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Mississippi This article article is about about the U.S. state of Mississipp Mississippi. i. For  Mississippi Rive Riverr. For For oth other er use uses, s, see see the river, river, see see Mississippi (disambiguation). Mississippi (disambiguation).   i

/ˌmɪsɨˈsɪpi/  is a  U.S. state located /ˌmɪsɨˈsɪpi/ is state  located in the Southern United States. States.


River,, The name of the state derives from the Mississippi the  Mississippi River which flows along its western boundary and comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi  (“Great Riv River”). er”). Jackson  Jackson is the the state capital and largest city, with a population of around 175,000 175,0 00 people. people. The state overal overalll has a populati population on of around arou nd 3 million million people. people. Mississi Mississippi ppi is the 32nd the  32nd most extensive and extensive  and the 31st the  31st most populous of populous  of the 50 the  50 United States.. On multiple other rankings, however, States however, Mississi Mississippi ppi ranks last of all states, such as in health, educational attainment, and median household income.[6][7][8] Missisreligi igious ous stat statee in the the coun coun-sipp sippii has been been ranke ranked d the most rel [9] try since 2011.

Bottomland hardwood swamp near   Ashland, Ashland, Mississippi 

In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big the  Big Black River River,, the Pearl the  Pearl River, River, the Yazoo the  Yazoo River,, the  River the   Pascagoula River, River, and the Tombigbee the  Tombigbee River. River. Major lakes include Ross include  Ross Barnett Reservoir Reservoir,,   Arkabutla Lake,,  Sardis Lake, Lake Lake, and Grenada and  Grenada Lake Lake.. The larges largestt lake in Mississippi is Sardis is Sardis Lake. Lake.

The state state of Missi Mississ ssip ippi pi is entir entirel elyy compo composed sed of lowlands, lowlands, Woodalll Mountain Mountain,inthe ,inthe foothills the hig highes hestt poin pointt bei being ng Woodal the  Cumberland Mountains, Mountains, 807 feet (246 m) above The state is heavily forested outside of the   Mississippi of the Cumberland sea level. . The lowest point is sea level at the Gulf the  Gulf coast. coast. level Delta area, Delta  area, which was cleared for cotton for  cotton cultivation  cultivation in the aquaculture farms  farms pro- The mean elevation in the state is 300 feet (91 m) above 19th century. century. Today, Today, its catfish its  catfish aquaculture duce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed consumed in the sea level. [10] United States. Most Mo st of Miss Missis issi sipp ppii is pa part rt of the the Ea East st Gulf Gulf Co Coas asta tall Pl Plai ain. n.


The   coastal plain   is generally composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. elevations. Ye Yellowllowbrown loess brown  loess soil  soil is found in the western parts of the state. The north northeas eastt is a regio regionn of fertil ertilee bl blac ack k ea earth rth that that exten extends ds into the Alabama the  Alabama Black Belt Belt..

Geo Geogra graphy

The coastline includes large bays large  bays at  at Bay  Bay St. Louis, Louis, Biloxi  Biloxi,,  Pascagoula.. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico and Pascagoula and proper by the shallow Mississippi shallow  Mississippi Sound, Sound, which is parIsland,, Horn Island Island,, East and tially sheltered by Petit by Petit Bois Island West Ship Islands, Islands, Deer Island Island,, Round Island, Island, and Cat and Cat Island.. land The northwest northwest remainder remainder of the state con consis sists ts of the Delta,, a section of the  Mississippi Alluvial Mississippi Delta Plain.. The plain is narrow in the south and widens north Plain region has rich soil, soil, partly made up of Vicksburg of  Vicksburg.. The region of silt of  silt which  which had been regularly deposited by the flood the  flood waters of waters  of the Mississippi Rive River. r. Major highways and waterways in Mississippi 

Areas under the management of the National the  National Park Ser[11] vice include: vice  include:

Mississippi is bordered on the north by Tennessee by Tennessee,, on the east by Alabama by Alabama,, on the south by Louisiana by  Louisiana and  and a narrow coast on the Gulf the  Gulf of Mexico Mexico;; and on the west, across the Mississippi River, by Louisiana and Arkansas and Arkansas..


  Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site   near Baldwyn




Seashore   Gulf Islands National Seashore

  Natchez National National Historical Park in Park in Natchez  Natchez

  Natchez Trace Trace National Scenic Trail in Trail in Tupelo  Tupelo

 Natchez Trace Parkway

 Tupelo National Battlefield Battlefield in  in Tupelo




Cemetery in  in  Vicksburg Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery

Major Major cities cities and towns towns

Jackson, Mississippi 

Map with all counties and many cities and towns labeled 

Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000 (United States Census Bureau Bureau as  as of 2010):[12] 1.   Jackson (173,514) Jackson (173,514) 2.   Gulfport (67,793) Gulfport (67,793) Northwest view of Gulfport Harbor Square Commercial Historic  District, Gulfport, Mississippi 

Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000 (United (United States Census Bureau as Bureau  as [12] of 2010): 1.   Southaven (48,982) Southaven (48,982) 2.   Hattiesburg (45,989) Hattiesburg (45,989) 3.   Biloxi (44,054) Biloxi (44,054) 4.   Vicksburg (42,856) Vicksburg (42,856) 5.   Meridian (41,198) Meridian (41,198) 6.   Tupelo Tupelo (34,546)  (34,546) 7.   Greenville (34,400) Greenville (34,400)

Strawberry Patch Park in Madison, Mississippi 

8.   Olive Branch Branch (33,484)  (33,484) 9.  Horn Lake (26,066) Lake (26,066)


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Cl Clim imat atee


Clinton (25,216)  (25,216) 10.   Clinton 11.   Pearl (25,092) Pearl  (25,092) 12.   Madison (24,149) Madison (24,149) 13.   Ridgeland (24,047) Ridgeland (24,047) 14.   Starkville (23,888) Starkville  (23,888) 15.   Columbus (23,604) Columbus (23,604) 16.   Pascagoula Pascagoula (22,392)  (22,392) 17.   Brandon (21,705) Brandon (21,705) Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000 (United (United States Census Bureau Bureau as  as [12] of 2010): 1.   Oxford (18,916) Oxford (18,916)

County  in autumn Montgomery County in

1.2 1.2

Clim Climat atee

2.   Gautier (18,572) Gautier (18,572) 3.   Laurel Laurel (18,540)  (18,540) 4.   Clarksdale Clarksdale (17,962)  (17,962) Springs (23,161)  (23,161) 5.  Ocean Springs 6.   Natchez (15,792) Natchez (15,792) 7.   Greenwood (15,205) Greenwood (15,205) Beach (14,792)  (14,792) 8.  Long Beach 9.   Corinth Corinth (14,573)  (14,573) 10.   Hernando Hernando (14,090)  (14,090) 11.  Moss Point (13,704) Point  (13,704) 12.   Canton Canton (13,189)  (13,189) 13.   Grenada (13,092) Grenada (13,092) McComb (12,790)  (12,790) 14.   McComb 15.   Brookhaven (12,513) Brookhaven (12,513) Cleveland (12,334)  (12,334) 16.   Cleveland 17.   Byram Byram (11,489)  (11,489) 18.  Yazoo City City (11,403)  (11,403) 19.  West Point Point (11,307)  (11,307) 20.   Picayune Picayune (10,878)  (10,878) Indianola (10,683)  (10,683) 21.   Indianola 22.   Petal Petal (10,454)  (10,454)

Mississippi has a   humid subtropical climate  with long summers summ ers and short, short, mild winters. winters. Tempera Temperature turess av avererage about 81°F 81°F  (about 27°C 27°C) in July and about 48 °F (abo (about ut 9 °C) in summer; January. however, The temperatur tempe e varies varie s little statewide in the in rature winter, the region  Mississippi Sound is near Mississippi near Sound  is significantly warmer than the inland portion of the state. The recorded temperature in Mississippi Mississi ppi has ranged from −19 °F (−28.3 °C), in 1966, at at Corinth  Corinth in  in the northeast, to 115 °F (46.1 °C), in 1930, at at Holly Springs  in the north. Heavy snowfall is possible  Holly Springs in across the state, such as during the New the  New Year’s Eve 1963 snowstorm.. Yearly precipitation snowstorm Yearly precipitation generally  generally increases from north to south, with the regions closer to the Gulf being the most humid. Thus, Clarksdale Thus,  Clarksdale,, in the northwest, gets about 50 inches (about 1,270 mm) of precipitation precipitation annually ally and Biloxi, Biloxi, iinn the south, south, about about 61 in inch ches es (about (about 1,5 1,550 50 mm). Small amounts of snow fall fall in northern and central Mississippi; Mississi ppi; snow is occasional in the southern part of the state. The late summer and fall is the seasonal period of risk for hurricanes moving hurricanes  moving inland from the Gulf of Mexico, especiallyy in the southern part of the state. Hurricane ciall state.  Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane and Hurricane Katrina Katrina in  in 2005, which killed killed 238 people in the state, were the most devastating hurricanes to hit the state, both causing nearly total storm total  storm surge desurge  destruction around Gulfport around  Gulfport,,   Biloxi, Biloxi, and  and   Pascagoula. Pascagoula. As South,,   thunderstorm thunderstormss  are comin the rest of the Deep the  Deep South mon in Mississippi, especially in the southern part of the state. On averag average, e, Mississipp Mississippii has around 27 tornadoes 27  tornadoes annually; the northern part of the state has more tornadoes earlier in the year and the southern part a higher frequency freq uency later in the year. Two of the t he five deadliest deadliest tornadoes in U.S. history have occurred in the state. These storms struck Natchez struck Natchez,, in southwest southwest Mississippi (see The (see The

(See: Lists of   cities  cities  , , towns  towns and villages  , census-designated   ,  census-designated  Great Great Natc Natchez hez Tor Tornado nado)) and Tupelo Tupelo,, in the northe northeast ast corcorstate. About About seven seven F5 tornadoes tornadoes have have been  places  ,   metropolitan metropolitan are areas  as  ,   micropo micropolitan litan area areas  s  , and  ner of the state. recorded in the state.   in Mississippi) counties  in



1. 1.3 3


Ecol Ecolog ogy y

The Mississippi state sign located on  Interstate 20. 20.

Missi Mis siss ssipp ippii is he heav avil ilyy fores orested ted,, with with over over half half of the sta state’ te’ss area covered by wild trees, including mostly pine mostly pine,, as well  elm,,  hickory  hickory,,  oak  oak,,  pecan  pecan,,  sweetgum  sweetgum and  and as cottonwood as  cottonwood,,  elm tupelo. tupelo.

1.4 1.4.1 1.4 .1

Ecolo Ecologic gical al probl problems ems



sion, whose responsibilities sion, responsibilities included included aiding state lev levee ee board boa rdss in the cons construc tructio tionn of leve levees. es. Both Both wh white ite andblack andblack transient workers workers built the levees in the late 19th century. By 1882, levees averaged seven feet in height, but many in the southern Delta were severely tested by the flood that year.[14] After the 1882 flood, the levee system was expanded. expande d. In 1884, the Yazoo-Mississip Yazoo-Mississippi pi Delta Levee District was established to oversee levee construction and maintena main tenance nce in the northern northern Delta Delta coun counties ties;; also inc include luded d were some counties in Arkansas in  Arkansas..[15] Flooding Flood ing ov overw erwhel helmed med north northwes western tern Miss Mississi issippi ppi in 1912–1913, causing heavy damage to the levee districts. Regional losses and the Mississippi River Levee Association’s lobbying for a flood control bill helped gain passage of national bills in 1917 and 1923 to provide provide federal federal matching funds funds for local levee districts, districts, on a scale of 2:1. Although U.S. participation in World in  World War I interrupted I  interrupted funding of levees, the second round of funding helped raise the av averag eragee hei height ght of levee leveess in the Mississi Mississippippi[16] Yazoo Delta to 22 feet (6.7 m) in the 1920s. Scientists now understand the levees have increased flooding, and the region was severely damaged due to the  Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. 1927. There were losses of millions of dollars doll ars in property, property, stock and crops. The most damage  Washington and  and occurred in the lower Delta, including  Washington Bolivar counties.  counties.[17] Bolivar

Flo Floodi oding ng

Even as scientifi scientificc knowl knowledge edge about the Mississippi River has grown, upstream development and the consequences Due to seasonal flooding, possible from December to of the levees have caused more severe flooding in some June, the Mississippi River created a fertile floodplain in yea years. rs. Scienti Scientists sts now unders understand tand that the widesp widesprea read d the Mississippi Mississippi Delta, including tributaries. Slave Slavess built clearing of land and building of the levees have changed levees  along the Mississippi River to control flooding. the nature of the river by removing the natural protecThey built on top of the natural levees that formed from tion of wetlands and forest cover and strengthening the dirt deposited after the river river flooded. As cultivation cultivation of curr current. ent. The state and federa federall gov governm ernments ents hav havee been  labor- struggling for the best approaches cotton increased in the Delta, planters hired Irish hired  Irish laborapproaches to restore some natural  in high numbers in the 1840s, to habitats in order to best interact with the original riverine ers, who immigrated who  immigrated in riverine ditch and drain their land. ecology. The state took over levee building from 1858 to 1861, accomplishing it through contractors and hired labor. In those years, planters considered their slaves too valuable 2 His Histor tory to hire out for such such dangerous work. Contractors hired gangs of Irish immigrant laborers to build levees and sometimess clear land. Many of the Irish were relatively sometime relatively Main article: History article:  History of Mississippi recent immigrants from the famine the famine years  years who were strug[13] Before the  American Civil gling to get established. Near 10,000 BC Native BC  Native Americans or Americans  or Paleo-Indians  Paleo-Indians ar arWar,, the earthwork levees averaged six feet in height, alWar rived in what today is referred to as the South the  South..[18] Palethough in some areas they reached twenty feet. oindians in the South were  were  hunter-gatherers who hunter-gatherers who pursued the megafauna Flooding has been an integral part of Mississi Mississippi ppi history, the  megafauna that  that became extinct following the end of but clearing of the land for cultivation and to supply fuel the  Pleistocene age.  age. After thousand thousandss of years, succeedthe Pleistocene for steamboats took away the absorption of trees and un- ing cultures of the Woodland the  Woodland and  and  Mississippian culture dergrowth. After the Civil War, major floods swept down eras developed rich and complex agricultural societies, the va vall lley ey in 1865, 1865, 1867, 1867, 1874 1874 and1882. Such Such floods floods regreg- in which surplus supported the development of specialtrades.. Both were were mound  mound builder builder   cultur cultures. es. Those ularly overwhelmed levees damaged by Confederate and ized trades Unio Unionn fig fighti hting ng during during thewar, as we well ll as those those co cons nstru tructe cted d of the Mississippian culture were the largest and most [14]

In 1877, the Mississippi Levee District after the war. was created created for southern southern counties. counties. In 1879, the the United  United States Congress created Congress  created the Mississippi the  Mississippi River Commis-

complex, comple x, and the t he peoples had a ttrading rading network spanning the continen continentt from North to South. Their Their large earthearthworks, which expressed political and religious concepts,



 and Ohio  Ohio River Valstill stand throughout the Mississippi the Mississippi and leys.. leys

merchants and property owners, fforming merchants orming a third class between the Europeans and most enslaved  Africans in  Africans  in the French and Spanish settlements, although not so large a community as in New in New Orleans Orleans.. After Great After Great Britain Britain's 's vic ( Seven Years’ War), War), tory in the French the  French and Indian War  (Seven the French surrendered the Mississippi area to them under the terms of the Treaty the  Treaty of Paris (1763) (1763)..

Choctaw Choct aw Villa Village ge near the Chefuncte Chefuncte,,   by Fra Francois ncois Berna Bernard, rd, 1869, Peabody Museum - Harvard University. The women are  preparing dye to color cane strips for making baskets.

Descendant   Native Americ American an   tribes tribes of the Mississi Mississipppian culture in the Southeast include the Chickasaw the  Chickasaw and  and Choctaw. Other er tribeswho tribeswho inhab inhabite ited d the ter terri ritor toryy of Mis Mis-Choctaw. Oth sissippi (and whose names were honored in local towns) includee the includ the Natchez  Natchez,, the Yazoo the Yazoo,, and the Biloxi the Biloxi.. The first major European expedition into the territory that became Mississippi was that of the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, Soto, who passed through the northeast part of the state in 1540, in his second expedition to the New World. Wor ld. In April 1699, French colonists established established the first European settlement at   Fort Maurepas  (also   (also known as Old Biloxi), built in the vicinity of present-day Ocean present-day  Ocean Springs and Springs  and settled by Pierre by  Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville. d'Iberville. In 1716, the French founded   Natchez   on the Mississippi River (as Fort Rosalie); it became the dominant town and tradin tradingg post post of thearea. The The Frenc French h ca call lled ed the greate greaterr ter ter-ritory "New "New France"; France"; the Spanish continued to claim part of the Gulf the  Gulf coast coast area  area (east of Mobile of  Mobile Bay Bay)) of presentday southern Alabama southern  Alabama,, in addition to the entire area of present-day  Florida.. present-day Florida Through the eighteenth century, the area was ruled var French,, and  and   British British colonial  colonial governiously by Spanish by  Spanish,,  French ments. The colonists colonists imported African imported African slaves slaves as  as laborers. Under French and Spanish rule, there developed a class  free people of color  ), mostly of of free color   ( gens de couleur libres ), multiracial  descendants of European men and enslaved women, and their children. children. In the early days the French and Spanish Spanish colonis colonists ts were chiefly chiefly men. Even Even as more European women joined the settlements, the men had interracial unions among women of African descent (and increasingly, increas ingly, also European descent), descent), both before and after marriages to European women. women. Often the European European men would help their multiracial children get educated or have apprenticeships for trades, and sometimes settled

Pushmataha , Chief  f  Pushmataha , Choctaw Principal Chie

After the  the   American Revolution, Revolution, this area became part America.. The Missis Mississip sippi pi of the new United new  United States of America Territory was   organized   on April 7, 1798, from terri and  South Carolina. Carolina. It was was lat later er tory ceded by Georgia by  Georgia and twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the United United States States and Spain. From 1800 to about 1830, the United States purchased some lands (Treaty ( Treaty of Doak’s Stand) Stand) from Native American tribes for new settlements of European Americans, who were mostly [19]

Many slaveholdmigrants from other Southern states. ers brought slaves with them or purchased them through the internal slave market, especially New Orleans. They South,, transported nearly one million slaves to the Deep the  Deep South including Mississippi, in a forced internal migration that broke up many slave families of the Upper South, where planters were selling excess slaves. The Southerners imposed their slave laws and restricted the rights of free blacks, according according to their view of white supremacy. supremacy. Southern slave codes did make the willful killing of a slave ill illega egall in most most cas cases. es.[20] For exampl example, e, the 1860 Mississippi case of  Oliver v. State charged the defendant with murdering his own slave.[21] Beginning in 1822, slaves slaves in Mississippi were protected by law from cruel and unusual punishment by their owners.[22]

property on them; they sometimes sometimes freed the mothers and On December 10, 1817, Mississippi was the 20th state Union.  David Holmes was Holmes  was elected as the  social capital, the their ir children children if enslaved enslaved.. With this this social capital, the admitted to the Union. David [23] fr free ee people people of color color became became artisans, artisans, some sometime timess educated educated first governor of the state. Plantations were developed






 National  Front of D'Evereux Front D'Evereux.. Buil Builtt in 1840, it is listed on the the National  Register of Historic Places . Confederate dead after the Battle the  Battle of Corinth. Corinth . Photo taken Octo-

primarilyy alo primaril along ng the riv rivers, ers, whe where re waterf waterfront ront gav gavee them ac- ber 5, 1862 ce cess ss to the ma major jor trans transpor portat tatio ionn routes routes.. This is al also so wh wher eree  that carearly towns developed, linked by the steamboats the  steamboats that ried commer commercia ciall products products and crops to markets. markets. The others oth ers we were re freeblacks reeblacks wh whoo had mi migra grated ted from the North. North. backcountry remained largely undeveloped frontier. [24] Although 32 counties had black majorities, they elected represent them. The convenconvenWhen cot cotton ton wa wass kin kingg duri during ng the 1850s, 1850s, Mississi Mississippi ppi plan- whites as well as blacks to represent tation owners—especially those of the Delta and  Black tion adopted universal suffrage; did away with property Belt regions—became wealthy due to the high fertility of Belt regions—became the soil, the high price of cotton on the international market, ket, and their their assets in sla slaves ves.. They They used the profits profits to buy more cotton land and more slaves. The planters’ dependence on hundreds of thousands of slaves for labor and the severe wealth imbalances among whites, played strong roles both in state politics and in planters’ support  secession.. for for secession By 1860, the enslaved population numbered 436,631 or 55% of the state’s state’s total of 791,305. 791,305. There There were fewer fewer [25] than than 100 1000 0 fre reee peo peopl plee of co colo lorr. The relati relative vely ly low population of the state before the Civil War reflected the fact that that land land and vi villa llages ges we were re deve develo loped ped onl onlyy along along the rive riverrfronts, which formed the main transportation corridors. Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands were frontier

qualifications for suffrage for suffrage or  or for office, a change that also benefited poor whites; provided for the state’s first public school system; forbade forbade race distinc distinctions tions in the possession and inheritance of property; and prohibited limiting civil rights in travel.[26] Under the terms of Reconstruction, Mississippi was restored to the Union on February 23, 1870. While Mississippi Mississippi typified the Deep South in passing Jim passing Jim Crow laws   in the late 19th century and a constitution  blacks, its history in 1890 that essentially disfranchised essentially  disfranchised blacks, was more complex. complex. Because the Mississippi Mississippi Delta contained so much fertile bottomland that had not been developed velo ped before the Civil War, 90 percent of the land was still frontier. frontier. After the Civil Civil War, tens of thousands of migrants migr ants were were attracted attracted to the area. They They could earn earn


by clearing the land andThe selling The sta state te neede needed d man manyy more more se settl ttlers ers money tually advance advanc e to ownership. owners hip. newtimber, farmersand included inclevenuded freedmen freedmen,, wh whoo achi achiev eved ed unusu unusuall allyy hi high gh rates rates of land land ownownOn January 9, 1861, Mississipp Mississippii became the second state ership in the Mississippi Mississippi bottomlands. In the 1870s and to declare its secession from the Union the  Union,, and it was one black farmers succeeded in gaining land of the founding members of the  Confederate States of 1880s, many [24] ownership. America.. During the war, Union and Confederate America Confederate forces forces struggled over dominance on the Mississippi Mississippi River, criti- Around the start of the 20th century, two-thirds of the armers in Missi Mississ ssipp ippii wh whoo owned owned land land in the Delta Delta cal to suppl supplyy routes routes and commerce commerce.. More than 80,000 farmers War,, and casualties casualties were were African  African American American.. Many Many were were able able to keep keep goMississippians fought in the   Civil War were extremely heavy. Union General Ulysses General  Ulysses S. Grant's Grant's ing through difficult years of falling falling cotton prices only by  finally gained the Union control extend extending ing their debts. Cotton prices fell fell throughout throughout the long siege of Vicksburg of  Vicksburg finally in 1863. decades following following the Civil War. As another agricultural agricultural depress dep ression ion lower lowered ed cotto cottonn pric prices es into the 1890s 1890s,, howev however, er, During   Reconstruction, Reconstruction, the first first Mississ Mississipp ippii constituconstitunumerous African-American farmers finally had to sell tional convention in 1868, with delegates both black and their land to pay off debts, thus losing the land which they white, whi te, fframe ramed d a constitut constitution ion whose whose ma major jor elemen elements ts would would had developed developed by personal labor.[24] last last for 22 ye years ars.. T The he co conv nven entio tionn wa wass the first first politi politica call organization to include African-American African-American representative representatives, s, White legislators created a new constitution in 1890, with 17 among the 100 members. Some were freedmen, freedmen, but electoral and voter registration provisions that effectively anddevelopment. undev undeveloped. eloped. for



disfranchised most  most blacks blacks and many poor whites. whites. Estidisfranchised mates are that 100,000 black and 50,000 white men were removed from voter registration rolls over the next few years.[27] The loss of political influence contributed to the difficulties of African Americans in their attempts to obtain extend extended ed credit credit in the late 19th century. century. Together with Jim Crow laws, the increased frequency of lynchings beginning  beginning in the 1890s as whites worked worked to imlynchings pose supremacy, failure of the cotton crops due to  boll weevil infestation, and successive severe flooding in 1912 weevil infestation, and 1913, created created crisis crisis cond conditio itions ns for for man manyy Afric African an Americans. With control of the ballot box and more access to credit, white planters expanded their ownership of Delta bottomlands and could take advantage of new   near Clarksdale, Mississippi, in 1939, by Dancing at a juke a juke joint  near railroads.[24] Marion Post Wolcott 

of them black. black. Nationw Nationwide ide during during the first half of the 20th century, African Americans became rapidly urbanized and many worked worked in industri industrial al jobs. The Second Second Great Migration included destinations in the West the  West,, especially California cially  California,, where the buildup of the defense defense industry offered higher paying jobs to African African Americans.

Child workers, Pass workers,  Pass Christian , Christian , 1911, by Lewis by Lewis Hine

In 1900, blacks numbered in the state and comprised 50+ percent percent of the populatio population. n. By 1910, a ma majori jority ty of black farmers in the Delta had lost their land and were sharecroppers . By 1920, the third generation after freesharecroppers. dom, most African Americans in Mississippi were landless less labo laborers rersagai againn facing acing poverty poverty..[24] Start Starting ing about 1913, tens of thousands of black Americans left Mississippi for the the North  North in  in the Great the  Great Migration Migration to  to industrial cities such

Bl Blac acks ks an and d wh whit ites es in Miss Missis issi sipp ppii ge gene nera rate ted d ri rich ch,, quintes qui ntessenti sentiall allyy Ame Americ rican an music music tradition traditions: s:   gospel music,,  country music music music,,  jazz  jazz,,  blues and  blues  and rock  rock and roll roll.. All weree inv wer invente ented, d, promulg promulgated ated or heavil heavilyy develo developed ped by Mississippi Mississi ppi musicians, many of them African American, an and d most most came came fro rom m the the   Mississippi Mississippi Delta Delta.. Many musicians carried their music north to Chicago, where they made it the heart of that city’s jazz and blues. So many African Americans left in the Great Migration that they they became a minority minority after after the 1930s. 1930s. In 1960 white they they made up 42% of the state’ state’ss popula populatio tion. n.[28] The white administered, administere d, discriminatory discriminatory voter registration processes had persisted, preventing most of them from voting, due to provisions provisions of the 1890 state constitution. constitution. During the Civil Rights Movement, Movement, Mississippi was a center of ac-

tivity, based in black churches, to educate and register black voters. Students and community organizers organizers from from across the country came to help register black voters and establish Freedom Schools Schools.. Resista Resistanc ncee and the harsh harsh attiattitudes of most white politicians (including the creation of the the Mississippi  Mississippi State Sove Sovereignty reignty Commission), Commission), the participation of many Mississippians in the White the  White Citizens’ Councils,, and the violent tactics of the Ku Councils the Ku Klux Klan Klan and  and In the early 20th century, some industries were estab- its sympathizers (most notably the murder the  murder of three civil lished in Mississippi, but jobs were generally restricted rights activi activists sts in 19 1964 64 du duri ring ng the the Freedom Freedom Summe Summerr camto whites, whites, inc includi luding ng child work workers. ers. The lack lack of jobs paign) gained Mississippi a reputation in the 1960s as a also drove some southern whites north to cities such as reactionary state.[29][30] African Americans in the state Chicago Chic ago seeking seeking employment employment.. The state depended depended on began to exercise their franchise in the mid-1960s, afagriculture, but mechanization put many farm laborers ter passage of federal civil rights legislation in 1964 and out of work. 1965 ending ending segrega segregation tion and enforci enforcing ng constitut constitution ional al voting rights. The Second Second Grea Greatt Mig Migrati ration on from rom the the So Sout uth h st star arte ted d in the the 1966, the state state wa wass the last last to re repea peall offici officiall allyy state statewi wide de 1940s, lasting until 1970. Almost half a million peop people le In 1966, Prior or to that, Mississ Mississipp ippii had alcohol. Pri left Mississippi in the second migration, three-quarters prohibition of alcohol. Loui Lo uisssought ,   Chicago Chicago, ,   Detroit, Detroit   Philadelphia  Philadelphia and  and as  as   St. St.. They York. York sough t jobs, better ,education for  their the ir  New children, the right to vote, relative freedom from discrimination,, and better living. tion living. In the migratio migrationn of 1910–1940, 1910–1940, they left a society that had been steadily closing off opportunity. portun ity. Most migrants migrants from from Mississippi Mississippi took trains directly north to Chicago and often settled near former neighbors.






taxed the illegal alcohol brought in by bootleggers by  bootleggers.. Governor Paul ernor  Paul Johnson Johnson urged  urged repeal and the sheriff “raided Gras ball  ball at the Jackson the annual Junior annual  Junior League Mardi Gras Country Club, breaking open the liquor cabinet and carting off the Champagne before a startled crowd of nobility of nobility [31] and high-ranking state official officials.” s.” The state repealed its ban on interracial marriage (also miscegenation)) in 19 1987 87 (w (whi hicch the the   U.S. known kno wn as   miscegenation Supreme Court had Court  had ruled ruled unconstituti unconstitutional onal in 1967). It  segregationist-era -era poll  poll tax tax in  in 1989. In 1995, repealed repeale d the the segregationist it symboli symbolical cally ly ratified ratified the Thirteenth Amendme Amendment nt,, which which had abolished abolished slavery slavery in 1865. Though ratified ratified in 1995, the state never officially notified the U.S. archivist U.S. archivist,, which kept the ratification unofficial until 2013, when Ken Sullivan contacted the office of  Secretary of State Delbert Hosemann,, who agreed to file the paperwork and make Hosemann it official.[32][33][34] In 2009, the legislature passed a bill to repeal other discriminatory civil rights laws, which had been enacted in 1964 but ruled unconstitutional in 1967  Haley Barbour by federal federal courts. Republ Republican ican Governor Governor Haley Mississippi population density map [35] signed the bill into law. 2013 Mississippi Mississippi is predominately predominately Afro-Celtic-Choctaw Afro-Celtic-Choctaw [39] in ancestry; and, to a minor extent colonial SpanishFrench-Chickasaw influences. The total population has not increased significantly, but is young, and some of the change in percentage of those who identif identifyy as mixed mixed race is due to new births. births. But, it appears to reflect mostly residents who have chosen to identify as more than one race, who in earlier years may have identified as only one ethnicity, a carryover segregation,, when a binary system from days of  racial segregation was imposed, as well as from the civil rights era, when people of African descent banded together to win their Hurricane Katrina approaching the Gulf Coast on August 28, civil rights rights and achieve political political power. power. As the demog2005. rapher William rapher  William Frey Frey noted,  noted, “In Mississippi, I think it’s changed from within.”[38] Historica Historically lly in Mississippi, Mississippi, afCamille hit  hit On August 17, 1969, Category 1969,  Category 5 Hurricane Camille  Indian removal in ter ter Indian removal  in the 1830s, the major groups were the Mississipp Mississippii coast, coast, killing killing 248 people and causing causing black (African American, many of whom have had EuUS$1.5 billion inKatrina damage (1969 On3 storm Augustupon 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina, , th thou ougha ghadollars). Category Category stormupon final landfall, caused even greater destruction across the Coast from  from entire 90 miles (145 km) of Mississippi of Mississippi Gulf Coast Louisianaa to Alabama. Louisian

ropean ancestry) and white (primarily European American).   Matthew Snipp Snipp,, also a demographer, commented on the changes of increased identification as being of more than one race: “In a sense, they’re rendering a more accurate portrait of their racial heritage that in the past would have been suppressed.”[38]

After having comprised a majority of the state’s population since well before the Civil War and through the 1930s,, today 1930s today Afri African can Americ Americans ans comprise approximatel approximatelyy The   cente centerr of popu populati lation on   of Mississ Mississippi ippi is located located in 37 percent of the population, with most having ancestors County,, in the town of Lena of  Lena..[37] Leake County who were enslaved were  enslaved and  and forcibly transported from Africa and d th thee Uppe Upperr So Sout uth h in the the 19 19th th cent centur uryy to work work on dev develelThe United The  United States Census Bureau Bureau estimates  estimates that the pop- an ulation of Mississippi was 2,991,207 on July 1, 2013, a oping the area’s new plantations. Many also have numer0.8% increase since the  the   2010 United States Census. Census.[1] ous ancestors who were European, as there were many childrenn born of mixed mixed relations relationships hips.. Some also have From 2000 to 2012, the  the   United States Census Bureau childre


Demo Demogra graph phic icss


repor reported ted that that Missi Mississ ssip ippi pi had the high highes estt rate rate of in- Native American ancestry. Mississi Mississippi ppi was part of the crease of mixed-race population, up 70 percent in the Black Belt, Belt, and had a majority-black population from the decade.[38] According to official U.S.census estimates for antebellum years until the 1930s. During the first half of



Choctaw. The Choctaw Choctaw agreed agreed to sell sell their tradi tradition tional al the 20th 20th ce centu ntury, ry, a total total of nearl nearlyy 400,00 400,000 0 Afric African an AmerAmer- Choctaw. icans left left the state during the Great the  Great Migration, Migration, for oppor- homelands in Mississippi and Alabama, for compensation and removal and removal to  to reservations reservations in Indian Territory (now tunities in the North, Midwest and West. Oklahoma). Oklah oma). This opened opened up land for sale to Europeanto  EuropeanIn 2004, voters in Mississippi approved Amendment approved  Amendment 1, 1, American immigrant American  immigrant settlement. Article 14 in the treaty amending the state’s constitution   to prohibit   same-sex allowed those Choctaw who chose to remain in the state marriage;; the measure passed with 86% of the vote, the marriage to become U.S. citizens, citizens, the second major major non-European highest margin of victory of any such amendment in the ethnic group to do so (the Cherokee were the first).[50][51] nation. However, according to the 2010 the  2010 census, census, approxToday approximately 9,500 Choctaw live in Neshoba, imately 33% of households led by same-sex couples inNewton, ton, Leake, Leake, and Jone Joness coun counties ties.. Federal Federally ly reco recognize gnized d cluded at least one child, the highest such percentage in New Indians. tribes include the Mississippi the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. [41] the nation. The state’s sodomy state’s  sodomy law law criminalized  criminalized conFrom m bef befor oree the Ci Civil vil War until until the 1930s, 1930s,   African sensu sen sual al se sexx betwe between en adults adults of the same same gend gender er until until 2003, 2003, Fro Court.. Americans   made Americans made up a majori majority ty of Mississippi Mississippians. ans. Due when such laws were voided by the Supreme the  Supreme Court to the Great the Great Migration, Migration, when more than 360,000 Afric African an Americans left the state for the North and West during Ethnic makeup and ancestry the 1940s and after, the African-American African-American population At the 2010 U.S. census, the racial makeup of the popu- declined markedly. lation was: The state in 2010 had the highest proportion of African •

  59.1%   White White Ame America ricann   (58.0%   non-Hispanic white,, 1.1% White white 1.1% White Hispanic Hispanic))

  37.0% African 37.0% African American American or  or Black

Indian and  and Alaska  Alaska Native   0.5% American 0.5% American Indian

  0.9% Asian 0.9% Asian American

  1.1% Multiracial 1.1% Multiracial American

 1.4% Other

Ethnically, 2.7% of the total population, among all racial groups, was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).[42] As of 2011, 53.8% of Mississippi’s population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.[43] For more information on racial and ethnic classifications in the United States see race see  race and ethnicity in the United States Census. Census. Americans of  Scots-Irish  Scots-Irish,,  English   and  and   Scottish   ancestry are present present through throughout out the state. state. People People with with ancestry in those ethnic groups are thought to be much large largerr than than are re repor ported ted..  English  English,, Scottish and Scots-Irish are generally the most under-reported ancestry groups in both the South the  South Atlantic States and States  and the East the  East South Central States. States. The histor historian ian   David Hackett Fischer  estimated that a minimum 20% of Mississippi’s population is of English of English ancestry,  ancestry, though the figure is probably much higher, highe r, and another large percentage is of Scots ancestry. Many Mississippians of English and Scottish stock identify on questionnaires questionnaires simply as American, because their families have been in North America for so long, in many cases since the early 17th century.[47][48] In the 1980 census 656,371 Mississippians out of a total of 1,946,775 claimed to be of English of  English ancestry,  ancestry, making them 38% of [49] the state at the time. On September 27, 1830, the Treaty the  Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was Creek  was signed between the U.S. Government and the

Americ Amer ican anss in the na nati tion on.. Re Rece cent ntlly, the the Afri Africa cannAmeric Ame rican an perce percenta ntage ge of pop popula ulatio tionn has begun begun to in incr creas easee due mainly to a younger population than the whites (the total fertility rates  of the two races are approximately equal). equa l). Due to patterns patterns of settlement, settlement, in almost all of Mississippi’s public school districts, a majority of students are of ethnic African descent, while often also of European-American European-Ame rican descent. Afri African can Americans are the Delta,, majority ethnic group in the northwestern  Yazoo Delta and the southwestern and the central parts of the state. These are areas where, historically, African Americans owned land as farmers in the 19th century following the Civil War, or worked on cotton plantations and farms. [52] People of French of French Creole ancestry Creole  ancestry form the largest demograph graphic ic group group in Hanc Hancock ock Count Countyy on the Gul Gulff Coast. Coast. Th Thee African-American; Choctaw African-American;  Choctaw,, mostly in Neshoba in Neshoba County County;; and Chinese-American and  Chinese-American portions  portions of the population are almost entirely native born. Some ethnic Chinese were recruited as   indentured   la during the 1870s and later 19th cenborers from Cuba from  Cuba during tury. from The  China majori majority ty enteri ng the between state immigrate immi grated d directly   toentering Mississippi 1910–1930, when they were recruited recruited as laborers. While planters first made arrangements with the Chinese for sharecropping, most Chinese Chinese soon left left that work work.. Many Many became became small  in towns throughout the merchants and especially grocers especially grocers in [53] As the small towns declined, many ethnic ChiDelta. nese moved to cities or left the state. In the early 1980s many Vietnamese immigrated to Mississ sissipp ippii and oth other er states states on the Gul Gulff of Me Mexi xico co fo forr fishingfishing[54] related work. From 2000 to 2012, the United the  United States Census Bureau Bureau re reported that Mississippi had the highest rate of increase of mixed-race of  mixed-race population,  population, up 70 percent in the decade, although the population has not markedly increased.[38] The change reflects new births among a young population, but also people who have chosen to identify as multiracial,, who in earlier years may have identified as multiracial






counterparts. rts. The Afric African-Am an-Americ erican an call for sodemograp ographer her said, said, “In a sense, tist counterpa only one ethnicity one  ethnicity.. One dem the  Great Depression they’re rendering a more accurate portrait of their racial cial equality resonated throughout the Great [38] in the 1930s and   World World War II   iinn the the 1940 1940s. s. Th Thee heritage that in the t he past would have have been suppressed.” suppressed.” American Civil Rights Movement Movement had  had many roots in religion, and the strong community of churches helped supTeenage pregnancy ply volunteers and moral purpose for their activism. The end of legal segregation and   Jim Crow   led to the inTeena Teenage ge pregnanc pregnancyy is a pro probl blem em in Missi Mississ ssipp ippi. i. The la lates testt tegration of some churches, but most today remain didata shows that Mississippi has the highest teenage birth vided along racial lines.[62] In more diverse communirate in the United States. rate more Teen than ties, such as Hattiesburg as Hattiesburg,, some churches have multiracial A is special 60 percent above the U.S.Mississippi’s average.[55][56] congregations. [38] Since the 1970s, fundamentalist conPregnancy Prevention Task Force is working on a Plan to servative churches have grown rapidly, fueling MissisPrevent and Reduce Teen Pregnancy in Mississippi.[57] sippi’s conservative political trends among whites.[58] In 1973 when the Presbyterian the  Presbyterian Church in America formed America  formed Religion a significant number of conservative Presbyterian congregatio greg ations ns joined. joined. As of 2010 Mississipp Mississippii remained remained Under French and Spanish rule beginning in the 17th a str strong onghol hold d of the deno denomin minati ation. on. The state state has the century, the few Europeans in what is now Mississippi highest adherence rate of the PCA in 2010 with 121 were Roman were  Roman Catholics Catholics.. The growth growth of the cotton cotton culcul- co congr ngreg egati ation onss and 18,500 18,500 members members.. It is among the ture after 1815 brought in tens of thousands of Anglo- few stattes that the PCA has highest membership than Americann settlers each year, most of whom were Protes- the PC(USA).[63] According to the Association America the  Association of Relitants from from Southeast Southeastern ern states. states. Due to such such migratio migration, n, gion Data Arc Archiv hives es(A (ARD RDA) A) in 20 2010 10 the the Southern Southern Bapt Baptist ist there was rapid growth in Protestant churches, churches, especially Convention had 907,38 907,384 4 adher adheren ents ts and wa wass the large largest st reMethodist,, Presbyterian and  Presbyterian and Baptist  Baptist..[58] Methodist ligious denomination denomination in the state, foll followed owed by the the United  United Methodist Church with 204,165; 204,165; and the Roman Roman Cath Catholic olic The revivals of the Great the  Great Awakening Awakening in  in the late 18th and Church   with 112,488.[64] Other religions have a small early 19th centuries initially attracted the “plain the  “plain folk” folk” by  by were 5,012 reaching reachi ng out to all members of society, including women presence in Mississippi; as of 2010, there [64] Muslims, 4,389 Hindus 4,389 Hindus and  and 816 Bahá'í 816  Bahá'í.. and blacks. Both slaves and free black blackss were welcome welcomed d Muslims, into Methodist and Baptist churches. Independent black Baptist churches were established before 1800 in Virginia, Kentucky, South Carolina and Georgia, and later developed in Mississippi as well.

Public opinion polls have consistently ranked Mississippi as the most most reli religio gious us state state in the Unite United d States States,, wi with th 59% of Mississippians considering themselves “very religio gious” us”.. T The he same same su surv rvey ey al also so found ound that that 11% of the popupopu[65] In the post-Civil War years, religion became even more lation were non-Religious. In a 2009 Gallup poll, 63% influential as the South became known as the "Bible " Bible of Mississippians said that they attended church weekly almost ost we week ekly ly - the hi highe ghest st per perce centa ntage ge of all states states (US (US Belt". Belt ".   Freedmen   withdrew withdrew from white-run churches churches or alm and the lowest percentage was in Verin favo favorr of setti setting ng up their their own. own. Th Thee ma majo jori rity ty of average was 42%, [66] Another 2008 Gallup poll found that mont at 23%). blacks left the Southern Baptist Church, and by 1895 had established numerous black Baptist state associations 85% of Mississippians considered religion an important the highest figure among all and the National the  National Baptist Convention Convention of  of black churches. part of their daily lives, also [67] states (US average 65%). They wanted to be independent of white supervision. In addition, independent black denominations, such as the the African Church  (established in  African Methodist Episcopal Church (established Pennsylvania)) and the African the  African Methodist Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Episcopal Zion Church (established Church  (established in New York City), sent missionaries sent  missionaries to  to the South in the postwar years. They quickly attracted hundreds of thousands of converts and founded foun ded new churches churches across the South. Southern congregationss brought their own influences gregation influences to those denomi[59][60] nations as well.


The   2010 United States census   counted counted 6,286 samesamesex unmarried-partner households in Mississippi, an increase of 1,512 since the 2000 United States census. [68] 33% contained at least one child, giving Mississippi the distinction of leading the nation in the percentage of By 1900 many white ministers, especially in the towns, same-sex couples raising children.[69] Mississi Mississippi ppi has the subscribed to the   Social Gospel   movement, movement, which atAfrican-American same-sex  same-sex coulargest percentage of   African-American tempte tem pted d to appl applyy Chris Christia tiann eth ethic icss to socia sociall and ecoecople pless among total househol households. ds. The state capital capital,, JackJacknomic nom ic needs needs of the day. day. Many Many str strong ongly ly su suppo pporte rted d son,, ranks son ranks tenth tenth in the na natio tionn in conce concentr ntrati ation on of Afri African can-Prohibition, believing it would help alleviate and prevent Prohibition, American same-sex couples. The state ranks fifth in the many sins.[61] nation in the percentage of  of   Hispanic same-sex Hispanic  same-sex couples Afric African-Am an-Ameri erican can Baptist Baptist church churches es grew grew to inc includ ludee more more among all Hispanic households and ninth in the highest concentration tion of same-sex couples couples who are seniors are seniors..[70] than twice the number of members as their white Bap- concentra





The state is ranked 50th or last place among all the states for health care, according to the  Commonwealth Fund, Fund, a nonprofit foundation working to advance performance of the health care system.[71] For three years in a row, more than 30 percent of Mississip Mississippi’s pi’s residents residents have been classified as obese as  obese.. In a 2006 study, 22.8 perc percent ent of the state’s childre children n were classified classifi as U.S. such.state Mississippi Mississ ippi had the the highest rate of obesity ofedany  highest  from 2005– high gh bl blood ood pr preses2008 2008 and and al also so ra rank nkss fir first st in th thee nati nation on for hi sure,, diabetes sure  diabetes,, and adult and adult inactivity inactivity..[72][73] In a 2008 study of African-Americ African-American an women, contributing risk factors masss inwe were re sh show ownn to be: lack lack of knowl knowled edge ge ab about out body body mas dex (BMI), dex  (BMI), dietary behavior, behavior, phys physical ical inactivity inactivity and lack of social support, defined as motivation and encouragement by friends.[74] A 2002 report on African-American adolescents noted a 1999 survey which suggests that a   U.S. quarter  third of children were obese, with higher ratios for those A Mississippi  U.S. [75] in the Delta. The study stressed that “obesity starts in early childhood extending into the adolescent years and then possibly into adulthood”. It noted impediments to needed behaviora behaviorall modifi mod ifica catio tionn in incl clude uded d the Delta Delta likel likelyy be being ing “the “the mos mostt underse derserv rved ed re regio gionn in the sta state” te” wi with th Afri African can Ameri American canss the major ethnic group; lack of accessibility and availability of medical care; and an estimated 60% of residents living below the poverty level. level.[75] Additional risk factors we were re that that most most sc schoo hools ls ha had d no phys physic ical al educa educatio tionn cu curri rricu cu-lum and nutrition education is not emphasized. Previous intervention strategies may have been largely ineffective due to not being culturally sensitive or practical. [75] A 2006 200 6 surve surveyy found ound nearl nearlyy 95 perce percent nt of Missi Mississ ssipp ippii adult adultss considered consi dered childhood obesity obesity to be a serious problem. problem.[76]


they they passed passed the 189 1890 0 cons constit tituti ution on that that disco discoura uraged ged corpo corpo-rate industrial development in favor of rural agriculture, a legacy that would slow the state’s progress for years.[80] Before the Civil War, Mississippi was the fifth-wealthiest state in the nation, its wealth generated by cotton plantations along the rivers.[81] Slaves were then counted as property and the rise in the cotton markets since the 1840s had increase increased d their value. value. A majority majority – 55 percent – of the population of Mississippi was enslaved in 1860.[82] Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands were undeveloped undev eloped and the state had low population ove overall. rall.

Eco Economy

See also: Mississippi also:  Mississippi locations by per capita income The Bureau The  Bureau of Economic Analysis Analysis estimates  estimates that Mississippi’s total state product in 2010 was $98 billion. [77] Per Per ca capi pita ta person personal al inco income me in 2006 2006 wa wass $26,90 $26,908, 8, the lowlowest per capita personal income of any state, but the state also has the nation’s nation’s lowest lowest living living costs. Although Although the state has one of the lowest per capita income rates in the Sharecropper’s daughter, Lauderdale County, 1935 United States, Mississippians consistently rank as one of the highest per capita in charitable contributions. contributions.[78] La Larg rgel elyy du duee to the the do domi mina nati tion on of the the plantation economy, Mississippi’s rank as one of the poorest states is related focused on the production of agricultural of agricultural cotton, cotton, the state to its dependence on cotton agriculture before and after was slow to use its wealth to invest in infrastructure such the Civil War, late development of its frontier bottom- as public schools, roads and railroads.   Industrialization lands in the Mississippi Delta, repeated natural disasters did not come in many areas until the late 20th century. of flooding in the late 19th and early 20th century requir- The planter  planter   aristocracy, aristocracy, the elite of   antebellum  antebellum   Missising massive capital investment in levees, heavy capital in- sippi, kept the tax structure low for themselves and made ve vestm stmen entt to ditch ditch and drain drain the bottom bottomlan lands, ds, and and slow slow de- pri priva vate te improveme improvements. nts. Bef Before ore the war the most sucve velo lopm pmen entt of railr railroad oadss to link link bottom bottomlan land d towns towns and rive riverr cessful planters, such as Confederate  President Jefferson  Jefferson as  Confederate President [79] cities. In addition, when Democrats regained control, Davis Davis,, owned riverside properties along the Mississippi






River. Rive r. Most of the state was undeveloped undeveloped fr frontier ontier away away from the riverfronts. During the Civil War, 30,000 mostly white Mississippi men died from wounds and disease, and many more were left left crip cripple pled d and wounded. wounded. Chang Changes es to the labor structure and an agricultural depression throughout the South caused cau sed severe severe losse lossess in wealth. wealth. In 1860 assessed assessed val valuati uation on of property in Mississippi had been more than $500 million, li on,value of which whi $218 $21 8 million milli on (43total pe perc rcent ent)) wa was s estim estimate ated d as the ofchslaves. sla ves. By 1870, assets had decreased in value to roughly $177 million.[83] Poor whites and landless former former slaves suffered suffered the most fr from om the postwar postwar economi economicc depress depression. ion. The constituconstitutional convention convention of early 1868 appointed a committee to reco recomm mmen end d wh what at wa wass need needed ed for reli relief ef of the the st stat atee an and d it itss citizens. The committee found severe destitution among the laboring classes.[84] It took years for the state to rebuild bui ld levees levees damaged damaged in battles. battles. The upset of the commodity system impoveris impoverished hed the state after the war. By 1868 an increased cotton crop began to show possibilities for free labor in the state, but the crop of 565,000 bales produced in 1870 was still less than half of prewar figures.[85]

The Beau Rivage Resort & Casino in Biloxi  in  Biloxi ; the tallest building in the state.

led to economic economic gains ffor or the state. Gambling Gambling towns towns in Mississippi include the Gulf Coast resort towns of St. t. Loui Louiss,  Gulfport and  Gulfport  and Biloxi  Biloxi,, and the Mississippi Bay S River towns of Tunica of  Tunica (the  (the third largest gaming area in the United States),  Greenville  Greenville,,  Vicksburg  Vicksburg   and Natchez and  Natchez.. Before Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast, Mississippi siss ippi was the second largest largest gambling gambling state in the Union, after Nevada after  Nevada and  and ahead of  New Jersey. Jersey. An esestimated $500,000 per day in tax rev revenue enue was lost following Hurricane ing Hurricane Katrina's Katrina's severe damage to several coastal casinos in Biloxi in August 2005.[86] In 2012, Mississippi had the sixth largest gambling revenue of any state, with $2.25 billion.[87] Federally recognized Native American tribes have established gaming casinos on their reservations, which are yielding revenue to support education and economic development.

Blacks sold timber and developed developed bottomland to achieve achieve owners own ership. hip. In 1900, 1900, two-third two-thirdss of farm owners owners in MissisMississippi sippi wer weree blacks, blacks, a ma major jor achie achievem vement ent for for them and their their families amilies.. Due to the poor economy, economy, low cotton cotton prices and difficulty of getting credit, many of these farmers could not make it through the extended financial difficulties. Two decades later, the majority majority of African Americans were sharecroppers sharecroppers.. The low prices of cotton into the 1890s meant that more than a generation of African Americans lost the result of their labor when they had to Momentum Mississippi, Mississippi, a statewide, public–private part[24] sell their farms to pay off accumulated debts. nership dedicated to the development of economic and employment yment opportunities in Mississippi, Mississippi, was adopted in After the Civil War, the state refused for years to build emplo [88] human capital by fully educating all its citizens. In addi- 2005. tion, the reliance on agriculture grew increasingly costly as the state suffered loss of crops due to the devastation

On October 17, 2005, Governor Haley Governor  Haley Barbour signed Barbour signed a bill into law that allows casinos in Hancock and Harrison

of the in boll weevil in the century, devastating floods 1912–1913 and early 1927,20th collapse of cotton prices [79] after 1920, and drought in 1930.

counties to rebuild on land (but within 800 feet (240 m), of the water). The only exception is in Harrison in  Harrison County County, where the new law states that casinos can be built to the 90.. southern boundary of U.S. of  U.S. Route 90

It wa wass not not unti untill 1884 1884,, afte afterr th thee flo flood od of 18 1882 82,, th that at th thee stat statee created created the Mississi Mississippippi-Ya Yazoo zoo Del Delta ta Distric Districtt Levee Levee Board and started successfully achieving longer term plans for levees in the upper Delta.[15] Despite the state’s building and reinforcing levees for years, the Great the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 broke 1927  broke through and caused massive flooding of 27,000 square miles (70,000 km2) throughout the Delta, homelessness homelessness for hundreds of thousands, and millio lions ns of dol dollars lars in property property damages. damages. With the Depress Depression ion coming so soon after the flood, the state suffered badly during those years. In the Great the Great Migration, Migration, tens of thousands san ds of Afri African can Ameri American canss mi migra grated ted North North and West est for jobs and chances to live as full citizens. The legislature’s 1990 decision to legalize casino gambling along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast has

Mississippi collects Mississippi collects personal   inco income me tax   in three tax brack bra ckets ets,, rangin rangingg fro rom m 3% to 5%. Th Thee retai retaill sales sales tax rate in Mississippi is 7%. A local sales local  sales tax of tax  of 2.5% is levied [89] in Tupelo. For purposes of assessment assessment for ad for ad valorem taxes,, taxable property taxes taxable property is  is divided into five classes.[90] On Augus Augustt 30, 2007, 2007, a repor reportt by the United United State Statess Cen Census sus Bureau indicated Bureau  indicated that Mississippi was the poorest state in the country. Many cotton farmers in the Delta have large, mechanized plantations, some of which receive extensive federal subsidies, yet many other residents still live as poor, rural, landless laborers. The state’s sizable poultry indus ind ustry try has faced aced si simil milar ar ch chall alleng enges es in its trans transit itio ionn fro rom m family-run farms to large mechanized operations.[91] Of $1.2 $1. 2 bi billi llion on from 2002–2 2002–2005 005 in federal ederal su subs bsidi idies es to farmarm-


6. 6.1 1


La Laws  ws 

ers in the Bolivar County area of the Delta, 5% went to small farmers. farmers. There has been little money apportioned for rural development. Small towns are struggling. More than than 100 100,00 ,000 0 peopl peoplee ha have ve left left the regio regionn in searc search h of wo work rk [92] elsewhere. The state had a median household income of $34,473.[93] As of January 2010, the state’s unemployment rate was 10.9%.[94]

which was in 2011. Uniquely, Mississippi was the last state to give shares of its popular vote exceeding 85% and 90% to one candidate in a presi presidential dential election: election: in in 1944  1944,, Franklin D. Roosevelt won sevelt  won nearly 94% of Mississippi’s popular vote, and in 1964 in 1964,,  Barry M. Goldwater carried Goldwater  carried the state with 87% of votes.

6.1 6.1 5.1



Federal Federal su subsid bsidies ies and spending spending

In 200 2004, 4, Missi Mississ ssip ippi pi voter voterss ap appr prov oved ed a state state constitutional With With Miss Missis issi sipp ppi’ i’ss fis fisca call cons conser erva vati tism sm,, in whic which h amendment amendment banning  banning same-sex  same-sex marriage marriage and  and prohibiting Medicaid,,   welfare welfare,,   food food stamp stampss, an and d ot othe herr soc socia iall Mississippi from recognizing same-sex marriages perMedicaid progr programs ams are of often ten cu cut, t, elig eligib ibili ility ty req requir uirem emen ents ts are form formed ed elsewhere. elsewhere. The amendment passed 86% to 14%, tightened, and stricter employment criteria are imposed, the largest margin in any state.[96][97] Missi Mis siss ssipp ippii ran ranks ks as ha havin vingg the 2nd highe highest st ratio ratio of Mississippi is one of 32 states which has capital has  capital punishspendin spe ndingg to tax receipts receipts of any state. In 2005, Missisment as ment  as a legal sentence (see Capital (see  Capital punishment in Missippi citizens received received approximately approximately $2.02 per dollar of sissippi). sissippi ). taxes in the way of federal spending. spending. This ranks the state Sectio tionn 265 of the Consti Constituti tution on of the State State of Missi Mississ ssip ippi pi 2nd highest nationally, and represents an increase from Sec declares that “No person who denies the existence of a 1995, when when Mississi Mississippi ppi rece receiv ived ed $1.54 per dollar dollar of taxes taxes [98] [95] in federal spending and was 3rd highest nationally. It Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state.” should be noted, however, that this figure comes from Ranking 50th in overall health   [6] and 1st in obesity,[99] the year that large portions of the state were devastated by Hurricane by Hurricane Katrina, Katrina, leading to large influxes of federal aid from the  Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). A proportion of federal spending in Mississippi is directed toward large federal installations such as  Camp Shelby,,  John C. Stennis Space Center Shelby Center,,  Meridian Naval Air Station, Station,  Columbus Air Force Base, Base , and Keesler and  Keesler Air Force Base. Base. Three of these installation installationss are located in the area affected by Hurricane by Hurricane Katrina. Katrina.

in 2013 the Mississippi Mississippi Legislature passed and Gov. Phil Bryant signed a bill to prohibit localities from imposing portion size restrictions and other similar measures that limitt fat and calories. limi calories. The bill is also called the “antiBloomberg bill.”

7 7.1


Law Law an and d go gove vern rnme ment nt

Tran Transp spor orta tati tion on Air

Mississippi has two Mississippi t wo international airports, one in Jackson (Jackson-Evers International Airport Airport)) and one in Gulfport (Gulf (Gulfport-Biloxi port-Biloxi International Airport Airport))

Main article: Law article:  Law and government government of Mississ Mississippi ippi

7.2 7.2

As with all other U.S. states and the federal government, Mississippi’s government is based on the separation of legislative, legisla tive, executive executive and judicial power. Executive Executive authority thori ty in the state rests rests with the Governo Governor, r, currentl currentlyy Phil Brya Bryant nt (R). The Lie Lieuten utenant ant Governo Governor, r, currentl currentlyy Tate Reeves   (R), Reeves (R), is el elec ected ted on a se separ parate ate bal ballot lot.. Both Both the governor and lieutenant governor are elected to four-year terms of office. Unlike Unlike the federal government, government, but like many other U.S. States, most of the heads of major executive departments are elected by the citizens of Mississippi rather than appointed by the governor. governor.

7.3 7.3

Mississippi is one of five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years (the others are   Kentucky, Kentucky,

7.3.1 7.3 .1

Road Roadss

Mississippi Mississi ppi is served by nine interstate nine interstate highways: highways: and fourteen main U.S. main U.S. Routes: Routes: as well as a system of State of  State Highways. Highways. For more information, visit the Mississippi the  Mississippi Department of Transportati Transportation on website.  website.

Rail Pa Passe ssenge ngerr

Louisiana,,  New Jersey and Jersey  and   Virginia). Virginia). Mississi Mississippi ppi holds holds Louisiana elections for these offices every four years, always in the Amtrak Amtrak provides  provides scheduled passenger service along two year preceding Presidential elections, the most recent of routes, the Crescent  and  and  City of New Orleans .




 Vicksburg Bridge carries The Vicksburg The Bridge  carries I-20 and US 80 across the Mississippi River at Vicksburg.

7.3.2 7.3 .2


The Ross Barnett Reservoir at sunset.

Fre Freig ight ht

All but two of the United States  Class I railroads serve railroads  serve Mississ Miss issippi ippi (the ex excep ception tionss are the the   Union Pacifi Pacificc   and Pacific): ): Canadian Pacific •

Railway's Illinois  Canadian National Railway's  Illinois Central Railroad subsidiary road  subsidiary provides north-south service.

  Kansas City Southern Railway  provides east-west service in the middle of the state and north-south service along the Alabama the  Alabama state  state line. •

 Norfolk Southern Railway Railway   provides service in the extremee north and southeast. extrem   CSX CSX has  has a line along the Gulf Coast.


Water ater


Major Major river riverss

 Mississippi River

 Big Black River

 Pascagoula River

 Pearl River

 Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway

 Yazoo River

7.4.2 •

Railway has an east-west line across northern  BNSF Railway has Mississippi.

7. 7.4 4


Lake  – 6,700 acres (27 km 2 ) of water  Bay Springs Lake – and 133 miles (214 km) of shoreline; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lake  – 35,000 acres (140 km2 ) of water;  Grenada Lake – became operational in 1954; constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Vicksburg District[101]  Ross Barnett Reservoir Reservoir –  – Named for Ross for  Ross Barnett Barnett,, Governor ernor of Mississ Mississippi ippi;; 33,000 33,000 acres acres the 52nd 52nd   Gov (130 km2 ) of water; became operational in 1966; constructed and managed by The Pearl River Valley Water Supply District, a state agency; Provides water supply supply for the City of Jackson.  Sardis Lake Lake –  – 98,520 acres (398.7 km2) of water; became operational operational in October 1940; constructed constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Vicksburg District[102]

Educ Educa ati tio on

See also:  List of colleges and universities in Mississippi and Education and  Education in Mississi Mississippi ppi Until the Civil the  Civil War  War   era, Mississippi had a small num-

Major Major bodies bodies of wate waterr 2

Arkabut abutla la Lak Lakee – 19 19,5 ,550 50 ac acre ress (7 (79. 9.1 1 km ) of wa wate ter; r;   Ark constructed and managed by the U.S. Army Corps School students in the library, Tupelo 1936  of Engineers Vicksburg Vicksburg District[100]



the historic Whitworth historic  Whitworth College Campus College  Campus in Brookhaven, Mississippi, about sixty miles (100 km) south of Jackson, Mississippi.[1] MSA teaches 11th and 12th grade students. The site has 6 buildings designated designated as Miss MissisisDuring Reconstruction in 1871, black and white Repubsippi Landmarks, and the campus is also notable as being licans were the first to establish a system of public of  public eduon the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.[1] The cation in cation  in the state. The state’s dependence on agriculture renovation or construction of the campus facilities, as a and resistance to taxation limited the funds it had availhistoric oric site, site, are ongoing ongoing and rely rely upon addition additional al funding funding abl ablee to spend spend on any schoo schools. ls. As late as the early 20th hist to make capital improvements.[2] improvements.[2] century, were fewRosenw schoolsald inFun in rural  rural areas. With seed money mone y from frthere om the Julius Rosenwald Fund, d, areas. man manyy rural rur al black bla ck The Mississippi School of the Arts provides advanced communities across Mississippi raised matching funds pro progra grams ms of study study in vi visua suall arts, arts, voca vocall music music,, thetheandcontribu andcontr ibuted ted publ public ic funds unds to buil build d new new schoo schools ls for their their atre, dance, and literary arts for “artistically gifted"[3] children. Essentially, many black adults taxed themselves 11th/12th grade students from throughout Mississippi, twice and made significant sacrifices to raise money for within a residential school.[3][1] The proposed curricuthe education of children children in their communities. communities.[103] lum includes instrumental music majors. The curriculum at MSA focuses on the arts and humanities.[3] A comBlacks and whites attended separate  public schools   in Mississippi until the 1960s, when they began to be in- prehensive residential and academic curriculum prepares students for further studies or for the pursuit of employtegrated following the 1954 U.S. 1954  U.S. Supreme Court ruling Court  ruling ment. Some non-arts courses (some math, science, etc.) in  Brown Education  that racially segregated  Brown v. Board of Education are taught in conjunction with Brookhaven High School, public schools were  were  unconstitutional. unconstitutional. 6 bl bloc ocks ks aw away ay,, to pr prov ovid idee a wi wide derr cu curri rricu culum lum.[1 .[1]] Stude Students nts In the late late 1980s, 1980s, the sta state te had 954 publ public ic elem elemen entary tary and apply for admission during their sophomore year at other schools,, with with a total total ye yearl arlyy en enrol rollm lmen entt of about about schools.[1] secondary schools 369,500 elementary pupils pupils and about 132,500 secondary ber of schools and no educational institutions for African Americans. The first school for black people was established in 1862.

students. Some 45,700 students attended attended private schools.  private schools. In 200 2008, 8, Missi Mississ ssip ippi pi wa wass ranke ranked d last last among among the fif fifty ty sta states tes in academic achievement by the  American Legislative Exchange Council's Council's Report  Report Card on Education Education,, with the  scores and sixth lowest spending per lowest average ACT average ACT scores pupil in the nation. In contrast, Mississippi had the 17th highest average SAT average  SAT scor  scores es in the nation. According According to the re repor port, t, 92% of Missi Mississi ssipp ppii high high scho school ol gra gradua duates tes took took the ACT and 3% took the SAT, in comparison to the national averages averages of 43% and 45%, respective respectively. ly.



While Mississippi has been especially known for its music and literature, it has embraced other forms of art. Its strong religious traditions have inspired striking works by artists who have been shown nationally. outsider artists who

Internati national onal Ball Ballet et Comp CompeeJackson establis Jackson established hed the USA Inter tition,, wh tition whic ich h is held held ev every ery four years years.. This ballet competition attrac attracts ts the mos mostt talen talented ted young young dance dancers rs fro rom m around around In 2007, 2007, Missi Mississi ssipp ppii stu stude dents nts scored scored the lowe lowest st of tion [105] any state on the National Assessments of Educational the world. Progress in both math and science. [104] The Magnolia The  Magnolia Independent Film Festival, Festival, still held annuin Starkville,, is the first and oldest in the state. Missi Mis siss ssipp ippii is cu curre rrentl ntlyy ranke ranked d at the bottom bottom of the ally in Starkville Index.. American Human Development Index George Ohr, Ohr, known as the “Mad Potter of Biloxi” and Jackson Jackson,, the state’s capital city, houses the state residen- the father of abstract expressionism in pottery, lived and worked ed in Biloxi, MS. tial school for deaf and hard of hearing students.   The work Mississippi School for the Deaf  was established by the The New Southern View Ezine, first published in the sumstate legislature in 1854. mer of 2001, is the state’s first online magazine. The Mississi Mississippi ppi Sch School ool for Mathema Mathematic ticss and Science Science (MSMS) is a public residential high school for academ9.1 Mus Music ically gifted students located in Columbus, Mississippi 9.1 on the campus of the Mississippi University University for Women. Women. Music icia ians ns of the state’ state’ss Delta Delta re regio gionn we were re his histor toric icall allyy si siggMSMS was founded in 1987 by appropriations from the Mus the  blues.. Their Their laments laments Mississippi Legislature and is the fourth public, residen- nificant to the development of the blues arose out of the region’s hard times after Reconstructio Reconstruction. n. tial high school for academically gifted students in the United States.[3] The school only enrolls students in the Although by the end of the 19th century, two-thirds of last two years of high school. Tenth grade students from the farm owners were black, continued low prices for across the state interested in the school apply and are se- cotton and national financial pressures resulted in most of them losing their land. More problem problemss built built up with lected to attend. the boll weevil weevil inf infesta estation tion,, when when thousands thousands of agricul agricultural tural The Mississippi School of the Arts (MSA) is an upper jobs were lost. Many Mississippi Mississippi musicians musicians migrated to high school of literary, visual, and performing arts on Chicago and Chicago  and created new forms of jazz and other genres






there. Jimmiee Rodg Rodgers ers,, a na nati tivve of Merid ridian an and d guiguiJimmi tarist/singer/songwriter known as the “Father of Country tarist/singer/songwriter Music”, played a significant role in the development of the blues. blues. He and Chester and Chester Arthur Burnett Burnett were  were friends and admirers of each other’s music. Their friendsh friendship ip and respect is an important example of Mississippi’s musical legacy. While the state has had a reputation for being the most racist in the United individual musicians created an integrated musicStates, communi community. ty. Mississippi Mississi ppi musicians created new forms by combining and creating variations on musical traditions from Africa with the musical traditions of white Southerners, a tradition largely largely rooted in Scots–Irish music. Trail,, with dedThe state is creating a Mississippi a  Mississippi Blues Trail icated markers explaining historic sites significant to the histor historyy of blue bluess music music,, such such as Clarksdale's Clarksdale 's Riv Rivers erside ide Hotel, where Bessie where  Bessie Smith died Smith  died after her auto accident on Highway 61. 61. The River Riversid sidee Hotel is just one of many historicall blues sites in Clarksdale. historica Clarksdale. The The Delta  Delta Blues Museum there seum  there is visited by tourists from all over the world. Close by is “Ground Zero”, a contemporary blues club and restaurant co-owned by actor actor Morgan Freeman.  Morgan Freeman. Mississippi Mississ ippians ans have have contribu contributed ted to America Americann music. music. Elvis Presley, Presley, who created a sensation in the 1950s as a crossover artist and contributed to rock 'n' roll, was a outfielder  Cody  Cody Johnson at   Trustmark Trustmark Park . native of Tupelo of Tupelo.. From ope opera ra star Leontyne star Leontyne Price Price to  to the Mississippi Braves   outfielder  alternative rock band  band 3  3 Doors Down Down,, to to gulf  gulf and westalternative rock ern singer ern  singer Jimmy  Jimmy Buffett Buffett,, modern rock/jazz/worl rock/jazz/world d music 10 No Nota tabl blee pe peop ople le guitarist-producer Clifton guitarist-producer Hyde, to rappers David  Clifton Hyde, rappers  David Banner,,   Big K.R.I.T.   and Afroman ner and  Afroman,, Mississippi musicians Main article: List article:  List of people from Mississippi Mississippi have been significant significant in all genres. Mississippi has produced a number of notable and famous individuals, especially in the realm of music and literature. Among the most notable are: 9. 9.2 2 Spo Sports rts See also: List also:  List of college athletic programs in Mississippi

Mississippi is  is home to the Mississippi the  Mississippi Surge   Biloxi, Mississippi ic icee hockey hockey team. team. Th Thee team is a me memb mber er of the Southern Professional Hockey League League and  and began its first season of play in 2009.

  Clinton, Clinton, Mississi Mississippi ppi ishometothe Mississ Mississippi ippi Brilla soccer socc er team. The Brilla Brilla are a member member of the USL the  USL Premier Development League. League. •

Mississippi is home to the Mississippi   Pearl, Mississippi is the  Mississippi Braves baseball team. The Braves are an AA minor league affiliate of the   Atlanta Braves Braves.. Th Theey play play in in the the Southern League. League.

 Southaven, Mississippi  is home to the   Mississippi RiverKings   hockey hockey team, former formerly ly known known as the Memphis RiverKings. The RiverKings are a member of Southern of Southern Professional Hockey League. League.

  Actors: Lacey Actors:  Lacey Chabert Chabert,, Morgan Freeman Freeman,, Jim Henson,,   James Earl Jones, son Jones,   Gerald McRaney, McRaney,   Parker Posey,,  Jamie Lynn Spears Posey Spears,,  Sela Ward Ward,, and Oprah and  Oprah Winfrey   Artists: Walter Artists:  Walter Inglis Anderson Anderson and  and George  George E. Ohr   Athletes: Leon Athletes:  Leon Braml Bramlett ett,, Ric Ricky ky Sten Stenhous house, e, Jr. Jr.,, Cool Papa Bell, Bell,  Brett Favre, Favre,  Al Jefferson, Jefferson,   Monta Ellis Ellis,, Manning,, Deuce McAllister McAllister,, Steve McNair McNair,, Archie Manning Travis Outlaw Outlaw,, Walter Payton, Payton, and Jerry and Jerry Rice   Authors:   Will William iam Fa Faulkn ulkner er,,   John Gri Grish sham am,, Charlaine Harris Harris,,   Thomas Harris Harris,,   Kathryn Stockett,,   Jesm ett Jesmyn yn Wa Ward rd,,   Eudora We Welty lty,,   Tennessee Williams,, Shelby Foote, Williams Foote, and Richard and Richard Wright   Civil Civil rights leaders:   Medg Medgar ar Eve Evers rs,,   Fannie Fannie Lou Hamer,, Aaron Henry Hamer Henry,, and Anne and Anne Moody Alexander,,   Ruby Elzy, Elzy,  Classical musicians:   John Alexander Greenfield,,   Leontyne Price Price,, and Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield William Grant Still



and Weldon Bascom in Columbia, in  Columbia, Marion County, Mississippi •

Jamison,,  3 Doors   Musicians:  Pepper Keenan, Keenan,  Jimi Jamison Down,,  David Banner Down Banner,,  Hayley Williams Williams,,  Big Krit, Krit, Lance Bass Bass,,   Brandy, Brandy,  Jimmy Buffett, Buffett,   Bo Diddley, Diddley, Edwardss,   Faith Faith Hill Hill,,   Randy David “Honeyboy” Edward Houser,,   Miss Houser Mississ issipp ippii John Hurt Hurt,,   Howlin' Howlin' Wo Wolf lf,, Johnson,,  Albert King King,,   B.B. King, King,   Denise Robert Johnson LaSalle,,   Elvis Presl LaSalle Presley ey,,   Charlie Pat Patton ton,,   Charley Pride,,  LeAnn Rimes Pride Rimes,,  Jimmie Rodgers, Rodgers,  David Ruffin,, Britney Spears, fin Spears, Conway Twitty Twitty,, Muddy Waters, Waters, Tammy Wynette Wynette and  and Blind  Blind Melon Melon..


In popu popular lar cu cultu lture re •

  Childre Childrenn in the United States and Cana Canada da often often count “One-Mississippi, “One-Mississippi, two-Mississippi” two-Mississippi” during informal games such as hide as  hide and seek to seek  to approximate approximate counting by seconds.  On March 12, 1894, the Biedenharn Candy Com in Vicksburg, Mispany bottled the first Coca-Cola first  Coca-Cola in in  Biloxi in  in 1898 sissippi.   Root beer was beer  was invented in Biloxi by Ed Edwa ward rd Adolf Adolf Barq, Barq, the namesa namesake ke of Barq’ Barq’ss Root Beer.. Beer Teddy dy bear   gets gets its name name from Pres Presid iden entt   The   Ted Roosevelt.. On a 19 1902 02 hunti hunting ng Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt trip to Sharkey to  Sharkey County, Mississi Mississippi ppi,, he ordered the mercy killing of a wounded bear wounded bear..[106]  In 1935, the world’s first night rodeo night  rodeo held  held outdoors under electric lights was produced by Earl by  Earl Bascom

  Burnita Shelton Matthew Matthewss   ffrom rom near   Hazlehurst, Mississippi wa wass the the first first wo woma mann ap appo poin inte ted d as a ju judg dgee court.. She was appointed appointed by Harry by Harry of a U.S. a U.S. district court S. Truman on Truman on October 21, 1949.  Marilyn Monroe won Monroe  won the Mrs. Mississippi finals in the 1952 film We're Not Married!.  T Tex exas as Rose Rose Basco Bascom, m, of   Columbia, Columbia, Mississi Mississippi ppi,, became bec ame the mos mostt famous amous fem emal alee tri trick ck rop roper er in the world, performing on stage and in Hollywood movies. movie s. She toured the world with Bob with Bob Hope Hope,, billed as the the “Que “Queen en of the the Tr Tric ick k Ro Rope pers rs,” ,” an and d wa wass the the first first Mississippian Mississi ppian to be inducted into the National the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame. Fame.   In 1963, Dr. James James D. Hard Hardyy of the Un Univ ivers ersit ityy of Mississippi Medical Center performed the first humannDr. huma lungHardy transplan transyplant t ormed in Jackson, Jackso Mississi Miss issippi. ppi. In 1964, Hard performe perf d then,first heart transplant, transplanting the heart of a chimpanzee into a human, where it beat for 90 minutes.

Oprah Winfrey, pictured in 2011, was born in Kosciusko in  Kosciusko..

  In 1936,   Dr. Les Lesli liee Rush Rush,, of Rush Hospit Hospital al in Mississippi, performed the first bone pinMeridian, Mississippi, ning in the United States. The “Rush Pin” is still in use.

  “At 10:00 a.m. a.m. on October October 22, 1964, the Uni United ted States government detonated an underground nuclear device in Lamar County, in south Mississippi. (.. (...) .) The Project The Project Salmon Salmon blast  blast was about one-third as powerful as the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima in 1945. (...) The Project Sterling blast, on December 3, 1966, was considerably weaker than the blast two years earlier, as it was intended to be.” [107]   On January January 8, 1935, 1935,   Elvis Presl Presley ey   was was born born in [108] Tupelo.  Several warships have been named USS named  USS Mississippi .  Rogue,, from the well  The comic book character  Rogue known series   X-Men, is a Mississippian and selfdeclared southern declared  southern belle belle.. Her home town is located in the fictional county of Caldecott.   In 2013, researc researcher herss at the Univer Universit sityy of MissisMississippi Medical Center discovered a functional cure for for HIV/AIDS  HIV/AIDS in  in infants.[109]  Many of legal thriller writer John writer  John Grisham's Grisham's novels are set in and around the fictional town of Clanton, in the equally equally fictional Ford County, northwest Mississippi.   In “Star Trek,” Dr. Leonard “Bones” McCoy, Chief Chief Medical Officer on the U.S.S. Enterprise, studied medicine at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.







Otto Solo Solomon, mon,The Final Frontiers, 1880–1930: SetCarson attended  attended Millsaps  Millsaps College under College  under an [14] John Otto  Johnny Carson Westport: ort: Green Greenwoo wood d tling the Southern Bottomlands . Westp elite Navy program to train officers, known as the Press, 1999, pp.10–11 V-12 Program  Program   from November 1943 to February [110] 1945.

Se Seee also

[15]   "''The New York Times’', The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta Levee Board: Physica Physicall development of a levee system, accessed 13 November 2007”. 2007”. Leveeboa Leveeboard.or rd.org. g. Retri Retrieve eved d July 30, 2010. [16] John Otto Otto Solo Solomon, mon,The Final Frontiers, 1880–1930: Set-


  Index of Mississippi-related articles   Outline of Mississ Mississippi ippi   – organized list of topics about Mississippi

Re Reffer eren ence cess

Estimatess of the Pop Populati ulation on for the [1]   “Table “Table 1. Annual Estimate United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013” ( 2013”  (CSV CSV). ).  2013 Population Estimates . United States Census Bureau, Population Div Divisi ision. on. DeBureau, Population cember 30, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2014.

tling the Southern Bottomlands . Westp Westport: ort: Green Greenwoo wood d

Press, 1999, p.50

[17] Solomon Solomon (19 (1999), 99),The Final Frontiers , p.70 [18] Prentice, Prentice, Guy (2003). (2003).   “Pushmataha, Choctaw Indian Indian Chief”.. Southeast Chief” Southeast Ch Chroni ronicles cles.. Retri Retrieve eved d February February 11, 11, 2008. [19] Ben Wynn Wynne, e,  Mississippi  (2007)   (2007) p 12 Southern ern Slavery Slavery and the [20] Morris, Morris, Thomas Thomas D. (1999).   South Law, 1619-1860. 1619-1860. University of North Carolina Press. p.  ISBN 0807864307 0807864307.. 172. ISBN 172.

[2]   “Me “Media diann ho house usehol hold d inc incom omee in thepast 12 mon months(in ths(in 200 2007 7 inflation-adjusted dollars)". dollars)".  American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Bureau. 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2009.

[21] Fede, Andrew (2012). People Without Ri Rights ghts (Routledge Revivals): Reviva ls): An Interpretation of the Fundamentals of the Law of Slavery in the U.S. South.   Routledge. Routledge. p. 79.

[3]   “Knob Reset”. Reset”. NGS data sheet. sheet. U.S.  U.S. National Geodetic Survey.. Survey

[22] Bond, Bradley (2005). (2005).   Miss Mississi issippi: ppi: A Documenta Documentary ry History.. Uni History Univ. Pres Presss of Mi Miss ssis issi sipp ppi. i. p. 68 68..   ISBN 1617034304.. 1617034304

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Ex Exte tern rnal al link linkss

 Official website

 Mississippi Travel and Tourism

 Mississippi Development Authority

  The “Mississippi “Mississippi Believe Believe It” Campaign

  USDA Mississippi Mississippi State Facts

 University Press of Mississippi

  Mississippi Mississippi at  at DMOZ  DMOZ

 Mississippi as Metaphor State, Region, and Nation in Historical Imagination,” Imagination,”   Southern Spaces , October 23, 2006.   Ge Geog ogra raph phic ic data data OpenStreetMap

rela relate ted d

to   Mississippi   at

Mississip ssippi pi State Data Database basess   – Annota Annotated ted list list of   Missi searchable databases produced by Mississippi state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.

Coordinates::  33°N 90°W / 33°N 90°W Coordinates






Text Text and imag imagee so source urces, s, co contrib ntributors, utors, and licenses licenses

15. 15.1 •



  Mississippi  Mississippi   Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi?oldid=636181703   Contributors:  The Epopt, Mav, Koyaanis Qatsi, Trimal-

chio, BenBaker, Andre Engels, Danny, Sfmontyo, Rmhermen, Absecon_59, Paul, William Avery, Zoe, Stevertigo, Jpcarver, Infrogmation, D, Maclir, Menchi, Wapcaplet, Sannse, Paul Benjamin Austin, Delirium, Looxix, Ahoerstemeier, Muriel Gottrop, TUF-KAT, Jebba, Bogdangiusca, Big iron, John K, Rob Hooft, Jengod, Smith03, JonMoore, Dysprosia, Fuzheado, WhisperToMe, SatyrTN, DJ Clayworth, Haukurth, Tpbradbury, CamMassey1, Ed g2s, Phoebe, Samsara, Thue, JonathanDP81, Joy, UninvitedCompany, Chuunen Baka, EdwinHJ, Robbot, Dale Arnett, Moncrief, ZimZalaBim, Altenmann, Nurg, Romanm, Naddy, Lowellian, AllanE, Postdlf, Joeljkp, Diderot, Timrollpickering, Twiin,Everyking, Seth Ilys, Lefty, Dina, Dave6, Alexwcovington, Parham, Mintleaf, TomBrockharrison, HangingCurve, BradeosAlba, Graphon, Bkonrad, Curps, Michael Christopher Devore, Rick Block, Mrendo, Jason Quinn, Solipsist, ert, Gzornenplatz, Jackol, Bobblewik, Golbez, Wmahan, Stinerman, Stevietheman, Simplex, Keith Edkins, R. fiend, Kjetil r, Antandrus, Williamb, Beland, The Inedible Bulk, Rdsmith4, JimWae, Balcer, Mysidia, Saopaulo1, Pmanderson, Talrias, Gscshoyru, Neutrality, Fg2, Trevor MacInnis, Mike Rosoft, D6, Pastinakel, ChrisRuvolo, Stepp-Wulf, Moverton, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, Rhobite, Guanabot, Pmsyyz, Vsmith, YUL89YYZ, Bender235, Evice, CanisRufus, MBisanz, Kwamikagami, Shanes, Mr. Strong Bad, Sietse Snel, Art LaPella, RoyBoy, Jpgordon, Bobo192, Circeus, NetBot, Papercut2a, Infocidal, Smalljim, Viriditas, Cmdrjameson, Cwolfsheep, Acntx, JW1805, ArkansasTraveler, Midas, Jerryseinfeld, Nk, Shaka, DCEdwards1966, MPerel, Sam Korn, Haham hanuka, Hagerman, Pearle, A2Kafir, BSveen, Jumbuck, Storm Rider, Zachlipton, Danski14, Bob rulz, Grutness, Alansohn, Karlthegreat, Buaidh, Arthena, Andrewpmk, Plumbago, Lord Pistachio, Fritzpoll, YDZ, Plange, Bart133, Scott5114, Snowolf, Wtmitchell, SidP, ReyBrujo, Cburnett, HenkvD, RainbowOfLight, Bsadowski1, Kusma, Dziban303, Capecodeph, Tobyc75, Blaxthos, Ceyockey, Ron Ritzman, Libertas, Lkinkade, Stemonitis, Novacatz, Nuno Tavares, Angr, Kelly Martin, Woohookitty, Mindmatrix, Scriberius, Camw, Fingers-of-Pyrex, Jpers36, Madchester, WadeSimMiser, Encyclopedist, Hailey C. 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15 15.2 .2

Im Imag ages  es 



Avnjay, Hello71, KoshVorlon, Lightmouse, Amarkley, Tombomp, Poindexter Propellerhead, Fratrep, Kumioko (renamed), AuburnPiIot, Spitfire19, Msgirl01, Jonlandrum, Vanished user ewfisn2348tui2f8n2fio2utjfeoi210r39jf, Dffggrervrergargaer, Realm of Shadows, Dabomb87, Brittenh, Pinkadelica, Pinkadelica, Richard David Ramsey, Msjayha Msjayhawk, wk, Jimmy Slade, Staugbeachbum, DTGHYUKLPOQWMNB, Amazonien, Velvetron, ImageRemovalBot, MgCupcake, Faithlessthewonderboy, Atif.t2, Elassint, ClueBot, Bluedragon1971, Jim watkins today?, The Thing That Should Not Be, Psthi, Rjd0060, Hellosandimas, Yellowwalrus, Drmies, Cp111, Mild Bill Hiccup, Cube lurker, DanielDeibler, DanielDe ibler, CounterVandalismBot, CounterVandalismBot, BiloxiGeek, LizardJr8, Parkwells, Cskotte, Neverquick, Neverquick, Jeremiestrother, Vpuliva, 718 Bot, Somno, DragonBot, Excirial, Malachirality, Alexbot, Jusdafax, Adamcliv, SmashyPond, Eeekster, Abrech, MeowAccount, Rhatsa26X, Lartoven, Sun Creator, Cirlot20, Peter.C, Jfew, Aworddan, Kaiba, Razorflame, Royalmate1, Lilweezy905, SchreiberBike, SchreiberBike, Ottawa4ever, Thehelpf Thehelpfuulone, Kakofonous, Kakofonous, Thingg, Aitias, F Frenchn, renchn, Scalhotrod, Versus22, Teleomatic, Teleomatic, Smarkflea, MelonBot, Berean Hunter, SoxBot III, LinoPop, Myspace69, DumZiBoT, Regisphilly18923, The Cool Kat, XLinkBot, Vydenmyria, Vydenmyria, James Kanjo, BodhisattvaBot, Enanoj1111, Enanoj1111, Dramaticaddict18923, Feinoha, Jonxwood, ErgoSum88, Penale52, Rreagan007, Wegots Wegotstuff, tuff, NellieBly, Poop4568, Mm40, Private Pilot, WikiDao, JinJian, ZooFari, Jasmatbrand, Good Olfactory, Thatguyflint, Osarius, Wiki Edit0r90, Jmerchant29, HexaChord, Mojska, Jhendin, Webuxt, Coine in the pocket, Bazj, Addbot, Benjh40, Nero42, Whslinebacker00, Badgemousewireclock1, Manuel Trujillo Berges, AVand, Some jerk on the Internet, Jojhu Jojhutton, tton, Tcncv, Fyrael, Dudemanfe Dudemanfellabra, llabra, Gsdp1, Morriswa, Morriswa, It is me i think, Ronh Ronhjones, jones, TutterMouse, Leszek Jańczuk, Fluffernutter, Noozgroop, Missyangel, Ashanda, Bobopo, NjardarBot, Darkjunjie, Darkjunjie, Cst17, MrOllie, Miko08, Mentisock, LaaknorBot, Chamal N, 3poniesmom, Glane23, Ld100, AndersBot, AnnaFrance, XRK, Favonian, Trojan1998, Tassedethe, Professorparadiddle, Numbo3-bot, DubaiTerminator, Myk60640, Tide rolls, Lightbot, OlEnglish, Teles, Karebare89, Gail, David0811, Quantumobserver, Alphawolf32, Cchow2, Speedracerules, Ben Ben, Math Champion, Kurtis, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Otokorashii Fuyu, TaBOT-zerem, Cflm001, NEICenergy, Bigtophat, Rootedinmississippi, Mmxx, Brougham96, QueenCake, Edwarddontay, MacTire02, Alexandre8, Bility, Juliancolton Alternative, Tonyrex, AnomieBOT, XL2D, Momoricks, RanEagle, NorwichVT, Jim1138, IRP, Galoubet, 90, Fdauro, Hazel13, Kingpin13, Ulric1313, Carbone14, Materialscientist, Materialscientist, Hunnjazal, Mr. Painaday, Lucius alta, Citation bot, OllieFury, Sayuh, Dmoore99999, Neurolysis, ArthurBot, Gsmgm, THE BOMB watch out!, MauritsBot, Xqbot, Fanfacts, Cureden, Coocoolulu, Capricorn42, Cassandra Davis, Comicretard, Purplebackpack89, Arthur Petrelli, Zebaz12, Tyrol5, AbigailAbernathy, Roderickmcnair1, GrouchoBot, P7777777, Call me Bubba, Godwhere13, RibotBOT, SassoBot, Assembletheways, Doulos Christos, GhalyBot, Echisolm, Moxy, Tag4, Shadowjams, Skotticus, Skottic us, BinXy, ASOTMKX, Samwb123, Hushpuckena, FrescoBot, Djmixster, Evanrios, Tobby72, Nageh, Sky Attack Attacker, er, RandaRoo, HJ Mitchell, Buttly, Merlin G., Fancy2me, DivineAlpha, OgreBot, Finn Froding, Draobehtfonamriahc, Q2fred, Kackwurst aus der Keramik, Pinethicket, HRoestBot, Pseven7, Mcgotime, Yayme23, A8UDI, Dbb49, Stepopen, Jeniwill, Waddle1463, Mister Spiderman, Dac04, Reconsider Reconsi der the static, Starbursts Are Good, Blades95, Jauhienij, Jauhienij, Arbero, Robvanv Robvanvee, ee, TobeBot, Absenteeist, JenPony, Thestraycat57, Vrenator, MrX, Rickipedia127, Miracle Pen, Jultemplet, Ibam.arief, Decathlete21, Nmballer393, Terrelomeat, Tbhotch, Woodlot, Fry1989, Brambleclawx, Rossdegenstein, Keegscee, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Bigemail90, RjwilmsiBot, TjBot, Bento00, Ripchip Bot, Dellpie, Regancy42, Voxhumana2009, Voxhumana2009, Wikigirl Wikigirl1995, 1995, Hajatvrc, JohnHenry1865, Slon02, Grondemar, Steve03Mi Steve03Mills, lls, EmausBot, Orphan Wiki, Immunize, Gfoley4, Gfoley4, Dadaist6174, 3patrick7, RA0808, RenamedUser01302013, Robert LeBlanc, GlittaaaaGIRL39648, Tommy2010, Palanaka, Dabom747, Wikipelli, K6ka, P. 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15 15.2 .2 •

Imag Images es

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under the digital ID fsa.8c10924 ID  fsa.8c10924.. Commons:Licensing ing for  for more information. This tag does not indicate the copyright copyright status of the attached work. work. A normal copyrigh copyrightt tag is still required. See See  Commons:Licens Marion Post Wolcott Original artist:   Marion •

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Signs (si  (sign gn M1-1). Uses the the Roadgeek  Roadgeek 2005 fonts. fonts. (United (United Stat States es law does not specifications of the 2004 the  2004 edition of Standard Highway Signs permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.)  Original  artist:  Ltljltlj   Ltljltlj •

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  File:Mississippi_Braves_Cody_Johnson.jpg   Source:    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/Mississippi_Braves_ Cody_Johnson.jpg License:  Public  Public domain   Contributors:  Own   Own work Original artist:  Kaotate   File:Mississippi_in_United_States.svg   Source:    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Mississippi_in_United_ States.svg   License:    CC-BY-SA-3.0   Contributors:    This  vector graphi graphics cs image image   was cre created ated with   Adobe Illustrator Illustrator..   Original artis artist:  t: 

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