Medical informatics for Medical Students

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Information Technology for Medical Students
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Dr.T.V.Rao MD

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Medical Informatics
Definitions • Medical Information Science is the science of using system-analytic tools . . . to develop procedures (algorithms) for management, process control, decision making and scientific analysis of medical knowledge - Ted Shortliffe • Medical Informatics comprises the theoretical and practical aspects of information processing and communication, based on knowledge and experience derived from processes in medicine and health care - Jan van Bemmel
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Medical informatics
• Medical informatics is the intersection of information science, computer science, and health care. It deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in health and biomedicine
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Medical Informatics
• Medical informatics has been also defined as the field that "concerns itself with the cognitive, information processing, and communication tasks of medical practice, education, and research, including information science and the technology to support these tasks
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Health (Medical) Informatics a Rapidly Developing science
• Medical informatics is the rapidly developing scientific field that deals with resources, devices and formalized methods for optimizing the storage, retrieval and management of biomedical information for problem solving and decision making.

Edward Shortliffe, M.D., Ph.D. What is medical informatics? Stanford University, 1995.

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Health Informatics consists of
• Information Technology
– Health care – Research – Education

• Fundamentals
– – – – Communication Knowledge Management Decision support Clinical Information Management
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Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Medical Informatics
Knowledge Management Clinical Information Management

Communication

Decision Support

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Technology needs
• Laptops for each student
– Microsoft Office Professional – Stedman’s Medical Spellchecker – Endnotes – Adobe Photoshop Elements – Medical References
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Personal Digital Assistant keep you update anywhere
• PDAs or iPads for each student
– – – – – – Evidence Based Ref. Disease Reference Medical Calculator Drug Reference Medical Dictionary The CDCS system

• Computer Lab
– Student teaching – Faculty development

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Medical Informatics Improves Educational Strategies
• Didactic vs problem solving • Competencies
– Word processing – Information retrieval – Information management – Data analysis – Presentation – Communication skills
• E-mail, file transfer, web

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Informatics Use in Health Care
• Communication
– – – – Telemedicine Tele-radiology Patient e-mail Presentations

• Decision Support
– Reminder systems – Diagnostic Expert Systems – Drug Interaction

• Knowledge management
– Journals – Consumer Health information – Evidence-based medical information

• Information Management
– Electronic Medical Records – Billing transactions – Ordering Systems

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Computer make the Diagnostic-Therapeutic Cycle, Simplified
Data collection: Data

-History -Physical examinations -Laboratory and other tests

Information

Patient

Decision making

Therapypl an

Planning
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Diagnosis/assessment
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Medical Informatics Why We Learn ?
• Computers are affordable today. • If you don’t know a little bit about what "coils” are inside • you will get frustrated and will bother other people. • And yet we want computers and IT now!
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Examples of Medical Informatics Areas
• Hospital information systems
– Electronic medical records & medical vocabularies – laboratory information systems – pharmaceutical information systems – radiological (imaging) information systems – Patient monitoring systems

• Clinical decision-support systems
– Diagnosis/interpretation – Therapy/management
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Health Informatics Tools
• Include not only computers but also clinical guidelines, formal medical terminologies, and information and communication systems. It is applied to the areas of nursing, clinical care, dentistry, pharmacy, public health and (bio)medical research.
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Infrastructure to Support Informatics Curriculum.
• Hardware/Softwar e • Support Issues • Workflow/Mindse t Issues • Training Issues • Budgeting Issues
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Infrastructure for Medical Informatics
Student and Faculty PDAs
Stedman’s Medical Dictionary InfoRetriever ePocrates PDxMD CPOnhand

Data Collection and Evaluation System
Arcstream System Avantgo Server SQL Server

Student Wireless Laptops
Microsoft Office Professional Dorland’s Medical Spellchecker Photoshop Elements InfoRetriever Endnote

College of Medicine Network Infrastructure
Technology Enhanced Classrooms Campus Wide Wireless Coverage Video Conferencing File, Exchange, Web Servers

Virtual Library Resources

Blackboard Courseware
All Courses

IT Section Support
Database Development Web design Video Editing Tech Support

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Computer-aided instruction
• These include computer-aided instruction, learning about computers and their applications, use of computer-based information resources, use of computers as a tool and as a mechanism for information management, decision support and communication.) While medical informatics includes computer applications, it is not limited only to the use of computers, but includes the knowledge, skills and attitudes involved in seeking, manipulating and using biomedical information.
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Computer and Medical informatics
• Changes in health care delivery and styles of learning in medical education have forced a need to use and critically evaluate a variety of new teaching tools, including the computer. While the computer is unlikely to ever replace the patient as the primary focus of learning, it does have the ability to reproduce a highly interactive environment and can mimic many situations in Medicine.
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Earlier attempts of teaching with Computers
• The first serious introduction of computers into medical education was made two decades ago. De Dombal reported the use of computer-based material to enhance the understanding of trainees faced in an emergency department with the management of patients with acute abdominal pain.
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Are too slow adopting the change
• Medical schools have long recognized the need to revise their teaching methodology, but have been slow to change.
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Patient data is most important source of information
• As medical knowledge continues to expand rapidly with demands for more efficient coordination of patient data become paramount, and the pressures for improved practice and application of evidence based medicine increases, medical informatics will have increasing influence in our working lives as clinicians.
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We still continue to do with traditional Didactic methods
• Till recently, teachers and their pupils have been content with, and able to rely on, the traditional resources that have always been available in medical education. • This involves teaching and learning centred on the patient, and backed up by lectures and tutorials. Other information can be obtained from and journals. For a number of reasons these resources are no longer sufficient
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Medical Education is shifting to Problem based learning
• There has been a philosophical shift in medical education in recent years. • Pioneered by the McMaster and Newcastle medical schools, there has been a move from the traditional lecturefocussed program to a problem-based approach (Harden).
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Virtual reality in Teaching a priority in Medical Education
• The use of virtual reality in simulated procedures is a new application of computers in medical education and is as yet in its infancy. Procedures can be standardised and trainees able to test and practice their skills.
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Cybernetics
• Theory of Information Communications Coding Algorithms Probabilities and Stochastic Processes • Theory of Control Operations Research Optimization Management Science • Systems Analysis
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Library resources becomes Electronic
• The modern library places an increasing amount of its material in electronic format and increasing numbers of journals are available either on CD- -ROM or over the Internet. This represents a considerable saving in storage space and manpower. Many students who wish to pursue their studies using library facilities can now do son in electronic fashion, and often from their own home
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Faculty should be provide electronic information
• Faculty must identify the prerequisite information and skills that students need to enable them to access electronic information sources, as well as the course content the student needs to "know" and the information the student needs to "know how to access" electronically.
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Students should develop interest in electronic information
• Students' attitudes toward their education may also have to change. Students need to learn that they must be information seekers as well as information managers. They also need to acquire knowledge about relevant sources of information, and the skills to access electronic information.
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Handheld Applications
• ePocrates • 5 Minute Clinical Consult • Medical Calculators • Immunization schedule
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Medical informatics Empower Students
• Helping students to become independent learners, information seekers, and proficient users of computer technology have long been goals that were often inadequately implemented throughout the medical school curriculum.
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Orientation by teachers is the primary goal
• By making our primary goal the preparation of students to be medical information managers, we have a strong rationale for the inclusion of medical informatics applications into the curriculum. This goal also provides a criterion by which the appropriateness of curricular offerings can be judged and the outcomes of instruction can be evaluated.
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Indian Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI)
• Indian Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI) is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal adopting a broad definition of "medical informatics" and focusing on the applied aspects of computers to healthcare delivery.
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Information Technology Basics of Security - 1
• make sure workstation is physically safe and

secure never send passwords by email • never paste passwords beside the workstation • install and regularly (weekly) update virus protection • avoid sending attachments • never open unsolicited attachments, always check an double-check the attachment’s file extension
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Information Technology Basics of Security -2
• Never open unexpected file with extensions EXE COM DOC DLL PIF LNK VBS (Windows does not show LNK and PIF extensions) • Never click on a link – hover the link with mouse and look at the status bar where the link leads when clicked • firewall may protect both yourself and the world but may also cheat you)
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Barriers to Implementation of Technology

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Knowledge is exploding and Patients are demanding

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Medical informatics improves the Professional standards
• Our Goals include Improving health care through information technology ,while promoting the renewal of traditional values in the medical profession."

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Medical Informatics to be part of Curriculum

• Medical informatics to be incorporated into medical school curricula in developing world. So Medical informatics allows physicians to access, analyze, and manage information so that they can make educated decisions in patient care .The use of computers and the related technology is essential for communication and information-sharing with colleagues, for public and patient education, and for professional development
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Electronic Media should be part of Education

• Computer technology provides immediate access to information and a mechanism for the rapid dissemination of knowledge. The use of computer technology has become an important component of education, particularly at the medical college level, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has also been integrated into continuing medical education
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Continued efforts by Faculty will create interest
• Continued efforts must be made to teach them the skills necessary so that they can benefit from available and evolving technology. In addition, we recommend that students be introduced to computer-based testing early in their medical school careers to improve their comfort levels with this medium
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Educational Strategies
• Didactic vs problem solving • Competencies
– Word processing – Information retrieval – Information management – Data analysis – Presentation – Communication skills
• E-mail, file transfer, web

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Approaching Basic Sciences Classes with Medical Informatics
• Anatomy lab video enabled • BacusLabs digital webslide program • Gold Standard Multimedia* • Cross Sectional Anatomy • LXR Testing Program
– Question bank – Computer-based testing – Item analysis/grading

• United Streaming Videos
– Anatomy – Histology

• Web Path

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Medical Informatics makes the better Health Managers
• Our primary goal the preparation of students to be medical information managers, we have a strong rationale for the inclusion of medical informatics applications into the curriculum.

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MedicalStudent.com
• A digital library of authoritative medical information for the medical student and all students of medicine
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Standards for exchange and management of medical information






To maintain interoperability between systems across different platforms. HL7 (Health Level 7): aims to provide standards for the exchange, management and integration of data that support clinical patient care and management, delivery and evaluation of health care services. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM): Diagnostic images, waveforms and test reports.
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Medical informatics makes education Interesting

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Computer are staying with us..
• The computer is here to stay in one form or another. It is unlikely that any amount to scientific data on its reliability or validity will influence use of the medium. However, used appropriately computers can be of considerable educational benefit and will serve medical students and practitioners throughout their careers
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Information technology is not a remedy for all ills in Medical Education
• Information technology must not be viewed as a potential cure to the current ailments of medical education. It may be part of the solution and should be treated as such
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• Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for ‘e’ learning resources for Medical Students .
Email [email protected]
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