MBA Thesis

Published on July 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 34 | Comments: 0 | Views: 197
of 90
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA.

Presented to Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Management, Ronneby, Sweden, in fulfilment of the re uirement for the Degree of Master of Business !dministration "MB!#$

B%&

DR$ '(I)*! S!M+'*

S+P'R,IS)R&

T)M MI-.'*

© December 2006

ABSTRACT -ustomer satisfaction is a fundamental marketing construct in the last three decades$ In the past, it was unpopular and unaccepted concept because companies thought it was more important to gain new customers than retain the e/isting ones$ .owe0er, in this present decade, companies ha0e gained better understanding of the importance of customer satisfaction "especially ser0ice producing companies# and adopted it as a high priority operational goal$ This study aimed at in0estigation the o0erall customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms industry in (igeria, factors influencing satisfaction and the relationship between satisfaction and demographics$ The results obtained in this research indicated that 123 of the respondents were satisfied and 13 highly satisfied$ The combination of network uality, billing, 0alidity period and customer support "mobile ser0ices attributes# showed strong relationship with satisfaction while age, gender, location and employment 0ariables showed weak relationship$

4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My sincere gratitude and appreciation to 5od, for the gift of life and lo0e$ I also wish to thank my super0isor, Tom Michel, for his suggestions and ad0ice and all the people "Marianne, 6ac ueline, Margarita, 7rank, etc# who made my stay in Sweden a wonderful e/perience$ 7inally, to my wife, Temitope, thank you for being a friend and all your supports$

8

TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page !bstract !cknowledgements Table of contents *ist of tables *ist of figures Preface CHA TER ONE 9$9 9$9$9 9$9$4 CHA TER TWO 4$9 4$9$9 4$9$9a 4$9$9b 4$9$9c 4$9$9d 4$4 CHA TER THREE 8$9 8$9$9 8$9$4 8$9$8 Research method Research framework Selection of inter0iewers Selection of respondents : :4 :4 :8 :: *iterature re0iew -ustomer satisfaction Definition !ntecedents !ssessment and benefits -onse uences Demographics and customer satisfaction 92 92 92 44 8> 81 8; Introduction Background )b=ecti0e and purpose of study 99 99 91 9 4 8 : 2 ; <

8$9$: 8$4 CHA TER FOUR :$9 :$9$9 :$9$4 :$4 :$8 :$8$9 :$8$4 :$8$8 :$8$: :$8$1

Research instrument Research design

:1 :;

Data analysis and discussion 7re uency statistics !nalysis of customer satisfaction -ustomer satisfaction among the demographic 0ariables 7actors influencing customer satisfaction Relationship between network uality and satisfaction Relationship between billing and customer satisfaction Relationship between 0alidity period and satisfaction Relationship between customer support and satisfaction Relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period, customer support and customer satisfaction

:< :< 1> 19 1: 1: 11 11 1? 12

:$: :$:$9 :$:$4 :$:$8 :$:$: :$:$1 :$:$? :$:$2 :$:$; :$:$< :$:$9> :$:$99

Relationship between demographic 0ariables and satisfaction Relationship between age and customer satisfaction Relationship between gender and customer satisfaction Relationship between location and customer satisfaction Relationship between employment and customer satisfaction Relationship between age, gender and satisfaction Relationship between age, location and satisfaction Relationship between age, employment and satisfaction Relationship between gender, location and satisfaction Relationship between gender, employment and satisfaction Relationship between location, employment and satisfaction Relationship between age, gender, location, employment 1

1; 1; 1< ?> ?> ?9 ?9 ?4 ?4 ?8 ?8 ?:

and customer satisfaction CHA TER FI!E 1$9 REFERENCE A ENDI"ES @uestionnaire 7ull details of the data analysis ;9 ;8 -onclusion ?1 ?;

!pp$ 9 !pp$ 4 A 92

?

LIST OF TABLES 8$9 :$9 :$4 :$8 :$: :$1 :$? :$2 :$; :$< )perational definitions 7re uency statistics -ustomer satisfaction fre uency statistics -ustomer satisfaction with the demographic groups -ustomer satisfaction in 4 categories of demographic groups Relationship between network uality and satisfaction Relationship between billing and satisfaction Relationship between 0alidity period and satisfaction Relationship between customer support and satisfaction Relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period, customer support and satisfaction :$9> :$99 :$94 :$98 :$9: :$91 :$9? :$92 :$9; :$9< :$4> Relationship between age and customer satisfaction Relationship between gender and customer satisfaction Relationship between location and customer satisfaction Relationship between employment and satisfaction Relationship between age, gender and satisfaction Relationship between age, location and satisfaction Relationship between age, employment and satisfaction Relationship between gender, location and satisfaction Relationship between gender, employment and satisfaction Relationship between location, employment and satisfaction Relationship between age, gender, location, employment and customer satisfaction 1; 1< ?> ?> ?9 ?9 ?4 ?4 ?8 ?8 ?: :2 :< 1> 19 14 1: 11 11 1? 12

2

LIST OF FIGURES 4$9 8$9 :$9 !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Model "!-SM# -onceptual structure of the study PieAchart representation of customer satisfaction 8: :8 1>

;

REFACE The 5lobal System of Mobile -ommunications "5SM# is a digital technology with a worldwide acceptance and plays an important role in the socioeconomic de0elopment of countries$ Thus, se0eral management e/perts ha0e paid research attention to this industry "one of the studies done concerns the customer satisfaction#$ -ustomer satisfaction is the assessment of the performance of a product or ser0ice by customers and this construct is important for successful business performance$ (igeria introduced the mobile telephony fi0e years ago and few studies ha0e been done on the benefits and impact of its mobile telecoms de0elopment$ .owe0er, there is no research done on the customer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry$ Therefore, there is need to create awareness among academic institutions, regulators and mobile operators of the importance of customers to the de0elopment of the industry$ Ob#ec$%&e A this study is aimed at in0estigating the customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms industry in (igeria, the factors that influence it and the relationship between demographic 0ariables and satisfaction$ L%m%$'$%()* B there is no a0ailable literature on customer satisfaction of the telecoms industry in (igeria to consult neither are the mobile operators willing to cooperate$ The summaries of the chapters of this study are as follow& -hapter 9 A Introduction& The 5SM technology began in 'urope and less than 9> years after it launch, it gained worldwide acceptance$ (igeria introduced the mobile telecoms in 4>>9 and despite its economic benefits, there is no research done on the customer satisfaction of its mobile telecoms$ This study in0estigated the customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms performance, factors influencing it and the significant relationship between demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction$ -hapter 4 A *iterature re0iew& In this study, customer satisfaction definition adopted is that of .omburg and Bruhn "9<<;# which is “an experience-based assessment made by the customer of <

how far his own expectations about the individual characteristics or the overall functionality of the services obtained from the provider have been fulfilled”. Its antecedent include customer need and e/pectation, percei0ed 0alue, ser0ice uality, internal satisfaction and complaint management$ The conse uences are customer loyalty, customer retention and profitability$ The benefits of this concept are repurchase propensity, word of mouth recommendation, low cost of transaction, etc$ -hapter 8 A Research method& :>> respondents were administered uestionnaires on the streets of : different locations of *agos State "Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and ,ictoria Island# in (igeria$ The uestionnaire contained 4 sections, ! and B$ Section ! contained uestions on age, gender, employment, location and section B contained uestions on call uality, billing, 0alidity period "duration of use#, customer care support and customer satisfaction e0aluation$ -hapter : A Data analysis and discussion& The data collected was analysed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences "SPSS#$ The assessment of customer satisfaction was done with descripti0e analysis and the relationship between mobile ser0ice attributes, demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction was analysed with the linear regression$ 123 of the respondents were satisfied and 13 0ery satisfied with mobile telecoms performance, network uality, billing, 0alidity period and o0erall customer care "mobile ser0ice attributes# demonstrated strong relationship with customer satisfaction while age, gender and employment 0ariables "demographics# showed weak relationship$ -hapter 1A -onclusion& Based on the results of the data analysis, mobile operators need to ma/imise customer satisfaction to enhance successful business performance and an important way to achie0e this is to impro0e on the mobile ser0ice attributes$ Secondly, mobile operators can establish different market segments and adopt strategies to satisfy needs of different customers$

9>

CHA TER ONE +.+ +.+.+ INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND

The 5lobal System of Mobile -ommunications "5SM# is a secondAgeneration digital technology, which was originally de0eloped in 'urope and in less than ten years after the commercial launch, it de0eloped into worldCs leading and fastest growing mobile standard "5SM !ssoc$, 4>>?#$ *onergan et al$ "4>>:# reported that at the beginning of 4>>:, there were o0er 9$8 billion mobile phone users worldwide and by 4>>2, the demand for mobile ser0ices would ha0e grown at an a0erage annual rate of <$93$ The 5SM !ssociation estimates that the 5SM technology is used by more than one in fi0e people of the worldDs population, representing appro/imately 223 of the worldCs cellular market and is estimated to account for 283 of the worldCs digital market and 243 of the worldCs wireless market "5SM !ssoc$, 4>>?#$ This growth principally results from the establishment of new networks in de0eloping countries rather than from an increase in mobile access lines in de0eloped countries "Serenko and Turel, 4>>?#$ !frican countries are acti0ely in0ol0ed in the establishment of the mobile ser0ices and specifically, (igeria is the focus of this study$ 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# wrote that since 9<<>s, the telecommunications sector has become an important key in the de0elopment of the economy of de0eloped countries$ This results from the saturated markets, deAregulation of telecommunications industry "remo0al of monopoly rights, especially en=oyed by stateAowned telecoms networks#, increasing number of mobile ser0ice pro0iders, enormous technical de0elopment and intense market competition$ SEyperski F *oebbecke "9<<<# wrote that this increasing economic importance and benefits of telecommunications firms moti0ated many management scholars "especially marketing e/perts# to de0ote attention to this sector$ Gilfert "9<<<#H 5erpott "9<<;#H and BooE$ !llen and .amilton "9<<1# pointed out that marketing strategies are 0ery important in telecommunications ser0ices because once customers ha0e subscribed to a particular telecommunications ser0ice pro0ider, 99

their longAterm link with this pro0ider is of greater importance to the success of the company than they are in other industry sectors$ .ence, ser0ice pro0iders need to form a continous lasting relationship with their customers to know them better and satisfy their needs ade uately$ Studies conducted to e/plore factors affecting satisfaction, loyalty and retention in mobile telecommunications industry include& 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# in0estigated customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention in the 5erman mobile telecommunications among ?;: respondents and reported that customer retention can not be e uated with customer loyalty andIor customer satisfaction, rather a twoAstage causal link can be assumed in which customer satisfaction dri0es customer loyalty which in turn has impacts on customer retention$ .owe0er, these three factors are important for superior economic success among telecommunication ser0ice pro0iders$ Jim et al$ "4>>:# in0estigated the effects of customer satisfaction and switching barrier on customer loyalty among 81> respondents in Jorea and reported that call uality, 0alueAadded ser0ices and customer support ha0e significant impact on customer satisfaction$ Thus, to ma/imiEe customer satisfaction, focus should be on ser0ice uality and customerAoriented ser0ices$ Switching barrier on the other hand is affected by switching costs "e$g$ loss cost, mo0eAin cost, and interpersonal relationships# and was re0ealed to ha0e an ad=ustment effect on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty$ Serenko and Turel "4>>?# in0estigated customer satisfaction with mobiles ser0ices in -anada and reported that percei0ed uality and percei0ed 0alue are the key factors influencing satisfaction with mobile ser0ices$ -ustomer care is reported to be negati0ely related to customer satisfaction, which means that a more satisfied customer is less prone to complain$ .ence, they concluded that customer satisfaction is the only single measure that better capture the range of ser0ices, prices and uality and moreso, this measure is an important performance indicator useful for both regulators and mobile ser0ice pro0iders$ In summary, these studies support the theory that highly satisfied customers stay longer, buy more, less sensiti0e to price increases from their pro0iders or price decreases from competitors$

94

(igeria, a de0eloping country, in 9<<4 introduced its first mobile phone ser0ices, through the =oint 0enture between (IT'* and DS* of -anada to form Mobile Telecommunications Ser0ice "MTS#, "(dukwe, 4>>1, pp 4?#$ In 6anuary 4>>9, the regulatory body (--, modernised and e/panded the mobile telecommunications network and ser0ices by granting 5SM license to three ser0ice pro0idersH MT( (igeria, 'conet Gireless "now ,mobile#, and the first national carrier, (IT'* "initially MTS, pri0atised to form Mtel#$ In 4>>4, the second national carrier, 5lobacom was also granted license to commence operation$ Since the launch of the 5SM, the number of subscribers in (igeria has greatly increased$ (dukwe "4>>1, pp 82A8;, :># reported that between 9<<; and 4>>>, the number of mobile lines was 81,>>> but grew to o0er 99 million as of March 4>>1, with a growth rate of more than a million lines annually since 4>>4$ This translated to an increase from the total density of >$: lines per 9>> inhabitants in 9<<; to <$:2 lines per 9>> inhabitants currently$ !dditionally, this sector has attracted an in0estment of o0er +S K; billion and has greatly increased the number of employed people directly "those working with the 5SM companies# or indirectly "this includes 0arious le0els of dealerships, cell phone 0endors, repair shops, suppliers of accessories, fi/ed and mobile call shops and street recharge card hawkers# ".off, 4>>?#$ The number of the employed people is reported to be o0er 8>>,>>> (igerians in 4>>1 "(dukwe, 4>>1#$ )ther benefits include easy, affordable and uick access to phone by different categories of the population, reduced fre uency of tra0elling, etc "!domi, 4>>8#, and all these benefits contribute to the socioA economic de0elopment of the country$ Based on the annual growth rate of the subscribers, and increasing teledensity, (igeria is one of the fastest growing telecoms market in !frica ".off, 4>>?#$ !dditionally, the population count of o0er 98> million people and 5DP per capita and PPP 0aluation of +S K9,22? "estimated in 4>>1# ")'-D, 4>>?# presents a massi0e growth potential for the mobile telecoms sector and the customer base is estimated to reach 48 million subscribers in 4>>2 and 84 million subscribers in 4>>< ".off, 4>>?#$ This anticipated increase in the customer base will translate into better social

98

and economic de0elopment, resulting from more financial in0estments from the ser0ice operators$ Despite the economic and social benefits of the mobile telecommunications to (igerian economy and market, unlike the de0eloped countries, there is no marketing or management research attention to this sector$ .owe0er, it is probable that the mobile operators conduct satisfaction sur0eys and other marketing research but contact with the mobile operators for any useful information yielded no response 9$ This limitation affected this study in that there are currently no literature materials on customer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry to consult$ The ma=ority of literature a0ailable "few in number# focuses on the study of the impact and de0elopment of the telecommunications, mobile telephony, communications, etc$ This lack of ade uate research in the mobile telecoms sector may pre0ent it from ac uiring knowledge useful for de0elopment$ !ccording to Serenko and Turel "4>>?#, customer satisfaction measurement addresses both users and public interests and such studies can assist in economic and social de0elopment$ Therefore, there is need to gain more understanding in the area of customer satisfaction$ 6ackson et al$ "9<<?#, Platow et al$ "9<<2#, and .omburg and 5iering "4>>9# e/pressed that customer beha0iours and attitudes are greatly influenced by demographic, situational, en0ironmental and psychological factors and these factors can be used by companies and policy makers to de0elop strategies to meet different needs of the different customer segments$ .ence, there is need to gain more understanding of the influence of these factors on customer satisfaction$

9 The author consulted the websites of the mobile operators to 0iew their 0arious customerAoriented practices and contacted their customer ser0ices departments through electronic mails to introduce the study, to confirm if they conduct customer satisfaction sur0eys and ask for any useful input, but yielded no response$

9:

+.+.2

OB,ECTI!ES AND UR OSE OF STUDY

The ob=ecti0e of this research work is to in0estigate& 9$ )0erall customer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry 4$ 7actors influencing customer satisfaction 8$ The link between certain demographic 0ariables "age, gender, type of employment and location# and customer satisfaction in the (igerian mobile telephone industry$ :$ +sing the results of the study to pro0ide strategies to impro0e the mobile telecoms industry$ In order to e/plore the aforementioned ob=ecti0es, this study adopts the following hypotheses&  -ustomer satisfaction of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry .9$ (igerian customers are satisfied with the mobile telecoms industry .4$ -ustomer satisfaction differs among 0arious groups of the demographic 0ariables "age, gender, employment type and locations#$  7actors influencing customer satisfaction .8$ There is a strong relationship between network uality and customer satisfaction .:$ There is a strong relationship between billing and customer satisfaction .1$ There is a strong relationship between 0alidity period and customer satisfaction .?$ There is a strong relationship between customer care support and customer satisfaction .2$ There is a strong relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period, customer care support and customer satisfaction  Relationship between certain demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction .;$ There is a strong relationship between age and customer satisfaction .<$ There is a strong relationship between gender and customer satisfaction .9>$ There is a strong relationship between location and customer satisfaction .99$ There is a strong relationship between employment and customer satisfaction

91

.94$ There is a strong relationship between age, gender and customer satisfaction .98$ There is a strong relationship between age, location and customer satisfaction .9:$ There is a strong relationship between age, employment and customer satisfaction .91$ There is a strong relationship between gender, location and customer satisfaction .9?$ There is a strong relationship between gender, employment and customer satisfaction .92$ There is a strong relationship between location, employment and customer satisfaction .9;$ There is a strong relationship between age, gender, location, employment and customer satisfaction The purpose of this research is to& 9$ +nderstand customer satisfaction with the performance of the (igerian mobile telephone industry$ 4$ Identify factors that influence customer satisfaction in (igeria$ This study was conducted by administering :>> uestionnaires in : different locations "9>> uestionnaires per location# of *agos State, (igeria, the commercial centre of the country$ Most business transactions ha0e been carried out in this State since the colonial era and most industries ha0e their head uarters sited here$ The locations includeH Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and ,ictoria Island$ The limitations encountered in this study include& 9$ *ack of a0ailable literature on customer satisfaction of the mobile telephone industry or any other industry in (igeria$ 4$ *ack of cooperation from the mobile telephone operators$

9?

CHA TER TWO 2.+ 2.+.+ LITERATURE RE!IEW CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

-ustomer satisfaction, as a construct, has been fundamental to marketing for o0er three decades$ !s early as 9<?>, Jeith "9<?># defined marketing as Lsatisfying the needs and desires of the consumer”. .unt "9<;4# reported that by the 9<2>s, interest in customer satisfaction had increase to such an e/tent that o0er 1>> studies were published$ This trend continued and by 9<<4, Peterson and Gilson estimated the amount of academic and trade articles on customer satisfaction to be o0er 91,>>>$ Se0eral studies ha0e shown that it costs about fi0e times to gain a new customer as it does to keep an e/isting customer "(aumann, 9<<1# and this results into more interest in customer relationships$ Thus, se0eral companies are adopting customer satisfaction as their operational goal with a carefully designed framework$ .ill and !le/ander "4>>># wrote in their book that Lcompanies now have big investment in database marketing, relationship management and customer planning to move closer to their customers”. 6ones and Sasser "9<<1# wrote that Lachieving customer satisfaction is the main goal for most service firms todayM$ Increasing customer satisfaction has been shown to directly affect companiesC market share, which leads to impro0ed profits, positi0e recommendation, lower marketing e/penditures "Reichheld, 9<<?H .eskett et al$, 9<<2#, and greatly impact the corporate image and sur0i0al "PiEam and 'llis, 9<<<#$

2.+.+'

DEFINITION

Parker and Mathew "4>>9# e/pressed that there are two basic definitional approaches of the concept of customer satisfaction$ The first approach defines satisfaction as a process and the

92

second approach defines satisfaction as an outcome of a consumption e/perience$ These two approaches are complementary, as often one depends on the other$ -ustomer satisfaction as a process is defined as an evaluation between what was received and what was expected ")li0er, 9<22, 9<;9H )lson and Do0er, 9<2<H Tse and Gilton, 9<;;#, emphasizing the perceptual, evaluative and psychological processes that contribute to customer satisfaction ",a0ra, 9<<2, p$ :#$ Parker and Mathews "4>>9# howe0er noted that the process of satisfaction definitions concentrates on the antecedents to satisfaction rather than satisfaction itself$ Satisfaction as a process is the most widely adopted description of customer satisfaction and a lot of research efforts ha0e been directed at understanding the process approach of satisfaction e0aluations "Parker and Mathews, 4>>9#$ This approach has its origin in the discrepancy theory "Porter, 9<?9#, which argued that satisfaction is determined by the perception of a difference between some standard and actual performance$ -ardoEo "9<?1#H and .oward and Sheth "9<?<# de0eloped the contrast theory, which showed that consumers would e/aggerate any contrasts between e/pectations and product e0aluations$ )lsha0sky and Miller "9<24#H and )lson and Do0er "9<2<# de0eloped the assimilation theory, which means that percei0ed uality is directly increasing with e/pectations$ !ssimilation effects occur when the difference between e/pectations and uality is too small to be percei0ed$ !nderson "9<28# further de0eloped this theory into assimilationAcontrast theory, which means if the discrepancy is too large to be assimilated then the contrast effects occur$ The assimilationA contrast effects occur when the difference between e/pectations and uality is too large to be percei0ed and this difference is e/aggerated by consumers$ !ccording to Parker and Mathews "4>>9#, the most popular descendant of the discrepancy theories is the e/pectation disconfirmation theory ")li0er, 9<22, 9<;9#, which stated that the result of customersC perceptions of the difference between their perceptions of performance and their e/pectations of performance$ Positi0e disconfirmation leads to increased satisfaction, with 9;

negati0e disconfirmation ha0ing the opposite effect$ %i "9<<># e/pressed that customers buy products or ser0ices with preApurchase e/pectations about anticipated performance, once the bought product or ser0ice has been used, outcomes are compared against e/pectations$ If the outcome matches e/pectations, the result is confirmation$ Ghen there are differences between e/pectations and outcomes, disconfirmation occurs$ Positi0e disconfirmation occurs when product or ser0ice performance e/ceeds e/pectations$ Therefore, satisfaction is caused by positi0e disconfirmation or confirmation of customer e/pectations, and dissatisfaction is the negati0e disconfirmation of customer e/pectations "%i, 9<<>#$ Ghile se0eral studies support the disconfirmation paradigm, others do not$ 7or instance, -hurchill and Surprenant "9<;4# found that neither disconfirmation nor e/pectations had any effect on customer satisfaction with durable products$ Geiner "9<;>, and 9<;1#H and 7olkes "9<;:# proposed the attribution theory, which stated that when a customer purchases a product or ser0ice, if the consumption is below e/pectation, the customer is con0inced that the supplier causes the dissatisfaction$ The complaining customer is focused on restoring =ustice and the satisfaction outcome is dri0en by percei0ed fairness of the outcome of complaining$ Gestbrook and Reilly "9<;8# proposed the 0alueApercept theory, which defines satisfaction as an emotional response caused by a cogniti0eAe0aluati0e process, which is the comparison of the product or ser0ice to oneDs 0alues rather than an e/pectation$ So, satisfaction is a discrepancy between the obser0ed and the desired$ 7isk and %oung "9<;1#H Swan and )li0er "9<;1# proposed the e uity theory, which stated that indi0iduals compare their input and output ratios with those of others and feel e uitable treated$ ' uity =udgement is based on two stepsH first, the customer compares the outcome to the input and secondly, performs a relati0e comparison of the outcome to the other party$ PiEam and 'llis "9<<<# reported that there are two additional distinct theories of customer satisfaction apart from the se0en aforementioned ones and these include& 9<

9$ -omparisonAle0el 4$ 5eneraliEed negati0ityH and The outcome approach of the customer satisfaction is defined as the endAstate satisfaction resulting from the e/perience of consumption$ This postA consumption state can be an outcome that occurs without comparing e/pectations ")li0er, 9<<?#H or may be a cogniti0e state of reward, an emotional response that may occur as the result of comparing e/pected and actual performance or a comparison of rewards and costs to the anticipated conse uences ",a0ra, 9<<2, p$ :#$ 7urthermore, Parker and Mathews "4>>9# e/pressed that attention has been focused on the nature of satisfaction of the outcome approach which include& 9$ 'motion A Satisfaction is 0iewed as the surprise element of product or ser0ice purchase and or consumption e/periences ")li0er, 9<;9#, or is an affecti0e response to a specific consumption e/perience "Gestbrook and Reilly, 9<;8#$ This acknowledges the input of comparati0e cogniti0e processes but goes further by stating that these may be =ust one of the determinants of the affecti0e LstateM satisfaction "Park and Mathews, 4>>9#$ 4$ 7ulfillment BThe theories of moti0ation state that people are dri0en by the desire to satisfy their needs "Maslow, 9<:8# or by their beha0iour aimed at achie0ing the rele0ant goals ",room, 9<?:#$ .owe0er, satisfaction can be either way 0iewed as the endApoint in the moti0ational process$ Thus Lconsumer satisfaction can be seen as the consumer's fulfillment responseM "Rust and )li0er, 9<<:, p$ :#$ 8$ State B )li0er "9<;<# e/pressed that there are four framework of satisfaction, which relates to reinforcement and arousal$ L atisfaction-as-pleasureM results from positive reinforcement, where the product or service is adding to an aroused resting state, and Lsatisfaction-as-reliefM results from negative reinforcement $In relation to arousal, low arousal fulfillment is defined as Lsatisfaction-as contentmentM, a result of the product or service performing ade!uately in an

4>

ongoing passive sense$ .igh arousal satisfaction is defined as Lsatisfaction as either positive "delight# or negative surpriseM which could be a shock "Rust and )li0er, 9<<:#$ The other customer satisfaction definitions include& Satisfaction is “the cognitive state of the buyer about the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the reward received in exchange for the service experienced ".oward and Seth, 9<?<, pp$ 9:1#$ the evaluation of emotions ".unt, 9<22, p$ :?>#$ the favorability of the individual's sub%ective evaluation "Gestbrook, 9<;>, p$ :<#H a positive outcome from the outlay of scarce resources "Bearden and Teel, 9<;8a, p$ 49#H an overall customer attitude towards a service provider "*e0es ue and McDougall, 9<<?, pp$9:#H is a %udgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provided "or is providing# a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment, included levels of under- or overfulfillment ")li0er,9<<2, p$ 98#$ is an experience-based assessment made by the customer of how far his own expectations about the individual characteristics or the overall functionality of the services obtained from the provider have been fulfilled ".omburg and Bruhn, 9<<;#H the fulfillment of some need, goal or desire ")li0er, 9<<<#H an emotional reaction to the difference between what customers anticipate and what they receive "Nineldin, 4>>>#H is based on a customer&s estimated experience of the extent to which a provider&s services fulfill his or her expectations "5erpott et al$ 4>>9#M$ 7or this study, customer satisfaction definition used is that of .omburg and Bruhn "9<<;# which is “an experience-based assessment made by the customer of how far his own expectations about the individual characteristics or the overall functionality of the services obtained from the provider have been fulfilled”. The rele0ance of this definition to this study is that it indicates that customers assess the mobile ser0ices based on e/perience of use and the rating is done in accordance with the mobile ser0ices attributes$ In this study, customer satisfaction with the (igerian mobile ser0ices will be e0aluated based on customers e/perience of network uality, billing, 0alidity period and customer care support$ 49

2.+.+b

ANTECEDENTS

Taylor and Baker "9<<:# and Rust and )li0er "9<<:# identified se0eral factors that precede customer satisfaction and suggested that these factors strongly influence the e/tent of customer satisfaction$ Some of these antecedents include&

CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF CUSTOMER NEEDS AND E" ECTATIONS The achie0ement of a strong customer satisfaction is closely related to the understanding customer needs and e/pectations "Gilliam and Bertsch, 9<<4#$ !ccording to the Jano Model "4>>9#, customer needs can be di0ided into& • Basic needs B ob0ious needs of customers and if not met, he is dissatisfied, howe0er meeting this needs may not be enough for customer satisfaction$ Its satisfaction results in Lmust be !ualityM$ • '/pected needs B these are important needs that customers are fully aware of and satisfaction is e/pected in e0ery purchaseH their satisfaction creates Lexpected !ualityM$ • '/citement needs B these are unconscious and unspoken needs of customers$ By identifying and satisfying such needs, companies will ha0e added large 0alue to customers and can win loyal customers$ This satisfaction creates Lattractive !ualityM$ Studies that supported the notion that e/pectations precede satisfaction include& !nderson, 7ornell and *ehmann "9<<:#, who conducted in0estigation on Swedish firms and reported that there is a positi0e and significant relationship between e/pectations and customer satisfaction$ They describe e/pectation as an accumulation of information about uality from the outside sources "e$g$ ad0ertising, word of mouth and general media# and past e/periences$ -adotte, Goodruff, and 6enkins "9<;2# conducted in0estigation on food restaurant and reported that

44

e/pectation is significantly correlated with satisfaction$ !dditionally, e/pectation is a preA purchase choice process and form a part of e0aluation standards of conceptualiEing satisfaction process$ -hurchill and Suprenant "9<;4# conducted in0estigation on durable good "0ideo disc player# and nonAdurable good "hybrid plant#$ 7or the hybrid plant study, e/pectation is reported to ha0e a direct impact on satisfaction$ )li0er "9<;9# conducted in0estigation on retail stores and reported that e/pectation has direct influence on satisfaction$ .owe0er, there are other research works that disagree with this finding, e/amples include& -hurchill and Suprenant "9<;4# in their in0estigation on 0ideo disc player, reported e/pectation to ha0e no impact on satisfaction$ Spreng and )l0sha0sky "9<<8# conducted in0estigation on cameras and reported that there is no significant relationship between these two 0ariables$ Gith this aforementioned literature, it is noted that customers purchase ser0ices based on their needs and ha0e e/pectations that the purchased ser0ices will meet their needs$ -ustomers in turn assess the ser0ice performance in accordance to how well it meets their e/pectations$ !lthough, customer e/pectation is not a focus of this study, howe0er satisfaction measurement is useful to understand customer e/pectations "since most times assessment is done by customers based on past e/periences and future beliefs of ser0ice performance#$

ERCEI!ED !ALUE Percei0ed 0alue is defined as “the results or benefits customers receive in relation to total costs "which include the price paid plus other costs associated with the purchase# or the consumers' overall assessment of what is received relative to what is given” ".olbrook,9<<: and Neithaml, 9<;;#$ !dditionally, Neithaml "9<;;# found out that customers who percei0e that they recei0e 0alue for money are more satisfied than customers who do not percei0e they recei0e 0alue for money$ Se0eral studies ha0e shown that percei0ed 0alue is significant determinant of customer satisfaction "!nderson et al$ "9<<:#H Ra0ald and 5ronroos "9<<?#H and McDougall and *e0es ue, 48

4>>>#$ Turel and Serenko "4>>?# in their in0estigation of mobile ser0ices in -anada suggested that the degree of percei0ed 0alue is a key factor affecting customer satisfaction$ Past research studies suggested that there are four features, which are key dri0ers of the customer 0alue of cellular ser0ices& network uality, price, customer care, and personal benefits "BooE, !llen F .amilton, 9<<1, Danaher F Rust, 9<<?H Bolton, 9<<;H 5erpott, 9<<;H Gilfert, 9<<<#$ • The network uality refers to e/cellent indoor and outdoor co0erage, 0oice clarity, and no connection breakdowns$ • • Price refers to what is paid to obtain access to use the network$ -ustomer care refers to the uality of the information e/changed between customer and supplier or network pro0ider in response to en uiries and other acti0ities initiated by the network pro0ider, for e/ample presentation of in0oices$ • Personal benefits refer to the le0el of perception of the benefits of mobile communications ser0ices by indi0idual customers$ It is apparent from this re0iew that one of the factors customers use to determine satisfaction le0el is the benefits recei0ed from a product or ser0ice in comparism with what is spent$ Percei0ed 0alue is not a focus of this study "howe0er customer satisfaction e0aluation captures percei0ed 0alueH the assessment shows what consumers 0alue in the ser0ice recei0ed#$ The suggested mobile ser0ices attributes "features# will be used to assess customer satisfaction in this study$

SER!ICE -UALITY !nother factor that contributes to satisfaction is ser0ice uality$ Ser0ice uality is defined as “the difference between customer expectations and perceptions of service” or “as the customers& satisfaction or dissatisfaction formed by their experience of purchase and use of the service” "5ronroos, 9<;: and Parasuraman et al$9<;;#$

4:

)li0er "9<<8# reported that ser0ice uality is a casual antecedent of customer satisfaction, due to the fact that ser0ice uality is 0iewed at transactional le0el and satisfaction is 0iewed to be an attitude$ Dabholkar et al$ "9<<?# and Neithaml et al$ "9<<?# reported that the ser0ice uality di0isions are related to o0erall ser0ice uality and or customer satisfaction$ 7ornell et al$, "9<<?# e/pressed that satisfaction is a conse uence of ser0ice uality$ .urley and 'stelami "9<<;# argued that there is causal relationship between ser0ice uality and satisfaction, and that the perceptions of ser0ice uality affect the feelings of satisfaction$ There are 0arious classifications of the components of ser0ice uality in marketing science$ 5ronroos "9<;:# stated that Lin service environments, customer satisfaction will be built on a combination of two kinds of !uality aspects$ technical and functional M$ Technical uality or uality of the output corresponds to traditional uality of control in manufacturing$ It is a matter of properly producing the core benefit of the ser0ice$ 7unctional uality or process uality is the way the ser0ice is deli0ered$ It is the process in which a customer is a participant and coA producer, and in which the relationship between ser0ice pro0ider and customer plays an important role "Giele et al$, 4>>4#$ Technical uality is related to what customer gets "transaction satisfaction#H functional uality is related to how the customer gets the result of the interaction "relationship satisfaction#$ *ewis "9<;2# suggested that ser0ice uality can be classified as essential and subsidiary$ 'ssential refers to the ser0ice offered and subsidiary includes factors such as accessibility, con0enience of location, a0ailability, timing and fle/ibility, as well as interactions with the ser0ice pro0ider and other customers$ The classification can also be the core "contractual# of the ser0ice, and the relational "customerA employee relationship# of the ser0ice$ The core or the outcome uality, which refers to what is deli0ered and the relational or process uality, which refers to how it is deli0ered are the basic elements for most ser0ices$ "5rOnroos, 9<;1H McDougall and *e0es ue, 9<<4H Parasuraman et al$, 9<<9bH Dabholkar et al$, 9<<?#$ 41

McDougall and *e0es ue "4>>># in their direct approach in0estigation on four ser0ice firms "dentist clinic, automobile shop, restaurant, and haircut salon# demonstrated that both core and relational ser0ice uality classes ha0e significant impact on customer satisfaction$ .eskett et al$ "9<<2# conducted studies on se0eral ser0ice firms, such as airline, restaurants, etc and reported that ser0ice uality, solely defined as relational uality, has consistent effect on satisfaction and is regarded as key factor in deli0ering customer satisfaction$ Parasuraman et al$ "9<;;# identified fi0e dimensions of ser0ice uality "S'R,@+!*# that must be present in any ser0ice deli0ery$ S'R,@+!* helps to identify clearly the impact of uality dimensions on the de0elopment of customer perceptions and the resulting customer satisfaction$ S'R,@+!* include& • • • Reliability A the ability to perform the promised ser0ices dependably and accurately$ Responsi0eness A the willingness to help customers and pro0ide prompt ser0ice$ !ssurance A the knowledge and courtesy of employees as well as their ability to con0ey trust and confidence$ • • 'mpathy A the pro0ision of caring, indi0idualiEed attention to customers, and Tangibles A the appearance of physical facilities, e uipment, personnel and communication materials$ The model conceptualiEes ser0ice uality as a gap between customerDs e/pectations "'# and the perception of the ser0ice pro0idersD performance "P#$ !ccording to Parasuraman et al$ "9<;1#, Lservice !uality should be measured by subtracting customer's perception scores from customer expectation scores "' ( ) - *#M$ The greater the positi0e score mark means the greater the positi0e amount of ser0ice uality or the greater the negati0e score mark, the greater the negati0e amount of the ser0ice uality$ Neithaml et al$ "9<<># proposed a comprehensi0e perception of uality assessment and claimed that they are other factors apart from the dimensions of Parasuraman et al$ "9<;;#&

4?



!ccess B how easy it is to come into contact with the supplier$ This is where position, opening hours, supplier a0ailability, and other technical facilities belong$



-ommunication B the ability to communicate in an understandable way that is natural to customer$

• •

-redibility B referring to being able to trust the supplier -ourtesy B refers to the supplierCs beha0iour, e$g$ politeness and kindness

Parasuraman et al$ "9<;;#, assurance dimension is a combination of the credibility and courtesy dimensions of Neithaml et al$ "9<<>#$ PiEam and 'llis "9<<<# stated that the gap that may e/ist between the customersD e/pected and percei0ed ser0ice uality is a 0ital determinant of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and not =ust only a measure of the uality of the ser0ice$ Pre0ious studies on mobile telecommunication ser0ices, measured ser0ices uality by call uality, pricing structure, mobile de0ices, 0alueAadded ser0ices, con0enience in procedures, and customer support "Jim, 4>>>H 5erpott et al$, 4>>9H *ee, *ee, F 7reick, 4>>9). -ustomers determine satisfaction le0el of any purchased ser0ice by the perceptions of uality recei0ed$ Therefore, customer satisfaction assessment captures ser0ice uality and in this study, the pre0ious factors used to measure ser0ice uality "call uality, billing, customer support, etc# of mobile telecoms will be used to assess customer satisfaction$

INTERNAL SATISFACTION Research works ha0e shown the importance and the link of internal "employee# satisfaction to the e/ternal "customer# satisfaction$ .ill and !le/ander "4>>># stated that there is a positi0e relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction and this is achie0ed in companies that practice employee moti0ation and loyalty$ They reported that “employees that are more motivated to achieve customer satisfaction tend to be more flexible in their approach to

42

their work, make fewer mistakes and use more initiative”$ 7ePiko0Q "4>>:# conducted studies on the inde/ method for customer satisfaction measurement with chairs in Slo0akia and reported that the satisfaction of internal customers is one of the basic factors to satisfy the e/ternal customer$ Thus, she suggested that employee moti0ation and loyalty can be achie0ed through& • • • Daily leadership B Top management officials moti0ate others through their performance$ Top management communicates their e/pectations to the employees$ De0elopment of competencies B feedback on employees performance, work efforts, opportunity for de0elopment and impro0ement of competencies$ • • -orporation and employee retention, and 5ood working conditions

COM LAINT MANAGEMENT !lbrecht and Nemke "9<;1# found that of the customers who register complaints, between 1:3 and 2>3 will do business again with the company if their complaints are resol0ed$ This figure increases to <13 if the customer feels that the complaint was resol0ed promptly$ -ustomers who ha0e complained to a company and had their complaints satisfactorily resol0ed tell an a0erage of fi0e people about the good treatment they recei0ed$ .art, et al$, 9<<>, reported that when the ser0ice pro0ider accepts responsibility and resol0es the problem when customers complain, the customer becomes LbondedM to the company$ Mc(eale "9<<:# found out that about 13 of the dissatisfied customers actually complain to the appropriate companies but easily tell their friends, colleagues and ac uaintances about their e/periences$ Thus, companies ought to be aware or routinely in0estigate how well or badly their customers are treated$ )0enden "9<<1# in his book about studies conducted on se0eral companies in the +J, such as wholesaler, manufacturers, etc, argued that companies need to be

4;

aware how well or badly its customers are treated and that customers rarely complain and when they do, it might be too late to keep such customers$ *e0es ue and McDougall "9<<?# in their case study on retail banking found out that if a ser0ice problem or customer complaint is ill or not properly handled, it has a substantial impact on the customerCs attitude towards the ser0ice pro0ider$ .owe0er, the study did not support the notion that good customer complaint management leads to increased customer satisfaction$ They reported that “at best, satisfactory problem recovery leads to the same level of customer satisfaction as if a problem had not occurred”$ (yer "4>>># e/pressed that encouraging customers to complain increased their satisfaction and especially the most dissatisfied customers and stated that Lthe more a customer complains the greater the increases in satisfactionM$ 6ohnston "4>>9# reported that complaint management, not only results into increased customer satisfaction, but also leads to operational impro0ement and impro0ed financial performance$ )ther suggested antecedents of customer satisfaction include& disconfirmation paradigm "%i, 9<<>, and SEymanski and .enard, 4>>9#H performance "-adotte, et al$, 9<;;, and Bolton and Drew, 9<<9#H affects "Gestbrook and )li0er, 9<<9 and Mano and )li0er, 9<<8#H and e uity ")li0er, 9<<8 and 9<<2#$ In summary, the rele0ance of this subAsection to this study is to& • Better understanding that customers assess ser0ice performance based on their past e/periences, benefits recei0ed, ser0ice uality and how well ueries and complaints are treated$ Thus, customer satisfaction with the mobile ser0ices in (igeria will be assessed based on network uality, billing, 0alidity period and customer care support and the following hypotheses are adopted&  (igerian customers are satisfied with the mobile telecoms industry  There is a strong relationship between network uality and customer satisfaction

4<

 There is a strong relationship between billing and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between 0alidity period and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between customer care support and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between network uality, billing, 0alidity period, customer care support and customer satisfaction

2.+.+c

ASSESSMENT AND BENEFITS

(aumann "9<<1# e/pressed that the reasons for measuring customer satisfaction may 0ary among companies, and the success of the measurement depends on if the measurement is incorporated into the firmDs corporate culture or not$ .owe0er, he suggested fi0e reasons for measuring customer satisfaction or fi0e important roles of customer satisfaction measurement& • To get close to the customer B this will help to understand customers more, their needs, the attributes that are most important, and their effect on the customerDs decision making, the relati0e importance of the attributes and the performance e0aluation of the firm deli0ery of each attribute$ This process helps to pro0ide enabling communication with customers$ • Measure continuous impro0ement A the important attributes of customers can be incorporated into the internal measurement to e0aluate the 0alueAadded process in the company$ This process in0ol0es comparing performance against internal standards "process control and impro0ement#, and comparing performance against e/ternal standards "benchmarking#$ • To achie0e customerAdri0en impro0ement B the data collected from customers can be de0eloped into sources of inno0ations and this can help to achie0e customer dri0en

8>

impro0ement$ This re uires a comprehensi0e database and not =ust records of sales$ This process helps to identify opportunities for impro0ement " uality costing#$ • To measure competiti0e strengths and weaknesses A determine customer perceptions of competiti0e choices and companies$ • To link customer satisfaction measurement data to internal system

The market share is not a guage to measure customer satisfactionH rather it represents uantity of customers$ -ustomer satisfaction is a measure of attitudes and perceptions of the uality and performance of a ser0ice "Bhote, 9<<?#$ 'd0ardson and 5ustafsson "9<<<# in their written book about studies conducted on different products and ser0ices in Sweden and wrote that customer satisfaction measurement pro0ides significant information for modern management processes and additionally, it pro0ides a warning signal about the future business performance$ )li0er "9<<<# in his article on the link between consumer satisfaction and loyalty with goods and ser0ices, e/pressed that in the last two decades till date, customer satisfaction measurement represents an important source of re0enue for market research firms$ Se0eral empirical findings ha0e shown that the application of customer satisfaction measurement often does not accomplish the ob=ecti0es of the company and the reasons for this shortcoming areH • Many organiEations determine criteria for measurement internally without an accurate understanding of customer priorities ".ill, 9<<?#$ This measurement is based on the 0alue defined by organiEations and not by the customers, thereby pro0iding wrong information$ • Many companies do not measure customer satisfaction as thorough as manufacture component and those who claim to do so, perform it an inade uate way ".ill and !le/ander, 4>>>#$

89



Difficulty in translating the customer satisfaction data into action within the organiEation "Giele et al$, 4>>4#

Gerth "4>>4# stated that many companies identify the le0el of customer satisfaction throughH • • • (umber of product or ser0ice support problems (umber of direct complaints by phone, email, etc (umber of returned products or ser0ices and the reason for their return, etc

7ePiko0Q "4>>:# disagreed with this measurement procedure in that it is a measure of customer dissatisfaction "no satisfaction# and may pro0ide wrong information with no possibility for product or ser0ice de0elopment and inno0ation$ The criteria for measurement should be customer defined so as to collect, analyEe the appropriate data and pro0ide rele0ant information$ Thus, to obtain the right information, efforts should be made to filter out the irrele0ant information and concentrate on the 0aluable dimensions$ ! con0enient tool to achie0e this aim is to first conduct a simple preAstudy and from this a more effecti0e study can be created$ Therefore, for any company to achie0e true customer satisfaction, there should be& • • • • • • -ustomerAoriented culture -ustomerAcentered company 'mployee empowerment Process ownership Team building, and Partnering with customers and suppliers

.e further e/pressed that the measurement research techni ue include& • • • Sur0ey methodologies 7ocus groups StandardiEed packages

84



,arious computer softwares

.owe0er, these typical measurement techni ues ha0e some problems which includeH • • !nalytical B this in0ol0es techni ues, formal procedures, systems, etc Beha0ioural B in0ol0es the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, moti0ation, commitment and resulting beha0iour of the people in0ol0ed in the process$ • )rganiEational B in0ol0es the organiEational structure, information flows, management style and corporate culture$ .ill et al$ "4>>8# e/pressed that one of the methods to measure customer satisfaction is through the simple fre uency statistics of the Microsoft office '/cel or that of the Statistical Package for Social Science "SPSS#$ 7ePiko0Q "4>>:# reported that there are other methods for customer satisfaction measurement and these includeH 9$ The indicator of customer satisfaction le0el .aEes "9<<;# proposed that customer satisfaction could be measured as& I-S R IR-S . 9>> S3T I)-S I-S R increasing customer satisfaction IR-S R the real 0alue of the customer satisfaction inde/ which is used routinely as a tool of customer satisfaction measurement$ I)-S R the optimum 0alue of such an inde/$ 4$ The inde/ of satisfaction Bha0e "4>>4# proposed that to obtain the inde/ of satisfaction, the satisfaction score is multiplied by the corresponding weighting factor to produce weighting score$ The inde/ of satisfaction is the sum of the weighting score$ The o0erall satisfaction inde/ of any company is the a0erage of e0ery respondentCs indi0idual satisfaction inde/$

88

8$ !-SM method of customer satisfaction measurement The !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Model "!-SM# method is a set of causal e uations that link&  customer e/pectations  percei0ed uality,  and percei0ed 0alue to customer satisfaction "!-SI#$

erce%&e / -1'0%$2 erc%e&e/ !'01e C1*$(mer S'$%*3'c$%() 4ACSI5

C1*$(mer E67ec$'$%( )

7ig$ 4$9 The !-SM model of customer satisfaction measurement by 7ornell et al$9<<? Se0eral empirical studies done on the assessment of customer satisfaction le0els include& 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# in0estigated the customer satisfaction le0el of ?;: residential customers of mobile operators in 5ermany using the fre uency distribution, the results showed that 4;3 of the respondents were completely satisfied and ?$83 were slightly satisfied or not satisfied$ Turel and Serenko, 4>>?, assessed customer satisfaction le0el of 49> young adult mobile subscribers in -anada by adapting the !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Model, the result obtained was 1:$?23$ This score was relati0ely low compared to the ?13 obtained by !-SI organiEation for the +S! in 4>>:$ 7ornell "9<<4# in0estigated customer satisfaction with 9>> corporations in o0er 8> industries in Sweden and e/pressed that the benefits of customer satisfaction include the followingH highly satisfied customers A

8:

• • •

Stay longer "i$e$ pre0ent customer churn# Purchase more as the company introduces new products and upgrades e/isting products Talk fa0orably about the company and its products or ser0ices "helps to impro0e ad0ertisement#

• • • • •

Pay less attention to competing brands *ess sensiti0e to price )ffer product or ser0ice ideas to the company -ost less to ser0e than new customers because transactions are routine 'nhances business reputation

These benefits make customer satisfaction and its measurement an important marketing construct, which is especially essential to the mobile telecoms industry in which the longAterm links between operators and customers are of greater importance to business performance$

2.+.+/

CONSE-UENCES

Se0eral research works ha0e shown that customer satisfaction is positi0ely associated with desirable business outcomes namelyH -ustomer *oyalty, -ustomer Retention, and -ustomer Profitability$ 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# reported that these conse uences are important goals for telecommunications operators to ha0e superior economic success$

CUSTOMER LOYALTY -oyne "9<;<# stated that customer satisfaction has measurable impact on customer loyalty in that when satisfaction reaches a certain le0elH on the high side, loyalty increases dramaticallyH at the same time, when satisfaction falls to a certain point, loyalty reduces e ually dramatically$ %i "9<<># e/pressed that the impact of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty by stating that “customer satisfaction influences purchase intentions as well as post-purchase attitude”$ In 81

other word, satisfaction is related to beha0ioural loyalty, which includes continuing purchases from the same company, word of mouth recommendation, increased scope of relationship$ 7ornell "9<<4# found out that there is a positi0e relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty but this connection is not always a linear relation$ This relationship depends on factors such as market regulation, switching costs, brand e uity, e/istence of loyalty programs, proprietary technology, and product differentiation at the industry le0el$ 6ones and Sasser "9<<1# proposed that link between satisfaction and loyalty can be classified into four different groups& loyalistIapostle "high satisfaction, high loyalty#, defectorI terrorist "low satisfaction, low loyalty#, mercenary "high satisfaction, low loyalty#, and hostage "low satisfaction, high loyalty#$ Roger .allowell "9<<?# confirmed the link between customer loyalty "in the conte/t of beha0ioural loyalty# and customer satisfaction$ )li0er "9<<<# stated that the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is that satisfaction is transformed into loyalty with the assistance of a myriad of other factors$ .owe0er, this relationship is comple/ and asymmetric$ .igh le0els of satisfaction lead to high le0els of attitudinal loyalty$ !ttitudinal loyalty in0ol0es different feelings, which create a customerCs o0erall attachment to a product, ser0ice, or company "*o0elock et al$, 4>>9#$ 5erpott et al$ "4>>9# in their study of the 5erman mobile telecommunication found that customer satisfaction is positi0ely related to customer loyalty, and both factors are important paraments in the mobile telecommunications industry$ Turel and Serenko, 4>>?, in their study of -anadian mobile telecommunications also confirmed this finding$ CUSTOMER RETENTION Se0eral research works ha0e shown that there is positi0e relationship between customer satisfaction and customer retentionH customer satisfaction has a direct effect on customer retention "Rust and Subramaman, 9<<4#H customer satisfaction is positi0ely related to customer retention "!nderson and Sulli0an, 9<<8#H to retain a customer, it is necessary to satisfy him$ Satisfied customer is more likely to return and stay with a company than a dissatisfied customer 8?

who can decide to go elsewhere ")0enden, 9<<1#H satisfaction leads to retention and the retention is not simply because of habit, indifference or inertia "Desai and Maha=an, 9<<;#H customer retention is central to the de0elopment of business relationships, and these relationships depend on satisfaction "'riksson and ,aghult, 4>>>#H customer satisfaction is an antecedent of customer retention "!thanassopoulos, 4>>>#H customer satisfaction is a central determinant of customer retention "5erpott et al$, 4>>9#H customer satisfaction is positi0ely related to customer retention and the effect 0aries by customer siEe and the customerCs current le0el of satisfaction "(ira= et al$, 4>>8#$ CUSTOMER ROFITABILITY Research studies conducted by 5ale "9<<4# and 7ornell "9<<4# showed that higher customer satisfaction translates into higher than normal market share growth, the ability to charge a higher price, lower transaction costs, and a strong link to impro0ed profitability$ (elson et al$, "9<<4# also demonstrated that customer satisfaction is related to higher profitability and pro0ed his findings statistically$ !ndersson et al$, "9<<:# found a significant association between customer satisfaction and accounting return on assets$ Ittner and *arckner "9<<?# found that shareholder 0alue is highly elastic with respect to customer satisfaction$ 7ornell et al$, 9<<?, found out that customer satisfaction is significantly related to firmsC financial performance$ The 0olume of business conducted with a firm is directly related to customer satisfaction, which in turns affect profitability "Ittner and *arcker, 9<<;#$ )ther empirical findings further demonstrated thatH customer satisfaction has greater influence on repurchase intentions and profits for ser0ice companies "'d0ardsson et al$, 4>>>b#H customer satisfaction affects shareAofAwallet "S)G# positi0ely "Braun and Scope, 4>>8H Jeiningham et al$, 4>>8#H customer satisfaction leads to increased profits "7ePiko0Q, 4>>:#H and customer satisfaction is strongly associated with impro0ed shareAof Bspending "Jeiningham 4>>1#$

82

The significance of this subAsection to this study is that it helps to pro0ide better understanding that customer satisfaction to some e/tent affects loyalty which in turn may affect retention and profitability$

2.2

DEMOGRA HICS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

The social identity theory proposed that attitudes are moderated by demographic, situational, en0ironmental, and psychosocial factors ".aslam et al$, 9<<8H 6ackson et al$, 9<<?H Platow et al$, 9<<2#$ !ccording to the social psychological theories, consumersC e0aluations are moderated, or in some cases mediated, by personal feelings of e uity in the e/change, disconfirmation between desires and outcomes, indi0idual preferences, social comparisons, and other comple/ phenomena$ These theories strongly suggest that differences in these phenomena among consumers influence their attitudes "Gilliams et al$, 9<<;#$ Se0eral empirical findings that ha0e shown the relationship between demographic 0ariables and satisfaction include& Bryant et al$ "9<<?# conducted a study on :>> companies using the !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Inde/ "!-SI# and demonstrated that there is significant relationship and consistent differences in the le0els of satisfaction among demographic groups& Se/ B positi0ely related to satisfaction and female customers are more satisfied than the male customers$ 7emale of all ages are more satisfied than the male$ Gomen are more in0ol0ed with the process of purchase and possibly use the mobile phone more for relational purposes "social network de0ice# while men use it for functional purposes "businesses, sales, etc#$ !ge B positi0ely related to satisfaction but the relationship is not a straight line$ Satisfaction increases with age$ The ma=or increase in satisfaction is seen within the age 11 and o0er$ Income B the higher the income, the lower the satisfaction le0el$ *ocation "type of area# B positi0ely related to satisfaction$ -ustomers li0ing 8;

within metropolitan areas "central city and suburban areas# are less satisfied than those customers in nonAmetropolitan areas$ Pal0ia and Pal0ia "9<<<# found out that age is a significant determinant of satisfaction with information technology industry$ )yewole "4>>9# in his research on customer satisfaction with airline ser0ices reported also that gender, occupation, education, and marital status ha0e significant influence on customer satisfaction, while age and household income had no significant influence$ .omburg and 5iering "4>>9# conducted a study on 5erman car manufacturers using *ISR'* notation and demonstrated that it is important to study demographic 0ariables as determinants of customer beha0iours$ The results of their study showed that gender has significant moderating effect on satisfactionA loyalty relationship$ Gomen are satisfied with sales process while men are satisfied with the impact of the product$ !ge showed a positi0e moderating effect and income had moderating influence with high income showing weaker effect and low income, high effect$ 6essie and Sheila "4>>9# in their empirical work on patientsC assessment of satisfaction and uality using factor analysis and regression, reported that age, beneficiary group, location, rank, ser0ice affiliation, education, marital status, race, gender, health status and number of 0isits "sociodemographic 0ariables# ha0e minimal influence on satisfaction$ !hmad and Jamal "4>>4# conducted a study on a commercial bank using a stepwise regression and demonstrated that there is negati0e significance between age and satisfaction$ Ghen age goes up, satisfaction le0els are likely to go down$ .owe0er, occupation and income le0els are positi0ely related to satisfaction$ *ightner "4>>8# in his study on online e/perience using regression, e/pressed that age is an important factor in determining satisfaction le0els and technology perceptions$ ,an!mburg "4>>:# conducted a study on 4>> companies using the !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Inde/ "!-SI# and demonstrated that age has a significant effect on satisfaction$ %ounger age groups are less satisfied than older age groups across all products and ser0ices industries$ 8<

,enn and 7one "4>>1# conducted a study on patient satisfaction with general practitioner ser0ices in Gales using logistic regression and reported that satisfaction 0aried with age, gender, employment status, and marital status$ The results obtained indicated that higher satisfaction is significantly related with increasing age, female gender, unemployed "those at home, disabled and retired#, and married patients$ .owe0er, unemployed A students and those seeking work, reported lower satisfaction$ Turel and Serenko "4>>?# in their study on customer satisfaction with mobile ser0ices in -anada using !-SI, reported that age has a significant influence on customer satisfaction and lower satisfaction le0el is found among young adults$ 7rom this literature re0iew, it is suggested that consumers differ in beha0iors and attitudes and one of the factors responsible for this difference is demographics$ It is therefore necessary to in0estigate the impact of demographic factors "age, gender, type of employment and location# on customer satisfaction of (igerian mobile telephone industry$ This in0estigation is necessary basically for three reasons& • • It is the first academic study on (igerian customers Demographic factors are important factors in the society and greatly affect attitudes, lifestyle, standard of li0ing, etc$ This study intends to in0estigate the impact of these factors on customer satisfaction with mobile ser0ices in (igeria$ • It helps to in0estigate the different market segments so as to better understand the needs of different customers$ The contribution of the aforementioned literature to this study is& • Better understanding that consumer attitudes are influenced by se0eral factors$ In accordance with this re0iew, the following hypotheses are adopted for this study&  There is a strong relationship between age and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between gender and customer satisfaction

:>

 There is a strong relationship between location and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between employment and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between age, gender and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between age, location and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between age, employment and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between gender, location and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between gender, employment and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between location, employment and customer satisfaction  There is a strong relationship between age, gender, location, employment and customer satisfaction

:9

CHA TER 8 8.+ RESEARCH METHOD

In order to in0estigate the ob=ecti0es of this study and answer the hypotheses, the descripti0e research method was employed$ The uestionnaire sur0ey techni ue was used to collect data and the uestions were self constructed$ The choices of uestions for this in0estigation include uestions on personal backgroundH ageA lowest range was 9?A41 and highest was ??A21H genderA maleIfemaleH employment typeA employed "public, pri0ate and self#, student and unemployedH and area of residence "Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and ,ictoria Island#$ The other uestions were on 0ariables used to assess mobile ser0ice performanceH network ualityIa0ailability, billing, 0alidity period and customer care ser0ices$ The rating scale 0aried from L0ery satisfiedM to Lno opinionM$ Please see the !ppendi/ 9 for full details of the uestionnaire$ The uestionnaires were administered on the streets and the choice of this method of data collection was of high priority because the residents of *agos State are mostly 0ery busy people, who lea0e their homes for work or trade 0ery early in the morning "1$>>am# and return late "some people return as late between 9>$>>A99$>>pm#$ There will probably be little or no a0ailable time to attend to the uestionnaires if dropped at their homes and failure of power supply "electricity# is 0ery common at nights$ !dditionally, the street inter0iews presented better chance

:4

of ha0ing high representation of the sampling population, cheaper cost and rapid speed of data collection$

8.+.+

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

This study is to in0estigate the le0el of (igerian customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms ser0ices and e/plore the relationship between customer satisfaction and specific demographic 0ariables$ Pre0ious studies on mobile telecommunication ser0ices suggested that networkIcall uality, pricing and customer careIsupport are important features of the mobile telecoms ser0ices "BooE, !llen F .amilton, 9<<1, Danaher F Rust, 9<<?H Bolton, 9<<;H 5erpott, 9<<;H Gilfert, 9<<<H Jim, 4>>>H 5erpott et al$, 4>>9H *ee, *ee, F 7reick, 4>>9#$ .ence, this study employs these 0ariables in its in0estigation$ 7igure 8$9 presents the conceptual structure of this study$ M(b%0e I)/1*$r2 A Ne$9(r: ;1'0%$2 A r%c%)< A C1*$(mer C're

Dem(<r'=%c*

C1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

This diagram illustrates the ob=ecti0e of this study, which is to in0estigate the (igerian customer satisfaction with the mobile telecoms industry, factors influencing satisfaction and the relationship between satisfaction and demographics$ 7ig$ 8$9 -onceptual structure of this study "research framework#

:8

8.+.2

SELECTION OF INTER!IEWERS

7our people assisted in conducting the inter0iews$ They include two recent graduates and two undergraduates, all males$ (o formal training was done apart from e/plaining briefly what the research is all about and the locations to collect the data$ This was due to the fact that I was not physically a0ailable in *agos State "resident in Sweden# to conduct the training and communications were basically done on the phone with the author$ These different locations of the author and inter0iewers made super0ision impossible$ (o compensation was gi0en to the inter0iewers "the inter0iewers are my friends residing not too far from the locations of data collection#$ The data was collected for four days, !pril 4>A48rd, 4>>? between <amA9pm in each location$

8.+.8

SELECTION OF RES ONDENTS

@uestionnaires were administered at four different locations$ Since no list of customer was used, the residential locations were used as uota segment$ These residential locations may relate to the le0el of income of the inhabitants and as well as to the le0el of use of the mobile ser0ices$ The residential locations are in *agos State, the commercial center, in the South Gest of (igeria and these include& • • • • ,ictoria Island ".igh income# Ike=a "Middle# *agos Island "MiddleAlow# Mushin "*ow#

The breakdown of these locations is based firstly on my e/perience of these areas and secondly, on the Gikipedia article "4>>?# on the history of *agos State$ ,ictoria Island is surrounded by se0eral beaches "from the !tlantic )cean# and has been choice of residence for top federal

::

officers and diplomats since the colonial administration$ The residences in this location are for federal parastals, diplomatic communities and rich indi0iduals$ Ike=a is the state capital and is the choice of residence for state parastals, corporate bodies, top state officers, ci0il officers, businessmen and a0eragely rich people$ It is a choice of residence for ci0il officers, business people, etc$ *agos Island is the commercial center of the state$ It is the choice of residence for corporate bodies "mostly head uarters#, big markets, traders, business people, ci0il officers, etc, and has poorer housing structures$ Mushin is the choice of residence for traders, low ranked employees, etc$ The location has problems of o0ercrowding, inade uate housing and poor sanitation$ ! total number of :>> people were inter0iewed for this study$ This number is in accordance with the 0iews of Dillman "4>>># and .ill et al$ "4>>8#, who reported that a sample siEe of 9>> and abo0e is sufficient to present good concise research findings and also, pro0ide good representation of the population or organiEation or any sub=ect in0estigated$ Selection is by con0enience sampling "(onAprobability sampling#H interception of mobile users " uestionnaires were handled out to e0ery passerby and interested people waited to fill the forms# on streets in the central areas of the chosen locations on their way to work, lunch, school and shopping centers, etc$ The points of data collection were changed within the chosen central locations to minimiEe bias$ 9>> respondents were administered the uestionnaires in each location$

8.+.>

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

! uestionnaire was the instrument used in this study to collect data$ The uestionnaire employed the typical form of fi/edAresponse alternati0e uestions that re uire the respondent to select from a predetermined set of answers to e0ery uestion$ !ccording to Malhotra and Birks "4>>8, pp$ 44:#, this sur0ey approach is the most common method of primary data collection in marketing research and the ad0antages are simple administration and data consistency$

:1

The sur0ey uestionnaires were administered on the streets "mode of data collection#& the uestionnaires were filled out mostly by the people themsel0es or through the inter0iewers for few people who could not understand 'nglish$ Malhotra and Birks "4>>8# showed in their e0aluation of comparati0e sur0ey techni ues that street inter0iews ha0e high fle/ibility of data collection, high degree of di0ersity of uestions due to interaction and high response rate, moderate sample control, moderate uantity of data, moderate to high great potential to probe respondents, moderate to high great potential to build rapport, moderate to high speed and cost of data collection$ These ualities were responsible for the choice of this sur0ey techni ue for this study$ The uestionnaires employed the *ikert nonAcomparati0e scaling techni ue$ It is a widely used rating scale which re uires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements or uestions "!lbaum, 9<<2#$ This rating scale is easy to construct and administer and respondents readily understand how to use the scale "Malhotra and Birks, 4>>8, pp$ 8>1#$ The *ikert scale used in this study is odd numbered "as proposed by Spagna, 9<;:#H balanced "the number of fa0ourable and unfa0ourable categories is e ual#$ This 0iew is proposed by Gatson "9<<4#, who reported the balanced state helps to obtain an ob=ecti0e dataH has nonAforced choices Lno opinionM to impro0e the accuracy of the data "as proposed by .asnich, 9<<4#H and 1A scaled categories which conforms to the traditional guidelines reported by !aker "9<<2#$ .e proposed that the categories scale should be between 1 and <$ The uestionnaire contains two sectionsH ! and B$ Section ! has uestions on demography "age, gender, employment and location# and the section B includes uestions on mobile pro0ider, rating of ser0ice uality "network a0ailability, billing and 0alidity period#, customer care ser0ice "promptness, attitude and competence#, and the rating of the ser0ice performance$ In all, the uestionnaire contains eight uestions and the answers are L0ery satisfiedM, LsatisfiedM, LdissatisfiedM, L0ery dissatisfiedM and Lno opinionM$ The uestionnaire was constructed entirely :?

in 'nglish$ Please see table 8$9 for the operation definition for the content of the uestionnaires and appendi/ 9 for a copy of the uestionnaire$

Table 8$9

)perational definitions of the content of the uestionnaire O7er'$%()'0 /e3%)%$%() -all uality as percei0ed by customers and this include& A -all clarity when calling and recei0ing

Fe'$1re*?C()$e)$* Ne$9(r: '&'%0'b%0%$2

B%00%)<

A -o0erage The cost of refilling credit "pricing#& A A A A ,ariety of refill card !ffordability of the refill card 7reedom of choosing refill cards Speed of refilling

:2

!'0%/%$2 7er%(/ C1*$(mer C're

The period in which you can make calls and or recei0e calls after e0ery refill -ustomer support and complaint management systems& A A Promptness "ability to get attendant uickly# !ttitude "response of the attendant#

C1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

A -ompetence "ability to pro0ide a solution# an e/perienceAbased assessment made by the customer of how far his own e/pectations about the indi0idual characteristics or the o0erall functionality of the ser0ices obtained from the pro0ider ha0e been fulfilled

8.2

RESEARCH DESIGN

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences "SPSS# 94$> will be used to analyEe the data collected$ The descripti0e statistics "fre uencies statistics# will be applied to assess the le0el of customer satisfaction while the relationship between the mobile ser0ices attributes, specific demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction will be analyEed with the linear regression model$ !ccording to the SPSS package, the linear regression is used to model the 0alue of a dependent scale 0ariable based on its linear relationship to one or more predictors$ The Model summary table reports the strength of the relationship between the model and the dependent 0ariable$ LRM 0alue indicates the strength of relationship with larger 0alues indicating stronger relationship and LR4M is the proportion of the 0ariation in the dependent 0ariable e/plained by the regression$ Both R and R4 the regression procedure 0alues range from > to 9$ !ccording to .air et al$ "4>>1# independent 0ariables can be classified as ordinal or nominal 0ariable$ )rdinal 0ariable allows distinction and the distinction can uantify the differences between the 0ariables$ '/ample includes age$ In this study to perform the data analysis, the age

:;

0ariable will be ranked from 9 to 1 with the least age group 9?A41 as 9 and the highest group ??A 21 ranked 1$ (ominal 0ariable allows distinction but the distinction can not uantify the differences between the 0ariables$ '/amples include gender, location and employment, etc$ To be able to analyEe this 0ariable, dummy 0ariable will be used$ Dummy 0ariable is 0ariable representing nominal data encoded numerically, using the > and 9 0alues$ 7or this study, gender 0ariable will ha0e 9 dummy 0ariable& male is 9 and female is >$ *ocation will ha0e : dummy 0ariables and employment ha0ing 1 dummy 0ariables$ The answers to uestions rated L0ery satisfiedM, LsatisfiedM, LdissatisfiedM, L0ery dissatisfiedM and Lno opinionM will be 0alued from 9 to 1 respecti0ely$

CHA TER > >.+ >.+.+ DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION FRE-UENCY STATISTICS

! total of :>> uestionnaires were administered and collected in four different locations of *agos State, (igeria$ The data collected was analyEed with the Statistical Package for Social Science "SPSS#$ Table :$9 presents the descripti0e statistics "fre uency statistics# of the independent 0ariables "demographics#$ !'r%'b0e* A<e [email protected] [email protected]>0 >[email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Ge)/er M'0e Fem'0e Em70(2me)$ 9;? 49: :?,1 18,1 :?,1 9>>,> Fre;1e)c2 ;9 444 1? 8: 2 ;9 erce)$ 4>,8 11,1 9:,> ;,1 9,; 4>,8 C1m10'$%&e erce)$ 4>,8 21,; ;<,; <;,8 9>>,> 4>,8

:<

1b0%c r%&'$e Se03 S$1/e)$ U)em70(2e/ L(c'$%() I:e#' L'<(* I*0')/ M1*=%) !%c$(r%' I*0')/

24 9:4 99< :< 9; 9>> 9>> 9>> 9>>

9;,> 81,1 4<,; 94,8 :,1 41,> 41,> 41,> 41,>

9;,> 18,1 ;8,8 <1,1 9>>,> 41,> 1>,> 21,> 9>>,>

>.+.2

ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

The dependent 0ariable "customer satisfaction# was analyEed with the descripti0e statistics "fre uency distribution#$ Table :$4 presents the result of the analyEed o0erall customer satisfaction$ S'$%*3'c$%() Fre;1e)c2 !er2 *'$%*3%e/ 4> S'$%*3%e/ 44; D%**'$%*3%e/ 982 !er2 ; /%**'$%*3%e/ N( (7%)%() Satisfaction 2 erce)$ 1,> 12,> 8:,8 4,> 9,1
Very satisfied satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied No Opinion

C1m10'$%&e erce)$ 1,> ?4,> <?,8 <;,8 9>>,>

1>

The pieAchart represents the outcome of the analysis of the (igerian customer satisfaction with the mobile telecoms ser0ices "fre uency distribution in percentage#$ 7ig$ :$9 PieAchart representation of customer satisfaction$

This result demonstrates that 123 of the respondents are satisfied, and 13 0ery satisfied with the mobile telecoms ser0ices in (igeria and hence, supports .9$ !lthough this score is slightly abo0e a0erage, it is a fairly good assessment for a mobile telecoms sector that is barely 1 years old$ The interpretation of this result could be that (igerian customers are truly satisfied with the mobile ser0ice performance and its impact$ In line with the adopted definition, this result showed that customers are satisfied with their e/periences of use of the mobile ser0ices "ser0ices meet e/pectation#$ This satisfaction measure could also result from lack of 0iable competitor that the customers can compare ser0ices with andIor could be due to the fact that customers are kind of new to satisfaction measurement and may not be able to e/press their perceptions well$ Thus, there is need for routine customer satisfaction measurement to better capture customers perceptions$ .owe0er, this result supports the pre0ious studies conducted on customer satisfaction of mobile operators in 5ermany with 4;3 of the respondents satisfied "5erpott et al$, 4>>9#, the +nited States B ?13 of the respondents were satisfied "!-SI, 4>>:#, and in -anada B 1:$?23 of the respondents were satisfied "Turel and Serenko, 4>>?#$

19

>.2

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AMONG THE DEMOGRA HIC GROU S

The demographic 0ariables were analysed against customer satisfaction using the cross tab of the descripti0e analysis to show assessments of customer satisfaction among 0arious categories of the demographic 0ariables$ Table :$8 presents the outcome of the analysis$ Cr(** $'b10'$%() ,ariables
Age 16-25 26-40 41-55 56-65 66-75 Gender Male Female

,ery Satisfied satisfied
0 4 16 0 0 4 16 0 16 0 4 0 0 4 7 9 46 144 12 19 7 123 105 65 46 62 37 18 63 60 60 45

Dissatisfied ,ery (o dissatisfied opinion
28 66 28 15 0 44 93 7 65 57 8 0 37 32 33 35 0 8 0 0 0 8 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 7 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 7

Tota l
81 222 56 34 7 186 214 72 142 119 49 18 100 100 100 100

Satisfaction "3# 1?$; ??$2 1> 11$; 9>> ?;$8 1?$1 <>$8 :8$2 14$9 ;8$2 9>> ?8 ?: ?2 1:

Em70(2me)$

1b0%c r%&'$e Se03 S$1/e)$ U)em70(2e/
Ikeja Lagos island M!s"in #ictoria island

L(c'$%()

Table :$: presents the result of the assessment of customer satisfaction in 4 categories of demographic 0ariables$ ,ariables A<e Ge)/er Em70(2me)$ Y(1)< O0/ M'0e Fem'0e Em70(2e/ U)em70(2e/ Satisfaction "Mean# "3# ?9$; ?;$? ?;$8 1?$1 24 <9$<

14

L(c'$%()

H%<= %)c(me 1;$1 L(9 %)c(me ?1$1 N($eC +oung , those under -., /ld , those over -.$ *mployed , those in public, private and self employment, 0nemployed , students, unemployed "those seeking %obs, retired, etc#$ 1igh income , 2ke%a and 3ictoria 2sland dwellers status, 4ow income , 4agos 2sland and 5ushin dwellers status. This result demonstrates that customer satisfaction le0el differs among the 0arious demographic 0ariables and hence, supports .4$ Githin the age groups, the old people are more satisfied than the young people$ The low satisfaction of the young people could result from the fact that they are more demanding as a result of their greater familiarity with mobile technologies and higher tendency to complain than the old people$ This result supports the findings of Bryant et al$, 9<<?, which reported that satisfaction increases with age and ma=or increase seen within the age of 11 and abo0eH the younger age groups are less satisfied than older age groups across all products and ser0ices industries ",an!mburg, 4>>:#H ,enn and 7one "4>>1# reported that higher satisfaction is significantly related with increasing ageH and Turel and Serenko "4>>?#, in their study of mobile telecoms re0ealed that there is lower satisfaction le0el among young adults$ Githin the gender groups, this result re0ealed that male customers are more satisfied than the female$ The higher satisfaction reported by the male customers may imply that they are well satisfied with the impact of the ser0ice andIor the mobile telecoms boost their functional acti0ities "businesses, sales, etc#, while for the female customers, their low satisfaction could be due to less or no personal interaction with sales process "mobile subscription is through 0endors and not directly from the operators, unlike the fi/ed telecoms# or less influence of mobile telecoms on their relational acti0ities$ This result is in contrast with the findings of Bryant et al$ "9<<?#, who re0ealed that the female customers are more satisfied than the male customers across all industriesH ,enn and 7one "4>>1# re0ealed that higher satisfaction is positi0ely related to female gender$

18

The result also indicates that the unemployed customers are more satisfied that the employed ones$ 'mployment relates to education$ +nemployment results from both lack of =obs for ualified people and lack of education$ The higher satisfaction of the unemployed customers could be that they are truly satisfied with the ser0ices irrespecti0e of their status or their perception is a result of their le0el of education$ This study did not e/amine the influence of education on satisfaction and future studies could in0estigate this$ !dditionally, this result confirms the findings of ,enn and 7one "4>>1#, which reported higher satisfaction le0el among unemployed customers$ !ccordingly, customers li0ing within the lowAincome areas are more satisfied than those in the highAincome areas$ .ighAincome areas dwellers ha0e greater tendency to be more familiar with information technologies and be more demanding and these factors could be responsible for the low satisfaction obtained in the highAincome areas$ This result confirms the findings of Bryant et al$ "9<<?# which reported that the higher the income, the lower the satisfaction$ >.8 FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

To e/plore the relationship between mobile ser0ices attributes and customer satisfaction, the linear regression model was applied$ R and R4 0alues range between > and 9 with larger 0alues indicating stronger relationship$ The following subAsections present the results$ >.8.+ Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) )e$9(r: ;1'0%$2 ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$1 presents the result of the relationship between network uality and satisfaction$ Model Summary Mode !d=usted l R R S uare R S uare 9 $?81"a# $:>: $:>4 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, (etwork Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $1824;

This result indicates that there is a strong relationship between network uality and customer satisfaction and thus, supports .8$ The implication of this result is that network uality of the

1:

telephone ser0ices is the most significant of all the mobile ser0ice attributes in (igeria$ Secondly, the result means that the customers perception of network uality strongly influence their perception of mobile operators and their satisfaction le0el$ 7rom my e/perience of *agos State, network uality is 0ery good, especially in the ma=or cities such as the locations used in this study but some times, climatic conditions such as rainfall, strong wind, etc affect the call uality$ (etwork uality in0ol0es call clarity and co0erage and mobile operators should focus on impro0ing network uality to create higher satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ 4 for full statistical result$ >.8.2 Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) b%00%)< ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$? presents the result of the relationship between billing and satisfaction Model Summary Mode !d=usted l R R S uare R S uare 9 $:::"a# $9<2 $9<1 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, Billing Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $?48:>

This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between billing and customer satisfaction and thus, contradicts .:$ This finding means that billing "pricing structure# has negligible significance out of mobile ser0ices attributes in (igeria$ Secondly, the price paid to access the mobile ser0ices has little influence on customer satisfaction le0el$ Thirdly, the finding could indicate that billing is meaningless without aligning it with other mobile ser0ices attributes$ Thus, mobile operators need to pro0ide reasonable pricing that are aligned with good mobile ser0ices attributes to ma/imise satisfaction and routine satisfaction assessment should be conducted$ *astly, this result may probably be due to the fact that the mobile technology is new in the country and rapidly gaining acceptance$ Please see appendi/ 8 for full statistical result$

>.8.8

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) &'0%/%$2 7er%(/ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$2 presents the result of the relationship between 0alidity period and satisfaction$

11

Model Summary Mode l !d=usted R S uare R R S uare 9 $:>9"a# $9?9 $91< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,alidity period Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $?82:<

This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between the 0alidity period and customer satisfaction and thus, contradicts .1$ The re=ection of this finding also means that 0alidity period has negligible significance out of mobile ser0ices attributes in (igeria$ Secondly, the result means that the duration to call and or recei0e calls after e0ery refill whether short or long has little influence on customer satisfaction le0el$ Thirdly, the finding could indicate that 0alidity period is meaningless without aligning it with other mobile ser0ices attributes$ Thus, mobile operators need to pro0ide reasonable 0alidity period that are aligned with good mobile ser0ices attributes to ma/imise satisfaction and routine satisfaction e0aluation should be done$ *astly, this result may probably be due to the fact that the mobile technology is new in the country and rapidly gaining acceptance$ 7rom my e/perience, in (igeria, after e0ery refill, I ha0e less than 8> days 0alidity period to make and recei0e calls, after this period, an additional 9 month is gi0en to recei0e calls and if no refill is done within the period, the line is blocked and it will take calling the mobile operator support ser0ice to reacti0ate and load credit$ .owe0er in Sweden, after e0ery refill, 0alidity period is one year from the date of refill$ It is therefore interesting to obser0e that 0alidity period has a weak influence on satisfaction of the (igeria mobile telecoms industry and this may be due to the fact that the mobile telephony is the best telephony a0ailable$ Please see appendi/ : for full statistical result$

>.8.> Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) (&er'00 c1*$(mer c're ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%() Table :$; presents the result of the relationship between o0erall customer care and satisfaction$ Model Summary

1?

Std$ 'rror Mode !d=usted of the l R R S uare R S uare 'stimate 9 $8<?"a# $912 $911 $?8;;2 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, o0erall customer care This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between o0erall customer care and customer satisfaction and thus, contradicts .?$ The implication of this result is that customer care ser0ice has negligible significance out of mobile ser0ices attributes in (igeria$ Secondly, customer care ser0ice has little influence on (igerian customers satisfaction le0el$ Thirdly, the result could indicate that customer care ser0ice is meaningless without aligning it with other mobile ser0ices attributes$ Thus, mobile operators need to pro0ide reasonable 0alidity period that are aligned with good mobile ser0ices attributes to ma/imise satisfaction and routine satisfaction e0aluation should be done$ *astly, this result may probably be due to the fact that the mobile technology is relati0ely new in the country$ 7rom my e/perience, at times it takes about an hour of holding your call to successfully make a uery or lodge a complain and it is therefore interesting to obser0e that customer care ser0ice has weak influence on satisfaction$ -ustomer care ser0ice whether good or bad is demonstrated by this study to ha0e weak influence on satisfaction but its influence on other customer attitudes "such as word of mouth# is not in0estigated$ 7uture study can conduct this in0estigation$ Please see appendi/ 1 for full statistical result$

>.8.A

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) )e$9(r: ;1'0%$2D b%00%)<D &'0%/%$2 7er%(/D (&er'00 c1*$(mer c're ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$ < presents the result between the combined mobile ser0ices attributes and satisfaction Model Summary Std$ 'rror Mode !d=usted of the l R R S uare R S uare 'stimate 9 $?2?"a# $:12 $:14 $19:?< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, )0erall customer care, Billing, ,alidity period, (etwork uality

12

This result demonstrates that the interaction of the mobile ser0ices attributes ha0e a strong relationship with customer satisfaction and thus, supports .2$ The interpretation of this finding is that the aligned mobile ser0ices attributes is significant to the assessment of the customer satisfaction with mobile ser0ices$ Therefore, customer satisfaction with (igerian mobile ser0ices is a function of the assessment of network uality, billing, 0alidity period and customer care ser0ice$ Thus, mobile operators should focus on impro0ing mobile ser0ices attributes to heighten customer satisfaction$ This strong relationship outcome supports the findings of BooE, !llen and .amilton "9<<1#H Danaher and Rust "9<<?#H Bolton "9<<;#H 5erpott "9<<;#H and Gilfert "9<<<#, which reported that the aforementioned attributes are key dri0ers of the customer 0alue of the mobile ser0ices and key factors affecting customer satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ ? for full statistical result$

>.> RELATIONSHI BETWEEN DEMOGRA HIC !ARIABLES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION To e/plore the relationship between demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction, the linear regression model was applied$ R and R4 0alues range between > and 9 with larger 0alues indicating stronger relationship$ The following subAsections present the results$ >.>.+ Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<e ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$9> presents the result of the relationship between age and customer satisfaction Model Summary R !d=usted Model R S uare R S uare 9 $94?"a# $>9? $>98 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, !ge Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $?<>42

This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between age and customer satisfaction and hence, contradicts .;$ The interpretation of the result is that age has a negligible impact on customer perception of how well the mobile ser0ices meet needs and e/pectations$ This result

1;

could probable be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ This result supports the findings of 6essie and Sheila "4>>9# and )yewole "4>>9# which reported that age has a minimal influence on satisfaction and contradicts the findings of Pal0ia and Pal0ia "9<<<#, *ightner "4>>8# and Turel and Serenko "4>>?# which reported that age is a significant determinant of satisfaction with information technology and mobile telecoms industry$ Please see appendi/ 2 for full statistical result$

>.>.2

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) <e)/er ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$99 presents the result of the relationship between gender and customer satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted Model R R S uare R S uare 9 $>8<"a# $>>4 A$>>9 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $?<189

This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between gender and customer satisfaction and hence, contradicts .<$ The re=ection of the hypothesis means that gender has negligible influence on customer perception of mobile ser0ices performance$ This result could also probable be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ This result supports the findings of 6essie and Sheila "4>>9# which reported that gender has a minimal influence on satisfaction and contradicts the findings of )yewole "4>>9# which reported that gender has significant influence on satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ ; for full statistical result$

1<

>.>.8

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) 0(c'$%() ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$94 presents the result of the relationship between location and customer satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted Std$ 'rror of the Model R R S uare R S uare 'stimate 9 $919"a# $>48 $>91 $?;<?: a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between location and customer satisfaction and hence, contradicts .9>$ The implication of this finding is that location has negligible influence on how customers percei0e ser0ice performance$ This result could as well be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ This result supports the findings of 6essie and Sheila "4>>9# which reported that location has a minimal influence on satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ < for full statistical result$

>.>.>

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$98 presents the result of the relationship between employment and customer satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted Std$ 'rror of the Model R R S uare R S uare 'stimate 9 $884"a# $99> $><< $?1<29 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, Self, and Pri0ate employment This result demonstrates that there is a weak relationship between employment type and customer satisfaction and hence, contradicts .99$ This result means that employment status has negligible impact on how customers e0aluate ser0ice performance$ This result could as well be

?>

due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ This result also contradicts the findings of )yewole "4>>9# and !hmad and Jamal "4>>4# which reported that occupation has a significant influence on satisfaction$ Please see appendi/ 9> for full statistical result$

>.>.A

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD <e)/er ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$9: presents the result of the relationship between age, gender and customer satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted Model R R S uare R S uare 9 $9:9"a# $>4> $>91 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender, !ge Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $?;<28

This result demonstrates that the interaction between age and gender 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and thus, contradicts .94$ The interpretation of this finding indicates that age aligned with gender has negligible effect on customer perception of ser0ice performance and like the pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state of the mobile industry andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$ .owe0er, routine in0estigations are needed to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 99 for full statistical result$

>.>.6

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD 0(c'$%() ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$91 presents the result of the relationship between age, location and customer satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted R Std$ 'rror of the Model R R S uare S uare 'stimate 9 $9<>"a# $>8? $>4? $?;1;> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, !ge, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin

?9

This result indicates that the interaction of age and location 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and hence, contradicts .98$ This result contradiction means that age aligned with location has negligible impact on customer assessment of ser0ice performance, and like the pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state of the mobile industry andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$ .ence, routine e0aluation should be conducted to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 94 for full statistical result$

>.>.B

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$ 9? presents the result of relationship between age, employment and satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted R Std$ 'rror of the Model R R S uare S uare 'stimate 9 $821"a# $9:> $942 $?:<49 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, Self, Pri0ate employment and !ge This result demonstrates that the interaction of the age and employment 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .9:$ This finding means that age aligned with employment status has negligible effect on customer perception of how well mobile ser0ices satisfy needs, and like the pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state of the mobile industry andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$ Thus, routine assessment should be conducted to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 98 for full statistical result$

>.>.E

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) <e)/erD 0(c'$%() ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$ 92 presents the result of the relationship between gender, location and satisfaction Model Summary Model R 9 $912"a# !d=usted R S uare R S uare $>41 $>91 Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $?;<;:

?4

a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin and 5ender The result demonstrates that the interaction of gender and location 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .91$ The interpretation of this result is that gender aligned with location has negligible impact on customer ratings of ser0ice performance, and like the pre0ious results, the result could probable be due to the growing state of the mobile industry andIor the new study, which maybe too early to establish this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 9: for full statistical result$

>.>.F

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) <e)/erD em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$ 9; presents the result of the relationship between gender, employment and satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted Std$ 'rror of the Model R R S uare R S uare 'stimate 9 $8??"a# $98: $949 $?1929 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Self, Public, Pri0ate employment and 5ender The result demonstrates that the interaction of gender and employment 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .9?$ This finding means that gender aligned with employment status has negligible influence on how customers percei0e ser0ice performance$ *ike the pre0ious results, this result could as well be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 91 for full statistical result$

>.>.+0

Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) 0(c'$%()D em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%()

Table :$ 9< presents the result of the relationship between location, employment and satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted Model R R S uare R S uare 9 $822"a# $9:4 $94: Std$ 'rror of the 'stimate $?1>4<

?8

a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin, +nemployed, Student, Public, Self, Pri0ate employment The result demonstrates that the interaction of location and employment 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .92$ The implication of this result is that location aligned with employment status has negligible influence on customer ratings of ser0ice performance$ *ike the other pre0ious results, this result could as well be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 9? for full statistical result$

>.>.++ Re0'$%()*=%7 be$9ee) '<eD <e)/erD 0(c'$%()D em70(2me)$ ')/ c1*$(mer *'$%*3'c$%() Table :$4> presents the result of the relationship between all demographic 0ariables and satisfaction Model Summary !d=usted Std$ 'rror of the Model R R S uare R S uare 'stimate 9 $::8"a# $9<? $921 $?8994 a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Self, Public, Pri0ate, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a, Mushin, 5ender, !ge The result demonstrates that the interaction of age, gender, location and employment 0ariables ha0e a weak influence on customer satisfaction and contradicts .9;$ This finding indicates that the alignment of age, gender, location and employment factors ha0e negligible impact on how (igerian customers percei0e ser0ice performance$ *ike the pre0ious results, this result could as well be due to the fact the mobile telecoms industry is still growing andIor is too early to establish such relationship because the study is new to (igerian customers$ Thus, there is need for routine assessment to in0estigate this relationship$ Please see appendi/ 92 for full statistical result$

?:

CHA TER A A.+ CONCLUSION

This study aims to in0estigate the customer satisfaction of the mobile telecoms industry, factors influencing satisfaction and the relationship between demographic 0ariables and customer satisfaction in Ike=a, *agos Island, Mushin and ,ictoria Island, in *agos State, (igeria$ -ustomer satisfaction is an e/perienceAbased assessment made by customers how far their e/pectations about the o0erall functionality of the ser0ices obtained from the mobile operators ha0e been fulfilled$ Gith regards to customer satisfaction measurement, the results demonstrated that customers are satisfied with the performance of the (igerian mobile telecoms industry$ The interpretation of this result could be that (igerian customers are truly satisfied with the ser0ice performance "satisfied with e/perience of the mobile ser0ices use# or their satisfaction results from lack of competing ser0ices or it could be that the customers are new to satisfaction measurement and may not be able to e/press their perceptions well$ The result also demonstrated that customer satisfaction le0el differs among the specific demographic groups$ Githin the age groups, the older customers were more satisfied than younger ones$ The low satisfaction of the young customers could be due to greater familiarity with mobile technologies and are more demanding$ The male customers showed more satisfaction than the female counterpart$ The high satisfaction of the male customers could be due to the impact of the ser0ices on their functional acti0ities$ The unemployed customers demonstrated more satisfaction than the employed ones and the higher satisfaction of the unemployed group could be due to true satisfaction or low knowledge of mobile technologies$ *astly, the lowAincome areas showed more satisfaction than the highAincome areas$ The low satisfaction of highAincome areas customers could probably be due to greater familiarity with information technologies and are more demanding$ .owe0er, ?1

mobile operators need to stri0e to ma/imiEe customer satisfaction which in turn can influence the e/tent of loyalty and retention$ Gith regards to factors that influence satisfaction, network uality demonstrated a strong influence on customer satisfaction$ The implication of this finding is that network uality is the most significant of all the mobile ser0ices attributes and its uality strongly affect satisfaction$ Billing, 0alidity period and customer support showed weak influence on satisfaction$ These results indicate that the e0aluation of these factors without alignment is meaningless and ha0e weak impact on satisfaction$ The result also demonstrated that the combination of the mobile ser0ices attributes has strong influence on satisfaction$ Thus, to increase customer satisfaction, mobile operators should focus on impro0ing mobile ser0ices attributes by in0esting in e uipment to enhance call uality and co0erage, offer reasonable pricing and price discounts, offer reasonable 0alidity period and enhance customer care through routine personnel training and pro0ision of better customerAfriendly e uipment$ Gith regards to influence of demographic 0ariables on satisfaction, the result showed that the indi0idual 0ariables "age, gender, employment status and location# and their combination ha0e weak influence on satisfaction$ These results mean that customers perceptions of how well the mobile ser0ices meet their needs are not affected by these specific 0ariables$ .owe0er, since the results showed different customer satisfaction le0els among the 0arious demographic groups, mobile operators can stri0e to better understand these market segments and adopt marketing strategies to better satisfy their different needs$ Broadly, the implication of this study for mobile operators is that operators should not =ust rely on profit margins as a good indicator of business performance$ Rather, they should de0elop strategies that better capture customers perceptions of their ser0ice offerings and these strategies can compliment the internal perceptions of ser0ice offering$ -ustomer satisfaction strategy helps companies to compare their performance against customer standards, compare customer standards against internal process and identify opportunities for impro0ement$ ??

Despite the potential contribution of this study, this study had four limitations$ 7irst, the uestionnaire was selfAconstructed instead of adopting research standard such as S'[email protected]+!* and this made analysis difficult and affected the reliability of the result$ Second, con0enience data sample was used in this study and employment of random sample is necessary to =udge the generaliEability of findings of any empirical in0estigation$ Thirdly, the different locations of authors and inter0iewers made super0ision impossible and this robbed this study of potential probe for any useful information$ *astly, lack of customer satisfaction study in (igeria$ This lack robbed this study of possible comparism and insight$ Gith respect future pro=ects, there is need for cooperation between academic bodies and mobile operators so as to achie0e better customerAoriented in0estigations$ 7uture studies can further in0estigate the factors that affect satisfaction and loyalty "such as le0el of education, word of mouth, life cycles and usage pattern of customers, switching barriers, etc#$

?2

REFERENCES 9$ !domi, '$', 4>>1A Mobile telephony in (igeria$ *ibrary .i Tech (ews, (umber : 4>>1, pp$ 9;A49, 'merald 5roup Publishing *imited$ The 'lectronic library$ 4$ !aker, 6$*$ "9<<2# A LDimensions of brand personalityM, 6ournal of Marketing Research 8:, !ugust, pp8:2A81?$ 8$ !hmad, 6$ and Jamal, ($, 4>>4A -ustomer satisfaction and retail banking& an assessment of some the key antecedents of customer satisfaction in retail banking$ International 6ournal of Bank Marketing, 4>I:, pp$9:?A9?>$ :$ !lbaum, 5$ "9<<2# A LThe *ikert scale re0isitedA an alternati0e 0ersionM, 6ournal of the Market Research Society 8<"4#, !pril, pp$ 889A8:;$ 1$ !lbrecht, J$ and Nemke, R$ "9<;1# A Ser0ice !merica, .omewood, I*$ Dow 6ones, Irwin$ ?$ !nderson, '$!$ and Sulli0an, M$G$, 9<<8 B LThe antecedents and conse uences of customer satisfaction for firmsM, Marketing Science, ,ol$94 Spring, pp$ 941A:8$ 2$ !nderson, '$G$, 7ornell, -$ and *ehmann, D$R$ "9<<:#, UU-ustomer satisfaction, market share, and profitability& findings from SwedenDD, 6ournal of Marketing, ,ol$ 1;, 6uly, pp$ 18A??$ ;$ !nderson, R$'$ "9<28# B L-onsumer dissatisfaction& the effect of disconfirmed e/pectancy on percei0ed product performanceM, 6ournal of Marketing Research, ,ol$ 9>, pp$ 8;A::$ <$ !thanassopoulos, !$D$, 4>>>A L-ustomer satisfaction cues to support market segmentation and e/plain switching beha0iorM, 6ournal of Business Research, ,ol$:2 (o$8, pp$9<9A4>2$ 9>$ Bearden, G$)$ and Teel, 6$'$ "9<;8# B LSelected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaint reportsM, 6ournal of Marketing Research, ,ol$ 4>, 7ebruary, pp$ 49A;$ 99$ Bennett, R$ "9<;?# B Meaning and method in management research$ 5raduate Management research, 8"8#$ 94$ Bha0e, !$, 4>>4A L-ustomer satisfaction measurementM, @uality and Producti0ity 6ournal, Symphony Technologies P0t *td, 'renda0ane, India$ ?;

98$ Bhote, J$R$, 9<<?A Beyond -ustomer Satisfaction to -ustomer *oyalty, !M! Management Briefing, (ew %ork, (%$ 9:$ Bolton, R$($ "9<<;# A ! dynamic model of the duration of the customerCs relationship with a continuous ser0ice pro0ider& the role of satisfactionM, Marketing Science, ,ol$ 92 (o$ 9, pp$ :1A ?1$ 91$ Bolton, R$($ and Drew, 6$.$ "9<<9# B L! multistage model of customersD assessments of ser0ice uality and 0alueDM, 6ournal of -onsumer Research, ,ol$ 92, March, pp$ 421A;:$ 9?$ BooE !llen, F .amilton "9<<1#A Mobilfunk$ 7rankfurtIM$& IMJ$ 92$ Braun, .$ and Scope, !$ "4>>8#, LDoes it pay to in0est in customer satisfactionV 'ffects of customer satisfaction measurement and impro0ement on earningsM, in 7ellows, D$S$ "'d$#, Proceedings of the 'S)M!R -ongress, Prague, September 9:A92, pp$ 91<A2:$ 9;$ Bryant, B$'$, and -ha, 6$, 9<<? B -rossing the threshold, Marketing Research, -hicago, Ginter, ,ol$ ;, Iss$ :, pg$ 4>, < pgs$ 9<$ -adotte, ', R, R$B$Goodruff and 6enkins, R$* "9<;2#A '/pectations and norms in models of consumer satisfaction, =ournal of marketing research, 4:, !ug$ pp 8>1A89:$ 4>$ -adotte, '$R$ and Turgeon, ($ "9<;;# B LJey factors in guest satisfactionM, -ornell .otel and Restaurant @uarterly, ,ol$ 4; (o$ :, pp$ :1A19. 49$ -ardoEo, R$($ "9<?1# B L!n e/perimental study of consumer effort, e/pectation and satisfactionM, 6ournal of Marketing Research, ,ol$ 4, pp$ 4::A<$ 44$ -hurchill, 5$! and Surprenant, - "9<;4# A !n in0estigation into the determinants of customer satisfaction, =ournal of marketing research, 9<, (o0, pp$ :<9A 1>:$ 48$ -oyne, J$ "9<;<# B LBeyond ser0ice fadsA meaningful strategies for the real worldM, Sloan Management Re0iew, ,ol$ 8>, Summer, pp$ ?<A2?$ 4:$ Dabholkar, P$!$, Thorpe, D$I$ and RentE, 6$)$ "9<<?# B L! measure of ser0ice uality for retail stores& scale de0elopment and 0alidationM, 6ournal of the !cademy of Marketing Science, ,ol$ 4:, Ginter, pp$ 8A9?$ ?<

41$ Danaher, P$ 6$, F Rust, R$ T$ "9<<?# A Indirect financial benefits from ser0ice uality$ @uality Management 6ournal, 8"4#, pp$?8A21$ 4?$ Desai, J$J$, and Maha=an, ,$, 9<<;A LStrategic role of affectAbased attitudes in the ac uisition, de0elopment and retention of customersM, 6ournal of Business Research, ,ol$:4, 6uly, pp$8><A4:$ 42$ Dillman, D$ "4>>># B Mail and Internet Sur0eys& the tailored design method, 4nd edition, Giley -op$, (%$ 4;$ 'd0ardson, B and 5ustafsson, !, 9<<<A The (ordic School of @uality Management, Studentlitteratur, *und$ 4<$ 'd0ardsson, B$, 6ohnson, M$D$, 5ustafsson, !$ and Strand0ik, T$, 4>>>bA The effects of satisfaction and loyalty on profits and growth& products 0ersus ser0ices, Total @uality Management, ,ol$99& 2, <92A<42$ 8>$ 'riksson, J and *Ofmarck ,aghult, !$, 4>>>A L-ustomer retention, purchasing beha0ior and relationship substance in professional ser0icesM, Industrial Marketing Management, ,ol$4< (o$:, pp$8?8A24$ 89$ 7ePiko0Q, I$, "4>>:# B !n inde/ for measurement of customer satisfaction$ The [email protected] MagaEine, ,ol$ 9?, (o 9, pp$ 12A??$ 84$ 7isk, R$P$ and %oung, -$'$ "9<;1# A LDisconfirmation of e uity e/pectations& effects on consumer satisfaction with ser0icesM, in .irschman, '$ and .olbrook, .$ "'ds#, !d0ances in -onsumer Research, !ssociation for -onsumer Research, Pro0o, +T$ 88$ 7olkes, ,$ "9<;:# B L-onsumer reactions to product failure& an attribution approachM, 6ournal of -onsumer Research, ,ol$ 9>, March, pp$ 8<;A:><$ 8:$ 7ornell, -$ "9<<4# A ! national customer satisfaction barometer& The Swedish e/perience$ 6ournal of Marketing, 1?, ?A49$ 81$ 7ornell, -$, 6ohnson, M$ D$, !nderson, '$ G$, -ha, 6$, F Bryant, B$ '$ "9<<?#$ The !merican -ustomer Satisfaction Inde/& (ature, purpose, and findings$ 6ournal of Marketing, ?>":#, 2B9;$ 2>

8?$ 5ale, B$, 9<<4A Monitoring -ustomer Satisfaction and Market Percei0ed @uality, Gorth Repeating Series, (o$ <44-S>9, !merican Marketing !ssociation, -hicago, I*$ 82$ 5erpott, T$ 6$ "9<<;#A Gettbewerbsstrategien im Telekommunikationsmarkt "8rd ed$#$ Stuttgart& SchafferAPoeschel$ 8;$ 5erpott, T$6$, Rams, G$, and Schindler, !$, "4>>9# B L-ustomer retention, loyalty, and satisfaction in the 5erman mobile telecommunications market, Telecommunications Policy, ,ol$ 41 (o$ :, pp$4:< B 4?<$ 8<$ 5ronhaug, J$ "4>>4# B Research methods in Business Studies& ! practical guide, 4nd ed$, *ondon& Prentice .all$ :>$ 5rOnroos, -$ "9<;:# B L! ser0ice uality model and its marketing implicationsM, 'uropean 6ournal of Marketing, ,ol$ 9; (o$ :, pp$ 8?A::$ :9$ 5rOnroos, -$ "9<;1# B LInternal marketing A theory and practiceM, in Block, T$M$, +pah, 5$D$ and Neithaml, ,$!$ "'ds#, Ser0ices Marketing in a -hanging 'n0ironment, !merican Marketing !ssociation, -hicago, I*, pp$ :9A2$ :4$ 5SM !ssociation "4>>?# A www$gsmworld$com :8$ .air, 6r$, 6$7$, Black, B$, Babin, B$, !nderson, R$'$, and Taltam, R$*$ "4>>1# B Multi0ariate data analysis$ ?th 'dition, Prentice .all, +S$ ::$ .art, -$G$*$, .eskett, 6$*$ and Sasser, '$G$ 6r "9<<># A LThe profitable art of ser0ice reco0eryM, .ar0ard Business Re0iew, ,ol$ ?; (o$ :, pp$ 9:;A1?$ :1$ .aslam, S$!$, Mc5arty, -$, )akes, P$6$ and Turner, 6$-$ "9<<8#, WSocial comparati0e conte/t and illusory correlation& testing between in group bias and social identity models of stereotype formationW, !ustralian 6ournal of Psychology, ,ol$ :1, pp$ <2A9>9$ :?$ .asnich, J$!$ "9<<4# A LThe =ob descripti0e inde/ re0isited& uestions about the uestion markM$ 6ournal of !pplied Psychology 22"8# "6une#, pp$ 822A8;4$ :2$ .aEes, B$'$, 9<<;A Measuring -ustomer Satisfaction, [email protected] @uality Press, Milwaukee, GI$

29

.ill, ($, 9<<?A .andbook of -ustomer Satisfaction Measurement, Resource -enter for -ustomer Ser0ice Professionals, Gestern Springs, I*$ :;$ .eskett, 6$*$, Sasser, G$'$ 6r$ and Schlesinger, *$!$ "9<<2#A The Ser0ice Profit -hain, 7ree Press, (ew %ork, (%$ :<$ .ill, ($ and !le/ander, 6$ "4>>># B .andbook of customer satisfaction and loyalty measurement, 4nd ed$, 5ower Publishing *td$, 'ngland$ 1>$ .ill, ($, Brierley 6$, and MacDougall, R$ "4>>8# A .ow to measure customer satisfaction, 4nd edition, 5ower Publishing *td$, 'ngland$ 19$ .off, Dean, 4>>? A South !frican cellular wars in (igeria$ International 6ournal of 'merging Markets, ,ol$ 9 (o$ 9, 4>>?, pp$ ;:A<1$ 'merald 5roup Publishing *imited, 92:?A;;><$ 14$ .olbrook, M$ "9<<:# B LThe nature of customer 0alue& an anthology of ser0ices in the consumption e/perienceM, in Rust, R$T$ and )li0er, R$*$ "'ds#, Ser0ice @uality& (ew Directions in Theory and Practice, Sage Publications, Thousand )aks, -!, pp$ 49A29$ 18$ .omburg, -$ and 5iering, !$ "4>>9# A LPersonal characteristics as moderators of the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty B an empirical analysisM, Psychology and Marketing, ,ol$ 9; (o$ 9, pp$ :8A??$ 1:$ .omburg, -$, F Bruhn, M$ "9<<;#$ Jundenbindungsmanagement A 'ine 'infuJ hrung in die theoretischen and praktischen Problemstellungen$ In M$ Bruhn, F -$ .omburg "'ds$#, .andbuch Jundenbindungsmanagement "pp$ 8X81#$Giesbaden& 5abler$ 11$ .oward, 6$!$ and Sheth, 6$($ "9<?<# A The Theory of Buyer Beha0ior, 6ohn Giley F Sons, (ew %ork, (%$ 1?$ .unt, J$.$ "'d$# "9<22#A L-onceptualiEation and Measurement of -onsumer Satisfaction and DissatisfactionM, Marketing Science Institute, -ambridge, M!$ 12$ .unt, .$J$ "9<;4# A L ! L9>M based on e/pectations, but normati0ely a 8$?829M, in Day, R$*$ and .unt, .$J$ "'ds#, Proceedings of the 2th !nnual -onference on -onsumer Satisfaction,

24

Dissatisfaction and -omplaining Beha0iour, +ni0ersity of Tennessee, Jno/0ille, T(, )ctober, pp$ 98>A89$ 1;$ .urley, R$.$ and 'stelami, .$ "9<<;# B L!lternati0e indices for monitoring customer perceptions of ser0ice uality& a comparati0e e0aluation in a retail conte/tM, 6ournal of the !cademy of Marketing Science, ,ol$ 4?, Summer, pp$ 4>9A49$ 1<$ Ittner, -$ and *arcker, D$7$ "9<<?# A LMeasuring the impact of uality initiati0es on firm financial performanceM, in 5hosh, S$ and 7edor, D$ "'ds#, !d0ances in the Management of )rganisational @uality, ,ol$9, 6!I, 5reenwich, -T, pp$9A82$ ?>$ Ittner, -$ and *arcker, D$7$ "9<<;#AL!re nonAfinancial measures leading indicators of financial performanceV !n analysis of customer satisfactionM, 6ournal of !ccounting Research, ,ol$ 8?, Supplement, pp$ 9A81$ ?9$ 6ackson, *$!$, Sulli0an, *$!$, .arnish, R$ and .odge, -$($ "9<<?#AW!chie0ing positi0e social identity& social mobility, social creati0ity, and permeability of group boundariesW, 6ournal of Personality and Social Psychology, ,ol$ 2>, pp$ 4:9A1:$ ?4$ 6ankowicE, !$D$ "9<<9# B Business Research Pro=ects for Students, *ondon& -hapman and .all *td, +J$ ?8$ 6essie, *$ Tucker III, Sheila, R$! A Incorporating patientsD assessments of satisfaction and uality& !n integrati0e model of patientsD e0aluations of their care, Managing Ser0ice @uality, Bedford& ,ol$ 99, Iss$ :H pg$ 424, 91 pgs$ ?:$ 6ones, T$)$ and Sasser, G$'$ 6r "9<<1# B LGhy satisfied customers defectM, .ar0ard Business Re0iew, ,ol$ 28, (o0emberADecember, pp$ ;;A<<$ ?1$ Jano, ($ "4>>9# B *ife cycle and creation of attracti0e uality$ In proceeding from @uality Management and )rganiEation De0elopment "@M)D# "Dahlgaard, S$M 'd# *inkoping +ni0ersity, Sweden$ ??$ Jeiningham, T$*$ "4>>1#A Does customer satisfaction leads to profitabilityH share of wallet, as in Jeiningham, T$*$, PerkinsAMunn, T$ and '0ans, .$ "4>>8#, LThe impact of customer 28

satisfaction on shareAofAwallet in a businessAtoAbusiness en0ironmentM, Managing Ser0ice @uality, www$emeraldinsight$com ?2$ Jeiningham, T$*$, PerkinsAMunn, T$ and '0ans, .$ "4>>8#, LThe impact of customer satisfaction on shareAofAwallet in a businessAtoAbusiness en0ironmentM, 6ournal of Ser0ice Research, ,ol$ ? (o$ 9, pp$ 82A1>$ ?;$ Jeith, R$6$ "9<?># B LThe marketing re0olutionDD, 6ournal of MarketingM, ,ol$ 4:, 6anuary, pp$ 81A;$ ?<$ Jim, .$ "4>>># A The churn analysis and determinants of customer loyalty in Jorean mobile phone$ Jorean Information Society Re0iew, 4>>>, 9B9;$ 2>$ *ee, 6$, *ee, 6$, F 7reick, *$ "4>>9# A The impact of switching costs on the customer satisfactionAloyalty link& Mobile phone ser0ice in 7rance$ 6ournal of Ser0ices Marketing, 91"9#, 81B:;$ 29$ *e0es ue, T$ and McDougall, 5$.$5, "9<<?# A LDeterminants of customer satisfaction in retail bankingM, International 6ournal of Bank Marketing, ,ol$ 9: (o$ 2, pp$ 94A4>$ 24$ *ewis, R$-$ "9<;2# B LThe measurement of gaps in the uality of hotel ser0icesM, International 6ournal of .ospitality Management, ,ol$ ? (o$ 4, pp$ ;8A;$ 28$ *ightner, ($ 6$ "4>>8# A Ghat users want in eAcommerce design& effects of age, education and income$ 'rgonomics, :?"9B8#, 918B9?;$ 2:$ *onergan, D$, Swain, G$, 5uy, !$, %unus, 7$, 6ackson, 6$, Mallinson, J$, et al$ "4>>:#$ !siaA Pacific Region to dri0e global wireless re0enue$ The %ankee 5roup Report, Boston, M!, +S!$ 21$ *o0elock, -$.$, Patterson, P$5$ and Galker, R$.$ "4>>9# A Ser0ices Marketing& !ustralia and (ew Nealand, Pearson 'ducation !ustralia, 7renchCs 7orest$ 2?$ Malhotra, ($, and Birks, D$ "4>>8# A Marketing Research, !n applied approach, .arlow, 'ngland& Prentice .all$

2:

22$ Mano, .$ and )li0er, R$*$ "9<<8# A L!ssessing the dimensionality and structure of the consumption e/perience& e0aluation, feeling and satisfaction, 6ournal of -onsumer Research, ,ol$4>, Dec$, pp$:19A??$ 2;$ Maslow, !$.$ "9<:8# B L! theory of human moti0ationM, Psychological Re0iew, ,ol$ 9, pp$ 82>A<?$ 2<$ McDougall, 5$ and *e0es ue, T$ "9<<4# B LThe measurement of ser0ice uality& some methodological issuesM, 4nd International Research Seminar in Ser0ice Management, *aA*ondeA *es Maures, 7rance, pp$ :9>A89$ ;>$ McDougall, .$5$, and *e0es ue, T "4>>># B L-ustomer satisfaction with ser0ices& putting percei0ed 0alue into the e uationM, 6ournal of Ser0ices Marketing, ,ol$, 9: (o$ 1, pp$ 8<4A:9>$ ;9$ Mc(eale, R$M$ "9<<:# A Making customer satisfaction happens$ -hapman and .all, *ondon$ ;4$ (aumann, '$ "9<<1#, -ustomer Satisfaction Measurement and Management& +sing the ,oice of the -ustomer, Thomson '/ecuti0e Press, -incinnati, ).$ ;8$ (dukwe, 'rnest "4>>1# @ -ountry e/perience in telecom market reforms in (igeria$ -'), (igerian -ommunication -ommission, 6uly 4>>1$ www$ncc$go0$ng$ ;:$ (elson, '$, Rust, R$T$, Nahorik, !$, Rose, R$*$, Batalden, P$ and Siemanski, B$, 9<<4A LDo patient perceptions of uality relate to hospital financial performanceVM 6ournal of .ealthcare Marketing, Dec$, pp$9A98$ ;1$ (ira=, R$, 7oster, 5$, 5upta, M$ and (arasimhan, -$ "4>>8#AL+nderstanding customer le0el profitability implications of satisfaction programsM, Gashington +ni0ersity in St *ouis Gorking paper, (o$ 4>>8A><A>>9, )lin School of Business, St *ouis, M)$ ;?$ )'-D "4>>?# A )rganiEation for 'conomic cooperation and de0elopment$ !frican 'conomic outlook 4>>1A4>>?$ www$oecd$orgIde0IpublicationIafrican outlook ;2$ )li0er, R$*$ "9<22# B L'ffects of e/pectation and disconfirmation on postAe/posure product e0aluations& an alternati0e interpretationM, 6ournal of !pplied Psychology, ,ol$ ?4 (o$ :, pp$ :;>A;?$ 21

;;$ )li0er, R$*$ "9<;9# B LMeasurement and e0aluation of satisfaction process in retail settingM, 6ournal of Retailing, ,ol$ 12, pp$ 41A:;$ ;<$ )li0er, R$*$ "9<;<# A LProcessing of the satisfaction response in consumption& a suggested framework and research propositionsM, 6ournal of -onsumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and -omplaining Beha0ior, ,ol$ 4, pp$ 9A9?$ <>$ )li0er, R$*$ "9<<8# BL-ogniti0e, affecti0e and attribute bases of the satisfaction responseM, 6ournal of -onsumer Research, ,ol$ 4>, December, pp$ :9;A8>$ <9$ )li0er, R$*$ "9<<?# A Satisfaction& ! Beha0ioral Perspecti0e on the -onsumer, Mc5rawA.ill, (ew %ork, (%$ <4$ )li0er, R$*$ "9<<2# B Satisfaction& ! beha0ioural perspecti0e on the consumer, IrwinI Mc5rawA.ill, (%$ <8$ )li0er, R$*$ "9<<<# A LGhence customer loyaltyVM 6ournal of Marketing, ,ol$ ?8, pp$ 88A::$ <:$ )lsha0sky, R$G$ and Miller, 6$!$ "9<24# B L-onsumer e/pectations, product performance and percei0ed product ualityM, 6ournal of Marketing Research, ,ol$ <, 7ebruary, pp$ 9<A49$ <1$ )lson, 6$-$ and Do0er, P$ "9<2<# B LDisconfirmation of consumer e/pectation through product trialM, 6ournal of !pplied Psychology, ,ol$ ?:, pp$ 92<A;<$ <?$ )0enden, !$, "9<<1# BMJeep your customers happy and your competition will slowly fade awayM, The T-M MagaEine, ,ol$ 2 (o$ 9, pp$:?A:<$ <2$ )yewole, P$, 4>>9A -onsumerDs socioAdemographic characteristics and satisfaction with ser0ices in the airline industry, ser0ices Marketing @uarterly, Binghamton, ,ol$48, Iss$ 4, pg$?9 <;$ Pal0ia, P$ -$, F Pal0ia, S$ -$ "9<<<# A !n e/amination of the IT satisfaction of smallAbusiness users$ Information F Management, 81"8#, 942B982$ <<$ Parasuraman, !$, Neithaml, ,$!$ and Berry, *$*$ "9<;;# B LS'R,@+!*& a multipleAitem scale for measuring consumer perceptions of ser0ice ualityM, 6ournal of Retailing, ,ol$ ?:, Spring, pp$ 4A:>$

2?

9>>$ Parasuraman, !$, Berry, *$*$ and Neithaml, ,$!$ "9<<9a# B LRefinement and reassessment of the S'R,@+!* scaleM, 6ournal of Retailing, ,ol$ ?2, Ginter, pp$ :4>A1>$ 9>9$ Parker, -$, and Mathews, B$P$, "4>>9# B L-ustomer satisfaction& contrasting academic and consumersD interpretationsM, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 9<I9, pp$ 8;A::$ 9>4$ Peterson, R$!$ and Gilson, G$R$ "9<<4# B LMeasuring customer satisfaction& fact and artifactM, 6ournal of the !cademy of Marketing Science, ,ol$ 4>, pp$ ?9A29$ 9>8$ PiEam, !$ and 'llis, T$ "9<<<# B L-ustomer satisfaction and its measurement in hospitality enterprisesM, International 6ournal of -ontemporary .ospitality Management 99I2 S9<<<T 84?A 88<$ 9>:$ Platow, M$ 6$, .arley, J$, .unter, 6$ and Banning, P$ "9<<2# A WInterpreting inAgroupA fa0oring allocations in the minimal group paradigmW, British 6ournal of Social Psychology, ,ol$ 8?, pp$ 9>2A92$ 9>1$ Porter, *$G$ "9<?9# B L! study of percei0ed need satisfaction in bottom and middle management =obsM, 6ournal of !pplied Psychology, ,ol$ :1, pp$ 9A9>$ 9>?$ Ra0ald, !$ and 5rOnroos, -$ "9<<?# B LThe 0alue concept and relationship marketingM, 'uropean 6ournal of Marketing, ,ol$ 8> (o$ 4, pp$ 9<A8>$ 9>2$ Reichheld, 7$7$ "9<<?# A The *oyalty 'ffect, .ar0ard Business School Press, Boston, M!$ 9>;$ Roger .allowell, 9<<?A The relationships of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability& an empirical study, International 6ournal of Ser0ice Industry Management, ,ol$ 2 (o$ :, pp$ 42A:4$ 9><$ Rust, R$T$ and )li0er, R$*$ "9<<:# B LSer0ice uality insights and managerial implications from the frontierM, in Rust, R$T$ and )li0er, R$*$ "'ds#, Ser0ice @uality (ew Directions in Theory and Practice, Sage, -!$ 99>$ Rust, R$T$ and Subramanian, B$, 9<<4A LMaking complaints a management toolM, Marketing Management, ,ol$9 (o$8, pp$ :9A1$

22

999$ Spagna, 5$ 6$ "9<;:# A [email protected]& which approach do you useM$ 6ournal of !d0ertising Research, 7eb$AMarch, pp$?2A2>$ 994$ Spreng, R$, !$ and )lsha0sky, R, G$, "9<<8# A W! Desires -ongruency Model of -onsumer Satisfaction,W 6ournal of the !cademy of Marketing Science, 49 "Summer#, 9?<A22$ 998$ Swan, 6$'$ and )li0er, R$*$ "9<;1# BL!utomobile buyer satisfaction with the salesperson related to e uity and disconfirmationM, in .unt, .$J$ and Day, R$*$ "'ds#, -onsumer Satisfaction and -omplaining Beha0ior, Indiana +ni0ersity Press, Bloomington, I($ 99:$ SEymanski, D$M$ and .enard, D$.$ "4>>9#, L-ustomer satisfaction& a metaAanalysis of the empirical e0idenceM, 6ournal of the !cademy Marketing Science, ,ol$ 4< (o$ 9, pp$ 9?A81$ 991$ SEyperski, ($, F *oebbecke, -$ "9<<<#$ Telekommunikationsmanagement "TJM# als betriebswirtschaftliche SpeEialdisEiplin$ Die Betriebswirtschaft, 1<, :;9X :<1$ 99?$ Taylor, S$!$ and Baker, T$*$ "9<<:# B L!n assessment of the relationship between ser0ice uality and customer satisfaction in the formation of consumersD purchase intentionsM, 6ournal of Marketing, ,ol$ 1;, Summer, pp$ 9?8A2;$ 992$ Turel, )$ and Serenko, !$ "4>>?# A Satisfaction with mobile ser0ices in -anada& !n empirical in0estigation, Telecommunications Policy 8> "4>>?#, pp$89:B889, 4>>?$ 99;$ ,an!mburg, D$ "4>>:# A Personal communication regarding the !-SI scores for -anadian wireless ser0ice pro0iders, September 8>$ !nn !rbor, MI, +S!$ 99<$ ,a0ra, T$5$ "9<<2# A Impro0ing %our Measurement of -ustomer Satisfaction& ! 5uide to -reating, -onducting, !nalyEing, and Reporting -ustomer Satisfaction Measurement Programs, [email protected] @uality Press$ 94>. !e))D S. ')/ F()eD D.L.D 200A @ A**e**%)< $=e %)301e)ce (3 *(c%(@/em(<r'7=%c 3'c$(r* ')/ =e'0$= *$'$1* () e67re**%() (3 *'$%*3'c$%() 9%$= G *er&%ce*D Br'/3(r/D !(0. +0D I**. 2G 7<. ++ED E 7<*. 949$ ,room, ,$, "9<?:# BLGork and Moti0ationM, 6ohn Giley F Sons, (ew %ork, (%$

2;

944$ Gatson, D$ "9<<4#A L-orrecting for ac uiescent response bias in the absence of a balanced scaleA an application to classAconsciousnessH Sociological Methods and Research 49"9#, !ugust, pp$14A;;$ 948$ Geiner, B$ "9<;># B L! cogniti0e "attribution# A emotion A action model of moti0ated beha0ior& an analysis of =udgments of help gi0ingM, 6ournal of Personality and Social Psychology, ,ol$ 8< (o$ 4, pp$ 9;?A4>>$ 94:$ Geiner, B$ "9<;1# B L!n attributional theory of achie0ement moti0ation and emotionM, Psychological Re0iew, ,ol$ <4, )ctober, pp$ 1:;A28$ 941$ Gerth, 6$, 4>>4A L-ustomer satisfaction measurement, complying with the IS) <>>9&4>>> re uirementM, a0ailable at www$isoA<>>A4>>>$com 94?$ Gestbrook, R$ and Reilly, M$D$ "9<;8# BL,alueA percept disparity& an alternati0e to the disconfirmation of e/pectations theory of consumer satisfactionM, in BagoEEi, R$P$ and Tybout, !$M$ "'ds#, !d0ances in -onsumer Research, !ssociation for -onsumer Research, !nn !rbor, MI, pp$ 41?A?9$ 942$ Gestbrook, R$!$ "9<;># A LIntrapersonal affecti0e influences upon consumer satisfaction with productMD, 6ournal of -onsumer Research, ,ol$ 2, 6une, pp$ :<A1:$ 94;$ Gestbrook, R$!$ and )li0er, R$*$ "9<<9# B LThe dimensionability of consumption emotional patterns and customer satisfactionM, 6ournal of -onsumer Research, ,ol$ 9;, 6une, pp$ ;:A<9$ 94<$ Giele, T$ ,ander, Boselie, P$ and .esselink, M$, 4>>4A 'mpirical e0idence for the relationship between customer satisfaction and business performance, Managing Ser0ice @uality, ,ol$ 94, (o$ 8, pp$9;:A<8$ 98>$ Gikipedia "4>>?# B .istory of *agos State$ The free encyclopaedia, http&IIen$wikipedia$org$ 989$ Gilfert, !$ "9<<<#A Der Gettbewerb auf dem Mobilfunkmarkt in Deutschland$ In D$ 7ink, F !$ Gilfert "'ds$#, .andbuch Telekommunikation und Girtschaft "pp$ 9;2X4>4#$ MuJ nchen& ,ahlen$ 2<

984$ Gilliam, R$ and Bertsch, B$ "9<<4# B @uality leadership in Taiwan$ Phillips International -orporate @uality Bureau, 'indho0en$ 988$ Gilliams, B$, -oyle, 6$ and .ealty, D$ "9<<;#AWThe meaning of patient satisfaction& an e/planation of high reported le0elsW, Social Science and Medicine, ,ol$ :2, pp$ 9819A<$ 98:$ %i, %$ "9<<># B L! critical re0iew of consumer satisfactionM, in Neithaml, ,$!$ "'d$#, Re0iew of Marketing, !merican Marketing !ssociation, -hicago, I*, pp$ ?;A948$ 981$ Neithaml, ,$, Parasuraman, !$ and Berry, *$*$ "9<<># A Deli0ering @uality Ser0ice, The 7ree Press, (ew %ork, (%$ 98?$ Neithaml, ,$!$ "9<;;# B L-onsumer perceptions of price, uality, and 0alue& a meansAend model and synthesis of e0idenceM, 6ournal of Marketing, ,ol$ 14, 6uly, pp$ 4A44$ 982$ Neithaml, ,$!$, Berry, *$*$ and Parasuraman, !$ "9<<?# B LThe beha0ioral conse uences of ser0ice ualityM, 6ournal of Marketing, ,ol$ ?>, !pril, pp$ 89A:?$ 98;$ Nineldin, M$, "4>>># B LTRM Total Relationship Management, Studentlitteratur, *und$

;>

A

ENDI" + -UESTIONNAIRE

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION SUR!EY
This research work is a study to measure how well the Mobile Telecommunications Industry is meeting your needs and know what needs to be impro0ed to increase your satisfaction$ %our cooperation is well appreciated$ Thank you$ I)*$r1c$%()C Please mark your answer with an LYM$

Sec$%() A
+. W=%c= (3 $=e 3(00(9%)< '<e c'$e<(r2 're 2(1      2. 0e'*e %)/%c'$e 2(1r <e)/er   Male 7emale 9?A41 4?A:> :9A11 1?A?1 ??A21

8. W=%c= (3 $=e 3(00(9%)< %)/%c'$e 2(1r $27e (3 em70(2me)$      Public employment Pri0ate employment SelfAemployment Student +nemployed

>. W=%c= (3 $=e 3(00(9%)< %* 2(1r 're' (3 re*%/e)ce     Ike=a *agos Island Mushin ,ictoria Island

;9

Sec$%() B
A. W=%c= (3 $=e m(b%0e (7er'$(r* /( 2(1 *1b*cr%be $(     6. 5lo Mobile Mtel MT( ,mobile

0e'*e r'$e 2(1r *'$%*3'c$%() (3 $=%* *er&%ce () $=e 3(00(9%)<C ,ery satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied ,ery dissatisfied (o opinion (etwork a0ailability Billing ,alidity period               

B. W=e) 2(1 c'00 $( c(m70'%) (r ;1er2 ')2$=%)<D =(9 *'$%*3%e/ 're 2(1 () $=e 3(00(9%)<C ,ery satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied ,ery dissatisfied (o opinion )0erall customer care ser0ice !bility to get attendant uickly !ttitude of the attendant !bility to pro0ide a solution          

 

 

 

 

 

E. O&er'00D =(9 *'$%*3%e/ 're 2(1 9%$= $=e 1*e (3 $=%* *er&%ce      ,ery satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied ,ery dissatisfied (o opinion

;4

A ENDI" 2 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION RELATIONSHI BETWEEN NETWORK 4CALL -UALITY5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares 22$;4> 99:$;<> df 9 8<; 8<< Mean S uare 22$;4> $4;< 7 4?<$1;8 Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, (etwork b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# +nstandardiEed -oefficients B 9$8:1 $1>> a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction "-onstant# (etwork Model 9

StandardiEed -oefficients Beta $?81 t 9<$112 9?$:9< Sig$ $>>> $>>>

Std$ 'rror $>?< $>8>

A ENDI" 8 BILLING 4 RICING5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares 8;$>81 91:$?21 df 9 8<; 8<< Mean S uare 8;$>81 $8;< 7 <2$;?< Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual

Total 9<4$29> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, Billing b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# +nstandardiEed -oefficients B 9$:1: $81? a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction "-onstant# Billing Model 9

StandardiEed -oefficients Beta $::: t 9:$??> <$;<8 Sig$ $>>> $>>>

Std$ 'rror $><< $>8?

A ENDI" > !ALIDITY ERIOD 4DURATION TO CALL AND RECEI!E CALLS5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares 8>$<?? 9?9$2:: df 9 8<; 8<< Mean S uare 8>$<?? $:>? 7 2?$9<? Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,alidity b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a#

;8

+nstandardiEed -oefficients B 9$?<9 $848 a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction "-onstant# ,alidity Model 9 Std$ 'rror $>;? $>82

StandardiEed -oefficients Beta $:>9 t 9<$28: ;$24< Sig$ $>>> $>>>

A ENDI" A CUSTOMER CARE SER!ICES 40.C.C.S5 AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares 8>$4?? 9?4$::: df 9 8<; 8<< Mean S uare 8>$4?? $:>; 7 2:$91: Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, )$-$-$S b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# +nstandardiEed -oefficients B 9$442 $1?9 a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction "-onstant# )$-$-$S Model 9

StandardiEed -oefficients Beta $8<? t ;$;;8 ;$?99 Sig$ $>>> $>>>

Std$ 'rror $98; $>?1

A ENDI" 6 MOBILE SER!ICES ATTRIBUTES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares ;;$>2: 9>:$?8? df : 8<1 Mean S uare 44$>9< $4?1 7 ;8$94> Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, -ustomer care support, Billing, ,alidity period, (etwork uality b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction C(e33%c%e)$* 4'5 +nstandardiEed -oefficients Model 9 B "-onstant# (etwork Billing ,alidity )$-$-$S a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction $;4> $8<? $4>> A$>9? $944 Std$ 'rror $98> $>:> $>81 $>8; $>?: StandardiEed -oefficients Beta $1>8 $41> A$>4> $>;? t ?$88> 9>$>9; 1$29: A$:4? 9$<48 Sig$ $>>> $>>> $>>> $?2> $>11

RELATIONSHI BETWEEN DEMOGRA HIC !ARIABLES AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

;:

A ENDI" B AGE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df 8$>28 9 9;<$?82 8<; 8<< Mean S uare 8$>28 $:2? 7 ?$:1> Sig$ $>99"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, !ge b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a#

StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients B 4$1<1 A$><2 a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction "-onstant# !ge Model 9 Std$ 'rror $><> $>8; Beta A$94? t 4;$<;8 A4$1:> Sig$ $>>> $>99

A ENDI" E GENDER AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df $4<4 9 9<4$:9; 8<; 8<< Mean S uare $4<4 $:;8 7 $?>: Sig$ $:8;"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a#

StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients B 4$8?> $>1: a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction "-onstant# 5ender Model 9 Std$ 'rror $>:; $>2> Beta $>8< t :<$?:; $222 Sig$ $>>> $:8;

A ENDI" F LOCATIONS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df :$82> 8 9;;$8:> 8<? Mean S uare 9$:12 $:2? 7 8$>?8 Sig$ $>4;"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# Model +nstandardiEed -oefficients StandardiEed -oefficients

t

Sig$

;1

9

"-onstant# Ike=a R 9 *agos Is$

B 4$4?> $99>

Std$ 'rror $>?< $><; $><; $><;

Beta $>?< $>?4 $9;9 84$229 9$94; 9$>41 4$<28 $>>> $4?> $8>? $>>8

$9>> ,ictoria Is$ $4<> a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction '/cluded ,ariables "b# Model 9 Mushin Beta In t

Sig$

Partial -orrelation -ollinearity Statistics Tolerance $>>>

$"a# $ $ $ a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, *agos Island, Ike=a b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

A ENDI" +0 EM LOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df 49$481 1 929$:21 8<: Mean S uare :$4:2 $:81 7 <$21; Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, Self, Pri0ate b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# Model 9 "-onstant# Public Pri0ate Self Student +nemployed +nstandardiEed -oefficients B 4$819 A$412 $412 $94; A$4?< Std$ 'rror $:?< $:?< $:?< $:28 $:2; $:<: StandardiEed -oefficients Beta A$9:4 $922 $>;1 A$942 A$9>1 1$>98 A$1:; $1:; $424 A$1?4 A$29> $>>> $1;: $1;: $2;? $12: $:2; t Sig$

A$819 a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

A ENDI" ++ AGED GENDER AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df 8$;:? 4 9;;$;?: 8<2 8<< Mean S uare 9$<48 $:2? 7 :$>:4 Sig$ $>9;"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, 5ender, !ge b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# Model

StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients

t

Sig$

;?

9

"-onstant# !ge 5ender

B 4$128 A$9>?

Std$ 'rror $><9 $>8< $>2>

Beta A$98; $>?: 4;$4:8 A4$288 9$421 $>>> $>>2 $4>8

$><> a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

A ENDI" +2 AGED LOCATIONS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df ?$<88 : 9;1$222 8<1 Mean S uare 9$288 $:2> 7 8$?;1 Sig$ $>>?"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, !ge, *agos Island, Ike=a b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients Model 9 "-onstant# !ge Ike=a *agos Is$ B 4$:<1 A$><8 $>:4 Std$ 'rror $944 $>:> $9>9 $><; $><; Beta A$94> $>4? $>8; $9?> t 4>$:28 A4$881 $:9< $?49 4$?>2 Sig$ $>>> $>4> $?2? $181 $>><

$>?9 ,ictoria Is$ $41? a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction '/cluded ,ariables "b#

-ollinearity Statistics Beta In t Sig$ Partial -orrelationTolerance $"a# $ $ $ $>>> a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, !ge, *agos Island, Ike=a b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction Mushin Model 9

A ENDI" +8 AGED EM LOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df 42$>28 ? 9?1$?82 8<8 Mean S uare :$194 $:49 7 9>$2>? Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, Student, Public, !ge, Self, Pri0ate b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

-oefficients "a# Model StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients B Std$ 'rror Beta t Sig$

;2

9

"-onstant# !ge Public Pri0ate Self Student +nemployed

4$?29 A$9:8 A$4?9 $4?9 $99< A$8;<

$:?< $>8; $:?9 $:?9 $:?1 $:24 $:;2

A$9;1 A$9:1 $9;> $>2; A$9;: A$>;>

1$?<9 A8$244 A$1?? $1?? $41? A$;41 A$11>

$>>> $>>> $124 $124 $2<; $:9> $1;8

A$4?; a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

A ENDI" +> GENDERD LOCATIONS AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df :$28< : 9;2$<29 8<1 Mean S uare 9$9;1 $:2? 7 4$:<> Sig$ $>:8"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, 5ender, *agos Island, Ike=a R 9 b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients Model 9 "-onstant# 5ender Ike=a R 9 *agos Is$ B 4$48< $>?8 $>;2 Std$ 'rror $>28 $>24 $9>9 $><; $><; Beta $>:? $>1: $>1? $9;> t 8>$?;8 $;;> $;?8 $<44 4$<14 Sig$ $>>> $82< $8;< $812 $>>8

$><> ,ictoria Is$ $4;; a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction '/cluded ,ariables "b# Model 9 Mushin Beta In t

Sig$

Partial -orrelation

-ollinearity Statistics Tolerance $>>>

$"a# $ $ $ a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Is$, 5ender, *agos Is$, Ike=a b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

A ENDI" +A GENDERD EM LOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b#

;;

Model 9

Regression Residual Total

Sum of S uares df 41$2<: ? 9??$<9? 8<8

Mean S uare :$4<< $:41

7 9>$944

Sig$ $>>>"a#

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, 5ender, Student, Self, Public, Pri0ate b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# Model 9 "-onstant# 5ender Public Pri0ate Self Student +nemployed StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients B 4$84? $482 A$::? $4>< $>11 A$819 Std$ 'rror $:?8 $>24 $:?2 $:?8 $:?; $:28 $:;; Beta $92> A$4:2 $9:: $>8? A$9?? A$941 1$>49 8$42? A$<11 $:19 $99; A$2:4 A$;12 $>>> $>>9 $8:> $?14 $<>? $:1< $8<4 t Sig$

A$:9; a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

A ENDI" +6 LOCATIONSD EM LOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df 42$8?8 ; 9?1$8:2 8<9 Mean S uare 8$:4> $:48 7 ;$>;; Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual Total

9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, +nemployed, Student, Public, *agos Island, Self, Ike=a, Pri0ate b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# Model 9 "-onstant# Public Pri0ate Self Student +nemployed Ike=a *agos Is$ ,ictoria Is$ StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients B 4$98; A$4<8 $4<8 $918 A$4?1 A$84? $8>< $92: Std$ 'rror $:?? $:?8 $:?8 $:?? $:24 $:;2 $><< $><: $><4 Beta A$9?4 $4>4 $9>> A$941 A$><2 $9<4 $9>; $9<4 :$1;: A$?8: $?8: $842 A$1?4 A$??< 8$99: 9$;:; 8$841 $>>> $14? $14? $2:: $12: $1>: $>>4 $>?1 $>>9 t Sig$

$8>2 a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

'/cluded ,ariables "b# -ollinearity Statistics Model Beta In t Sig$ Partial -orrelationTolerance

;<

9 Mushin $"a# $ $ $ $>>> a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, ,ictoria Island, +nemployed, Student, Public, *agos Island, Self, Ike=a, Pri0ate b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

A ENDI" +B AGED GENDERD LOCATIOND EM LOYMENT AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION !(),! "b# Model 9 Sum of S uares df 82$2?? 9> 91:$<:: 8;< Mean S uare 8$222 $8<; 7 <$:;9 Sig$ $>>>"a#

Regression Residual

Total 9<4$29> 8<< a$ Predictors& "-onstant#, +nemployed, ,ictoria Island, Student, 5ender, Self, *agos Island, !ge, Public, Ike=a, Pri0ate b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction -oefficients "a# Model 9 "-onstant# !ge 5ender Ike=a R 9 *agos Is$ ,ictoria Is$ Public Pri0ate Self Student +nemployed StandardiEed +nstandardiEed -oefficients -oefficients B 4$1;2 A$9?; $8>: $991 $><1 $41> A$1>> $9<2 $>4> A$1:> Std$ 'rror $:?? $>:9 $>2: $9>: $><8 $><9 $:14 $:1> $:18 $:?9 $:2: Beta A$49; $49; $>24 $>1< $91? A$422 $98? $>98 A$411 A$9>9 1$119 A:$>29 :$948 9$><< 9$>44 4$2?> A9$9>? $:8; $>:: A9$9?< A$294 $>>> $>>> $>>> $424 $8>; $>>? $42> $??4 $<?1 $4:8 $:22 t Sig$

A$882 a$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction '/cluded ,ariables "b# Model 9 Mushin Beta In t

Sig$

Partial -orrelation

-ollinearity Statistics

Tolerance $"a# $ $ $ $>>> a$ Predictors in the Model& "-onstant#, +nemployed, ,ictoria Is, Student, 5ender, Self, *agos Is$, !ge, Public, Ike=a, Pri0ate b$ Dependent ,ariable& Satisfaction

<>

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close