percei0e ser0ice performance$ *ike the pre0ious results, this result could as
well be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to
establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need
for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 92 for full statistical
result$
?:
CHATER A
A.+ CONCLUSION
This study aims to in0estigate the customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms industry, factors
influencing satisfaction and the relationship between demographic 0ariables and customer
satisfaction in Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and ,ictoria Island, in *agos State, (igeria$
-ustomer satisfaction is an e/perienceAbased assessment made by customers how far their
e/pectations about the o0erall functionality of the ser0ices obtained from the mobile operators
ha0e been fulfilled$ Gith regards to customer satisfaction measurement, the results demonstrated
that customers are satisfied with the performance of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry$ The
interpretation of this result could be that (igerian customers are truly satisfied with the ser0ice
performance "satisfied with e/perience of the mobile ser0ices use# or their satisfaction results
from lack of competing ser0ices or it could be that the customers are new to satisfaction
measurement and may not be able to e/press their perceptions well$ The result also demonstrated
that customer satisfaction le0el differs among the specific demographic groups$ Githin the age
groups, the older customers were more satisfied than younger ones$ The low satisfaction of the
young customers could be due to greater familiarity with mobile technologies and are more
demanding$ The male customers showed more satisfaction than the female counterpart$ The high
satisfaction of the male customers could be due to the impact of the ser0ices on their functional
acti0ities$ The unemployed customers demonstrated more satisfaction than the employed ones
and the higher satisfaction of the unemployed group could be due to true satisfaction or low
knowledge of mobile technologies$ *astly, the lowAincome areas showed more satisfaction than
the highAincome areas$ The low satisfaction of highAincome areas customers could probably be
due to greater familiarity with information technologies and are more demanding$ .owe0er,
?1
mobile operators need to stri0e to ma/imiEe customer satisfaction which in turn can influence the
e/tent of loyalty and retention$
Gith regards to factors that influence satisfaction, network uality demonstrated a strong
influence on customer satisfaction$ The implication of this finding is that network uality is the
most significant of all the mobile ser0ices attributes and its uality strongly affect satisfaction$
Billing, 0alidity period and customer support showed weak influence on satisfaction$ These
results indicate that the e0aluation of these factors without alignment is meaningless and ha0e
weak impact on satisfaction$ The result also demonstrated that the combination of the mobile
ser0ices attributes has strong influence on satisfaction$ Thus, to increase customer satisfaction,
mobile operators should focus on impro0ing mobile ser0ices attributes by in0esting in euipment
to enhance call uality and co0erage, offer reasonable pricing and price discounts, offer
reasonable 0alidity period and enhance customer care through routine personnel training and
pro0ision of better customerAfriendly euipment$
Gith regards to influence of demographic 0ariables on satisfaction, the result showed that the
indi0idual 0ariables "age, gender, employment status and location# and their combination ha0e
weak influence on satisfaction$ These results mean that customers perceptions of how well the
mobile ser0ices meet their needs are not affected by these specific 0ariables$ .owe0er, since the
results showed different customer satisfaction le0els among the 0arious demographic groups,
mobile operators can stri0e to better understand these market segments and adopt marketing
strategies to better satisfy their different needs$
Broadly, the implication of this study for mobile operators is that operators should not =ust rely
on profit margins as a good indicator of business performance$ Rather, they should de0elop
strategies that better capture customers perceptions of their ser0ice offerings and these strategies
can compliment the internal perceptions of ser0ice offering$ -ustomer satisfaction strategy helps
companies to compare their performance against customer standards, compare customer
standards against internal process and identify opportunities for impro0ement$
??
Despite the potential contribution of this study, this study had four limitations$ 7irst, the
uestionnaire was selfAconstructed instead of adopting research standard such as S'[email protected]+!* and
this made analysis difficult and affected the reliability of the result$ Second, con0enience data
sample was used in this study and employment of random sample is necessary to =udge the
generaliEability of findings of any empirical in0estigation$ Thirdly, the different locations of
authors and inter0iewers made super0ision impossible and this robbed this study of potential
probe for any useful information$ *astly, lack of customer satisfaction study in (igeria$ This lack
robbed this study of possible comparism and insight$
Gith respect future pro=ects, there is need for cooperation between academic bodies and mobile
operators so as to achie0e better customerAoriented in0estigations$ 7uture studies can further
in0estigate the factors that affect satisfaction and loyalty "such as le0el of education, word of
mouth, life cycles and usage pattern of customers, switching barriers, etc#$
?2
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;>
AENDI" +
-UESTIONNAIRE
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION SUR!EY
This research work is a study to measure how well the Mobile Telecommunications Industry is
meeting your needs and know what needs to be impro0ed to increase your satisfaction$ %our
cooperation is well appreciated$ Thank you$
I)*$r1c$%()C
Please mark your answer with an LYM$

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;4
AENDI" 2
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
RELATIONSHI BETWEEN NETWORK 4CALL -UALITY5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model
Sum of
Suares df Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 22$;4> 9 22$;4> 4?<$1;8 $>>>"a#
Residual
99:$;<> 8<; $4;<
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, (etwork
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed
-oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 9$8:1 $>?< 9<$112 $>>>
(etwork
$1>> $>8> $?81 9?$:9< $>>>
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" 8
BILLING 4RICING5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model
Sum of
Suares df Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 8;$>81 9 8;$>81 <2$;?< $>>>"a#
Residual
91:$?21 8<; $8;<
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, Billing
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed
-oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 9$:1: $><< 9:$??> $>>>
Billing
$81? $>8? $::: <$;<8 $>>>
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" >
!ALIDITY ERIOD 4DURATION TO CALL AND RECEI!E CALLS5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model
Sum of
Suares df Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 8>$<?? 9 8>$<?? 2?$9<? $>>>"a#
Residual
9?9$2:: 8<; $:>?
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,alidity
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
;8
Model
+nstandardiEed
-oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 9$?<9 $>;? 9<$28: $>>>
,alidity
$848 $>82 $:>9 ;$24< $>>>
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" A
CUSTOMER CARE SER!ICES 40.C.C.S5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model
Sum of
Suares df Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 8>$4?? 9 8>$4?? 2:$91: $>>>"a#
Residual
9?4$::: 8<; $:>;
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, )$-$-$S
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed
-oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 9$442 $98; ;$;;8 $>>>
)$-$-$S
$1?9 $>?1 $8<? ;$?99 $>>>
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" 6
MOBILE SER!ICES ATTRIBUTES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model
Sum of
Suares df Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression ;;$>2: : 44$>9< ;8$94> $>>>"a#
Residual
9>:$?8? 8<1 $4?1
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, -ustomer care support, Billing, ,alidity period, (etwork uality
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
C(e33%c%e)$* 4'5
Model
+nstandardiEed
-oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# $;4> $98> ?$88> $>>>
(etwork
$8<? $>:> $1>8 9>$>9; $>>>
Billing
$4>> $>81 $41> 1$29: $>>>
,alidity
A$>9? $>8; A$>4> A$:4? $?2>
)$-$-$S
$944 $>?: $>;? 9$<48 $>11
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
RELATIONSHI BETWEEN DEMOGRAHIC !ARIABLES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
;:
AENDI" B
AGE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 8$>28 9 8$>28 ?$:1> $>99"a#
Residual
9;<$?82 8<; $:2?
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, !ge
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$1<1 $><> 4;$<;8 $>>>
!ge
A$><2 $>8; A$94? A4$1:> $>99
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" E
GENDER AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression $4<4 9 $4<4 $?>: $:8;"a#
Residual
9<4$:9; 8<; $:;8
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$8?> $>:; :<$?:; $>>>
5ender
$>1: $>2> $>8< $222 $:8;
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" F
LOCATIONS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression :$82> 8 9$:12 8$>?8 $>4;"a#
Residual
9;;$8:> 8<? $:2?
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model +nstandardiEed -oefficients StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$
;1
B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$4?> $>?< 84$229 $>>>
Ike=a R 9
$99> $><; $>?< 9$94; $4?>
*agos Is$
$9>> $><; $>?4 9$>41 $8>?
,ictoria Is$
$4<> $><; $9;9 4$<28 $>>8
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
'/cluded ,ariables "b#
Model Beta In t Sig$ Partial -orrelation -ollinearity Statistics
Tolerance
9 Mushin $"a# $ $ $ $>>>
a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" +0
EMLOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 49$481 1 :$4:2 <$21; $>>>"a#
Residual
929$:21 8<: $:81
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, Self, Pri0ate
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed
-oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients t Sig$
B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$819 $:?< 1$>98 $>>>
Public
A$412 $:?< A$9:4 A$1:; $1;:
Pri0ate
$412 $:?< $922 $1:; $1;:
Self
$94; $:28 $>;1 $424 $2;?
Student
A$4?< $:2; A$942 A$1?4 $12:
+nemployed
A$819 $:<: A$9>1 A$29> $:2;
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" ++
AGED GENDER AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 8$;:? 4 9$<48 :$>:4 $>9;"a#
Residual
9;;$;?: 8<2 $:2?
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender, !ge
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model +nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients t Sig$
;?
B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$128 $><9 4;$4:8 $>>>
!ge
A$9>? $>8< A$98; A4$288 $>>2
5ender
$><> $>2> $>?: 9$421 $4>8
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" +2
AGED LOCATIONS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression ?$<88 : 9$288 8$?;1 $>>?"a#
Residual
9;1$222 8<1 $:2>
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, !ge, *agos Island, Ike=a
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$:<1 $944 4>$:28 $>>>
!ge
A$><8 $>:> A$94> A4$881 $>4>
Ike=a
$>:4 $9>9 $>4? $:9< $?2?
*agos Is$
$>?9 $><; $>8; $?49 $181
,ictoria Is$
$41? $><; $9?> 4$?>2 $>><
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
'/cluded ,ariables "b#
Model Beta In t Sig$ Partial -orrelation
-ollinearity Statistics
Tolerance
9 Mushin $"a# $ $ $ $>>>
a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, !ge, *agos Island, Ike=a
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" +8
AGED EMLOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 42$>28 ? :$194 9>$2>? $>>>"a#
Residual
9?1$?82 8<8 $:49
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, !ge, Self, Pri0ate
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model +nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients t Sig$
B Std$ 'rror Beta
;2
9 "-onstant# 4$?29 $:?< 1$?<9 $>>>
!ge
A$9:8 $>8; A$9;1 A8$244 $>>>
Public
A$4?9 $:?9 A$9:1 A$1?? $124
Pri0ate
$4?9 $:?9 $9;> $1?? $124
Self
$99< $:?1 $>2; $41? $2<;
Student
A$8;< $:24 A$9;: A$;41 $:9>
+nemployed
A$4?; $:;2 A$>;> A$11> $1;8
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" +>
GENDERD LOCATIONS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression :$28< : 9$9;1 4$:<> $>:8"a#
Residual
9;2$<29 8<1 $:2?
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, 5ender, *agos Island, Ike=a R 9
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model
+nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients
t Sig$ B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$48< $>28 8>$?;8 $>>>
5ender
$>?8 $>24 $>:? $;;> $82<
Ike=a R 9
$>;2 $9>9 $>1: $;?8 $8;<
*agos Is$
$><> $><; $>1? $<44 $812
,ictoria Is$
$4;; $><; $9;> 4$<14 $>>8
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
'/cluded ,ariables "b#
Model Beta In t Sig$ Partial -orrelation -ollinearity Statistics
Tolerance
9 Mushin $"a# $ $ $ $>>>
a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Is$, 5ender, *agos Is$, Ike=a
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" +A
GENDERD EMLOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
;;
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 41$2<: ? :$4<< 9>$944 $>>>"a#
Residual
9??$<9? 8<8 $:41
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, 5ender, Student, Self, Public, Pri0ate
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model +nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients t Sig$
B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$84? $:?8 1$>49 $>>>
5ender
$482 $>24 $92> 8$42? $>>9
Public
A$::? $:?2 A$4:2 A$<11 $8:>
Pri0ate
$4>< $:?8 $9:: $:19 $?14
Self
$>11 $:?; $>8? $99; $<>?
Student
A$819 $:28 A$9?? A$2:4 $:1<
+nemployed
A$:9; $:;; A$941 A$;12 $8<4
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" +6
LOCATIONSD EMLOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 42$8?8 ; 8$:4> ;$>;; $>>>"a#
Residual
9?1$8:2 8<9 $:48
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, +nemployed, Student, Public, *agos Island, Self, Ike=a, Pri0ate
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model +nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients t Sig$
B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$98; $:?? :$1;: $>>>
Public
A$4<8 $:?8 A$9?4 A$?8: $14?
Pri0ate
$4<8 $:?8 $4>4 $?8: $14?
Self
$918 $:?? $9>> $842 $2::
Student
A$4?1 $:24 A$941 A$1?4 $12:
+nemployed
A$84? $:;2 A$><2 A$??< $1>:
Ike=a
$8>< $><< $9<4 8$99: $>>4
*agos Is$
$92: $><: $9>; 9$;:; $>?1
,ictoria Is$
$8>2 $><4 $9<4 8$841 $>>9
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
'/cluded ,ariables "b#
Model Beta In t Sig$ Partial -orrelation
-ollinearity Statistics
Tolerance
;<
9 Mushin $"a# $ $ $ $>>>
a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, +nemployed, Student, Public, *agos Island, Self, Ike=a, Pri0ate
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
AENDI" +B
AGED GENDERD LOCATIOND EMLOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
!(),! "b#
Model Sum of Suaresdf Mean Suare 7 Sig$
9 Regression 82$2?? 9> 8$222 <$:;9 $>>>"a#
Residual
91:$<:: 8;< $8<;
Total
9<4$29> 8<<
a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, ,ictoria Island, Student, 5ender, Self, *agos Island, !ge, Public, Ike=a, Pri0ate
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
-oefficients "a#
Model +nstandardiEed -oefficients
StandardiEed
-oefficients t Sig$
B Std$ 'rror Beta
9 "-onstant# 4$1;2 $:?? 1$119 $>>>
!ge
A$9?; $>:9 A$49; A:$>29 $>>>
5ender
$8>: $>2: $49; :$948 $>>>
Ike=a R 9
$991 $9>: $>24 9$><< $424
*agos Is$
$><1 $><8 $>1< 9$>44 $8>;
,ictoria Is$
$41> $><9 $91? 4$2?> $>>?
Public
A$1>> $:14 A$422 A9$9>? $42>
Pri0ate
$9<2 $:1> $98? $:8; $??4
Self
$>4> $:18 $>98 $>:: $<?1
Student
A$1:> $:?9 A$411 A9$9?< $4:8
+nemployed
A$882 $:2: A$9>9 A$294 $:22
a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
'/cluded ,ariables "b#
Model Beta In t Sig$ Partial -orrelation -ollinearity Statistics
Tolerance
9 Mushin $"a# $ $ $ $>>>
a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, +nemployed, ,ictoria Is, Student, 5ender, Self, *agos Is$, !ge, Public, Ike=a, Pri0ate
b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction
<>

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