MOH-MOWE Potable Water.pdf

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Table of Contents
Page
PART 1:

GENERAL REQUIREMENT ..................................... 1

SECTION 1.01 FORMAT AND REFERENCING .............................................. 1
1.01.1 FORMAT OF SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................... 1
1.01.2 REFERENCING ..................................................................................... 2
SECTION 1.02 ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS ............. 3
1.02.1 ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................... 3
1.02.2 DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................... 6
SECTION 1.03 SCOPE AND CONTROL OF WORKS .................................. 8
1.03.1 INTENT OF CONTRACT ........................................................................ 8
1.03.2 SILENCE OF SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................... 8
1.03.3 CONTRACTOR'S WORK AREAS ........................................................ 8
1.03.4 WATER SUPPLY .................................................................................... 9
1.03.5 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ......................................................................... 9
1.03.6 EXISTING UTILITIES AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS ................... 10
1.03.7 SIGN BOARDS .................................................................................... 14
1.03.8 SURVEYING EQUIPMENT .................................................................. 14
1.03.9 SETTING OUT OF WORKS ............................................................... 15
1.03.10 HAUL ROUTES FOR HEAVY VEHICLES ....................................... 16
1.03.11 SCAFFOLDING AND FALSEWORK ................................................ 17
1.03.12 USE OF EXPLOSIVES ..................................................................... 17
1.03.13 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT ......................................................... 18
1.03.14 PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDS OF CONSTRUCTION ...................... 18
1.03.15 SITE CLEANING AND FINAL CLEAN UP ...................................... 19
SECTION 1.04 TEMPORARY WORKS .......................................................... 20
1.04.1 SCOPE ................................................................................................. 20
1.04.2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ................................................................ 20
1.04.3 AGREEMENT OF PROPERTY OWNERS .......................................... 20
SECTION 1.05 CONTROL OF MATERIALS AND STANDARDS FOR
SAMPLING AND TESTING ............................................................................ 21
1.05.1 STORAGE OF MATERIALS ............................................................... 21
1.05.2 HANDLING MATERIALS ...................................................................... 21
1.05.3 MATERIALS SUPPLIED BY EMPLOYER ........................................... 21
1.05.4 LOCAL MATERIAL SOURCES ............................................................ 21
1.05.5 SOURCES OF SUPPLY AND QUALITY REQUIREMENTS ............ 22
1.05.6 CERTIFICATES OF GUARANTEE AND PRODUCTION PLANT
INSPECTIONS .................................................................................................. 22
1.05.7 SAMPLING AND TESTING PROCEDURES ..................................... 22
1.05.8 SAMPLING AND TESTING STANDARDS ........................................ 24
1.05.9 UNACCEPTABLE MATERIALS ......................................................... 25

TOC -i

SECTION 1.06 CONTRACTOR'S PLANT AND EQUIPMENT .................... 26
1.06.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................... 26
1.06.2 CONTRACTOR'S SCHEDULE OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT ........ 26
1.06.3 PROVISION AND USE OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT .................. 26
SECTION 1.07 MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES ..................................... 27
1.07.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................... 27
1.07.2 MANUFACTURED ITEMS ............................................................... 27
1.07.3 FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES ....................................................... 27
1.07.4 WEIGHT MEASUREMENTS ........................................................... 28
1.07.5 LINEAR AND AREA MEASUREMENTS ........................................... 28
1.07.6 VOLUME MEASUREMENTS IN VEHICLES ................................... 28
1.07.7 EARTHWORK VOLUME MEASUREMENTS .................................. 29
SECTION 1.08 TEMPORARY FACILITIES .................................................. 30
1.08.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................... 30
1.08.2 TEMPORARY SITE FACILITIES ..................................................... 31
1.08.3 CONTRACTOR'S TEMPORARY BUILDINGS ................................ 32
1.08.4 TEMPORARY SERVICES ............................................................... 32
1.08.5 DIVERSION OF PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES ............................... 33
SECTION 1.09 SAFETY PRECAUTION MEASURES ................................. 35
1.09.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................... 35
P AR T 2 :
E X C AV AT I O N AN D B AC K F I L L I N G .......................... 36
SECTION 2.01 SCOPE ............................................................................... 36
SECTION 2.02 SITE CLEARING ................................................................. 37
2.02.1 CLEARING AND GRUBBING...............................................................37
2.02.2 REMOVAL OR REALIGNMENT OF OBSTRUCTION AND
UTILITIES .................................................................................................... 37
SECTION 2.03 EXCAVATION .................................................................... 38
2.03.1 GENERAL .......................................................................................... 38
2.03.2 TOP SOIL ......................................................................................... 38
2.03.3 EXCAVATING .................................................................................... 38
2.03.4 DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS ............................................................. 41
2.03.5 ROCK EXCAVATION ............................................................................ 41
2.03.6 ROAD EXCAVATION (FOR PREPARATION OF SERVICE ROADS
ALONG PIPELINES) ................................................................................... 42
2.03.7 EXCAVATION FOR STRUCTURES ................................................ 46
2.03.8 EXCAVATION FOR PIPE TRENCHES ............................................. 49
2.03.9 Technical Specifications of Thrust Boring ............................................ 52
SECTION 2.04 SOIL FILLING AND BACKFILLING FOR STRUCTURES 57
2.04.1 SCOPE ..........................................................................................57
2.04.2 FILLING MATERIAL AND BORROW MATERIAL .........................57
2.04.3 BACKFILLING FOR STRUCTURES ..............................................58
2.04.4 EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION ...............................................63
2.04.5 PIPE BEDDING MATERIAL AND BACKFILLING FOR PIPE
TRENCHES................................................................................................. 70

TOC -ii

SECTION 2.05 SUBGRADE CONSTRUCTION ...........................................74
2.05.1 GENERAL ..............................................................................................74
2.05.2 MATERIALS ..........................................................................................74
2.05.3 WORKMANSHIP ...................................................................................75
SECTION 2.06 GABIONS ................................................................................77
2.06.1 GENERAL ..............................................................................................77
2.06.2 MATERIALS ..........................................................................................77
2.06.3 CONSTRUCTION ..................................................................................78
SECTION 2.07 STONE PITCHING IN CONCRETE ......................................79
2.07.1 GENERAL ..............................................................................................79
2.07.2 MATERIALS ..........................................................................................79
2.07.3 PLACING ..............................................................................................80
SECTION 2.08 GEOTEXTILES .......................................................................81
2.08.1 GENERAL ..............................................................................................81
2.08.2 MATERIAL ...........................................................................................81
2.08.3 WORKMANSHIP ...................................................................................82

P ART 3:

PAVEMENT AND ROADS SURFACE FINISHING ....... 83

SECTION 3.01 SCOPE ..................................................................................83
SECTION 3.02 GRANULAR SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES ..................84
3.02.1 GENERAL ..............................................................................................84
3.02.2 MATERIALS ............................................................................................. 85
F.4 The percent passing no. 200 sieve (0.075 mm) shall not be more than half
the percent passing sieve no. 40 (0.025 mm) ................................................87
3.02.3 CONSTRUCTION ..................................................................................87
SECTION 3.03 BITUMINOUS LAYERS ........................................................89
3.03.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................. 89
3.03.2 MATERIALS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR BITUMINOUS
COURSES .......................................................................................................89
3.03.3 CONSTRUCTION .................................................................................... 93
SECTION 3.04 PAVEMENT REPAIRS AND TRENCH REINSTATEMENT
WORKS
96
3.04.1 GENERAL ...........................................................................................96
3.04.2 ASPHALTING .....................................................................................96
3.04.3 MATERIALS .......................................................................................97
3.04.4 CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR WORKS .......................................97
SECTION 3.05 CURBS, GUTTERS, SIDEWALKS AND PAVED MEDIANS
100
3.05.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 100
3.05.2 MATERIALS AND PRECAST MANUFACTURE ............................. 100
3.05.3 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION ........................................... 102
SECTION 3.06 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC AND DETOURS ................ 109
3.06.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 109
3.06.2 MAINTENANCE AND PROTECTION OF TRAFFIC ....................... 109

TOC -iii

PART 4: PIPE WORKS AND NETWORK ACCESSORIES ......... 112
SECTION 4.01 SCOPE ............................................................................... 112
SECTION 4.02 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................... 113
4.02.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................... 113
4.02.2 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION .................................................. 113
4.02.3 RIGHT OF WAY (ROW) .................................................................... 114
4.02.4 MATERIALS, PRODUCTS SUPPLY AND HANDLING ................. 115
SECTION 4.03 PIPES, FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES ......................... 121
4.03.1 MATERIALS........................................................................................ 121
4.03.2 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION .......................................... 130
4.03.3 PIPE WORK TESTING ...................................................................... 133
4.03.4 CATHODIC PROTECTION .............................................................. 140
SECTION 4.04 VALVES, GATES, STOPS, WATER CONECTION S FIRE
HYDRANTS AND SUNDRY WORKS ......................................................... 150
4.04.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................... 150
4.04.2 VALVES ............................................................................................ 150
4.04.3 FIRE HYDRANTS ............................................................................. 158
4.04.4 HOUSE CONNECTION ................................................................... 161
4.04.5 JOINTING MATERIALS AND ADAPTORS ...................................... 165
4.04.6 VALVE ACCESSORIES .................................................................... 167
4.04.7 VALVE OPERATORS ........................................................................ 169
4.04.8 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION .......................................... 170
SECTION 4.05 BEDDING, SURROUND, HAUNCHING, ENCASEMENT
AND THRUST BLOCKS .............................................................................. 173
4.05.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................... 173
4.05.2 MATERIALS........................................................................................ 173
4.05.3 WORKMANSHIP ................................................................................ 173
SECTION 4.06 CHAMBERS AND INLETS ................................................ 175
4.06.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................... 175
4.06.2 MATERIALS........................................................................................ 175
4.06.3 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION .......................................... 177
SECTION 4.07 RECORDS .......................................................................... 178

PART 5:

CONCRETE WORKS ........................................... 180

SECTION 5.01 CONCRETE AND CONCRETE MIXES AND TESTING ... 180
5.01.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................... 180
5.01.2 MATERIALS........................................................................................ 180
5.01.3 DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................... 193
5.01.4 CONCRETE STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS ................................... 195
5.01.5 COMPOSITION OF CONCRETE .................................................... 199
5.01.6 REQUIREMENTS FOR COMBINING MATERIALS .....................
................................................................................................................. 201
5.01.7 READY-MIXED CONCRETE AND CENTRAL MIXED CONCRETE
205
SECTION 5.02 CONCRETE HANDLING, PLACING AND CURING ......... 208

TOC -iv

5.02.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 208
5.02.2 MATERIALS ........................................................................................ 208
5.02.3 PLACING ........................................................................................... 208
5.02.4 COMPACTING ................................................................................... 213
5.02.5 CURING ............................................................................................. 216
5.02.6 HOT WEATHER CONCRETING ...................................................... 219
5.02.7 COLD WEATHER CONCRETING ..................................................... 222
5.02.8 NIGHT CONCRETING ........................................................................ 223
SECTION 5.03 STEEL REINFORCEMENT AND FIXING ........................... 224
5.03.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 224
5.03.2 MATERIALS ........................................................................................ 224
5.03.3 CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................... 225
SECTION 5.04 FORMS, FORMWORK AND FALSEWORK ....................... 229
5.04.1 GENERAL ........................................................................................ 229
5.04.2 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................. 229
5.04.3 MATERIALS .................................................................................... 230
5.04.4 DESIGN ........................................................................................... 231
5.04.5 FINISHES ...................................................................................... 235
5.04.6 TOLERANCES ................................................................................ 237
5.04.7 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS .......................................... 237
5.04.8 REMOVAL OF FORMWORK AND FALSEWORK ...................... 239
SECTION 5.05 PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 240
5.05.1 GENERALLY ....................................................................................... 240
5.05.2 MATERIALS ........................................................................................ 240
5.05.3 CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................... 241
SECTION 5.06 WATERPROOFING FOR STRUCTURES ........................ 246
5.06.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 246
5.06.2 MATERIALS ........................................................................................ 246
5.06.3 SURFACE PREPARATION .............................................................. 250
5.06.4 INSPECTION, DELIVERY AND STORAGE .................................... 250
5.06.5 CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................... 251
SECTION 5.07 JOINT SEALING AND JOINT FILLER ................................ 255
5.07.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 255
5.07.2 MATERIALS: JOINT SEALING COMPOUNDS .............................. 255
5.07.3 PREFORMED EXPANSION JOINT FILLER ................................... 258
5.07.4 CERTIFICATE OF GUARANTEE ...................................................... 258
5.07.5 CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................... 259

TOC -v

List of Tables
Page
PART 2 : EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING
Table 2.1 : Soil Suitable for Embankment .....................................................................64
Table 2.2 : Rock Suitable for Embankment ...................................................................64

PART 3 : PAVEMENT AND ROADS SURFACE FINISHING
Table 3.1 : Job Mix Formula ...........................................................................................92
Table 3.2 : Surface Tolerances .....................................................................................92
Table 3.3 : Tests for Bituminous Pavements: Minimum Tests Required ........................95

PART 5 : CONCRETE WORKS
Table 5.1.1 : Limits of Gradation for Coarse Aggregates .............................................188
Table 5.1.2 : Limits of Gradation for Combined Aggregates..........................................189
Table 5.1.3 : Maximum Permitted Impurities in Non-Potable Water ..............................192
Table 5.1.4 : Concrete Class and Design Mixes ...........................................................195
Table 5.1.5 : Grading for No-Fines Concrete ................................................................196
Table 5.1.6 : Preliminary Tests for Stretch ....................................................................197
Table 5.2.1 : Selection of Poker Diameter for Size of Pour ...........................................215
Table 5.2.2 : Normal Curing Periods .............................................................................220
Table 5.4.1 : Permitted Hardwoods for Load-Bearing Wedges and Packing .................230
Table 5.4.2 : Minimum Period Before Striking for Ordinary Structural Concrete
Made with Ordinary Portland Cement ...............................................239

TOC -vi

PART 1: General Requirement

P ART 1:

Technical Specification for Water Network

GENER AL REQUIREMENT

SECTION 1.01 FORMAT AND REFERENCING

1.01.1

FORMAT OF SPECIFICATIONS

A.

Part

A.1

This Specification is divided into Parts. Each Part is designated by a single or
double digit number followed by a title. (Part 1 General Requirements)

B.

Section

B.1

Each Part is divided into Sections. Each Section is designated by the Part
number, a decimal point and a 2-digit sequential number, followed by a title.
(Section 1.01 Format and Referencing)

C.

Subsection

C.1

Each Section is divided into Subsections. Each Subsection is designated by the
Part number, a decimal point and a 2-digit Section number, a decimal point and a
single or double digit number followed by a title. (1.01.1 Format of Specifications)

D.

Clause

D.1

Each Subsection may be divided into Clauses. Each Clause is designated by
sequential alphabetic letters and a decimal point. (D.)

E.

Item

E.1

Each Clause may be divided into items. Each Item is designated by the Clause
letter, a decimal point and a single or double digit sequential number, followed (if
required) by a title in lower case lettering. The text then normally follows on the
same line (E. 1).

Page 1 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

1.01.2

Technical Specification for Water Network

REFERENCING

A.

The Specifications for Items in the Bills of Quantities are prescribed in the
respective Section/s corresponding to the type of Works involved.

B.

A l l the provisions of these Section/s shall be construed as Specifications for such
Items of Work, except in respect of those provisions clearly inapplicable in the
context in which they appear or unless they are waived or modified in the Contract
Documents or by Variation Orders.

C.

Specifications and Drawings may contain cross references to other Sections,
Clauses, Items, etc., which shall likewise be construed as Specifications for the
Item of Work involved.

D.

Any references in the Specification to Work or materials not required will be
deemed inapplicable.

Page 2 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

SECTION 1.02

1.02.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

ABBREVIATIONS

A.

Interpretation

A.1

Wherever the following abbreviations of titles, terms and units of measurement are
used in the Specifications or on the Drawings, the intent and meaning shall be
interpreted as described hereunder.

B.

Titles and Terms

B.1 AASHTO - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials:





























ABS
ACI
AISC
AISI
ANSI
API
ASTM
AV.
AWG
AWS
AWWA
bit.
BS
BSSC
BST
CB
CBR
conc
CIE
DBSC
DIN
Equiv
FSS
hwy
ht
H:V
IEC
IEE








Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
American Concrete Institute
American Institute of Steel Construction
American Iron and Steel Institute
American National Standards Institute
American Petroleum Institute
American Society for Testing and

Materials










average
American wire gauge
American Welding Society
American Water Works Assoication
bitumen/bituminous
British Standard
bituminous slurry seal coat
bituminous surface treatment
circuit breaker
California Bearing Ratio










I
I

concrete
Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage
double bituminous seal coat
Deutsches Institute Fur Normalizieung
equivalent
Federal Standard Specification (USA)
highway
height
horizontal:vertical
nternational Electrical Commission
nstitution of Electrical Engineers (UK)

Page 3 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement




































C.

ISO
L.L.
L.S.
max
MCCB :
min
MUTCD :
NEC
NEMA :
NJB
pav't
P.C.
PCC
PE
P.I.
P.L.
PTFE :
qty
RC
RCP
rdwy
ROW :
SBSC :
S.G.
SI
Sta
SWG :
TBSC :
VDE :
wgt
GRP
DI
SASO :

:
:
:
:

:

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

:
:
:

:
:
:

Technical Specification for Water Network

International Organization for Standardization
liquid limit
lump sum
maximum
molded case circuit breaker
minimum (or minute)
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
National Electrical Code (UK)
National Electrical Manufacturers' Association (USA)
New Jersey barrier
pavement
prime cost
Portland cement concrete
polyethylene
plasticity index
plastic limit
Polytetrafluoroethylene
quantity
reinforced concrete
reinforced concrete pipe
roadway
right-of-way
single bituminous seal coat
specific gravity
Systeme International D'Unites
Station (location along a survey line)
standard wire gauge (UK) triple bituminous seal coat
Verband Deutscher Electrotechniker
weight
Class reinforced plastic
Ductile Iron
Saudi Arabia Standards Organization

Units of Measurement

C.1 Throughout the documentation units of measurement are referred to by symbols as
follows:
-

Nr
mm
cm
m

: number
: millimeter/s
centimeter/s
meter/s

:
:

-

lin.m

:

linear meter/s

-

km

:

kilometer/s

Page 4 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement
















































sq.mm :
sq.cm
sq.m
ha
cu.m
gm
kg
tonne
ml
ltr
Pa
N
kN
MN
A
mA
V
W
kW
C
Hz
rpm
km/h
sec
min
h
mS
dB
dBA
ppm
in.
ft
sq.in
sq.ft
cu.ft
lb.
psi
gal
gal(Imp)
mph
HP
USG

:

:

:
:
:
:
:

Technical Specification for Water Network

square millimeter/s
square centimeter/s
square meter/s
hectare/s
cubic meter/s
gram/s
kilogram/s
metric ton (1,000 kg)
milliliter/s
liter/s
Pascal/s
Newton/s
kilo Newtons
mega Newtons
amperes
milli amperes
volt/s
Watt
kilowatt
Celsius (Centigrade)
Hertz (Frequency)
revolutions per minute
kilometers per hour
seconds
minute/s (or minimum)
hour/s
milli Siemens
decibel/s
decibels absolute parts per
million

:
:

inch/inches ( 1 in. = 25.4 mm)
foot/feet (1ft = 0.3048 m)
square inch/inches

:

square foot/feet cubic
foot/feet pound/s
(weight) pounds per
square inch gallon/s
(U.S.) gallon/s (Imperial)
miles per hour
horsepower
American gage

Page 5 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

1.02.2

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

DEFINITIONS

Wherever in the specification or in other Contract Documents any of the following
terms is used, the intent and meaning shall be interpreted as follows:


ACCEPTED - Accepted in writing by the Engineer (or by the Employer
where appropriate) as meeting the requirements of the Contract Documents
and of any authorized variations thereto. "Acceptance" means accepted in
writing as aforesaid. "Acceptable" means acceptable to the Engineer as
aforesaid.



ADDENDUM/NOTICE - Amendment of or revision to any of the Contract
Documents issued to Tenderers, and which is deemed to form part of the
Contract Documents.



APPROVED - Approved in writing by the Engineer, including subsequent
written approval or confirmation of previous verbal approval by the
Engineer. "Approval" means approval in writing as aforesaid.



CERTIFICATE OF GUARANTEE - A signed statement by a person having
legal authority to bind a company or supplier to its product, and which
confirms that the materials and test results conform to the standards of these
Specifications.



DIRECTED - Directed in writing by the Engineer, including subsequent
written direction or confirmation of previous verbal direction by the
Engineer.



PRESPLITTING - Establishment of a free surface, or shear plane, in rock
cuts, by controlled use of explosives in specially aligned and closely spaced
drill holes along the slope line.



SHEATHING - Backfilling to the inside faces of structures such as
retaining walls and abutments, using proprietary filter cloth and porous
blocks, or using selected, free-draining material such as gravel or noncementitious sand, etc, prior to placing and compacting normal backfill.



SOIL STABILIZATION - Procedure whereby cement, bitumen or lime is
added to soils (subgrade layer) or to granular materials (sub-base course) in
order to improve their load bearing capacity and their resistance to
weathering and displacement.



SUBGRADE - The top surface of embankment or excavated area on which
the pavement structure and shoulders are constructed. Also referred to as
Subgrade Surface or Subgrade Level.

Page 6 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

Technical Specification for Water Network



SUBGRADE LAYER - The top layer of material, of at least 200 mm
compacted thickness, immediately below the subgrade surface.



SUBSIDIARY WORKS - Works which are subsidiary to or necessary or
essential to, or in support of, or usual to, the execution and completion of
other Works.



WORKING DRAWINGS - Shop drawings, steel bending schedules, stress
sheets, fabrication and erection drawings, falsework drawings, and any other
supplementary drawings or data which the Contractor is required to submit to
the Engineer for approval, generally before such Works commence.

Page 7 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

SECTION 1.03

1.03.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

SCOPE AND CONTROL OF WORKS

INTENT OF CONTRACT

A.

The intent of the Contract is to provide for the construction and completion in every
detail and subsequent maintenance of the Works described. The Contractor shall
furnish all labor, materials, tools, equipment, transportation, supplies and facilities
and shall carry out all Permanent and Temporary Works and all other items
necessary for proper completion of the Works in accordance with all requirements
of the Contract Documents.

B.

Where the Specifications or Drawings describe any portions of the Works in outline
only, and not in complete detail, the best general engineering practice shall prevail
and only first quality materials and workmanship shall be used.

1.03.2

A.

1.03.3

SILENCE OF SPECIFICATIONS

The apparent silence of the Specifications, Drawings or other Contract Documents
as to any detail or the apparent omission from them of a detailed description
concerning any Works or requirements, shall be regarded as meaning that good
engineering practice shall apply and shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

CONTRACTOR'S WORK AREAS

A.

The Contractor shall make all necessary arrangements, including payment i f need
be, regarding any land outside the Site that may be needed as work areas. The
Employer will not acknowledge any liability in respect of such land. The Contractor
shall also be responsible for insuring that all roads and temporary facilities needed
are sufficient to divert traffic adequately.

B.

The Contractor shall locate and select sites outside the right-of-way for the use of
his plant, equipment, site offices, residences, Temporary Works or any other uses
which are essential during the execution of the Contract. The Contractor shall take
the necessary measures for using these sites and shall be responsible for all
expenses that may become due in return for such use. Prior to using any land
owned by public or private owner outside the Site, the Contractor shall obtain the
approval of the concerned Authorities and the Engineer.

Page 8 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

Technical Specification for Water Network

C.

The Contractor, i f so required by the Engineer, whether before or after completion
of the Works, shall remove his constructional plant and duly clean the site and shall,
wherever applicable, remedy all damage and pay all monies due to land owners in
return for using their land.

D.

It is the Contractor's responsibility to verify the stability of side slopes in cut areas
by specialized staff. The Contractor, at his own expense shall execute any required
site investigation prior to cutting in the relevant areas. The proposal of site
investigation program as well the final recommendation should be approved by the
Engineer. No direct payment shall be made for this work, all expenses should be
included in the Contractor's rates.

E.

The Contractor shall inspect the location and the surrounding areas and
comprehend all the details related to the type, nature, details, topography and
existing services of the location.

The Contractor shall acquire all the information related to risks, dangers, weather
conditions and any other related factors that may influence his tender, and no later
consideration will be made since these expenses should be added by the Contractor on the
prices of works and other items.

1.03.4

A.

1.03.5

A.

WATER SUPPLY

The Contractor shall be deemed to have executed adequate investigations relating
to the availability of water for the purpose of the Works and to have consulted and
arranged with the appropriate Authorities and taken into consideration all legal
aspects. The Contractor shall be responsible for the supply of sufficient clean, fresh
water at all times during progress of the Works, including making temporary
arrangements for storing and distributing the water on the Site.

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for the supply of all electrical
power and all lighting and electrical equipment required for execution of the Works,
including supplies for commissioning engineering services and Plant at required
voltages. The Contractor shall also make provisions to store and distribute electrical
power and equipment on Site.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

B.

The Contractor shall provide and maintain adequate efficient lighting for all parts
of the Works for safety and security purposes required to facilitate proper execution
of work and to illuminate surfaces during finishing work and inspection. Without
prejudice to his liability under the General Conditions of Contract, the Contractor
shall, with respect to the supply of electricity for power or lighting, take all
necessary precautions to ensure the safety of his workmen and others.

C.

Permanent electric supply and lighting installations may be used for testing and
commissioning and to illuminate the Works, subject to the following conditions:


The Employer does not guarantee that it will be available.



The Contractor must take responsibility for the operation, maintenance and
supervision of the system, indemnify the Employer against all damage and
pay all costs and renew all used tubes and lamps.



The Contractor must indemnify the Employer against any reduction in the
manufacturer's guarantee periods for equipment etc. due to its use before
completion of the Works.

1.03.6

EXISTING UTILITIES AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS

A.

Categories of Obstructions

A.1

Obstructions shall be classified as follows:



Existing private and public owned utilities, above and below ground, which
are required to be either protected, adjusted, relocated or removed.



Obstructions, above and below ground (other than utilities), which are
required to be taken down, dismantled, demolished or excavated, and
removed, as appropriate.

B.

Existing Utilities

B.1

Utilities shall include, but not be limited to, existing water lines, gas lines, sewer
lines, wire lines, service connections, water and gas meters and valve boxes, light
poles and masts, pylons, cableways, signals, and all utility appurtenances within
the limits of the proposed construction.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

B.1.1 The Contractor shall submit all plans showing existing utilities under earth and
their relations with pipelines under construction.

B.1.2 The Employer/Engineer takes no responsibility as to the correctness, accuracy,
completeness or validity of information obtained from these Drawings and the
Contractor shall be fully responsible for his own interpretation and shall execute
whatever additional investigations are necessary to obtain the needed information
at the Contractor's own expense.

B.1.3 The costs of all related Works concerning verification and identification of existing
utilities including excavating any trial pits, detection means, mapping detailing of
drawings and co-ordination with respective Authorities shall be fully borne by the
Contractor. Should any relocation of existing utilities, not previously identified by
the Contractor, be instructed, or shown on the Drawings, these shall not constitute
a change in the Scope of Work, and shall give no grounds for extension to the
Time for Completion or for other claims. The relocations, however, will be paid for
and valued in accordance with the Contract rates..

B.2

The necessary utility diversions may be specified or directed to be carried out by
the Contractor. Alternatively, the Employer may make arrangements for such
works to be executed by other parties.

B.3

The Contractor shall:


Take into account that the diversion works shall be carried out to the
requirements and approval of the Utility Owners and/or under their
supervision, and also where required by the Utility Owners, specialist
diversion works shall be carried out by accredited specialist Contractors.



Verify and identify the existing utilities by excavating trial pits and other
measures including detection means existing utilities. Coordinate with the
relevant Authorities and map these utilities and prepare detailed and
accurate existing utilities drawings identifying the utilities that are in service
and those that are dead or abandoned. Submit these existing utilities
Drawings, that are accurate and detailed giving location of utilities in plan
and section with all pertinent data of the respective utility, to the Engineer
and to the Utility Owners.



Work out and develop, in coordination with the Utility Owners and the
Engineer, the approved utilities diversion schemes that will be required to
enable the execution of the Works and also maintain continued utilities
services in the Area, and to the users.

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PART 1: General Requirement

Technical Specification for Water Network



Provide superintendence for the execution of the utility diversions whether
they are carried out by the Contractor directly or by other parties employed
by the Contractor.



Provide accurate As-Built Drawings of all permanent utility diversions that
are executed under the Contract.

B.4

The Employer will, in consultation with the Engineer and Contractor, coordinate
with all Utility Owners to ensure prompt adjustment, relocation or removal of all
affected utilities, including any additional utilities that may be encountered during
the Works. The Employer and Engineer will facilitate, to the maximum extent
practicable, the Contractor's Work Program, in this respect.

B.5

The Contractor shall take into account, in his Program of Work, the time effort
involved in the follow-up and execution of Works pertaining to all utility
adjustments, relocations and removals. The Contractor shall schedule construction
activities so as to avoid or minimize any potential delays, inconvenience or damage
to the Works that may result from utility interference or the operations of
adjustment, relocations and removals.

B.6

The Contractor shall follow up the execution of the utility diversions whether they
are carried out directly or by other parties employed by the Contractor or directly by
the Employer. The Contractor shall, in good time, inform the Employer and the
Engineer.

B.7

The Contractor shall be responsible for safeguarding and protecting all utilities and
appurtenances encountered during the Works. The Contractor shall be responsible
for the costs of making good any damage arising out of its own negligence.

B.8

The execution of the utility diversions should be done by similar materials of
equivalent grade or strength as minimum to the materials of the existing utilities and
as per the Engineer approval and the utility owners requirements.

B.9

In case it is required to stop the water in the existing network while execution of the
utilities diversions or replacement of existing water pipeline, the Contractor should
inform the Engineer and coordinate with the water supply authorities in advance by
48 hours. I f the water supply would stop for more than 48 hours, the Contractor
should provide temporary service for water supply on his own expenses, either using
temporary pipelines or by water tanker or any other way approved by the Engineer.
In all cases, the Contractor should get written license from the water supply
authority including the required instructions.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

B.10

Execution of the water networks diversions should be done as per the water
networks specifications stipulated in Section (4) of these specifications. Testing,
cleaning and disinfection of the pipelines should be done according to Section
(4-3-3) of these specifications.

C.

Obstacles

C.1

Obstacles shall include, but not limited to existing buildings, walls, fences, gates,
wells, septic tanks, manholes, pits, pipes, culverts, roadways, sidewalks, signs and
rubbish dumps, whether or not shown on the Drawings.

C.2

At the commencement of the Contract, the Contractor shall examine the Site and
identify/verify all obstacles in the Site above or below ground, and shall record all
such information on suitable Site Drawings which shall be submitted to the
Engineer within one month of commencement date.

C.3

Existing Septic Tanks:

I f the pipelines or the house connections cross any existing septic tanks and it was not
possible to change the pipeline routing to avoid them, the Contractor should proceed to dry,
clean, demolish and backfill those tanks partially or fully.
Wherever possible, only the crossing part of the tank with the water pipeline that will be
demolished and backfilled and the rest of the tank should be separated by building a
suitable wall to make the tank in a good working condition. A l l precautions should be
taken to keep the existing system working and to pump the sewerage from the tanks and to
dispose of the sewage according to the local authorities instructions. The sewer water must
not be allowed to leak to the water pipelines trenches or the water system.
In case of partial or full demolish, the top slab should be removed either fully or partially
and the walls should be lowered at least by 1m below the ground level. Filling should be
as per the backfilling specifications in this document.
All of the above requirements should be applied to all existing tanks including those
constructed during this pipelines contract and those crossing the pipelines.
Harmful gases concentration should be monitored using special gas monitoring devices
before and during commencing of the work in septic tanks. A l l laborers entering to the
tanks must be provided with full safety tools and gas masks, etc. and the Contractor must
provide all first aid tools on site.

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PART 1: General Requirement

C.4

Technical Specification for Water Network

Change of Pipeline Rooting Around Tanks:

When existing tank crosses the proposed pipeline, the pipeline routing should be changed
i f possible around the tank leaving a 50 cm clear distance between the tank walls and the
pipeline. Those pipelines should be covered by plain concrete as per the Engineer
recommendations.
The Contractor should prepare detailed drawings for the tank boundaries that cross the
pipeline, showing all the connection details that are required to relocate the pipe around the
tank. This drawing should be approved by the Engineer prior to construction.

1.03.7

SIGN BOARDS

A.

Nameboard: The Contractor shall provide suitably sized project nameboards,
bearing the names of the Employer and Engineer together with any corresponding
logos, the name of the project, the name of the Contractor and such other names and
information as the Engineer may request. The design and style of the nameboard
shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to fabrication. Nameboards are
to be written in English and the local language and erected at suitable locations as
directed by the Engineer. Refer to Section 1.08.2 Item “G” for the nameboard
details. As detailed in Section 1.08.2, Item E of the specifications.

B.

Each sign board shall be erected in a prominent, approved position. Sign boards
shall be maintained in good order at all times and sign boards and supports shall be
dismantled and removed from the site upon completion of the Works.

C.

All sign boards are to comply with the requirements of concerned authorities
(Municipality/ Ministry of Transport/Traffic Directorate).

1.03.8

SURVEYING EQUIPMENT

A.

The Contractor shall provide sufficient and suitable surveying instruments and other
equipment for his own use in setting out and leveling of the Works, and also to
enable the Engineer to check the setting out. Furthermore, the Contractor shall
provide sufficient chainmen and other assistance as the Engineer may require.

B.

The accuracy of survey instruments may be verified at any time by the Engineer
and any unsatisfactory instruments shall be promptly calibrated or removed and
replaced by the Contractor at its own expense.

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PART 1: General Requirement

C.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Upon completion of the Contract, all survey instruments shall remain the property of
the Contractor, unless a Pay Item for such instruments is included in the Bills of
Quantities, in which case the instruments shall become the property of the
Employer.

1.03.9 SETTING OUT OF WORKS

A.

The Contractor shall, prior to any setting out, submit a planned method of operations
for setting out the Works to the Engineer for his approval. The plan shall include the
accuracy, positions of the various types of stakes, method of marking stakes, and
methods to be used for protecting stakes, etc. No survey work shall proceed without to
the Engineer's approval of the Contractor's plan.

B.

The Contractor shall give written notice to the Engineer at least 24 hours before he
intends to survey any portion of the Works. Such notice shall include the time,
location and type of Works to be set out.

C.

Before commencing Work on Site, the Contractor shall carry out a topographical
survey of the Site, as directed by the Engineer. This survey shall include such parts
of the Site as the Engineer may direct, to record the Site limits, dimensions, ground
levels, obstructions and other features and the survey shall establish base lines and
points for future setting out and also record the basis for re-measurement of
excavation and earthwork, where applicable. The Contractor shall set out the Works,
inform the Engineer when setting out is complete and obtain Engineer's approval
before proceeding with construction. The Contractor shall provide instruments and
assistance for checking the setting out if required by the Engineer. If, in the opinion
of the Engineer, modification of the lines or grade is required, before or after survey,
the Engineer will issue detailed instructions to the Contractor who shall revise the
setting out accordingly.

D.

Setting Out Utility Works shall be as shown on the Drawings or as instructed on Site.
Stake-out shall be revised if, in the opinion of the Engineer, modifications of line or
grade are required.

E.

The Contractor shall be responsible for preserving all existing stakes, marks and
monuments and if any construction stakes or marks are destroyed or disturbed, the
Contractor shall replace them at his own expense.

E.1

Record Drawings: The Contractor shall record details of all grid lines, existing
ground levels, setting-out stations, bench marks and profiles on the site setting-out
drawing. This drawing shall be retained on the Site throughout the duration of the
Contract and handed over to the Engineer upon completion of the Works.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

E.2

A l l dimensions and levels on the Drawings and the Site, shall be checked
particularly the correlation between components and the work in place. Materials
and components shall not be ordered, or work carried out, until discrepancies
have been resolved with the Engineer.

E.3

Appearance and Fit: The Works shall be constructed to higher levels of accuracy
than those specified where it is necessary to achieve a desired appearance and
also to ensure that materials, elements, and components of the building fit together
as designed. Wherever the accuracy, fit or appearance of the work is likely to be
critical, or difficult to achieve, the Contractor shall obtain the Engineer's approval of
proposals or of the partially finished work as early as possible.

E.4

Non-Compliance: Work which fails to meet the specified levels of accuracy must
not be rectified before the Contractor submits and receives approval of proposed
rectification works. A l l additional costs resulting from these rectification works
shall be borne by the Contractor.

1.03.10

HAUL ROUTES FOR HEAVY VEHICLES

A.

The Contractor shall prepare proposals for routes to be used by heavy vehicles
particularly for hauling fill materials. Routes shall where possible, avoid existing
roads and built-up areas. Signs shall be provided and maintained to direct
construction traffic to and from haul routes. Details of haul routes and signing shall
be submitted to the concerned in Traffic Directorate for approval within a period
not exceeding one month prior to the commencement of the Works in the relevant
area and the signs shall be erected prior to actual commencement of the Works.

B.

I f and where it is necessary for Contractor's plant or vehicles to cross public
highways, and where required by the Engineer, all such crossings shall be
equipped with manually controlled traffic lights.

D.

Stationary vehicles, equipment, huts, stockpiles of materials, etc., shall be kept
well clear of crossing points so that persons using the highway and the haul road
shall have adequate sight distance at all times.

Page 16 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

1.03.11
A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

SCAFFOLDING AND FALSEWORK

The Contractor shall provide scaffolding and falsework to facilitate carrying out
construction of the Works in the required sequence. Scaffolding and falsework shall
be properly designed and constructed specifically for the loads intended. Full details
of the proposed arrangements shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval.
Such approval, however, shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility with
regard to the adequacy of all scaffolding and falsework used in the Works.

1.03.12

USE OF EXPLOSIVES

A.

Control Measures

A.1

The Contractor shall not use explosives without the express permission from the
controlling Authority. The Contractor shall abide by all rules and regulations of the
concerned Authorities regarding purchasing, transportation, storing, handling and
using the explosive materials.

A.2

Explosives and detonators shall be stored in special buildings as approved by the
concerned Authorities. These secured buildings should be located and clearly
marked English and Arabic "DANGER - EXPLOSIVES" as approved by the
concerned authorities. Explosives and detonators shall be stored in separate
buildings.

A.3

All possible precautions shall be taken against accidental fire or explosion, and to
ensure that the explosives and detonators are kept in proper and safe condition.

A.4

Explosives and detonators shall always be transported in separate vehicles and
kept apart until the last possible moment. Metallic tools shall not be used to open
boxes of explosives.

B.

Blasting Procedures

B.1

Ensure that blasting shall only be carried out by experienced shot firers. Priming,
charging, stemming and shot firing shall be carried out with greatest regard for
safety and in strict accordance with the Rules and Regulations of the concerned
Authorities. Adequate warning of blasting shall always be given and all persons
cleared from the area, before blasting takes place.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

B.2

Ensure that police and other concerned Authorities shall be kept fully informed of
the blasting program so that they may be present when blasting takes place i f they
so require.

B.3

Ensure that explosive charges are not excessive, charged boreholes are properly
protected, and proper precautions are taken for the safety of persons and property.
Only the Contractor shall be responsible of people and premises full protection.

C.

Explosives Inventory

C.1

The Contractor shall maintain an up-to-date inventory of all explosives and
explosive devices and shall submit a monthly report to the Engineer, detailing the use
of all explosives by date and location.

1.03.13

FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

A.

The Contractor shall take all necessary measures to prevent personal injury or
death or damage to the Works or other property and adequate, fully operational fire
fighting equipment shall be furnished and maintained by the Contractor whose
workmen shall be trained in the operation of such equipment.

B.

Fire fighting arrangements shall be made as required by the local Civil Defence
Department and provision of fire fighting facilities in all vulnerable areas and as
instructed by the Engineer.

C.

Adequate water for fire fighting shall be available and outlets located so as to be
readily accessible.

D.

A l l equipment shall be regularly tested and properly maintained.

1.03.14

A.

PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDS OF CONSTRUCTION

The Contractor shall submit each month good quality progress photographs of at
least 5 different subjects as agreed by the Engineer. For each subject, the Contractor
shall supply progress photographs taken from approved locations stations but not
less than 20 (twenty) at monthly intervals and submit 3 color prints (gloss finish) not
less than size 16 cm x 20 cm of each negatives and color transparency.

Page 18 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

B.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Each print and transparency supplied, shall be titled and referenced to a suitable key
plan. Prints and negatives shall also be suitably cross referenced.

1.03.15

SITE CLEANING AND FINAL CLEAN UP

A.

Site Cleaning During Progress of Works

A.1

A l l parts of the Site, and adjacent roads affected by the Works, shall be maintained
in a clean and tidy condition during progress of the Works. All waste and surplus
materials and other rubbish resulting from the Works or otherwise, shall be cleared
away to locations approved by the Municipalities and Directorate at intervals as
directed by the Engineer.

A.2

I f the Contractor fails to remove any surplus or waste materials from the Site within
3 days after being instructed to do so by the Engineer, these materials may be
removed by others at the Contractor's expense.

B.

Final Clean Up on Completion

B.1

The entire Site shall be delivered up on completion of the Works, in a clean, neat
and presentable condition, all as specified hereunder and as described in the
General Conditions of Contract.

B.2

Spoil tips, borrow pits and deposited materials shall be trimmed and regularized to
profiles and levels as directed. Flow of water courses affected by the tips or pits
shall be maintained without interruption and any agreement concerning these sites,
existing between the Employer and the persons or Authorities concerned, shall be
observed.

B.3

Temporary Markings coverings and protective wrappings shall be removed unless
otherwise instructed by the Engineer.

B.4

Partial Possession by Employer: Where the Works are to be completed in sections,
and any such section depends for its adequate functioning on work located
elsewhere on the Site, such other work shall be completed in time to permit
sectional completion as required.

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SECTION 1.04 TEMPORARY WORKS

1.04.1

SCOPE

A.

The Contractor shall construct, as required, all temporary detour roads, temporary
bridges and culverts, and other facilities for his Works or for maintenance of traffic in
locations affected by his works.

B.

The Contractor shall construct and maintain all detour routes ensuring at all times
that the detour routes are signed, striped, lighted, maintained and furnished with all
traffic control devices as shown, directed and/or needed. These proposed detours
must be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

C.

Trench crossings are to be provided for free and safe passage of vehicles and
pedestrians over pipe and other trenches.

1.04.2

A.

Designs and detailed working drawings for proposed Temporary Works shall be
submitted for approval, prior to commencing such Works. The Contractor shall be
held responsible for any damage that may result from the Temporary Works.

1.04.3

A.

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

AGREEMENT OF PROPERTY OWNERS

The Contractor shall obtain the agreement of the affected land owners and approval
from the Engineer prior to commencing Temporary Works. Such approval shall not
in any way relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities expressed in the General
Conditions of Contract.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

SECTION 1.05 CONTROL OF MATERIALS AND STANDARDS FOR
SAMPLING AND TESTING
1.05.1

STORAGE OF MATERIALS

A.

Materials shall be so stored as to assure the preservation of their quality and
suitability for the Works. Stored materials, approved before storage, may again be
inspected prior to their use in the Works. Stored materials shall be located so as to
facilitate their prompt inspection.

B.

Where materials are stockpiled on Government or private property, such sites shall
be abandoned immediately upon consumption of all stockpiled materials and the
natural surface shall be restored as far as practicable to the original condition by the
Contractor and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

1.05.2

A.

1.05.3

A.

1.05.4

HANDLING MATERIALS

A l l materials shall be handled in such manner as to preserve their quality and
suitability for the Works. Aggregates shall be transported to the Works in vehicles,
which are constructed to prevent loss or undue segregation of materials after
loading and unloading.

MATERIALS SUPPLIED BY EMPLOYER

The Contractor shall be responsible for all materials furnished by the Employer and
shall make good any shortages or deficiencies, from any cause whatsoever, or any
damage which may occur, after delivery of such materials.

LOCAL MATERIAL SOURCES

A.

When material sources are not designated on the Drawings, or in other documents,
the Contractor shall be responsible for locating and providing suitable materials
from approved sources.

B.

Any information provided in the tender documents about sources of local materials
is considered as a guideline only and does not relieve the Contractor of his
responsibility in respect of investigation and supply of suitable materials as
specified.

Page 21 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

C.

1.05.5

Technical Specification for Water Network

Materials, regardless of their source, shall not be incorporated in the Works until
approved by the Engineer.

SOURCES OF SUPPLY AND QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

A.

A l l materials, including manufactured articles, and machinery incorporated in the
Works, shall meet all specified quality requirements and be approved by the
Engineer.

B.

The Contractor shall, before placing any purchase order for any materials
intended for incorporation in the Works, submit for approval a complete
description of all such materials, names of the firms from whom he proposes to
purchase them and copies of all test reports verifying conformity with the
provisions of the Specifications. Materials shall not be ordered without the
approval of the Engineer. When directed by the Engineer or otherwise specified,
the Contractor shall submit suitable samples for approval.

C.

The Engineer shall have the right to retest all materials which have been tested
and accepted at the source of supply after delivery to the Site and prior to
incorporation into the Works and to reject any such materials which are clearly
defective or, when retested, do not conform with the Specifications.

1.05.6

CERTIFICATES OF GUARANTEE AND PRODUCTION PLANT
INSPECTIONS

A.

A l l shipments of materials shall be accompanied by a Certificate of Origin and a
Manufacturer's Certificate of Guarantee or Test Certificate from an approved
independent qualified laboratory approved by the Engineer. A l l certified materials
delivered to the Site shall undergo additional laboratory testing i f required by the
Engineer.

B.

Issuance of an invalid or erroneous Certificate of Guarantee shall be just cause
for rejection of the materials without further testing.

1.05.7

SAMPLING AND TESTING PROCEDURES

A.

Sampling

A.1

Samples of all materials shall be submitted to the Engineer for inspection, testing
and acceptance before incorporation in the Works. All materials being used will be
subject to inspection, testing, or rejection at any time prior to such incorporation.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.2

Where untested and unaccepted materials have been used without approval of the
Engineer, such use shall be at the Contractor's risk.

B.

Source Tests

B.1

A l l source samples shall be taken by the Contractor in the presence of the
Engineer, using approved sampling procedures. A l l source approval tests shall be
performed under the supervision of the Engineer or, when so specified, by an
independent laboratory approved by the Engineer and engaged by the Contractor.

B.2

After approval of any source of materials, the Contractor shall produce from such
source only to the extent that materials produced are of substantially the same quality
as the approved samples.

B.3

The Engineer will periodically order retesting of previously approved sources to
verify that they continue to conform to the Specifications and may order retesting at
the same or at a different laboratory from the one performing the original source
approval tests. I f retesting indicates that a previously approved source no longer
conforms with the Specifications, the Contractor shall forthwith cease production
from such source.

C.

Job Control Tests

C.1

Job control tests shall be performed by the Contractor prior to submitting any
materials to the Engineer for approval. The Contractor shall submit details to the
Engineer of his job control testing program.

C.2

The Engineer may declare the Contractor's job control testing program
unacceptable i f frequent rejections of submitted materials occur when subjected to
the Project Control Tests.

D.

Project Control Tests

D.1

A l l Project Control samples shall be taken jointly by the Engineer and the
Contractor. Tests shall be performed in the Site Laboratory, or in situ as appropriate,
under the supervision of the Engineer.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

D.2

The Engineer may order retesting of any material i f there has been a significant
delay in the construction operations or i f he determines that the material has
deteriorated since its original acceptance. Material which does not conform with the
Specifications will be rejected and shall be removed from the Works and replaced or
corrected by the Contractor. The Engineer may order additional testing to ascertain
the extent of unacceptable material.

E.

Check Tests

E.1

The Engineer may periodically order check tests to verify the accuracy of Project
Control testing and equipment. The Engineer may direct that check tests be
performed by qualified persons other than those normally responsible for Project
Control testing, or he may direct that the samples be sent to the Employer's Central
laboratory or to an approved independent laboratory for testing.

E.2

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with all necessary Test Report forms and
expendable materials required to perform all required tests. Copies of all test results
will be issued to the Contractor.

1.05.8

SAMPLING AND TESTING STANDARDS

A.

Standards to be Supplied

A.1

The Contractor shall, at the commencement of the Contract, furnish for use on site
by the Engineer and the Contractor one complete set of the following standards. The
set shall become the property of the Contractor upon completion of the Works.

A.1.1 AASHTO Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of
Sampling and Testing (Part I : Specifications, and Part I I : Tests).

A.1.2 ASTM Standards for Testing and Materials: Section 00 plus all Volumes in Sections
1 to 6 inclusive, plus Specifications, as required, from Sections 7 to 15 inclusive.

A.1.3 British Standards referred to in the Specification

A.1.4 SASO Standards.

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PART 1: General Requirement

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.1.5 D I N

A.1.6 ISO

A.1.5 All other relevant Standards referred to in the Specifications.

B.

Precedence of Materials and Testing Specifications

B.1

A l l references to methods of testing or specifications of AASHTO, ASTM and
others will be deemed to refer to the latest methods of testing as specified in the
Contract Documents.

B.2

Unless otherwise specified, AASHTO methods of sampling and testing shall be
adopted where available. In the case of absence of an appropriate AASHTO
specification, the ASTM or BS specification shall govern.

1.05.9

UNACCEPTABLE MATERIALS

A.

A l l materials not conforming to the requirements of the Specifications at the time
they are used will be rejected and shall be removed immediately from the Site
unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer.

B.

No rejected material, the defects of which have been corrected, shall be used until
approval has been given.

Page 25 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

SECTION 1.06

1.06.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

CONTRACTOR'S PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

GENERAL

A.

Plant and equipment used on the Works shall be of sufficient size and in such
mechanical condition as to meet the requirements of the Specifications and shall be
available for use when required by the Engineer. The Engineer may order removal
and replacement of unsatisfactory plant or equipment.

B.

Wherever plant or equipment of a particular size or type is specified, the Contractor
may request permission to use an alternative type in place of that specified. In such
cases, the Contractor shall furnish evidence to the Engineer, before approval is
given, that the production of the plant or equipment proposed is at least equal to that
of the specified type.

1.06.2
A.

1.06.3

CONTRACTOR'S SCHEDULE OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
The Contractor shall submit together with his Tender, a detailed schedule of the
numbers and types of plant and equipment which he proposes to utilize on Site to
carry out the Works. The schedule shall contain full details for each item, including
type, manufacturer, model, identification number, year of manufacture, number of
years in use, and, for all new and previously used items, the manufacturer's
brochures, catalogues and specifications.

PROVISION AND USE OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

A.

The Contractor shall furnish all plant and equipment listed in his Schedule and
necessary for construction of each phase of the Works. Such plant and equipment
shall be delivered to the Site, inspected, and approved by the Engineer prior to
commencement of the particular phase of the Works for which it is intended. Any
plant or equipment, or part thereof, which becomes excessively worn or defective
shall be promptly repaired or replaced, as required by the Engineer.

B.

The Contractor shall not remove from the Site any approved plant or equipment
without the permission of the Engineer.

Page 26 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

Technical Specification for Water Network

SECTION 1.07 MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES

1.07.1

GENERAL

A.

A l l Works shall be measured net and in accordance with of the General Conditions
of Contract. A l l units of measurement shall be in the Metric System, unless
specified otherwise.

B.

The method of measurement and computations to be used in determining quantities
of materials furnished and of Works performed shall be as defined in the Method of
Measurement.

C.

All field measurements of quantities for monthly certificates and for final payment
shall be made by the Contractor in the presence of the Engineer. Original copies of
the field measurement notes, signed by the Contractor, will be retained by the
Engineer.

D.

I f the Contractor fails to measure any Pay Items, the Engineer may, at his
discretion, estimate quantities of such items for the monthly Payment Certificate or
recommend that no payment be made for the Items not measured and quantities
not computed until it is measured.

1.07.2

A.

1.07.3

A.

MANUFACTURED ITEMS

Whenever standard manufactured items are specified, such as fence wire, plates,
rolled shapes, pipe conduit, etc. and these items are identified by gauge, unit
weight, section dimensions, etc., such identifications shall be deemed to be nominal
weights or dimensions. Unless controlled by tolerances in cited specifications,
manufacturing tolerances established by the industries involved may be accepted
by the Engineer at the recommendation of the Concerned Authorities.

FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES

When any Items are shown on the Drawings or specified as requiring
miscellaneous fittings and accessories for which no separate measurement is
provided, the Pay Item will be deemed to include for all such fittings and
accessories.

Page 27 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

1.07.4

A.

1.07.5

Technical Specification for Water Network

WEIGHT MEASUREMENTS

A l l materials which are to be measured or proportioned by weight shall be weighed
on accurate and approved scales by competent and qualified personnel, at
locations designated or approved by the Engineer.

LINEAR AND AREA MEASUREMENTS

A.

A l l items which are to be measured by linear meter shall be measured parallel to
the base or foundation upon which such items are placed, unless otherwise shown
on the Drawings.

B.

Unless otherwise specified, longitudinal measurements for area computations shall
be made horizontally and no deductions shall be made for fixtures with an area less
than one sq.m. Transverse measurements for area computations shall be the neat
dimensions shown on the Drawings or as ordered by the Engineer.

C.

No measurements shall be made of rolled down or sloping edges of bituminous
courses.

1.07.6

VOLUME MEASUREMENTS IN VEHICLES

A.

Materials to be measured by volume in the hauling vehicle shall be hauled in
approved type vehicles and measured therein at the point of delivery. Vehicles for
this purpose may be of any size or type approved by the Engineer, provided that
the body is of such shape that the actual contents may be readily and accurately
determined. A l l vehicles shall be loaded to their level capacity and the Engineer
may require loads to be releveled when the vehicles arrive at the point of delivery.

B.

When requested by the Contractor and i f approved by the Engineer, material
specified to be measured by the cu. m. may be weighed and such weights will be
converted to cu. m. for payment purposes. Factors for conversion from weight
measurement to volume measurement will be determined by mutual agreement
between the Engineer and the Contractor, i f no agreement is obtained, the factors
will be determined by the Engineer and shall be accepted by the Contractor.

Page 28 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

1.07.7

Technical Specification for Water Network

EARTHWORK VOLUME MEASUREMENTS

A.

The quantities of excavation paid for under the Contract unit prices shall be limited
to the lines shown on the Drawings and on approved cross sections. Excavation
beyond lines shown on approved cross sections shall not be paid for unless
approved by the Engineer. Excavation in excess of approved cross sections will be
measured for payment only in the case of unstable or unsuitable materials ordered
by the Engineer to be removed.

B.

The Engineer will adjust the angle of slopes for cuts and fills as the Works proceed
and make determinations of the appropriate slope angles following his evaluation of
soil conditions in case there is a change in the type of the soil. The actual slopes of
the cuts as constructed shall be measured and recorded by the Contractor. The
Engineer will check these records and, i f satisfactory, will approve the
measurements as a basis for payment.

C.

Within 60 days of the date of field survey, the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer for his approval, plots of the original and final earthwork cross sections
together with the area and volumetric earthwork computations. The Contractor's
cross sections shall be on transparent cross section sheets for print reproductions.
All sheets shall have a title block and be of the size designated by the Engineer. On
final approval of the Contractor's cross sections, the Contractor shall submit the
original transparencies and 3 prints of each such transparency.

D.

In case of any variations from the approved Drawings, the Contractor shall submit
the original and 2 copies of the plotted cross sections and profiles and the notes
and computations of his survey. The Contractor shall take cross sections at
maximum 25 m intervals along the centerline and at other locations i f directed by
the Engineer. Upon mutual agreement between the Engineer and the Contractor,
the Contractor may submit cross sections intermediate to these locations. The
Engineer will indicate, on one copy, his approval of the proposed lines of the Works
or his revisions thereto and return such copy to the Contractor. The Contractor shall
resubmit for approval any cross sections the Engineer may have revised.

E.

The Contractor may, as an alternate method of earthwork computation, request
approval to use an electronic computer. Such request shall include details of the
computer hardware, the earthwork software programs, the input and output, and a
complete summary of the methods and procedures to be used. The Contractor may
use an electronic computer for computations, only i f approved, and continuance of
such approval is contingent upon satisfactory results being achieved. I f results are
not as represented or are otherwise deemed unsatisfactory, the Contractor shall
recompute the earthwork quantities by the cross section method.

Page 29 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

SECTION 1.08

1.08.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

TEMPORARY FACILITIES

GENERAL

A.

LOCATIONS: The Engineer's approval is to be obtained for the intended locations
sitting of all spoil heaps, Temporary Works and services.

B.

STANDARDS AND DETAILS: Temporary Works are to be constructed to
recognised standards and codes of practice so that they are fit for their purpose.
Drawings and details of proposed Temporary Works are to be provided by the
Contractor if requested by the Engineer.

C.

TEMPORARY WORKS and services are to be maintained, altered and adapted
and as necessary and cleared away on completion or when no longer required.
Work disturbed is to be made good.

D.

GENERAL: The Contractor shall provide all Temporary Works and services and
Contractor's Equipment and tools required for the efficient and safe execution of
the Works, including but not limited to:


Temporary roads, hard standings, sleeper tracks and the like.



Temporary fences, gates and barriers.



Temporary offices, stores, messrooms, latrines and compounds.



Scaffold, ladders, hoists, cranes and the like.



Temporary screens, chutes, coverings, roofs and rainwater pipes for
protection of the Works and personnel.



Transport and vehicles on and off Site.



Fixed and movable mechanical plant and equipment.



Small tools.



Temporary water and power supplies and site lighting.



Temporary drainage.

Page 30 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

1.08.2

Technical Specification for Water Network

TEMPORARY SITE FACILITIES

A.

ROADS: Permanent roads, hard standings and footpaths on the Site may be used
provided they are adequately maintained and thoroughly cleaned and made good
after use and left in unimpaired condition.

B.

DIVERSIONS: The Contractor shall in accordance with the specification of the
Ministry of Communication and with liaison with the Traffic Department:

C.



Provide temporary detour roads, temporary bridges and culverts, and other
facilities to divert traffic through or around any part of the Works or for
maintenance of traffic in locations affected by his works that warrant such
Temporary Works. Location, standard, width, construction and
maintenance of detour routes shall be in accordance with Section 3.06 of the
Specification, approved by the Engineer, ensuring at all times that the
routes, are signed, striped, maintained and furnished with all traffic control
devices as shown, directed and/or needed.



Submit designs and detailed working Drawings of the proposed Temporary
Works for approval by the Engineer prior to commencement of the works.
The design live load for temporary bridges related to roads exposed to heavy
vehicles shall not be less than the design live load for permanent bridges, or
as directed by the Engineer.



Where measurements are required for continuously regulating and
supervising traffic, provide temporary roads and bridges for one-way traffic
with a minimum width of 3.5m. In all other cases the minimum width shall
be 7m.



Phase the execution of temporary and Permanent Works to minimise the
disruption to traffic.



Submit a phased programme of Temporary Works one month before
commencement of any part of the works.

TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS: The Contractor shall provide temporary diversions,
detour roads, temporary bridges, culverts and similar facilities, whenever it is
necessary to safely divert traffic through or around any part of the Works. As per
concerned authorities requirements for locations design widths, construction and
maintenance of diversion and detour routes, including the provision of signs,
pavement markings, lighting, traffic control and the like are to be submitted to and
approved by the Engineer prior to execution on Site.

Page 31 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

Technical Specification for Water Network

E.

FRENCH CROSSINGS are to be provided for free and safe passage of vehicles
and pedestrians over pipe and other trenches.

F.

TEMPORARY SITE FENCE: The Contractor shall provide suitable and secure
temporary site fencing and gates where necessary or as directed by the Engineer.
Design of the fencing and gates, including location, construction details, etc. is to be
submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to fabrication and erection.

G.

NAMEBOARD: The Contractor shall provide reflecting boards (150 x 150) cm at
the start and end point of the excavations. Those boards should include the project
name, project no., ministry name, Contractor name, and his local address and
phone No. in addition to the supervision Consultants. Boards’ specifications and
locations should be approved by the Client and the Engineer.

General nameboards for the whole project should be fixed at the specified locations by the
Engineer and in each district of the project area. Those boards should include the project
name, Client name, Contractor name, Contact no’s, Consultant name and phone no. for the
supervision staff office. Boards will be of 4 separated slices each of (240 x 240) cm with
spaces of 20 cm between slices that are made of 3 mm thick aluminum and provided with
back grooves for fixing on the columns, so no holes should appear at the face side of the
board. Face slide should be covered with reflective blue layer and text in reflective white
color.

Boards shall be fixed on two columns of hot galvanized (16 or 18) cm I beams and the
clear space from the ground to the bottom of the slices shall be 2.0 m and the columns
should be provided with movable hinge according to the MOT specifications and fixed to
the ground by concrete blocks as per the site conditions. A l l these details should be
approved by the Engineer prior to installation of boards.

1.08.3

CONTRACTOR'S TEMPORARY BUILDINGS

Complete according to Project - Project Specifications. To be completed by the design
consultant and the water authority.

1.08.4

A.

TEMPORARY SERVICES

WATER: The Contractor shall provide clean, fresh water for the Works and make
temporary arrangements for storing and distributing about the Site.

Page 32 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.

ELECTRICITY: The Contractor shall provide electric supply and all equipment for
lighting and power for the Works and make temporary arrangements for distributing
about the Site.

C.

POWER: The Contractor shall provide electric power for the Works, including
supplies for commissioning engineering services and Plant, at the required
voltages.

D.

LIGHTING: The Contractor shall provide lighting for the Site and the Works for
safety and security of the Works and to facilitate proper execution of work and to
illuminate internal surfaces during finishing work and inspection. Spaces designed
to be artificially lit during daylight hours are to have temporary illumination similar
to that provided by the permanent installation.

E.

PERMANENT ELECTRIC SUPPLY AND LIGHTING INSTALLATION may be used
for testing and commissioning and to illuminate the Works, subject to the following
conditions:

F.

1.08.5

A.



The Employer does not guarantee that it will be available.



The Contractor must take responsibility for the operation, maintenance and
supervision of the system, indemnify the Employer against all damage and
pay all costs and renew all used tubes and lamps.



The Contractor must indemnify the Employer against reduction in
manufacturer's guarantee periods for equipment etc. due to its use before
completion of the Works.

TELEPHONES: The Contractor shall provide joint temporary telephone facilities
for his own and Subcontractors' use and for the use of those acting on behalf of
the Engineer and shall pay the cost of all calls except international calls made by
those acting on behalf of the Engineer.

DIVERSION OF PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES

TEMPORARY DIVERSION OF EXISTING PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES: Where
execution of the Works involves the temporary diversion of existing public utility
services, the Contractor shall perform such temporary diversion and shall maintain
the flow or service as directed by the Engineer. Unless otherwise stated, the costs
of any such diversions are deemed to be included in the Contract Price.

Page 33 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

B.

Technical Specification for Water Network

PERMANENT DIVERSION OF EXISTING PUBLIC UTILITY SERVICES: Where
the Works require the permanent diversion of existing public utility services, either
as shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, the diversion shall be carried
out by the Contractor and shall be paid for at the prices stated for such work in
the Bill of Quantities.

Page 34 of 259

PART 1: General Requirement

SECTION 1.09

1.09.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

SAFETY PRECAUTION MEASURES

GENERAL

Contractor shall take all necessary measures for public safety for all project
components according to the requirements of municipalities and other concerned
authorities.

Page 35 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

P AR T 2 : E X C AV AT I O N AN D B AC K F I L L I N G

SECTION 2.01

A.

SCOPE

The Work Covered in this Division Comprises: Clearing of the site, and excavation
and backfilling for roads, structures and trenches and protection work related to
gabions, riprap, stone pitching and geotextiles.

Page 36 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

SECTION 2.02
2.02.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

SITE CLEARING

CLEARING AND GRUBBING

A.

The Contractor shall remove and dispose of all vegetation, surface debris, stones
and rocks from areas where the Works are to be performed.

B.

When shown on drawings or directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall remove
and dispose of pavement layers including asphalt and granular layer to the surface
of the subgrade. Moreover the ground surface under all structures shall be cleared
of all existing concrete foundations (if any) and stumps.

C.

Trees shall be removed carefully, stored and / or relocated as specified or as
instructed by the concerned Authorities and the Engineer.

2.02.2 REMOVAL OR REALIGNMENT OF OBSTRUCTION AND
UTILITIES

A.

The Contractor shall remove wholly or in part and dispose of all obstructions,
buildings, fences, abandoned pipelines and others, as indicated on drawings or as
directed by the Engineer.

B.

Where indicated on the Drawings, utilities are to be realigned or salvaged as
directed by the Engineer.

Page 37 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

SECTION 2.03
2.03.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

EXCAVATION

GENERAL

A.

Earth: naturally occurring, man made or placed material that can be removed
manually or by mechanical shovel, bulldozer or other mechanical equipment.

B.

Rock/Hard Materials: naturally occurring, man made or placed material of more than
one cubic meter that cannot be destroyed or removed by methods used for removal of
earth described in Clause A but requires the use of pneumatic tools, impact breakers
or, i f allowed, explosives for its removal.

C.

Materials and conditions: the Contractor shall assess the nature of the work and the
materials to be excavated, and shall take sole responsibility for his assessment of
materials and conditions.

D.

Ground-water level is to be established at the time the various excavations are
carried out.

2.03.2

TOP SOIL

A.

Topsoil: before beginning general excavations or filling, the Contractor shall
excavate topsoil from required areas and keep separate from excavated subsoil.

B.

The Contractor shall stockpile excavated topsoil required to carry out subsequent
top-soiling operations in temporary spoil heaps on the Site as instructed.

C.

Surplus Topsoil: The Contractor shall remove from the Site to a tip provided by the
Contractor

2.03.3

EXCAVATING

A.

General

A.1

All excavation shall be performed to the line, grades, cross section and sizes shown
on the drawings, or/and directed by the Engineer.

A.2

Methods: The Contractor shall submit with the Tender details of proposed methods of
working which may cause nuisance, damage or danger to people and/or property.

Page 38 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.3

Materials arising from excavations are to remain the property of the Employer
unless instructed to be removed from the Site as per the Engineer or the
authorities instructions.

B.

Excavations for Adjacent Utilities

B.1

Underground services must be set out so that their excavations do not encroach
below a line drawn at an angle from the horizontal from the nearest lower edge of
building foundations. The angle shall be 45 degrees for dry stable soil or 30 degrees
for wet clays or soils below water table. I f this condition cannot be met obtain
instructions before proceeding.

B.2

Where an excavation encroaches below a line drawn at an angle from the
horizontal of 45 degrees for dry stable soil or 30 degrees for wet clays or soils
below water table from the nearest formation level of another higher excavation
then all work within the lower excavation and backfilling thereto must be completed
before the higher excavation is made.

C.

Excavated formations are to be inspected and approved before new work is laid
on them. The Contractor shall give 24 hours written notice of when excavations will
be ready for inspection. If , after inspection, surfaces become unsuitable due to
water, frost or other causes, excavate further and backfill with approved material all
at the Contractor's expense. The Contractor shall place concrete or other f ill as
soon as possible after inspection.

D.

The bottom 200 mm thickness of excavation shall be removed by hand just prior
to placing concrete blinding or pipe laying.

E.

The Contractor shall level or grade and compact bottoms of excavations to
Engineer's approval.

F.

Headings: The Contractor shall drive accurately to required line and gradient and
provide adequate support. Construct in approved lengths to size required to
contain permanent work. The Contractor shall obtain approval from the Engineer
before commencing activities.

G.

Support

G.1

Sides of Excavations: Responsibility for upholding sides of excavations rests with
the Contractor.

Page 39 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

G.2

Earthwork Support: The Contractor shall use as necessary to support sides of
excavations and remove on completion unless otherwise instructed. In the event of
any collapse occurring while excavations are open this will be the Contractor’s full
responsibility and he should re-excavate and reinstate such excavations and other
work affected at the Contractor's expense and responsibility.

G.3

Steel Sheet Piling: The Contractor shall use as necessary to support sides of
excavations and remove on completion unless otherwise instructed.

G.4

Special Support: The Contractor shall use as necessary to uphold excavations
against sides of adjoining buildings, public footpaths, roads and the like and remove
on completion unless otherwise instructed.

G.5

Unstable Ground: The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay i f any
newly excavated face will not remain unsupported sufficiently long to allow the
necessary earthwork support to be inserted. I f the instability is likely to affect
adjacent structures or roadways take appropriate emergency action. Responsibility
for preventing instability rests with the Contractor.

H.

Waterways: Temporary diversion as necessary of ditches, field drains and other
waterways encountered during the excavations is to include reinstatement on
completion. I f reinstatement is not possible the Contractor shall obtain instructions.

I.

Existing watercourses which have been diverted and are to be filled must be cleared
of all vegetable growth and soft deposits before filling.

J.

Existing Foundations

J.1

Where old foundations, beds, drains etc. are encountered the Contractor shall obtain
instructions before proceeding.

J.2

Breaking out old foundations, beds, drains etc. is to include sealing off drain ends,
removing contaminated earth and disinfecting as necessary and according to the
Engineer instructions.

K.

Backfilling of excavations shall be as specified in other Sections of these
specifications.

Page 40 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

L.

Unauthorised Excavations: The Contractor shall backfill and compact as instructed
at no expense to the Employer.

M.

Water: All excavations shall be kept free from water arising from any source at all
times. The discharge of any water from the excavations must not effect other parts of
the works or adjoining areas.

N.

Pumping: The Contractor shall not disturb material in and around excavations by
pumping operations.

O.

Sumps: The Contractor shall obtain approval of location of any sumps and f ill with
approved material when no longer required.

P.

Permanent drainage system is not to be used for disposal of water from
excavations without approval.

Q.

The Contractor shall keep all excavations adequately drained at all times. Damage
to any part of the work due to poor drainage facilities shall be repaired at the
Contractor's expense.

R.

All excavated slopes shall be cut to the slopes shown on the Drawings.

2.03.4

DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS

A.

No excavated material shall be wasted without written permission from the
Engineer. Suitable material from excavation shall be used for embankment
construction or backfill, as directed by the Engineer.

B.

Surplus Subsoil: The Contractor shall remove from the Site surplus excavated
materials not specified as to be spread and leveled or stockpiled to a tip provided
by the Contractor.

C.

Tip: The Contractor shall use only public dumpsites assigned by the concerned
authorities for disposal of surplus excavated material removed from the Site and
pay all tip fees.

2.03.5
A.

ROCK EXCAVATION
All blasting shall be carried out in such a manner as will produce the least possible
disturbance of the material left in place.

Page 41 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.

A l l the necessary precautions shall be taken to ensure that the blasting shall not be
dangerous to people or property.

C.

Where necessary or directed, the Contractor shall provide heavy mesh blasting mats
for protection of persons, properties, and the Works. I f , in the opinion of the
Authorities and the Engineer, blasting would be dangerous to persons or adjacent
structures, or is being carried out in an unsafe or unacceptable manner, the Engineer
may prohibit blasting and order the rock to be excavated by other means.

D.

I f the flow of traffic is to be interrupted during blasting operations, the Contractor
shall secure approval of his schedule for such interruptions and his proposed
methods for safeguarding the public and property.

E.

A l l drilling and blasting shall be done in such a manner as will most nearly complete
the excavation to the required grade lines, and produce the least practicable
disturbance of the material to be left in place. Blasting by means of drill holes,
tunnels, or any other methods shall be entirely at the Contractor's risk.

F.

Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer, rock cuts higher than 3 m shall be
formed using pre-splitting. Prior to starting the pres-splitting operation the Contractor
shall submit a layout plan showing the location of drill-holes, type of explosive to be
used and sequence of firing. This plan does not absolve the Contractor of his
responsibilities for the safety of people and structures, or for producing a satisfactory
stable rock face. No extra cost is charged by the Contractor for using pre-splitting.

G.

A l l overbreaks, overhangs loose blocks or unstable parts of the cut face, and
benches shall be cleared and cleaned, to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

H.

Backfilling of overbreakage shall be carried out as directed, using approved soil or
crushed materials or other special aggregate or cyclopean concrete, as shown on
the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Undrained pockets shall not be left in the
surface of the rock.

2.03.6

ROAD EXCAVATION (FOR PREPARATION OF SERVICE ROADS
ALONG PIPELINES)

A.

Scope

A.1

These Works shall consist of excavating material in cut sections of the road,
including water courses, ditches and wadi relocations (but excluding borrow pits and
structural excavation) all as and where shown on the Drawings, and hauling the
excavated material either to locations for embankments or to stockpiles or to waste.

Page 42 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.2

These Works shall also include any necessary excavations outside the ROW
ordered by the Engineer to safeguard and protect the Works. These may include
diversion of existing water courses, channels; excavation of materials obstructing or
impairing the flow along stream channels; and excavation of unstable materials
which may slide or encroach into ditches or onto the ROW. Disposal of all such
excavated materials shall be as instructed by the Engineer.

B.

Classification of Road Excavation

B.1

Any information concerning properties of the soil which may be shown on the plans,
in the B i l l of Quantities, in supplementary reports, or as a result of discussion with
the Engineer or others shall be considered as gratis and shall not be a basis for the
Contractor's determination of his bid prices.

C.

Utilization of Excavated Materials

C.1

A l l materials removed from the excavation shall be used in the formation of the
embankment, subgrade, shoulder, and at such other places as directed, unless it is
declared unsuitable and ordered to be wasted by the Engineer.

C.2

Unsuitable material shall include:


Unstable materials incapable of being compacted to the specified density
using ordinary compaction methods at optimum moisture content for the
equipment being used for compaction.



Material too wet to be compacted and circumstance prevent suitable
in-place drying prior to incorporation into the work.



Materials which are otherwise unsuitable for use in or under the
embankment.

C.3

No excavation material shall be wasted without written permission from the
Engineer.

C.4

Excavated rock which is not immediately suitable for incorporation in the works can
either be broken down to acceptable sizes or wasted at Contractor's expense.

Page 43 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.

Drainage of Excavation Areas

D.1

The Contractor shall schedule road excavation and embankment and drainage
Works so that they complement each other. I f the Contractor's earthwork progress
exceeds the progress of the drainage construction to the point where the road
becomes a dam to cross drainage, the Engineer may order the Contractor to open
adequate waterways through the highway at the locations where drainage structures
are to be installed. Any damage to the highway caused by water passing through
these openings shall be repaired at the Contractor's expense.

D.2

During construction, surfaces in excavation areas shall be adequately drained at all
times. Side ditches or gutters emptying from cut to embankment shall be so
constructed as to avoid damage to embankments by erosion.

D.3

Damage to the Works attributable to saturation or erosion through failure to provide
adequate drainage shall be repaired by the Contractor at his expense.

D.4

Whenever groundwater is encountered which may adversely affect construction, the
Contractor shall advise the Engineer who will evaluate the situation and order
necessary remedial measures to drain or extract water.

E.

Slopes, Subgrade and Ditches

E.1

A l l excavated slopes, subgrade and ditches shall be finished true to lines, grades
and cross sections as shown on the Drawings.

E.2

Slopes, except in massive rock or other material which require special treatment,
shall be trimmed to slopes not steeper than the specified slope angles and rounded
at top and bottom to a smooth profile to blend in with the adjacent terrain. Material
shall not be loosened beyond the specified slope lines. High cut areas shall
continuously be monitored by an engineering geologist or a geotechnical Engineer.

E.3

In cuts where earth overlays a rock formation, slopes shall be benched in an
approved manner.

E.4

Ditches of all types shall be excavated and trimmed neatly in conformity with the
specified grades and cross sections. A l l projecting rock, stumps, roots or similar
shall be removed. Ditches include side ditches, furrow ditches, irrigation ditches,
wadi relocations, etc.

Page 44 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

E.5

The Engineer will periodically check all or any part of the Works, to determine
conformance to the correct lines, grades and elevations. Tolerances on finished
subgrade elevations and on elevations of the surface at the underside of the
subgrade layer, shall be as specified in Section 2.05 - "Subgrade Construction".

F.

Excavation of Unsuitable Material

F.1

Where excavation to finished grades and cross sections exposes unsuitable
material in the subgrade, slopes or ditch inverts, etc the Engineer may require the
Contractor to remove the unsuitable material and backfill the excavated areas using
approved material. The Contractor shall conduct his operations in such a way that
necessary cross section measurements are taken before such backfill is placed.

F.2

Unsuitable material shall be disposed of as directed. Wasted unsuitable material
shall not be deposited on any cropland.

F.3

When the Contractor is directed to excavate unsuitable material below the surface
of the original ground in f ill areas, other than that required for clearing and
grubbing, the depth to which unsuitable material shall be removed will be
determined by the Engineer. The Contractor shall schedule the excavation so that
cross sections are taken before and after material has been removed.

F.4

Unsuitable materials outside the ROW or ditch slopes which, in the opinion of the
Engineer, are potentially unstable and liable to slide or encroach into the ROW or
into the ditches, shall be excavated and disposed of as specified for unsuitable
material, unless it is approved for use as embankment fill.

F.5

Unsuitable and surplus materials disposed of elsewhere than within the ROW shall
be spread, leveled and shaped as directed so as to present a neat and tidy
appearance. No materials shall be disposed of in such a way as to adversely affect
natural drainage courses or to cause damage to the highway or adjacent public or
private property

F.6

I f approved by concerned authorities land can be used for disposal to the
maximum extent practicable. I f private land is used for disposal, the Contractor
shall secure the consent of the landowner or tenant and, i f necessary, and at his
expense, pay for the use of such land. The use of cropland for disposal purposes
will not be permitted.

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2.03.7

Technical Specification for Water Network

EXCAVATION FOR STRUCTURES

A.

Scope

A.1

These Works shall consist of all excavation in any material for structures associated
with networks such as water tanks, pump houses, culverts, utility ducts and water
underdrains; for retaining walls of all types; and for other major and minor
structures; and including all necessary clearing and grubbing; bailing; drainage;
pumping; sheeting; temporary shoring and cribbing; construction of temporary
cofferdams or cribs; and disposal of all excavated material and backfilling with
suitable approved material; all as and where shown on the Drawings.

A.2

These Works shall also include the removal of those portions of existing structures
below ground which would in any way obstruct or interfere with construction of new
structures.

A.3

The Contractor will be deemed to be fully aware, at the time of tendering, as to the
type and nature of soils and rock that will be encountered in structural excavations.

B.

Excavation

B.1

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer a sufficient time in advance of the
beginning of any excavation for structures so that the Engineer may, where
necessary, survey and record the cross sectional elevations and measurements of
the existing ground and existing structures affected by the proposed structure. Any
materials removed or excavated before these measurements have been taken and
approved by the Engineer will not be paid for.

B.2

The Contractor shall be solely responsible for the safety at all times of all foundation
and trench excavations whether supported or otherwise. Approval of the
Contractor's support system or omission of a support system for any excavations
shall not absolve the Contractor from his sole responsibility in this regard.

B.3

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions, including shoring or otherwise,
to protect employees in the excavation and on the ground above. The Engineer will
not enter excavated areas to approve the foundation and further Works until he
deems the areas to be safe.

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B.4

In areas where the excavation is adjacent to public roads and walkways, the
Contractor shall erect all necessary barricades, barriers, enclosed walkways, and
warning signs necessary to restrict the exposure of the public to the excavation.

B.5

The sides of all foundation pits and trenches shallower than 1 .5m shall be vertical
and adequately supported at all times unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Sides
more than 1.5 m in depth shall be sloped at a stable slope or supported in an
approved manner unless the material through which the pit or trench is cut is
deemed to be sufficiently self supporting and not requiring support.

B.6

Pits and trenches shall be kept free from water until footing concrete has been
placed or pipes have been installed. The Contractor shall minimize, to the maximum
extent practicable, the length of time excavated areas are open. The Contractor will
be held responsible for damage due to weather, equipment, and other causes during
periods when the excavations are left open.

B.7

The Contractor shall schedule the Works so that no excavation is left in an exposed
condition for a period greater than 20 days unless otherwise approved.

B.8

In areas where the excavation is adjacent to public highways, roads and walkways,
excavation shall be scheduled such as not to be left in an exposed condition for more
than 7 days unless otherwise approved.

B.9

For excavation in material sensitive to moisture (stiff clays, marls, etc.) the
excavation shall be cleaned and concrete blinding layer cast immediately on
completion of the excavation.

B.10

The Contractor must notify the Engineer of any sign of failure or cracks within or
around the excavation immediately when such signs are noticed.

C.

Temporary Support System

C.1

When a temporary support system is required to protect adjacent property or to
protect the public during construction, the Contractor's design for such support system
shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to commencing its construction.

C.2

A l l temporary support systems shall be designed with adequate factors of safety to
serve with minimal maintenance, for the duration of its intended use, and shall
include adequate safety provisions to protect the public from construction activities.

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C.3

Notwithstanding any approval of temporary support systems, the Contractor shall
be solely responsible for the adequacy of their design, construction, maintenance
and all necessary safety precautions associated therewith.

D.

Excavation for Major Structures

D.1

The foundations for buildings, water tanks, pump houses and other major
structures, shall be excavated in accordance with the dimensions as shown on the
Drawings and shall be of sufficient size to permit the placing of the full width and
lengths of the footings.

D.2

The excavation shall be carried to the elevations shown on the Drawings or as
established by the Engineer. Borings and soil tests, made during design, and
actual investigation of the completed foundation excavation shall be utilized by the
Engineer to determine final depth. No concrete shall be placed prior to approval of
the excavation pit.

D.3

Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings, the bottom of all excavations shall be
covered with a 75 mm minimum depth of lean (blinding) concrete Class 110/25 to
serve as a working platform.

D.4

Foundation pits or trenches shall be of sufficient size and provide minimum
sufficient working space to permit construction of structures or structure footings
of the full width and length shown on the Drawings.

D.5

Where footings are to be constructed using formwork, the excavations shall
generally not extend more than 500 mm beyond the maximum dimension on each
side of the proposed footing unless additional working space is clearly required and
approved, by the Engineer. Any unauthorised overwidth of excavation beyond the
lateral limits shown on the drawings or approved by the Engineer shall be backfilled
with selected f ill or lean concrete as directed by the Engineer.

D.6

Where footings are to be located, in or adjacent to firm, original ground and where
formwork is not required or ordered, any unauthorized overdepth excavation
below the approved elevation of base of footing shall be backfilled with blinding
concrete.

D.7

Where excavation to rock foundation is required, the excavation shall proceed in
such a manner as to allow the solid rock to be exposed and prepared in horizontal
beds or properly serrated for receiving the concrete. A l l loose and disintegrated
rock and thin strata shall be removed.

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D.8

A l l blasting necessary for foundation placement shall be performed prior to
placing any concrete. Blasting will not be permitted in the vicinity of concrete which
has not cured for at least 14 days. Blasting shall not affect concrete properties and
integrity in any way.

D.9

When unstable material or other unsuitable material is encountered below
foundation elevation like swelling soil or others, the Contractor shall excavate
such material and replace it with suitable backfill material or concrete as directed
by the Engineer.

D.10 I f temporary works are required for maintaining the excavation dry, the Contractor
shall be responsible for the design and execution of the works. The proposed
design shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval, however, such approval
does not relieve the Contractor for his sole responsibility in this regard.

2.03.8

EXCAVATION FOR PIPE TRENCHES

A.

Before excavating trenches for pipes in any road, the contractor shall acquire the
necessary permission from the Engineer and concerned authorities.

B.

During excavation, material suitable for backfilling (Section 2.04) shall be piled
at sufficient distance from the sides of the trench as to avoid overloading and
prevent cave in. A l l excavated material not required, or unsuitable for backfilling
shall be removed and carted away to an approved dumping area.

C.

Trenches shall be excavated to such depths as will permit the pipes to be laid at
elevations, slopes or depths of cover indicated on the drawings, and at uniform
slopes between indicated elevations.

D.

Where excavation depth exceeds the level indicated on the drawings and is not
authorized in writing by the Engineer, the Contractor shall bear the cost of the
excess excavation, backfill or concrete level make up of any type as instructed
by the Engineer.

E.

Trenches shall be excavated with vertical sides between the elevation of the
bottom of the trench and an elevation 300 mm above the top of the pipe.

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F.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings, trench widths will be as shown in the
following table:
Pipe diameter (mm)
< 150

Trench Width (mm)
Minimum
Maximum
650
950

200

700

1000

250

750

1050

300

850

1150

350

900

1200

400

950

1250

450

1050

1350

500

1100

1400

600

1250

1550

700

1350

1650

800

1500

1800

900

1600

1900

1000

1750

2050

1100

1900

2200

1200

2000

2300

1300

2150

2450

1400

2250

2550

1500

2400

2700

1600

2550

2850

1700

2650

2950

1800

2800

3100

1900

2900

3200

2000

3050

3350

2100

3200

3500

2200

3300

3600

2300

3450

3750

2400

3550

3850

The lowest trench width will be used for the calculation of quantities and payment for
all types of trenches and excavation in rocks. The contractor should have included in
his prices any extra expenses that will be needed for extra excavation beyond the
trench width, this is applied also for the pavement and road surface finishing works.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

G.

Where the above specified trench maximum widths are exceeded; the Contractor
shall bear the cost of increased pipe strength or additional pipe protection i f the
Engineer calls for such measures due to excavations being taken wider than
specified.

H.

Excavation with battered sides shall not intrude into private property and shall
respect the statutory regulations relevant to the R.O.W. and property limits.

I.

When the pipe, culvert or duct are to be laid in embankments or other f ill areas,
the embankment or f ill area shall first be filled and compacted as specified to the
proposed finished grade or to a height of at least 300 mm above the crown of pipe
whichever is lower. The trench shall then be excavated as in undisturbed material.

J.

When pipes, culverts or ducts are to be laid under existing pavements, trenches
shall be excavated carefully and to minimum widths. Methods that will give
straight and vertical face shall be used. The pavement shall be kept at its original
level and condition.

K.

In combined trenches where one pipe is at a lower level than an adjacent pipe the
following shall be applied:


The whole trench shall have a depth related to the lower pipe and the
thickness of the bedding shall be increased to the upper pipe as necessary.



The lower pipe shall be backfilled with thoroughly compacted granular
material up to a level of 0.30 meters above the higher pipe.

L.

Excavation for the forming of the trench for beds shall be carried out immediately
before laying beds or pipes. Unstable material, rock projections, boulders and hard
spots shall be removed and replaced with approved well consolidated filling
material, that will be compacted as instructed. Local soft spots shall be hardened
by tamping in bedding material.

M.

The bottoms of trenches shall be accurately graded to provide uniform bearing
and support for the bottom quadrant of each section of the pipe. Bell holes shall be
excavated to the necessary size at each joint or coupling to eliminate point
bearing. Any material or block that may cause point bearing shall be removed.

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N.

The Contractor shall report to the Engineer any unsuitable or weak ground
material that may found below the indicated excavation levels before executing any
trimming of the excavation, pipe laying, concreting, or other work. Where, in the
judgment of the Engineer the bottom of the trench is found unsuitable, such
material shall be removed to the width and depth ordered by the Engineer. The
trench shall then be made up by backfilling with approved material as specified
herein after.

O.

Where rock excavation is encountered, the trench shall be excavated to min. 200
mm below pipe invert and replaced with granular material matching the
specification in Item (2.4.5) or concrete class 110/25, as directed by the Engineer.

P.

Headings, when required, shall be accurately driven to required line and gradient
and adequate support shall be provided. Construction shall be carried out in
approved lengths and to size required to contain permanent work. Approval shall
be obtained before starting pipe laying or other work. In case of soil, the min.
bedding should be 150 mm.

Q.

Generally, trench excavation, pipe laying, and trench backfilling for any particular
project section shall be completed in twenty (20) days. At any one time, the
maximum length of open trenches in the project shall not exceed 300 meters.

R.

The Contractor should give special care while excavating in paved areas, so the
excavation width not to exceed the specified width. The Contractor should use the
suitable mechanical machines to cut the pavement in straight lines and the edges
should be vertical. In addition, the Contractor should always use vehicles with
suitable tires (Air tire) that will not damage the road surface pavement.

2.03.9 Technical Specifications of Thrust Boring

A.

Scope of works

This section covers pipes and fittings installation through Thrust boring. The relevant
sections mentioned in the general specifications for the implementation of the drainage
networks for the Water directorate general in Riyadh shall be considered applicable by the
present agreement unless otherwise stated therein. Furthermore it is a must to comply with
the entire specifications and conditions related to the Ministry of Transport and Saudi
Railway Organization regarding the implementation of such works.

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PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

B.

Technical Specification for Water Network

The general drilling of the ground pits and tunnels

B.1 The implementation of ground pits and the installation of pipelines should be carried
out by jacking as approved by the engineer.

B.2 The perforations of the ground pits should be of practical dimensions enabling to
proceed in the structural works properly. The drilling works should be performed with
extreme care preventing earth settlement and sliding and following the design alignment
and levels for the external dimensions of pits not to be anywhere smaller than the
dimensions mentioned in the plans or determined by the engineer. The Contractor should
use specialized manpower in the drilling works of pits.

B.3 The Contractor should supply and fix all the other temporary supports and other
necessary structures to ensure the safety of works and adjacent structures outside the
permanent work place to the engineer’s approval.
The contractor must provide communication means between the pits and the and the work
areas that should not be of same quality like the telephone communication and that, to the
engineer’s approval.
The contractor should supply and operate and maintain an appropriate lighting and
ventilation network for each pit and the commencement of the drill obtaining the engineer’s
approval. The electricity power supply should be adequate.
All equipment shall be installed and maintained inside and around pits according to the
relevant work regulations and as per the suitable practical application principles to the
engineer’s satisfaction.

B.4 The pits should have separate openings equipped with stairs in addition to other
required openings during the structural works. Each pit should be surrounded by closed
fence of height not less than 1,80 meter equipped with security red lights when working in
the traffic areas.
When work is suspended for any reason, the sides of pits should be covered and supported
by wooden boards and covered with light mortar for safety reasons, unless the engineer
decides to take other measures.
The contractor should take these temporary works into account while preparing his prices.
All the temporary supports and structure for pits, should be removed when no more needed
unless otherwise directed by the engineer.

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B.5 Before starting to request any trench excavation equipment or starting any work the
contractor should present detailed proposals for making access openings or the work
openings to the engineer.

B.6 The earth reinforcement must be of sheet steel supports or of similar approved fixed
metal ring supports.
The contractor may use precast concrete pieces for the ground reinforcement above the
permanent work place, i f the concrete pieces are used for support, they should be covered
as per the specifications and discarded or broken after the work completion.
Such work shall not be measured nor classified for payment.

C.

Checking alignment and levels

C.1 Checking and adjustment of the alignment and levels should be done using laser. The
contractor should prepare and present his proposals for checking and adjustment of the
alignment and levels to the engineer’s representative for approval in an earlier phase in the
Contract.

C.2 When permanent works are done outside the overstepping boundaries allowed by the
present specifications, the contractor should remedy this situation according to the
engineer’s directives.

D.

Works for preventing water leakage

All works should not have water leakage upon the completion of works and should remain
free of water leakage until the expiry of the maintenance period.
The contractor should immediately repair the defects at the engineer’s satisfaction.

E.

Ground treatment

I f the contractor considers that special a ground treatment is required and necessary for
preventing settling and sliding during the construction he must request the authorization
from the engineer in this concern. When the contractor is given the authorization, he must
carry out works as mentioned in the specifications. Such authorization (or the refusal the
authorization) does not exempt the contractor from assuming the responsibility of securing
works safety.

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The treatment should be implemented in sequences suitable to work requirements and the
contractor should carry out testing according to the engineer’s directives to check their
efficiency during and after the treatment works.
The contractor should keep meticulous and detailed register for all the ground treatment
methods to the engineer’s satisfaction. He must submit everyday copy of such register to
the engineer when the ground treatment is carried out. In the cases where the engineer
considers that such technique is necessary and essential for the appropriate implementation
of works he will give the necessary instructions to the contractor. The payment for the
ground treatment should be included in the prices of the pipeline by thrust boring. The
contractor should assume the responsibility of the damages occurring from the ground
treatment operations.

F.

Noise restriction means and the electrical machinery.

F.1 In order to minimize as much as possible the disturbance emanating from the
equipment noise during the night, the contractor should operate the machinery with the
electrical power unless otherwise authorized by the engineer.

F.2 The operations above ground level during night work should be restricted to the
minimum practicable work and the contractor should take all the precautionary measures
for preventing unnecessary noise.

G.

Pipe Jacking

Before starting works, the contractor should submit to the engineer full details on his
suggested methods for obtaining the engineer’s approval, such details should include the
following information:
a)

Interjacking locations and the reinforcement of the starting points of excavation.

b)

Dimensions of the starting points of the tunnel excavation and the supporting
methods of the excavations.

c)

Dimensions and details of the retaining wall

d)

All the sizes of the operating equipment

e)

Locations of the drainage gutter and the methods of preserving works free of
water

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G.1 The pipes jacking starts from the reinforced starting point of excavation, which should
be dug in with suitable size to accommodate the reinforcement wall, the jacking equipment
and the appropriate work place.

G.2 Excavation should be carried out inside the protection installations, which should be
kept in all times close to the work level and must be adjusted for monitoring the alignment
and the level.

G.3 Reinforcement should be used for the loose non-steady open excavation when pipe
jacking works are suspended.

G.4 The pipe jacking is done through hydraulic pressure by using appropriate jacket
designed for the higher pressure and using ring supports for distributing the pipe jacking
forces. The pipe jacking system should allow testing from both the surface location and the
surface of excavation starting point.

G.5 The pipe jacking stations located at the center of the trajectory should properly serve
the jacked pipes joints and the relevant connections. Connections should be hermetically
closed and anti-leakage when in service.
The contractor should take all the necessary steps for securing the safety of pipes and the
tunnel protective coating during jacking of pipes. I f damages occur due to the contractor
works, Contractor should carry out the necessary repair to the engineer’s satisfaction and he
should withdraw the damaged pipes and export it out of site i f instructed by the Engineer,
without any extra cost.

H.

Thrust Boring under the railways

The contractor shall assume responsibility of securing the review of the adequate
procedures and the compliance with the specifications of Ministry of Transport regarding the
pipes crossing under the railways.
The attention of the contractor should be drawn particularly to the requirements of the
Railway Saudi Arab Establishment. But all crossings should be placed according to the fifth
and tenth sections of the present guidelines of the Railway Engineering Consultant
Association, a copy of which is enclosed for the proper use of the supervisor and/or
engineer.

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PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

SECTION 2.04
2.04.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

SOIL FILLING AND BACKFILLING FOR STRUCTURES

SCOPE

This section covers general soil filling material and source, backfilling for
structures, embankment construction, backfilling for pipe trenches and all
particular requirements related to these works.

2.04.2

FILLING MATERIAL AND BORROW MATERIAL

A.

Filling material shall be approved and capable of being compacted as specified.

B.

Filling materials for foundations and general filling shall pass a three inch U.S.
standard sieve and the material passing a No. 4 U.S. standard sieve is to have a
maximum plasticity index of 6%. No piece is to have its largest dimension greater
than one-third the thickness of a compacted layer.

C.

Sampling: The Contractor shall submit 50 kg representative samples to an
approved laboratory for tests as follows and submit results for approval:


For Soils with Less than 50% Fines: Sieve analysis and compaction.



For Soils with More than 50% Fines: Sieve analysis, Atteberg Limits and
Compaction.

D.

Approval: Sources and types of materials and moisture contents at which they
may be placed and compacted are to be those approved after receipt of laboratory
test results.

E.

I f suitable filling or backfill material is not available from material excavated on
the project site, the Contractor shall be responsible for locating suitable borrow and
arranging for the excavation of suitable material with the land owner.

F.

Borrow pits are to be excavated in a uniform manner, neatly trimmed and graded
and left in an approved condition.

G.

The borrow material shall fulfill the requirements specified for the intended use.
No borrow material shall be brought to the site unless it has been approved by the
Engineer.

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H.

Testing Fill From Borrow Pits: The Contractor shall sample and test in accordance
with ASTM D1557 to determine the optimum amount of water to be used with f ill
material to obtain maximum dry density. Tests are to be conducted for every
borrow pit and for every type of f ill material encountered.

I.

The Engineer will periodically require testing of borrow materials to verify that no
change in quality has occurred since the original approval.

J.

Field density tests on compacted soils are to be made at an average of one test
per 100 m² of area. Minimum density required on soils when made in accordance
with ASTM D2167 'Rubber Balloon Method', ASTM D1556 'Sand-Cone Method' or
ASTM D2922 "Nuclear Method" is to be:

K.

2.04.3



For Backfill Under Roads, Parking Areas and Paved Areas up to 500 mm:
95% of maximum dry density



For Backfill Deeper than 500 mm Under Same Areas as last Described:
95% of maximum dry density



Elsewhere Such as Landscaped Areas: 90% of maximum dry density.

Selected Fill: Excavated material conforming to the specification for Filling
material and Borrow material, Clause B above.

BACKFILLING FOR STRUCTURES

A.

General Requirements

A.1

The Contractor shall obtain approval for his proposed method and rate of placing of
backfill, before backfilling commences.

A.2

Excavated material or material from other sources for use as backfilling shall
conform to the below requirements:

-

The supplied material shall not contain any organic or harmful material e.g: tree,
leaves, roots, and residues.

-

The supplied material shall conform to classification types: A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
according to MRDTM 210 (Directorate of Material and Research at the MOC).

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-

The California Bearing Ratio shall not be less than 25% when tested according to
MRDTM 213.

-

The maximum dry density shall not be less than 95% when tested according to
Directorate of Material and Research at the MOC.

-

The material shall be well graded passing sieve no. 3 (75 mm sieve) and shall
contain fine material for proper compaction.

A.4 Backfill materials shall be uniformly graded granular material, capable of being
compacted to the specified compaction level, and having adequate permeability to permit
free drainage through it. Backfill material shall also conform to the following:


Minimum D10 value

1 mm



Maximum Plasticity Index

10 per cent



Requirement for bridges, culverts etc. specified in subsequent sections.

A.5 Backfill material shall not be placed against any structure until approval is given.
Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Structures shall be backfilled to the same
requirements as specified for the adjacent embankment.

A.6 Backfill shall be placed in level layers for the full width of the excavated area until the
elevation of the original ground or surrounding embankment is reached. Backfill next to
walls, between columns or in other confined areas, shall be compacted by approved hand or
portable equipment.

A.7 Each successive layer of backfill shall contain only sufficient material to ensure proper
compaction and in no case shall any layer be greater than 300 mm thickness (before
compaction). The moisture content of the backfill material shall be uniform and within the
moisture range designated.

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A.8 Water shall be drained from the areas to be backfilled wherever practicable. In cases
where, in the opinion of the Engineer, it is not practicable to drain the areas to be
backfilled, the initial backfill material shall consist of crushed, open graded material
conforming to the following gradation:
ASTM Sieve
Size

3/8"
No. 4
No. 30 No. 200

Percentage Passing

100
< 85
< 45
<5

Such material may be deposited below the standing water level without compaction. Above
the water level normal laying and compaction will be used.

A.9 Additional water to be added during placement of backfill material to achieve required
compaction shall be fresh water or brackish water approved by the Engineer.

A.10 Minimum tests required during backfilling operations to verify material are:




One Proctor test for each structure (or for each 100 m2).
One Gradation of Materials when materials changed.
One Plasticity Index and field density for 50% of the layers and for each
footing and abutment (or for each 500 m2) as per instruction of the
Engineer.

B.

Workmanship

B.1

Unsuitable Materials: The Contractor shall remove from the Site imported filling
materials deemed unsuitable by the Engineer.

B.2

Surplus: The Contractor shall remove surplus imported filling materials from the
Site.

B.3

The Contractor shall place filling using approved methods to required dimensions,
levels, lines and profiles and to permit water to drain freely.

B.4

Earthmoving Equipment: The Contractor shall do not use for compaction except
where approved.

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B.5

Heavy Steel or Pneumatic Rollers: Special precautions shall be taken to
safeguard existing structures when steel or pneumatic rollers are used. These shall
not be used when compacting backfill to pipe trenches.

B.6

Compaction Equipment: Backfilling shall be compacted by approved compaction
equipment suited to the type of material. Compaction around foundation walls,
culverts and small restricted areas shall be carried out by mechanical vibratory
plates, tampers or hydraulic compactors.

B.7

Moisture Content: Each layer of filling shall be moistened or dried to reach the
correct moisture content for the required dry density. The Contractor shall spread
and compact each layer to at least 95% of maximum dry density, unless otherwise
specified, all as determined by ASTM D1557. Each compacted layer shall be tested
and approved prior to placing subsequent layers.

C.

Placing and Compacting Fill

C.1

Structures shall not be subject to the pressures of backfilling or to live loads until
the 28-day strength of the concrete has been reached, unless a shorter period is
approved in special circumstances where the load is sufficiently small as not to
constitute a risk of any damage to the structure in the opinion of the Engineer. I f
approved this period may be extended i f subnormal curing conditions exist.

C.2

Surfaces to receive filling shall be cleared and all vegetation removed off Site
before filling is placed. Soil surfaces are to be scarified and re-compacted to at least
95% of maximum dry density as determined by ASTM 1557. Compaction shall be to
a depth of at least 200 mm below ground surface. Hard or smooth surfaces shall be
roughened before filling is placed. Existing road surfaces and the like shall be
broken up and removed or used as part of fill.

C.3

Soil filling generally shall be selected f ill spread and leveled in 300 mm maximum
layers each well consolidated with a suitable mechanical rammer.

C.4

The Contractor shall deposit soil filling in a manner not to endanger the partly
finished structure or sub-structure either by direct pressure or indirectly by
overloading banks contiguous to the operation or in any other manner.

C.5

Minor up filling and local adjustment of levels shall be selected f ill spread and
leveled in 150 mm maximum layers each well consolidated by suitable mechanical
means.

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C.6

Benching: Where difference in level between adjacent areas of filling exceeds 600
mm the Contractor shall cut into edge of higher filling to form benches having a
minimum width of 600 mm and a height equivalent to the depth of a layer of
compacted filling.

C.7

Benching: The Contractor shall spread and compact new filling to ensure
maximum continuity with previous filling.

C.8

Protection of formation:


Construction traffic shall not be allowed on completed filling until the level
has been raised not less than 150 mm above formation level by properly
compacted temporary protective filling



Temporary protective filling shall be removed from the Site before
beginning permanent construction



Stockpiling materials on newly filled areas shall not be done without
permission.

D.

Backfilling for Bridges, Underpasses, Overpasses and Miscellaneous
Structures

D.1

Backfill placed around culverts, abutments and piers, shall be deposited on both
sides to approximately the same elevation at the same time. Special care shall be
taken to prevent any wedging action against the structure and slopes bounding the
excavation shall be stepped, where necessary, to prevent such wedge action
occurring.

D.2

A l l backfill intended to support falsework loads, including temporary fills and pier
backfill, shall be designed for the minimum support required. As a minimum, such
material shall be AASHTO M 145, Class A-1-a, A-1-b or A-2-4, compacted to 90%
AASHTO T 180 maximum density.

D.3

Backfill material for bridge abutments and approach embankments within 20 m of
any part of the substructure shall be AASHTO M 145, Class A-1-a, A-1-b or A-2-4
compacted to 95% AASHTO T 180 maximum density up to the underside of the
subgrade layer. The 200 mm minimum thickness of subgrade layer shall consist of
approved subgrade material placed and compacted to 100% maximum density as
specified under Section 2.05 - "Subgrade Construction". The backfill shall be
completed to the level of the original ground or to the top elevation of any adjacent
embankment.

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D.4

Backfill around retaining walls shall be completed to the level of the original
ground line and to such heights above original ground line or to the levels as shown
on the Drawings. Care shall be exercised to prevent forward movement of the
wall.

D.5

Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings, when special permeable backfill
(sheathing) is to be placed against the back faces of abutments, retaining walls or
wing walls, it shall consist of a continuous covering of approved type proprietary
filter cloth protected by a continuous wall of 200 mm minimum thickness precast,
porous (no-fines) concrete blocks laid in stretcher bond with dry joints. Prior to
construction of the block wall, the proposed underdrain system indicated on the
drawings shall be laid along the base of the wall under the sheathing.

D.6

The Contractor shall complete the backfill around box culverts to the level of the
original ground line and to the full width of excavation area. I f the top of culvert
extends above the original ground line the Contractor shall continue the backfill to
the top of culvert and for a width of 3 m on each side of the culvert for the full
width of highway embankment. I f the embankment is in place at the time of
backfilling, the Contractor shall backfill around the culvert to the top of
embankment.

D.7

Miscellaneous structures shall be backfilled in accordance with the methods
specified. Compaction of backfill when structures are outside the roadway
right-of-way or in approach roads, minor roads or similar areas, shall be to 90% of
maximum density as determined by AASHTO T 180 (Method D).

2.04.4

EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION

A.

Scope

A.1

These Works shall consist of constructing road embankments, including
preparation of the areas upon which they are to be placed; placing and
compacting approved material within areas where unsuitable material has been
removed; and placing and compacting approved embankment material in holes, pits
and other depressions within the right-of-way area, all in accordance with the lines,
grades and cross sections shown on the Drawings.

B.

Materials

B.1 Material of classes A-1, A-2-4, A-2-5 or A3 "when confined" groups as in AAHSTO
M145 and complying with Table 2.1 shall be used when available, except for rock f ill
embankments. I f material of this character is not available then materials from A-2-6,
A-2-7, A-4, A-5, groups (AASHTO M145) may be used provided it complies with Table
2.1; however, special attention should be given to the construction.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

Table 2.1: Soil Suitable for Embankment
123456-

Maximum dry density not less than 1.7 (AASHTO T-180D)
Organic matter not more than 5% (AASHTO T-267)
No use of A-6, A-7 soil (AASHTO M-145)
Maximum size not more than 1/2 of the layer thickness
Plasticity Index (PI) less than 20%
4 day soaked C.B.R. should not be less than 8% (AASHTO T-193)
when compacted at 100% maximum dry density i n accordance with
AASHTO T-180 Method D

B.2 The 200 mm depth of embankment subgrade layer immediately below the bottom of
sub base shall consist of selected subgrade material having a 4-day soaked CBR of at least
20% when tested in accordance with AASHTO T 193 and with a gradation and P.I. as
specified under Section 2.05 - "Subgrade Construction".

B.3 The 600 mm depth of embankment immediately below the subgrade layer shall
consist of material having a 4-day soaked C.B.R of at least 15% when compacted to 95%
maximum dry density in accordance with AASHTO T-180D and tested in accordance with
AASHTO T-193 with a P.I. not more than 15%. I f rockfill is used for the bottom 400 mm
depth then these requirements shall apply to the top 200 mm below the subgrade layer.

B.4 In areas subject to flooding and prolonged inundation of the embankment, such as at
bridge and culvert sites, the material used in embankment, unless rock, shall conform to
AASHTO M 145, Class A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4.

B.5 Where embankments are to be constructed using material classified as A3 (AASHTO
M 145) or other material subject to side slope erosion or requiring confinement for
stabilization purposes, the embankment plating or confining layer shall be constructed using
AASHTO M 145 Class A-1-a, A-1-b, or A-2-4 materials or as otherwise approved.

B.6 The material used in rockfill embankments shall consist predominantly of rock
fragments of such size that the material can be placed in layers of the thickness prescribed
conforming to the requirements stated in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2: Rock Suitable for Embankment
123-

Maximum particle size

300 mm or 1/2 or proposed loose layer
thickness whichever is less
Passing 0.42mm (Sieve No. 40) 25% maximum
Uniformity coefficient, Cu …..
6 minimum, where Cu = D60/D10
D60 = the Particle size at which 60% passes
D10 = the Particle size at which 10% passes

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B.7 Rockfill material shall be obtained from roadway or tunnel excavation and shall be
sound, dense, hard and durable rock capable of being spread and compacted as specified.
Individual pieces are to be clean and angular. I t shall be the Contractor's responsibility to
excavate material from rock cuts, whether by blasting or other manner, so that all
excavated materials are of suitable size.

B.8 When suitable materials of widely divergent characteristics are drawn from different
sources, such materials may, i f approved, be mixed to meet the embankment
requirements. Rock and other materials shall be incorporated in such manner as to avoid
segregation and an accumulation of boulders, etc at the toe of embankment slopes.

B.9
Logs, trees, stumps, weeds, heavy grass, frozen soil, vegetable matter or other
undesirable and noncompactible materials shall not be placed in embankments.

B.10 Rocks, broken concrete or other solid materials larger than 100 mm in any dimension
shall not be used as f ill material in areas where piling works are to be carried out.

C. Workmanship

C.1

Prior to placing embankment material on any area, it shall have been cleared and
grubbed as specified in Sub-Section 2.02.1 - "Clearing and Grubbing", and the
foundation prepared as specified herein.

C.2

Equipment used for foundation preparation and for placing, spreading and
compacting embankment materials shall be of approved types and furnished in
sufficient numbers for the purposes intended. Provision and use of such equipment
shall conform with the relevant requirements set in these specification and with the
Contractor's approved Work Program.

C.3

Draglines shall not be used to construct embankment unless approval is given and
only when special procedures are adopted to keep the layers uniform and the
embankment properly graded and well-drained at all times.

C.4

Surfaces of embankment layers shall be kept properly shaped and drained at all
times. The Contractor shall utilize a sufficient number of motor graders or tractors to
level and maintain the surface of each layer of embankment during all placing and
compacting operations.

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C.5

Rockfill shall not be used in the top 200 mm of the embankment below the
subgrade. Water must be added as required, and with the approval of the Engineer,
to achieve maximum compaction.

C.6

Whenever feasible, trucks, scrapers, tractors, loaders and other heavy hauling
equipment shall be routed over the embankment in such a manner as will contribute
effectively to compaction of the f ill material.

C.7

Where an embankment is to be constructed over an area previously occupied by a
building basement, cellar, irrigation canal, well, any previous excavation, or
adjacent to structures, and where the proper use of normal compaction equipment
is not practicable, the embankment shall be constructed and compacted in
accordance with the backfilling requirements of the relevant sub-sections herein
before, until the use of normal compaction equipment is practicable. Layers shall not
exceed 200 mm thickness (after compaction) and shall be compacted to the degree
of compaction specified for the embankment.

C.8

Each embankment layer shall be tested and approved prior to placing the following
layer in accordance with Subsection D "Testing" here below.

C.9

The Engineer may at any time order suspension of delivery of materials to the
embankment Sites until previously delivered materials have been properly placed
and preceding layers are leveled and uniformly compacted to the specified density.

C.10

Unacceptable material placed in any embankment shall be removed and disposed of
by the Contractor at his expense.

C.11

The Contractor shall be responsible for the stability of all embankments and shall
replace all embankment sections which, in the opinion of the Engineer, have been
damaged or displaced due to carelessness or neglect on the part of the Contractor,
or due to normally occurring natural causes, such as storms, and not attributable to
the unavoidable movement of the natural ground upon which the embankment is
constructed.

C.12

All embankment side slopes shall be neatly finished true to the lines and not steeper
than the slope angles as shown on the Drawings. The bottom (toe) of side slopes
shall be graded to a well rounded, smooth profile to blend in with the adjacent
terrain.

C.13

The side slopes of rockfill embankments shall be thoroughly blanketted with A-1,
A-2-4 material, and compacted to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

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C.14

The Engineer may permit the Contractor to utilize suitable surplus material at his
own expense to widen embankments or flatten slopes, etc within the right-of-way.
Surplus material used in such manner shall be compacted to 90 per cent of
maximum density, but this shall not be measured for payment. When widening
embankments, the Contractor shall bear the cost of modifying the culverts and any
protection work necessary.

C.15

Rockfill shall not be used within 5m of a structural element (next to bridge abutments
footings, etc)

C.16

Rockfill shall not be used for 600mm on top and bottom of Box and Pipe Culverts.
Subgrade material shall be used in these areas up to width excavated for structures.

C.17

I f shown on the Drawings, or as required by the Engineer, a trial embankment shall
be constructed. The trial section shall be at least 2 lanes wide by 100 m long at
approved locations at or adjacent to the Site. Compaction and other equipment
used, shall be as specified and listed in the Contractor Equipment Schedule and
approved Programme of work.

C.18

I f the original surface upon which embankment is to be placed is an existing
roadbed, the surface shall be plowed, scarified, or otherwise broken up regardless of
the height of the embankment to be placed thereon.

C.19

Unacceptable material placed in any embankment shall be removed and disposed of
by the Contractor at his expense.

C.20

Where embankment is to be placed and compacted on hillsides or where new
embankment is to be compacted against existing embankments or where
embankment is built part width at a time, the slopes steeper than 3:1 (H:V) when
measured at right angles to the highway centerline shall be continuously benched as
the embankment is brought up in layers. Benching shall be of sufficient width to
permit operation of spreading and compaction equipment, and in any case not less
than 2 m wide except where insufficient width is available between existing and new
embankments. Each horizontal cut shall begin at the intersection of the original
ground and the vertical sides of the previous cuts. The vertical face of each bench
shall not be less than 1 m in height and not exceed 2 m. Authorized benching shall
be measured as highway excavation.

C.21

Where embankment is to be placed and compacted on wadi slopes, the entire slope
area shall be graded and trimmed to remove any vertical faces and overhangs. The
final graded slope shall not be steeper than 1.5:1 (H:V). The slope shall then be
continuously benched as the embankment is brought up in layers, all as described
above for embankment on hillsides.

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C.22

Rockfill shall not be placed on any slopes steeper than 1:1. A l l slopes steeper than
1:1 shall therefore be regraded to a slope of 1:1 or shallower and all vertical faces
and overhangs removed.

C.23

Roadway embankment consisting of soil or granular material shall be placed in
horizontal layers not exceeding 250 mm thickness (before compaction), shall be
compacted as specified and shall be approved prior to placing the next layer. The
thickness of the first layer over areas of Class A-3 dune sand may exceed 250 mm in
order to bridge these areas. Approximately uniform thickness of each layer shall be
achieved prior to compaction. As the compaction of each layer progresses,
continuous leveling and working of the material shall be carried out to ensure
uniform density. The correct moisture content shall be maintained at all times.

C.24

Where embankments are to be constructed to a height in excess of 1.5 m above top
of original ground level the Engineer may approve layer thickness up to 300 mm
(before compaction) i f the Contractor's equipment and the nature of the material
result in the required density throughout the layer thickness.

C.25

When the moisture content of the embankment material does not fall within the
required moisture range, (optimum moisture ± 2%) water shall be added and
thoroughly mixed into the soil by approved methods or the material shall be aerated,
whichever is necessary to adjust the material to the required moisture content.

C.26

When water is added to embankment material, the amount added shall be sufficient
to provide a moisture content within the required range plus a reasonable additional
amount to compensate for evaporation and other unavoidable losses. Water added
in excess of this amount shall be removed by aereation or other approved means at
the Contractor's expense. Satisfactory methods and sufficient equipment shall be
used for the furnishing and handling of the water in a manner that will minimize loss
due to evaporation or waste.

C.27

Embankments that consist of rock-soil material with sufficient soil to make rolling
feasible, shall be placed and compacted in an approved manner and to the required
degree of compaction. Water shall be added as and when directed to assist in the
compaction of such materials.

C.28

In the case of embankments which are to be formed of approved rock-soil material
containing an appreciable quantity (normally not exceeding 30% greater than 80mm)
of rock fragments and which cannot be placed in layers of the thickness prescribed
without crushing, pulverizing, or otherwise breaking down the fragments, the
embankment may be constructed in layers not exceeding in thickness twice the
average size of the largest rock fragments and in any case not exceeding 600 mm
(before compaction).

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C.29

Rockfill materials shall be placed in such a manner that the larger rocks are well
distributed and the voids are filled to the maximum practical extent by smaller
particles, each layer shall be bladed into a neat and homogeneous mass prior to
compaction. Any rocks found protruding from the leveled surface shall be removed
and replaced by smaller particles. Initial breakdown compaction shall be performed
with heavy bulldozers. The top level of each layer must be surveyed before and after
compaction and approved by the Engineer before the next layer is placed. Oversize
rock pieces may be used in high rockfill embankments to a level 3 metres below
subgrade.

D.

Testing

D.1

The Engineer shall test the compaction of embankment materials in accordance with
these Specifications to ensure that adequate compaction or consolidation has been
achieved. A l l such tests shall be fully documented by the Contractor, in an approved
manner.

D.2

In the case of cohesionless, free draining rock-soil materials, where maximum
density tests fail to produce a well defined moisture - density relationship, the relative
density test shall be used, alternatively an electronic compaction meter or any other
approved test equipment shall be provided by the Contractor and used to determine
the degree of compaction achieved.

D.3

To determine the degree of compaction for embankment consisting of rock f ill,
average differential settlement values shall also be determined from surveys of an
adequate number of grid point elevations as and when directed, at the
commencement of, during and after embankment construction.

D.4

I f it is required to determine the modulus of soil reaction by the Plate Bearing test,
this shall be undertaken using the method given in AASHTO T222-81 (1986).

E.

Standards of Compaction for Soil and Granular Materials

E.1

The following compaction standards shall apply to embankment materials other than
predominantly rock materials. The "maximum density" of soil type materials shall be
the modified maximum density determined in accordance with AASHTO T 180
(Method D). The "relative density" shall be the relative density determined in
accordance with ASTM D4254, which identifies the state of compactness of the
material with respect to its loosest and densest state. The relative density shall be
the standard to which the field density is referred for comparison in the case of
cohesionless, free draining granular materials.

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E.2

Soil type materials shall be compacted to at least 90% modified maximum density
for the full depth of embankment. The 600 mm of embankment material
immediately below the subgrade layer shall be compacted to at least 95% modified
maximum density. Moisture content shall be within plus or minus 2% of optimum
at the time of compaction.

E.3

Cohesionless, free draining granular materials (of 75 mm maximum size and with
not more than 15% passing 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve) shall be compacted to at
least 70% of relative density for the full depth of embankment. The 600 mm depth
of such material immediately below the subgrade layer shall be compacted to at
least 75% of relative density.

E.4

Minimum soil tests required during the construction of subgrade and/or
embankment are:

2.04.5



One sample for CBR, classification (AASHTO M145), and laboratory
(Moisture - density) or relative density compaction from each source prior
to use. Each sample shall represent not more than 5,000 cu m.



One sample for classification representing not more than 3,000 cubic
meters of the material in use.



For every completed layer, one field density shall be determined for each
1500 sq.m or 100 linear meters whichever is less. Testing shall be in
accordance with ASTM D1556 or ASTM D2167.

PIPE BEDDING MATERIAL AND BACKFILLING FOR PIPE
TRENCHES

A.

Granular Bedding and Backfill materials

A.1

Backfilling above pipe crest shall be with clean granular Class A-3 in layers 30 cm
thick and shall pass sieve No. (4) 4.75 mm, and be retained by sieve No. (200)
0.075 mm.

A.2

Granular material for pipe bedding shall be composed of 14 mm maximum size
natural gravel, crushed gravel or crushed rock, free from dirt, clay, roots, organics
and other deleterious material mixed with sufficient sand to f ill the voids, about 30
to 35% by volume.

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A.3

Technical Specification for Water Network

Granular bedding shall conform to the following:
Standard Sieve size
(mm)
19.0
4.76
1.19
0.300
0.177
0.075

(3/4 in)
(No. 4)
(No. 16)
(No. 50)
(No. 80)
(No. 200)

% By Weight Passing
for rigid pipes
PE pipes
(DI or AC etc.)
100
25- 100
100
10-75
25-75
5-30
10-30
3-10
3-10
0-5
0-5

A.4
For GRP pipes bedding shall be of graded crushed stone 2.83-8 mm or as
recommended by Manufacturer.

A.5

Sand bedding and f ill up to 300 mm minimum above crown of the pipe shall be
non-plastic, natural well graded sand having hard, strong, durable angular particles.
It shall be clean and free from extraneous materials, clay balls, organic matter or
other detrimental material. The amount of fines passing sieve No. 200 shall not
exceed 15% or according to the standard specifications (ASTM C33).

A.6

Backfill over a pipe shall consist of two different layers: Initial or selected backfill
and main backfill

A.7

Backfill in contact with the pipes and up to 300 mm minimum above crown of the
pipe shall be selected material

A.8

Selected f ill material shall comply with group type GW, GP, GM, BC, SW, SP,
SM, SL in compliance with ASTM D 2487.

A.9

Selected fill material shall not contain ashes, cinder, refuse, rubbish, organic
material, or the like. The material shall be capable of being compacted without the
use of heavy rammers.

A.10

The main backfill (for the remainder of the trench) shall be done with suitable
material either from material removed in the course of excavating the trench, or
imported from approved borrow pit. In either case the backfill material shall conform
to paragraph B of section 2.04.2 herein before.

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A.11

Pipelines should be covered by plain concrete i f the top cover is less than 1 m or
for deep pipelines as per the manufacturer recommendations.

B.

Workmanship: Backfilling

B.1

Trenches shall not be backfilled at joints until after that section of the pipeline has
successfully passed the specified tests required

B.2

Selected backfill or surround up to a level of 300 mm above top of the pipe, shall be
placed and hand compacted in 150 mm layers. The backfill shall be brought up
evenly on both sides of the pipe for the full length of the pipe. Care shall be taken
to ensure thorough compaction of the f ill under the haunches of the pipe.

B.3

For GRP pipe initial backfill shall be compacted to 95% relative density or as
recommended by manufacturers.

B.4

Main backfill shall be placed and well compacted in layers not exceeding 300 mm
thick before compaction. Heavy compactors shall not be used until there is 600 mm
cover over pipes.

B.5

Compaction of each layer shall be according to Section 2.04.2 paragraph J herein
before.

B.6

Heavy steel or pneumatic rollers shall not be used for compacting backfill to pipe
trenches. Special precautions shall be taken to safeguard existing structures when
steel or pneumatic rollers are used.

B.7

Compaction equipment shall be suited to the type of material and shall be subject
to approval. Compaction around foundation walls, culverts and small restricted areas
shall be carried out by mechanical vibratory plates, tampers or hydraulic
compactors.

B.8

Backfilling trenches for pipes with concrete beds and or surrounds shall not start
before 24 hours after placing the concrete. Heavy compactors shall not be used
and traffic shall not be allowed before the elapse of 72 hours after placing the
concrete.

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B.9

When the material is too wet from rain or excessive application of water, no
compaction shall be done. In this case the work shall be suspended until the
previously placed and new materials have dried sufficiently to permit proper
compaction. Other measures shall be taken i f necessary to obtain proper
compaction.

B.10

Temporary crossing are to be provided over trenches to prevent construction traffic
damaging pipes after backfilling.

B.11

The top 500 mm of pipe trenches below road pavement layers shall be filled with
crushed aggregate base course material compacted to 95% of maximum dry
density.

B.12

I f authorized by the Engineer, the main backfill may be consolidated using
water-jetting, puddling, or tamping as directed.

C.

Restoration of surfaces

C.1

Restoration of asphalt, concrete, gravel pavements and the likes shall be of
materials and thickness to match the existing pavement. A l l works, workmanship
material shall be in accordance with concerned authorities specifications
(Directorate, Municipality, Ministry of transport) and Engineer direction.

C.2

Restoration of pavement shall be done according to the existing pavement quality
and level to ensure that new pavement is matching to provide uniform surface with
the existing profile.

C.3

Grassed areas shall be restored by spreading, after backfilling, approved fertile soil
over affected area. Seeding, fertilizers and water shall be applied until grass is
restored to its former condition.

C.4

Surface grading shall be carried out to restore all un-surfaced areas and any
adjoining areas disturbed to provide a level, smooth surface.

C.5

The Contractor shall proceed with restoration of surfaces as soon after completion
of other work as is practicable, but in no case more than 10 days after backfilling of
trenches and other excavated areas. Restoration shall be completed within 20 days
from the start of restoration or as approved by the concerned authorities.

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SECTION 2.05
2.05.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

SUBGRADE CONSTRUCTION

GENERAL

A.

These Works shall consist of furnishing materials, constructing the sub-grade
layer and preparing the sub-grade surface ready to receive the pavement structure
and shoulders, all as and where shown on the Drawings.

B.

Sub-grade layer is the 200 mm minimum depth of selected material immediately
below the sub-grade surface, or as defined in the drawings or directed by the
Engineer.

2.05.2

MATERIALS

A.

The supplied material shall not contain any organic or harmful material e.g: tree,
leaves, roots, and residues.

B.

The supplied material shall conform to classification types: A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
according to MRDTM 210 (Directorate of Material and Research at the MOC).

C.

Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings, sub-grade material shall consist of
selected material having a 4-day soaked CBR of not less than 25% when tested in
accordance with AASHTO T 193 when compacted at 100% of modified proctor
AASHTO (T-180) and having a maximum P.I. of 12% unless otherwise noted.
Sub-grade gradation shall be reasonably smooth without gap grading. All material
shall pass 75 mm sieve and not more than 18% shall pass 0.075 mm (No. 200)
sieve.

D.

The maximum dry density shall not be less than 95% when tested according to
Directorate of Material and Research at the MOC.

E.

The material shall be well graded passing sieve no. 3 (75 mm sieve) and shall
contain fine material for proper compaction.

F.

Minimum tests required on subgrade are indicated in sub-Section 2.04.4
"Embankment Construction".

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2.05.3

Technical Specification for Water Network

WORKMANSHIP

A.

Subgrade in Cut

A.1

Where the subgrade is located in rock, the sub-grade, unless shown otherwise on
the Drawings, shall be undercut to a depth of 200 mm by drilling or blasting as
directed. No rock shall project more than 50 mm above the undercut surface
elevation. The sub-grade layer shall then be constructed using approved sub-grade
material, as specified for sub-grade in embankment.

A.2

Where the subgrade is on in-situ soil that is of a quality and CBR value at least
equal to those specified for sub-grade, the 200 mm depth of such material
immediately below top of sub-grade shall be scarified and all roots, sod, vegetable
and other undesirable matter and stones larger than 75 mm in any dimension shall
be removed. The material shall then be brought to a uniform moisture content within
the specified range and compacted to 100% AASHTO T 180 (Method D) maximum
density.

A.3

Where the subgrade is on in-situ soil which is unsuitable for retention as the
sub-grade layer, such material immediately below the top of subgrade layer shall be
sub-excavated to a depth of 200 mm, hauled away and disposed off unless approved
for use as embankment fill. The subgrade layer shall then be constructed using
approved subgrade material, as specified for subgrade in embankment. I f the
material below subgrade layer does not satisfy the requirement of top 600 mm, it
shall be excavated for further 200 mm and replaced by suitable material to satisfy
the requirements of subgrade.

A.4

The underlying natural material shall be scarified, leveled and rolled. The surface of
the natural soil shall be approved by the Engineer before placement of suitable
material.

B.

Subgrade in Embankment

B.1

The 200 mm minimum depth of embankment immediately below top of subgrade
shall consist of selected, approved sub-grade material. The material shall be spread
in one layer over the full width of the top of embankment, brought to a uniform
moisture content within the specified range and compacted to 100% AASHTO T
180 (Method D) medium density.

Page 75 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

C.

Surface Tolerances

C.1

A l l finished elevations, lines and grades shall be in accordance with the details
shown on the Drawings. Each cross section shall be checked at maximum intervals
of 25 m, at each change in cross slope and elsewhere as directed.

C.2

The tolerances on elevations of finished sub-grade, top of embankment under the
sub-grade layer and sub-excavated (undercut) surface shall be as follows:
Surface
Finished Sub-grade:
Soil
Rock (if approved)
Top of Embankment or Sub-excavated Surface:

Tolerance
+10 or -30 mm
+50 or -50 mm
+10 or -30mm

For agricultural roads, tolerances on elevations are allowed to be as follows:
Surface
Finished Sub-grade:
Soil
Rock (if approved)
Top of Embankment or Sub-excavated Surface:

Tolerance
+20 or -30 mm
+50 or -50 mm
+20 or -30mm

C.3

When the finished subgrade surface is tested with a 4 m long straightedge placed
parallel to, or at right angles to the centerline, the maximum depression of the surface
from the testing by straight edge shall be 30 mm.

D.

Maintenance of Finished Subgrade

D.1

The finished and approved sub-grade shall be continuously maintained in a
smooth, well compacted and properly drained condition until the sub-base (or base)
course is constructed. Reapproval of the subgrade will be required i f the overlying
course is not constructed within 14 days of sub-grade completion or i f the subgrade
layer is damaged by traffic or any other causes prior to the placement of the
sub-base layer.

Page 76 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

SECTION 2.06
2.06.1

A.

2.06.2

Technical Specification for Water Network

GABIONS

GENERAL

The work shall include the supply of all material, preparation of gabions and their
installation as indicated on the Drawings or as instructed by the Engineer. Such
works will be constructed for protection in valleys and flooding areas.

MATERIALS

A.

Gabions shall consist of approved type galvanized steel wire mesh baskets (or
other approved types such as heavy-duty plastic mesh) filled with selected rocks
before installation.

B.

Galvanized steel wire mesh shall conform to ASTM A 390 Class 3, or equivalent
and with the requirements shown on the Drawings. The wire mesh shall be twisted
to form hexagonal or rectangular openings of uniform size. The maximum nominal
opening size shall be 100 mm. Mesh shall be constructed so as to resist pulling apart
at any of the twists or connections forming the mesh when a single wire strand in a
section is cut.

C.

Baskets shall be furnished in one or more sizes that can be assembled to provide
the minimum dimensions, stability, and structural integrity of the installation
specified. Sizes of gabion baskets will normally be 2 m long by 1 m wide by 0.5 m
to 1 m high. Non-standard sizes shall be provided to suit the particular installation,
as shown on the Drawings.

D.

Baskets shall be fabricated in such a manner that the sides, ends, lid, and
diaphragms can be assembled on Site into rectangular baskets of the specified
sizes. Gabion baskets shall be of single unit construction. Long gabions assembled
with diaphragms between adjacent baskets, for use as foundation mattresses, etc.,
may not require lids.

E.

Base, lid, ends and sides shall be either woven into a single unit or one edge of
these members connected to the base section of the gabion in such a manner that
strength and flexibility at the point of connection is at least equal to that of the mesh.

Page 77 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

Technical Specification for Water Network

F.

A l l perimeter edges of the mesh forming the basket shall be securely clip bound
or selvedged so that the joints formed by tying the selvedges have at least the same
strength as the body of the mesh.

G.

Perimeter (edge), tie, and connection wires shall conform to ASTM A 641, Class
3, Medium Temper, and the minimum diameters shown on the Drawings.

H.

Riprap material for filling of gabion baskets shall consist of rocks conforming to
Riprap Class A size, clean, strong, durable and highly resistant to weathering.
Dimensions shall range from 250 mm to approximately 125 mm diameters. Not
more that 5% shall be smaller than 100 mm.

2.06.3

CONSTRUCTION

A.

The surfaces upon which gabions and similar slope protection works are to be
placed shall be excavated and compacted to the required grades and lines and a
footing trench where specified, shall be excavated along the toe of the slopes, all
as shown on the Drawings or as directed. Subgrade or base shall be firm or
compacted as directed.

B.

Each gabion basket shall be assembled by binding together all vertical edges with
wire ties on approximately 150 mm spacing or by use of a continuous piece of
connecting wire stitched around the vertical edges with a coil every 100 mm.

C.

Empty gabion units shall be installed to line and grade as shown on the Drawings.
Wire ties or connecting wire shall be used to join the units together in the same
manner as described for assembling. Internal tie wires shall be uniformly spaced
and securely fastened in each cell of the structure. A standard fence stretcher,
chain fall, or iron rod may be used to stretch the wire baskets and hold alignment.

D.

The gabions shall be filled with riprap as specified, placed by hand or machine to
assure alignment and avoid bulges with minimum voids. Alternate placing of rock
and connection wires shall be performed until the gabion is filled. After filling with
riprap, the lid shall be bent over until it meets the sides and edges, and shall be
secured to the sides, ends, and diaphragms with wire ties or connecting wire in the
manner described for assembling.

Page 78 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

SECTION 2.07
2.07.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

STONE PITCHING IN CONCRETE

GENERAL

A.

These works will be constructed in valleys and flooding areas.

B.

Stone pitching shall consist of broken stones, placed as indicated on the Drawings
or in locations as directed by the Engineer.

C.

Stone pitching shall be constructed to the shape and dimensions shown on the
Drawings in accordance with the provisions of the specification or as directed by the
Engineer.

D.

Stone pitching shall be classified as stone pitching in concrete and shall have a
thickness of 200 mm, unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings.

2.07.2

MATERIALS

A.

Rock

A.1

The stones for this work shall be durable, angular field or quarry stones of approved
quality, sound, hard, free from seam and other structural defects and shall have a
specific gravity of not less than 2.40. At least 60% of the stone pitching shall consist
of pieces having a weight of not less than 15 kg and of the remaining 40% no piece
shall have a weight of less than 7 kg. The thickness of each layer shall be achieved
by the thickness of one rock piece. The thickness of the rock piece shall be within
50mm from the specified layer thickness, measured at the thinnest section of the
rock piece.

B.

Concrete

B.1

Concrete used for filling shall be of the same class as blinding concrete.

Page 79 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

2.07.3

Technical Specification for Water Network

PLACING

A.

Ground surface to be protected by stone pitching shall be thoroughly compacted to
the approval of the Engineer and covered with 50 mm blinding concrete prior to
placing of the rock.

B.

Rock shall be placed starting with the lowest point of slopes.

C.

Approval of the Engineer is required for rock laying prior to pouring concrete. The
rock shall then be flushed with water to provide adequate bonding with concrete.
Concrete paring shall start with the lowest point of the area to be protected. Where
more than one layer of stone pitching is specified, or in keys, a layer of 50 mm
blinding concrete shall be placed below the first layer and between consecutive
layers.

D.

The finished surface of the concrete shall be flush with the top of the surrounding
stone pieces.

Page 80 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

SECTION 2.08
2.08.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

GEOTEXTILES

GENERAL

A.

Geotextiles are used for protection and containment of the granular bedding and
the first dump layer around GRP pipes in the presence of water table in the
trench.

B.

The work include the supply and installation of geotextile fabric as indicated on
the Drawings.

2.08.2

MATERIAL

A.

Drainage Fabric

A.1

Non-woven geotextile, specifically manufactured as a drainage geotextile; made
from polyolefins, polyesters, or polyamides; and with the following minimum
properties determined according to ASTM D 4759 and referenced standard test
methods:
-

-

Grab Tensile Strength:
Tear Strength:
Puncture Resistance:
Water Flow Rate:
Apparent Opening Size:

490 N (ASTM D 4632)
178 N (ASTM D 4533)
222 N (ASTM D 4833)
100 l/sec/m2 (ASTM D 4491)
0.3 mm (ASTM D 4751)

B.

Separation Fabric

B.1

Woven geotextile, specifically manufactured for use as a separation geotextile;
made from polyolefins, polyesters, or polyamides; and with the following minimum
properties determined according to ASTM D 4759 and referenced standard test
methods:
-

Grab Tensile Strength:
Tear Strength:
Puncture Resistance:
Water Flow Rate:
Apparent Opening Size:

890 N (ASTM D 4632)
333 N (ASTM D 4533)
400 N (ASTM D 4833)
2.7 l/sec/m2 (ASTM D 4491)
0.6 mm (ASTM D 4751)

Page 81 of 259

PART 2: Excavation and Backfilling

2.08.3

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

WORKMANSHIP

Store and handle geotextiles in accordance with ASTM D 4873. Place and install in
accordance with manufacturer’s written instructions and as follows, to the approval
of the Engineer.


Overlaps shall not, in any case, be less than 25 mm



Place bedding layer as soon as possible after placement of the geotextile,
in accordance with approved methods, to thickness shown on Drawings



Remove and replace any geotextile damaged or punctured either before,
during or after laying.

Page 82 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

PART 3: PAVEMENT AND ROADS SURFACE FINISHING

SECTION 3.01

A.

SCOPE

These works cover the supply of materials and construction of all components of
the roadwork specified in this Project. The roadwork components include: sub-base
and base courses, bituminous materials, pavement repairs and trench
reinstatement and maintenance of traffic and detours.

Page 83 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

SECTION 3.02

3.02.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

GRANULAR SUBBASE AND BASE COURSES

GENERAL

A.

Contractors Responsibility

A.1

The Contractor shall locate sources of material, ensure adequate supply and ensure
compliance with the Specifications.

A.2

The Contractor shall obtain and test, in an approved laboratory, samples from
sources and stockpiles which are in compliance with the Specifications.

A.3

Samples provided by the Contractor shall satisfy all specified test requirements. The
Contractor shall permit the Engineer to inspect any and all materials used or to be
used, at any time during or after their preparation, or while being used during
progress of the Works. Unsatisfactory materials, whether in place or not, shall be
removed promptly from the Site. The Contractor shall furnish all necessary labor,
transport, tools and equipment required by the Engineer for such inspection.

A.4

The Contractor shall ensure that screening plants or crushing and screening plants
shall not be put into operation prior to their approval. If, after any plant is put into
operation, it fails to perform as intended, the Contractor shall either rectify the
defects in the existing plant to the satisfaction of the Engineer, or shall provide
alternative approved plant.

A.5

Approval of the crushing and screening plants and other equipment shall in no way
relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities in respect of producing granular
materials and aggregates which conform to the Specifications and in the quantities
required for the completion of the Works on time.

A.6

The Contractor shall conduct necessary tests in the Field Laboratory in the presence
of the Engineer and the Contractor’s Materials Engineer.

Page 84 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.7

Processed materials shall be tested and approved before being stockpiled on Site
or incorporated in the works and may be inspected and tested at any time during
their preparation, storage and use. Questionable materials, awaiting testing and
approval, shall not be unloaded and mixed with materials previously approved. I f
the grading and quality of any materials delivered to the Site does not conform to
the grading and quality of the established control samples, the Engineer will reject
such materials.

A.8

Samples shall satisfy all specified test requirements. The Contractor shall permit
the Engineer to inspect any and all materials used or to be used. At any time during
or after their preparation, or while being used during progress of the Works.
Unsatisfactory materials, whether in place or not, shall be removed promptly from
the site. The Contractor shall furnish all necessary labor, transport, tools and
equipment required by the Engineer for such inspections.

A.9

The contractor shall construct in accordance with the concerned authorities
specification.

3.02.2

MATERIALS

A.

Subbase shall consist of naturally occurring gravel and sand, screened or crushed
to obtain the specified gradation.

B.

Base course shall consist of crushed gravel, crushed stone or sand with screenings
as required to obtain the specified gradation.

C.

The supplied material shall not contain any organic or harmful material e.g: tree,
leaves, roots, and residues.

D.

Material for subbase and base course shall conform to classification types: A-1-a,
A-1-b according to AASHTO classification system.

E.

Gravel, crushed gravel and crushed stone shall consist of hard, durable particles,
free from dirt, organic matters, shale and other deleterious materials, and shall not
contain more than 8% of clay lumps and friable particles. The fine material shall
pass sieve no. 4 (4.75 mm) and shall consist of natural sand or crushed fine
materials.

Page 85 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

F.

Physical and chemical properties of granular materials used for subbase and base
courses shall conform to the requirements specified as follows:

F.1

Gradation: Subbase and Base shall conform to the following gradation in
accordance with AASHTO T-27.
Sieve Designation
50
37.5
25
19
9.5
4.75
2.00
0.425
0.075

F.2

mm(2 inch)
mm(1 ½ inch)
mm(1 inch)
mm(3/4 inch)
mm(3/8 inch)
mm(No.4)
mm(No.10)
mm(No.40)
mm(No.200)

Other Requirements for Subbase and base are indicated in the following table:
Test/Designation
Clay Content AASHTO T.88
Fines Content AASHTO T.27

Subbase
max 5%
-

Base
max 5%

Los Angeles abrasion AASHTO T.96

< 50%

passing No.200
shall be less than
halfpassing No.40
< 45%

C.B.R ASTM D1883
(4 day soaked sample compacted @
100% Modified proctor)
Soundness AASHTO T.104
(Max. loss in weight after 5 cycles)

³ 30%

³ 80%

Fine aggregate AASHTO
T.89, T.90
Percentage of material with at least
one fractured face

F.3

Percent by weight passing
Subbase
Base
100
90-100
100
55-85
70 - 95
50-80
55-85
40-70
30-60
30-60
20-50
10-20
10-25
0-15
2-10

In Sodium
Sulphate: £ 12%
In Magnesium
Sulphate: £ 18%

In Sodium
Sulphate: £ 12%
In Magnesium
Sulphate: £ 18%

For passing No.40 For passing No.40
LL £ 30%, PI £ 6% LL £ 25%, PI £ 6%
90%

I f it is found necessary to add fine material in order to improve gradation
requirements, this material shall pass sieve 0.425 mm (no. 40) and shall be mixed
with the crushed material in the quarry and not in the project site.

Page 86 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

F.4

Technical Specification for Water Network

The percent passing no. 200 sieve (0.075 mm) shall not be more than half the
percent passing sieve no. 40 (0.025 mm).

3.02.3

CONSTRUCTION

A.

Mixing and Spreading

A.1

The Contractor shall thoroughly mix aggregate and water to uniform moisture
content.

A.2

The Contractor shall spread materials on prepared subgrade or subbase in uniform
layers not exceeding the following thickness before compaction:



For subbase
For base

300 mm
250 mm

A.3

All segregated material shall be removed and replaced with well-graded material

A.4

The Contractor shall compact each layer to the following density requirements:



Subbase
Base

100% of maximum density AASHTO T.180
100% of maximum density AASHTO T.180

A.5

Each layer shall be completely compacted and approved prior to delivery of
materials for the following layer.

B.

Tolerance

B.1

The Contractor shall conform to lines, grade and cross sections as shown on the
Drawings.

B.2

Tolerances on elevations for final layer at 20 m intervals and intermediate points as
follows:
-

-

Subbase:
Base:

+10 mm to - 20 mm
+10 mm to - 15 mm.

Page 87 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

B.3

Technical Specification for Water Network

For agricultural roads, tolerances on elevations shall be as follows:



Subbase:
Base:

+20 mm to - 20 mm
+15 mm to - 15 mm.

B.4

The Contractor shall remove defective sections and replace to correct tolerances.

B.5

The Contractor shall maintain finished course in good condition until succeeding
layer is placed.

C.

Testing

C.1

The Contractor shall carry out in-situ testing as directed by concerned authorities
(Municipality/Ministry of Transport) and Engineer or as per the listed-below:
Required Tests

Repetition Required for all Tests

1. Proctor

Test for every 500 LM for each layer or as
per specifications of the concerned
authorities (Municipality / Governamate /
Ministry of Trasport)

2. Gradation of Materials

When materials changed or whenever
instructed by the Engineer
"
"
"
"
"
"
Test for every 2000 sq.m. and for every layer

3. Plasticity Index
4. C.B.R
5. Abrasion
6. Sand equivalent
7. Clay lumps and friable particles
8. Field Density
9. Thickness

D.

Compaction

D.1

Compaction shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 191 or AASHTO T 205.
If there is a delay between the construction of any layer and the following layer, i f
necessary and required by the Engineer the compaction of the lower layer may be
re-verified to ensure that it has not loosened due to traffic, passage of construction
equipment, adverse weather conditions or otherwise.

Page 88 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

SECTION 3.03
3.03.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

BITUMINOUS LAYERS

GENERAL

A.

Responsibility

A.1

The Contractor shall locate adequate sources and supply of material conforming
with the specifications.

A.2

The Contractor shall obtain the approval of the Engineer.

A.3

The Contractor shall sample and test all materials in an approved laboratory for
compliance with the specification.

A.4

The Contractor shall ensure crushing, screening and sampling materials shall be as
specified in section 3.02.1.

A.5

The Contractor shall construct as per specification of the concerned authorities
(Municipality / Ministry of Transport).

3.03.2

MATERIALS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR BITUMINOUS
COURSES

A.

Materials

A.1

The materials specified for use in construction of pavement layers include:



A.2

Coarse and fine mineral aggregate and filler.
Bitumen products including penetration graded bitumen and cutback
bitumen.

Physical and chemical properties of all materials used in the bituminous mixes
and/or bituminous layer construction shall conform to the requirements outlined in
sub-sections B, C and D below.

Page 89 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.

Aggregates for paving layer

B.1

Aggregate shall be clean, hard, durable and sound and shall consist of crushed
stone, of uniform quality and free from decomposed rock organic matter or shale.
Combined aggregate grading for bituminous mixes including mineral filler shall
conform to the requirements indicated in the table below:
Sieve Designation

1" (25.0 mm)
¾" (19.0 mm)
½" (12.5 mm)
3/8" (9.5 mm)
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
No. 10 (2.00 mm)
No. 40 (0.425 mm)
No. 80 (0.180 mm)
No. 200 (0.075 mm)

B.2

Percent by weight passing

Binder Course
100
75-90
65-80
55-65
35-80
20-35
7-20
5-25
3-7

Wearing Course
--100
90-100
78-83
46-60
30-42
14-25
8-16
3-7

Other Aggregate Requirements:


Percentage by weight of friable particles, clay lumps, organic material and
shale shall not exceed 1% as determined by AASHTO T-112.



Aggregate shall not contain more than 1% gypsum and 5% chert.



The plasticity index of material passing 0.425mm should not exceed 4%.



90% of crushed particles retained on No. 4 sieve (4.75 mm) shall have at
least 2 or more fractured faces.



Flakiness index and elongation index tested in accordance with B.S. 812
shall be within the following maximum limits:
Wearing Course
Flakiness Index
Elongation Index

25
25

Binder Course
30
30



Added mineral filler shall be fine particles of limestone or cement in
accordance with ASTM D-242. It shall be dry and free from organic
material or clay.



Loss in weight of aggregate after 500 revolutions shall not exceed 35%
when tested in accordance with AASHTO T-96.

Page 90 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network



Soundness, when tested in accordance with AASHTO T-104 for aggregate
retained on No 4 sieve (4.75 mm) shall not show signs of disintegration, and
the loss in weight after 5 cycles shall not exceed 10% for the sodium
sulphate tests and 12% for the magnesium sulphate test.



When tested for resistance to water damage in accordance with ASHTO T.
283, the retained strength should be greater than 80%.



Combined mineral aggregate shall have a sand equivalence value not less
than 50 when tested in accordance with AASHTO T-176.



Aggregates shall be washed i f directed to remove any clay lumps, adherent
dust and other deleterious materials.

C.

Bitumen Products

C.1

Provide adequate transport and storage facilities for bitumen, and protect from
temperature under -5°C or over + 60° C.

C.2

Sampling of bitumen shall be in accordance with AASHTO T-40.

C.3

Binder and wearing courses shall be plant mixes in accordance with an established
Job Mix Formula (J.M.F)

C.4

The J.M.F. shall be established by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.
The mix design procedures shall be in accordance with the Marshall method
procedure given in the Asphalt Institute Manual, M.S-2.

C.5

The J.M.F. shall be re-established i f the source of aggregate, filler or bitumen is
changed.

C.6

Unless otherwise specified the bitumen for binder and wearing courses shall be
60/70 penetration graded bitumen and shall conform generally to the requirement of
AASHTO M20.

Page 91 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

C.7

Technical Specification for Water Network

The J.M.F. shall conform to table 3.1
Table 3.1: Job Mix Formula

Number of blows at each end of compacted specimen
Stability (Marshall) (Kg)
Flow (Marshall) (mm)
Percent Air Voids
Percent Voids in Mineral Aggregate (V.M.A.)
Percent Voids filled with bitumen (V.F.B.)
Loss of Marshall Stability (AAHTO T 165)
Filler Bitumen Ratio
Bitumen content, percent by weight of total mix.*

Binder Course

Wearing Course

75
1000
2-4
4-7
14
50 - 70
max 25%
0.6 - 1.5
3.5 - 4.5

75
1000
2-4
4-6
15
50 - 75
max 25%
0.6 - 1.4
3.5 - 4.5

* the optimum bitumen content shall be determined during the design mix procedure. (the given values
are tentative).

C.8

The maximum variations of the project mix from the approved J.M.F. are as
shown in table 3.2:
Table 3.2: Surface Tolerances

Sieve Designation (square openings)

Specified Tolerances

9.5 mm (3/8 in.) and above
4.75 mm (No. 4)
2.00 mm (No. 10)
0.425 mm (No. 40)
0.18 mm (No. 80)
0.075 mm (No. 200)
Bitumen Content

+ or -5.0%
+ or - 4.0%
+ or -4.0%
+ or -4.0%
+ or -4.0%
+ or -1.0%
to be recommended by the Engineer based on
trials conducted by the Contractor.
Temperature of Mix on discharge
+ or -50°C
Any deviation from these limits shall be made only with the approval of the Engineer.

For agricultural roads the specified gradation tolerances above can be increased by ± 2%.

D.

Bituminous Prime and Tack Coats

D.1

Works shall consist of furnishing and applying MC cutback bitumen prime coat to
a previously constructed subgrade, sub-base, aggregate base course, or road
shoulders, and furnishing and applying RC cutback bitumen as a tack coat to a
previously constructed bituminous binder or wearing surface to provide bond for a
superimposed bituminous course; all as and where shown on the Drawings.

Page 92 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.2

Unless otherwise specified MC-70 shall be used for prime coat. Properties to
conform with AASHTO M82.

D.3

Tack coat shall be RC-70 in accordance with AASHTO M-8 1.

D.4

Surface for application to be sufficiently dry for Tack coat, and sufficiently moist for
prime coat. Ambient temperature to be more than 10°C and no rain, dust or strong
wind.

D.5

Spraying temperature shall be for RC-70 40 - 75°C. and for MC-70: 45 - 60°C.

D.6

Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. The following rates of applications shall
be used.



Prime coat
Tack coat

0.75 - 2.0 liters/ sq.m
0.3 - 0.6 Kg/ sq.m

D.7

Prime coat shall be cured for 3 days or as directed by the Engineer.

D.8

Tack coat shall be allowed to dry to a suitable tacky condition before succeeding
asphalt layer is placed.

D.9

Traffic shall not be permitted on surfaces after they have been cleaned and prepared
for prime or tack coat application.

3.03.3

A.

CONSTRUCTION

Surface Preparation

A.1

When the bituminous mix is to be placed upon a granular subgrade subbase or
base course, the surface shall have been primed and approved by the Engineer.

A.2

When the bituminous mix is to be placed upon an existing bituminous surface, the
surface shall be cleaned of all foreign material and broomed free of dust; to the
approval of the Engineer. I f required on the Drawings a tack coat shall be applied
prior to placing the new layer.

Page 93 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.

Delivery Spreading and Finishing

B.1

The maximum temperature of the bituminous mix at the mixing plant shall be
170°C when 60 / 70 penetration bitumen is used. The application temperature
shall be between 145°C and 165°C.

B.2

The mix shall be laid by means of a paver, or spreader, and rolled and compacted
to not less than 97% of the average daily Marshall bulk density.

B.3

Unless otherwise directed, the schedule of testing shall be as shown in table 3.3.

B.4

The thickness of pavement surface layer equal to the initial pavement layer
thickness with a maximum thickness of 15 cm and with a minimum value of 8 cm
and as per the concerned authorities (Municipality / Government / Ministry of
Transport)

C.

Tolerances

C.1

Elevation of finished course at intervals not exceeding 10 m shall be maximum ±
10mm (or 15 mm for agricultural roads).

C.2

When tested with a 3 m long straightedge, parallel to and perpendicular to the
centerline, the maximum deviation between any two contact points shall not exceed
8 mm for the binder course, and 5 mm for the wearing course (or 10 mm for
binder course and 7 mm for wearing course in case of an agricultural road).

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PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

Table 3.3: TESTS FOR BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS
Minimum Tests required.
(A)
Tests at Source
of material

Work item
3-1
Materials used in
Asphalt mix
(at Batching
plant)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

3-2
Materials used in
Asphalt mix (from
hot bins)

3-3
Asphalt mix
design each layer
(At batching
plant)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.

2.

Frequency for all
tests mentioned
under (A)

Specific gravity and
water absorption
Abrasion test
Chert content
Clay lumps and
Friable materials
Flaky and elongated
Particles.
Soundness

-

Gradation
Specific gravity and
water absorption.
Plasticity index
Sand equivalent
Stripping with
asphalt

-

-

-

Complete mix design in accordance with
American Asphalt
Institute (MS2)
Loss of stability

3-4
Asphalt for each
layer

At Batching plant
1. Stability
2. Flow
3. Extraction (binder
content and
gradation)
4. Air voids
5. Voids in mineral
aggregates
6. Daily Marshall
density
7. Loss of Stability

-

Frequency for all
tests mentioned
under (B)

Test for each
source
When materials
quality changes
As requested

Test for each
source
When materials
quality changes
As requested

For each job mix
When materials
quality changes.
When results are
not consistent
with the mix
design results.
As requested

-

Test each 3
working days
Tests for each
batching plant
As requested

-

Once a week
As requested

-

(B)
Tests at road
Site

Behind spreader
1. Stability
2. Flow
3. Extraction
(binder content
& gradation)
4. Air voids
5. Voids in mineral
aggregates.
6. Daily Marshall
density
7. Road density and
thickness (after
final compaction)

-

-

-

Test for each
working day
Test for each
batch
As requested

Test for each
200 lin.m, per
lane and for
each layer
As requested

C.3

The combination of permitted tolerances in the levels of the bituminous courses shall
not result in a reduction of thickness of 10 mm from the specified thickness nor a
reduction in the final wearing course by more than 5 mm from that specified.

C.4

Thickness of each bituminous course shall be determined by taking core samples, as
directed by the Engineer.

Page 95 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

SECTION 3.04

3.04.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

PAVEMENT REPAIRS AND TRENCH REINSTATEMENT
WORKS

GENERAL

A.

Scope

A.1

Pavement repair and trench reinstatement Works shall consist of removing
defective bituminous pavement, preparing surfaces (after having properly
backfilled all trenches and potholes) to receive repairs, furnishing materials, placing
and finishing new pavement, as and where shown on the Drawings or as directed
by the Engineer and the concerned authorities (Municipality / Governmate /
Ministry of Transport).

3.04.2

ASPHALTING

Pavement type “A”
Pavement type “ A ” shall be considered as asphaltic pavement for main roads with a total
thickness for base and pavement layers exceeding 15 cm in addition to a granular layer
below base with thickness greater than 15 cm.

Pavement type “B”
Pavement type “B” shall be considered as asphaltic pavement for collection roads with a
total thickness for asphalt of 10 to 15 cm in addition to a granular thickness below base
with thickness exceeding 15 cm.

Pavement type “C”
Pavement type “C” shall be considered as asphaltic pavement for roads that are not main or
collection roads and where asphalting is not of type “A” or “B”.

Page 96 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

3.04.3

Technical Specification for Water Network

MATERIALS

A.

General

A.1

All pavement materials shall conform with the relevant requirements and
concerned authorities mentioned in Section 3.02.2 - "Materials" and Section
3.03.2 - "Materials and Requirements for Bituminous Construction".

A.2

Subgrade materials shall conform with the relevant requirements of Section 2.05 "Subgrade Construction and requirements of concerned authorities.

3.04.4

CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR WORKS

A.

Preparation of Pavement

A.1

Cracks in bituminous pavement that, in the opinion of the Engineer, do not require
reconstruction shall be prepared by wire brushing and blowing out with
compressed air.

A.2

Defective bituminous pavement which, in the opinion of the Engineer, requires
reconstruction shall be cut back to good material using pneumatic cutting tools.
Excavation of pavement layers for treching shall also be initiated with pneumatic
tools or milling machines or asphalt saws and later completed with regular
excavating equipment. The cut edges shall be square or rectangular and in line
with the direction of traffic. The depth of cut shall be determined by the Engineer
and may include asphaltic layers, base and sub-base layers and subgrade layers
(in the case of failed pavement, excavation shall include a minimum of 300 mm of
subgrade material). A l l excavated materials shall be removed and disposed of
off-site. When the bottom of the excavation consists of earth or granular material it
shall be thoroughly compacted using mechanical compactors to the satisfaction of
the Engineer. Excavated bituminous surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned and
wire brushed prior to receiving repair materials.

A.3

Utility trench reinstatements in bituminous pavement shall be prepared in the
same way as defective bituminous pavement. Excavation shall include a minimum
of 300 mm of subgrade material.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.4

I f cracks are present in asphalt layer due to trench excavation works for sewage and water
network, the Contractor shall reinstate the defects present as below:



The crack and longitudinal and transverse joints shall be cleaned by a brush and by air.



The cracks shall then be filled with bitumen binder after which crushed sand shall be
spread above this binder.



I f settlement is obtained in the existing asphalt then the Contractor shall identify
these locations which shall be saw-cut in a square or rectangular shape with the
suitable equipment and shall then be reinstated as it was before failure.

B.

Placing and Finishing Repair Materials

B.1.

Cracks of 3 mm width or wider shall be filled with clean, coarse sand then saturated
with 1:1 diluted emulsified bitumen or as directed by the Engineer. Cracks of less
than 3 mm shall be filled with emulsified bitumen or as directed by the Engineer.
Cracks shall be filled to the road surface. Any excess bitumen shall be removed
with a squeegee and the bitumen surface shall be sprinkled liberally with coarse
sand.

B.2

Excavations below subgrade level shall be filled to a level specified by the Engineer
with subgrade material in layers not exceeding 150 mm and compacted using
mechanical compactors to conform with the requirements of Section 2.05 "Subgrade Construction" and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

B.3

Sub-base and/or base course, i f required, shall be placed in layers not exceeding
150 mm and compacted using mechanical compactors. They shall comply with the
relevant requirements of Section 3.02.3 or as directed by the Engineer.

B.4

Prior to receiving bituminous material the excavations shall be thoroughly cleaned.
Subgrade, sub-base or base course material shall be primed with a light coating of
MC cutback bitumen and existing bituminous surfaces shall be lightly painted with
RC cutback bitumen, all in accordance with the requirements of Section 3.03.3.

B.5

The excavation shall be filled with bituminous pavement materials placed in layers
not exceeding 70 mm and compacted using vibratory compactors. Unless ordered
to the contrary by the Engineer, the top layer shall be compacted by steel wheeled
roller, first compacting the 150 mm strips adjacent to the traffic edges, then rolling in
the direction of traffic.

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PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.6

New utility trenches shall be backfilled according to Section 2.04 and to the details
shown on the Drawings, or ordered, including any surrounds, haunching or
protective materials. Construction of subgrade and pavement shall be as for
pavement repairs.

B.7

No excavated areas shall remain open overnight.

C.

Surface Tolerances

C.1

Levels shall be checked by straight edge in relation to the adjacent existing
pavement.

C.2

Surface tolerances for bituminous layers shall conform with the relevant
requirements of Section 3.03.3.

C.3

Any deficiency in the wearing course surface shall be corrected by cutting out and
replacing.

Page 99 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

SECTION 3.05

3.05.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

CURBS, GUTTERS, SIDEWALKS AND PAVED MEDIANS

GENERAL

Scope

A.1 These Works shall consist of furnishing materials and constructing
concrete/limestone curbs, gutters, curb-and-gutter combinations and concrete/limestone
paving to sidewalks and medians, using in situ concrete construction precast concrete units or
limestone units, as and where shown on the Drawings. The shapes and installation details
of curbs and gutters, sidewalks, and medians shall be coordinated with the concerned
Authorities. Preparation and construction methods shall comply with the requirements of the
concerned authorities (Municipality / Governmate / Ministry of Transport) or as per the
Engineers direction.

3.05.2

MATERIALS AND PRECAST MANUFACTURE

A.

Concrete

A.1

Portland cement concrete shall be Class 2 10/20 for all in situ and precast concrete,
except base course and backing concrete which shall be Class 170/60. Al l concrete
shall conform with the relevant requirements of Section 5.01 - "Concrete and
Concrete Mixes and Testing" and shall be produced by an approved commercial
ready-mix plant.

B.

Mortar

B.1

Mortar shall consist of cement and fine aggregate having the same proportions as
used in the concrete construction and shall conform with all relevant requirements of
Section 5.01 - "Concrete and Concrete Mixes and Testing".

C.

Reinforcement

C.1

Reinforcing steel shall conform with the requirements of Section 5.03 - "Steel
Reinforcement and Fixing".

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PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.

Precast Concrete Units

D.1

A l l precast units shall be manufactured to the dimensions shown on the Drawings.
Manufacturing tolerances shall be 3 mm in any one dimension. End and edge faces
shall be perpendicular to the base.

D.2

Each precast curb or gutter unit shall normally be 0.5 m in length and this length
shall be reduced to 0.25 m or as directed, where units are to be installed along
curves of less than 10 m radius.

D.3

For horizontal curves of radius less than 10 m, curb and gutter units shall be
manufactured to the radius shown and in such circumstances where straight
elements or portions of straight elements shall not be used. Bullnoses and curved
faces shall be of constant radius with a smooth change from radius to plain face.

D.4

Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings, precast concrete tiles (paving slabs)
shall be 400 mm by 400 mm by 40 mm thickness with 5 mm edge bevel. The tile
face shall be grooved in squares of a size agreed by the Engineer as appropriate to
the tile dimensions. Coloring of the top layer, where required, shall be achieved
using mineral oxides.

D.5

Surfaces of precast units that will be exposed to view after installation, shall be
true and even, with a dense finish of uniform texture and color, free from cracks,
holes, fins, staining or other blemishes or defects. Units failing to meet these
requirements will be rejected. Surfaces that will not be exposed to view after
installation shall have all fins and irregular projections removed and all cavities,
minor honeycombing and other defects made good with mortar after the units have
been saturated with water for at least 3 hours.

D.6

Precast units shall be cast upside down in approved steel molds under conditions of
controlled temperature and humidity. The units shall be steam cured or any other
method approved by the Engineer until the concrete attains the full specified 28-day
strength.

D.7

The Contractor shall submit for approval, samples of each of the proposed units
together with the manufacturer's certificates and details of the method of
manufacture and materials to be used. The Engineer's approval of the samples will
not be considered final and the Engineer may reject any precast units delivered to
the Site which do not meet the required standards or specifications and
requirements of concerned Authorities.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

E.

Limestone

E.1

Approved best quality limestone shall be obtained from one strata from one quarry,
delivered in one shipment, free from vents, cracks, fissures, discoloration or other
defects which adversely affect strength, durability or appearance, thoroughly
seasoned, dressed and worked before delivery to site, and to the sizes shown on the
Drawings, cut square and true with clean edges.

F.

Preformed Expansion Joint Filler

F.1

Preformed expansion joint filler shall conform to AASHTO M 33.

G.

Epoxy Adhesive

G.1

Epoxy adhesive (for use in attaching precast units to existing concrete pavement
surfaces) shall be a two component epoxy of high viscosity and rapid setting
characteristics, conforming to AASHTO M237, Class II.

H.

Ducts

H.1

Ducts (if required under sidewalks or medians) shall consist of uPVC plastic pipe
conforming to DIN 8061/2 or SAS 14 or approved equal. I f jacking is required, duct
shall be approved galvanized steel tube.

I.

Bedding

I.1

Bedding material shall conform to the relevant requirements of Section 3.02 "Granular Sub-base and Base Courses" for Class A or Class B granular material.

3.05.3

CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION

A.

Cast In Situ Curbs and Gutters

A.1

The subgrade shall be excavated to the grades and sections shown on the
Drawings. I f the section is not indicated, the width to be excavated shall be 300
mm each side of the outside edges of the curb or gutter. The subgrade shall be of
approved uniform density.

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PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

The subgrade foundation shall be excavated to a minimum depth of 150 mm and the
material replaced with bedding material which shall be compacted to at least 95%
AASHTO T180 maximum density. A l l foundations shall be rolled or compacted to
provide a smooth surface and shall be approved before placing concrete.

A.2

For stationary side form construction, forms for curb or gutter shall be of approved
steel type. A l l forms shall be sufficiently strong and rigid and securely staked and
braced to obtain a finished product correct to the dimensions, lines and grades
required. Forms shall be cleaned and oiled before each use. Forms may be removed
as soon as practicable after concreting, provided no damage results to the curb or
gutter and in any case not until 24 hours after completion of concreting.

A.3

For slip-form construction, curb or gutter may be constructed by use of approved
slip-form or extrusion equipment. The completed curb or gutter shall be true to
shape, grade, and line, and the concrete shall be dense and of the required surface
texture.

A.4

Concrete shall be placed upon the previously prepared and moistened subgrade
and shall be consolidated with an approved type internal vibrator. The surface shall
be shaped by use of a steel screed to produce the section shown on the Drawings.
The edges shall be rounded with edgers to form the required radius, which i f not
shown on the Drawings shall be 5 mm.

A.5

Contraction and construction joints of the required types shall be constructed at the
intervals and locations shown on the Drawings. Adjacent to flexible base or surface
courses, weaker plane contraction joints in curbs or gutters may be constructed by
sawing through the curb to a depth of not less than 30 mm below the surface of the
gutter, or they may be formed by inserting a suitable removable metal template in the
fresh concrete, or by other approved methods. Sealing of the joints will not be
required unless shown on the Drawings.

A.6

Exposed surfaces shall be finished full width with a trowel and edger. The top face
of curbs or gutters shall receive a light brush finish. Forms for the roadway face of
curbs and the top surface of gutters shall be removed 24 hours after concrete has
been placed and finishing of the surfaces shall be carried out, provided the
alignment tolerances and other requirements have been met.

A.7

Tolerances on tangent sections of curb and gutter shall be tested using a 4 m
straightedge. The finished surface of concrete shall not deviate from the
straightedge between any 2 contact points by more than 5 mm. Curved sections
shall be true to the specified radius plus or minus 5 mm and all joints shall be flush
and neat in appearance.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.8

A l l fins and irregular projections shall be removed and cavities produced by form
ties and all other small holes, honeycomb spots, broken corners or edges and other
defects shall be rectified. After saturating with water for a period of not less than 3
hours, the surfaces shall be carefully pointed and made true with mortar. A l l
construction and expansion joints shall be left carefully tooled and free of all
mortar and concrete. Joint filler shall be left exposed for its full length with clean
and true edges. The resulting surfaces shall be true and uniform.

A.9

A rubbed finish shall then be carried out to surfaces that will be exposed to view
after completion of construction. Before rubbing, the concrete shall be kept
saturated with water for at least 3 hours. Sufficient time shall have elapsed before
the wetting down to allow the mortar used in the pointing of holes and defects to
set. Surfaces shall by rubbed with a medium carborundum stone, using mortar on
its face. Rubbing shall remove all remaining form marks, projections and
irregularities, and result in a uniform surface. The final finish shall involve rubbing
with a fine carborundum stone and water until the entire surface is of a smooth
texture and uniform color. After the surface has dried, loose powder shall be
removed and the surface shall be left clean and free from unacceptable flaws or
imperfections.

A.10

Curbs and gutters shall be moist cured until stripped and finished, and then
membrane cured in accordance with the relevant requirements of Section 5.02 "Concrete Handling, Placing and Curing". Curing compound shall be applied
immediately following completion of rubbed finish.

A.11

The area adjacent to completed and accepted curbs and gutters shall be
backfilled with approved material to the top edges of the curbs or gutters or to the
elevations shown on the Drawings. Backfill shall be placed and compacted to 95%
AASHTO T180 maximum density.

B.

Precast Concrete/Limestone Curbs and Gutters

B.1

Subgrade for the concrete base shall be constructed as for in situ curbs and
gutters.

B.2

Forms for the concrete base shall be approved wood or steel. A l l forms shall be
sufficiently strong and rigid and securely staked and braced to obtain a finished
product correct to the dimensions, lines and grade required. Forms shall be
cleaned and oiled before each use. I f approved, forms for the concrete base may
be omitted and the concrete placed directly against undisturbed excavated faces.

Page 104 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.3

Base course concrete shall be placed, compacted and shaped to the sections shown
on the Drawings. Concrete shall be compacted with an approved internal type
vibrator or i f approved, by hand spudding and tamping. Edges shall be rounded if
necessary by the use of wood molding or by the use of an edger as applicable. The
concrete base shall be finished to a true and even surface with a wood float.
Concrete shall be membrane or water cured for at least 7 days before precast units
are placed thereon.

B.4

Precast concrete units shall be soaked in water immediately before installation. Units
shall be set accurately in position in mortar on the concrete base. Joints between
precast units shall not be mortared unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. Units
shall be closely spaced and every 10 m run shall be provided with an expansion
joint.

B.5

Where curbs or gutters are installed on existing concrete pavement using epoxy
resin adhesive, automatic devices for mixing epoxy adhesive shall be equipped so that
the separate components are delivered to the mixing head at the specified volume.
The lines feeding the mixing head shall be equipped with suitable valves that will
allow samples to be taken for checking the ratio of each component. The machine
shall be capable of metering the amount of adhesive required to secure each curb or
gutter.

B.6

After curbs have been installed, steel forms shall be erected and concrete backing,
i f required, shall be placed as shown on the Drawings. Pavement courses shall not
be laid against curbs until the concrete backing has membrane or water cured for at
least 14 days.

B.7

The tolerances on alignment of completed precast units shall be as specified for in
situ concrete construction.

B.8

Backfilling shall be carried out as specified for in situ curbs and gutters.

C.

In Situ Concrete Paving

C.1

Excavation shall be carried out to the required depth and to a width that will permit
the installation and bracing of the forms. The foundation shall be shaped and
compacted to an even surface conforming to the sections shown on the Drawings. All
soft and yielding material shall be removed and replaced with approved material.

C.2

Bedding material shall be placed in layers not exceeding 100 mm in depth and each
layer shall be compacted to 95% AASHTO T180 maximum density. The total
bedding course thickness shall be as shown on the Drawings, or i f not shown, 100
mm minimum thickness.

Page 105 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

C.3

Technical Specification for Water Network

Forms shall be of steel, wood, or other approved material and shall extend for the
full depth of the concrete. A l l forms shall be straight, free from warp, and of
sufficient strength to resist the pressure of the concrete without displacement.
Bracing and staking of forms shall be such that the forms remain in both horizontal
and vertical alignment until their removal. A l l forms shall be cleaned and oiled
before concrete is placed.

C.4 The foundation shall be thoroughly moistened immediately prior to the placing
concrete. Concrete shall be deposited in one course in such a manner as to
prevent segregation and shall be consolidated by vibrators. The surface shall be
finished with a wooden float and light brooming. No plastering of the surface will be
permitted. A l l outside edges of the concrete tiles and all joints shall be edged with a
5 mm radius edging tool.

C.5

Forms may be removed only when there is no risk of damage to the concrete and
in any case not until at least 24 hours after completion of concreting.

C.6

The smoothness of paved areas shall be tested using a 4 m straightedge. The
finished surface of concrete shall not deviate from the straightedge between any
two contact points by more than 5 mm. Sections of defective paving shall be
removed and replaced as directed, at the Contractor's expense.

C.7

Expansion joints shall be of the dimensions specified and shall be filled with
approved, pre-molded expansion joint filler. The area being paved shall be divided
into sections by weakened plane joints formed by a jointing tool or other acceptable
means as directed. These joints shall extend into the concrete 0.20 to 0.25 times the
depth and shall be approximately 3 mm wide. Joints shall match as nearly as
possible adjacent joints in curb or pavements. Weakened plane joints may be sawn
in lieu of forming with a jointing tool.

C.8

Construction joints shall be formed around all appurtenances such as valve
chambers, utility poles, etc., extending into and through the side-walk or median.
Pre-molded expansion joint filler of 10 mm thickness shall be installed in these
joints. Expansion joint filler of the thickness indicated shall be installed between
concrete construction and any adjacent fixed structures such as buildings or
bridges, etc. The expansion joint material shall extend for the full depth of the
concrete.

C.9

Concrete shall be cured by membrane curing in accordance with the requirements
of Section 5.02 "Concrete Handling, Placing and Curing".

Page 106 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.

Precast Concrete Tiles (Paving Slabs)

D.1

Excavation and the placing of bedding material shall be as specified for in situ
concrete paving. The surface of the completed bedding shall be dampened and base
course concrete shall be placed and finished to the thickness as shown on the
Drawings or if not shown, 40 mm minimum thickness.

D.2

The base course concrete shall be water or membrane cured as specified for in situ
concrete paving, for not less than 7 days before placing precast tiles.

D.3

Immediately prior to tile laying, the concrete base course shall be dampened and
the concrete tiles shall be immersed in water. Tiles shall then be laid true to line and
grade on a 10 mm to 20 mm thickness of mortar. Joints shall be 3 mm wide.

D.4

The tolerance on smoothness of precast concrete tiled areas and removal and
replacement of defective tiling, shall be as specified for in situ concrete paving.

D.5

Tiles shall be cleaned 24 to 36 hours after laying and joints shall be mortared using,
i f approved, a plasticizer in the mortar to improve workability and to enable the
mortar to be readily smoothed and finished. As soon as the mortar has partially set,
all mortar material shall be raked from the top 3 mm depth of the joint, using a
grooving tool to produce a smooth circular section.

D.6

When the mortar is sufficiently set, the surface shall be sprinkled with water and
covered with plastic or nylon sheets during the curing period. The sheets shall be
left in place until final hardening of the mortar, or as directed. A l l foreign matter,
wood, concrete, mortar lumps, etc., shall then be removed and the surface cleaned
of staining, discoloration and other blemishes.

D.7

In cases where tiles are required to be cut at the boundaries of tiled areas, or due to
the presence of obstacles, poles, hydrants, etc., or in the construction of the
driveways or side roads, the Contractor shall cut the tiles or substitute in situ
concrete of at least the same quality as the tile concrete. The Engineer will decide,
after trials, on the method to be adopted. Cutting of tiles or substitution of in situ
concrete shall be kept to a minimum. The Contractor shall complete the areas using
uncut precast tiles to the maximum extent practicable.

Page 107 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.8

The method of construction and sequence of operations, for areas constructed
using precast tiles, shall be the same as for areas constructed using in situ
concrete. The Contractor shall ensure that the final appearance of such surfaces,
regardless of the method of construction, is substantially the same for both types of
construction.

D.9

Where a sidewalk crosses the entrance to a shop or a house, etc., which is higher
than the sidewalk, the Contractor shall construct steps, formed by a curb and a
complete or partial tile. Steps shall be backfilled with concrete of the same quality
as specified for concrete base course.

D.10 Steps shall be constructed wherever the difference in elevation between the
entrance and the sidewalk is more than 250 mm. The Contractor shall submit for
approval, prior to commencing any sidewalk construction, a list of locations where
steps will be required, together with design details for their construction.

Page 108 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

SECTION 3.06

3.06.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC AND DETOURS

GENERAL

A.

Scope

A.1

These Works shall consist of supplying all materials and equipment, constructing
detour roads, bridges and culverts where necessary; and installing, operating and
maintaining all required temporary lighting, signing, signals, pavement marking,
barriers and other safety measures; all for the proper maintenance of vehicular
and pedestrian traffic through and around the Site of the Works during the
Contract Period.

A.2

Temporary works shall conform with the general requirements of Section
1.04 "Temporary Works" and as specified by the concerned Authorities (Traffic
Directorate /Municipality/Governmate/ Ministry of transport).

3.06.2

MAINTENANCE AND PROTECTION OF TRAFFIC

A.

General

A.1

The Contractor shall ensure the free movement of vehicular and pedestrian traffic
and shall maintain all highways including temporary detours and accesses in a
clear and safe condition free from obstructions. Adequate access to the Site shall
be maintained at all times to ensure that traffic on existing roads is not impeded
unnecessarily by traffic turning into the Site.

A.2

In order to facilitate movement of traffic through or around construction and when
and wherever required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall furnish, erect and
maintain signs, traffic barricades and other facilities necessary for safe and
efficient direction and handling of traffic at specified locations in or around the Site
and as per specification of the concerned authorities and Engineer.

A.3

The Contractor shall, i f required by the Engineer, provide flashing signal lights by
night and provide sturdy barricades for the protection of workmen engaged on
traffic control.

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PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.4

The Contractor shall, whenever necessary, provide flagmen at specified locations
with the sole task of directing traffic through or around the Site and shall provide and
erect within or near the Site any "warning" or "directional" signs the Engineer may
require.

A.5

A l l barriers, traffic signs, signals and other such devices shall be erected,
maintained and removed when necessary, as directed by the Engineer and
concerned authorities.

A.6

Whenever it becomes necessary to operate one-way traffic along any stretch of road
in or around the Site, the Contractor shall, for the purpose of maintaining traffic,
provide a single traffic lane not less than 3.5 m wide and shall keep it open to
traffic.

A.7

Where, in the opinion of the Engineer, construction of a detour is inappropriate,
new construction may be limited to half the road width at a time.

A.8

The Contractor shall submit for approval, details of the layout, pavement
construction, drainage, lighting, signing and marking of any detours that he
proposes. He shall give the Engineer at least 7 days notice of such proposals.

A.9

The standard of lighting levels and uniformity for each detour shall be at least
equivalent to that existing on the road that it replaces. In addition to lighting of
detours, the Contractor shall provide and maintain illumination of all temporary traffic
signs during the hours of darkness.

A.10

Any obstruction associated with detours, including ramps, variations of lane widths,
siting of warning signs, etc., shall be marked by the use of cones, flashing beacons
and warning lamps, appropriate to the location concerned.

A.11

Detours shall be constructed in advance of the Works which interfere with the
existing highway or access and shall be regularly maintained in a condition
acceptable to the Engineer for as long as required.

A.12

Before any detour is opened, the Contractor shall obtain approval from the
Engineer. The diversion of traffic on the day on which the detour is initially put into
operation shall be carried out with the assistance and coordination of the Police
Department.

A13.

All works under this section shall comply with the requirements of the Ministry of
Communication and traffic directorate and the concerned authorities.

Page 110 of 259

PART 3: Pavement and Roads Surface Finishing

A.14

Technical Specification for Water Network

The Contractor should install sufficient number of metal plates as bridges to cross
the excavations for pipelines according to the Engineer instructions and in
coordination with the citizens as per one bridge for each house. The shopping
stores should be considered. A l l required roads diversions should be paved.
Enough coordination should be done with the citizens to facilitate their movement
during the construction by printed notification prepared as per the requirements of
the water authority in the project area and sticked on each house.

Page 111 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

PART 4: PIPE WORKS AND NETWORK ACCESSORIES

SECTION 4.01

A.

SCOPE

The works cover the supply of materials, installation, testing and commissioning of
all pipes, fittings, valves, and appurtenances.

Page 112 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

SECTION 4.02
4.02.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

GENERAL

A.

Scope

A.1

This section outlines the sequence of construction works, aspects related to the
right of way (ROW) and the general requirements for supply and handling of
equipments and materials.

4.02.2

A.

SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

The Contractor shall adhere to the sequence of construction as set out below
unless a justified request for modifying this sequence is approved by the Engineer
at least two weeks prior to commencement of work on the affected section of the
network:


Stake out pipe alignments.



Clear and grade the right of way.



Conduct field surveys.



Carry out exploratory trenching across existing roads to verify location,
depth, size and type of existing utilities.



Prepare and submit to Supervision Engineer for approval composite Shop
Drawings for all utilities showing alignment, ground elevation, trench invert
elevation, pipe size, class and length, station and size of fittings, valves as
applicable chambers, inlets, appurtenances and structures to be demolished
and reinstated (curbstone, rails, culverts, etc.). Cross sections showing
location and inverts of existing pipes and those proposed shall be prepared.
Pipes, structures and other utilities to be removed or relocated shall be
indicated on the Shop Drawings. The Contract Drawings shall be modified
wherever required to produce the Shop Drawings.



Relocate, demolish and reinstate existing utilities interfering with pipeline
alignments.



Remove pavement layers, excavate trenches, place bedding all as required.



Lay and join pipes, fittings, appurtenances, valve chambers, etc…

Page 113 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories
PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network
Technical Specification For Water Network

-

Place primary backfill material.

-

Perform required air, hydraulic or other required testing.

-

Install required house connections and or connections to existing utilities as
required.

-

Place final backfill.

-

Restore or reinstate surfaces and structures as required.

-

Carry out final surface works road surfacing curb stone, backing walls, side
walk tiling, etc…

-

Dispose of surplus materials.

4.02.3 RIGHT OF WAY (ROW)
A.

Extent

A.1

All utilities services shall be installed in the right-of-way of existing or
proposed roads as shown on the Drawings and as per concened authorities
directions.

B.

Clearing and Grading

B.1

The ROW shall be used for both access to works sites and for service roads for
the pipelines.

B.2

In case the pipelines run outside existing roads, the ROW shall be cleared and
graded to the required slopes; road cross-sections and all drains, shall be as
indicated on the Drawings.

B.3

Road surfacing / resurfacing works shall commence only after completion of pipe
installation and construction of all required works.

Page 114 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

4.02.4

Technical Specification for Water Network

MATERIALS, PRODUCTS SUPPLY AND HANDLING

A.

Structural Materials

A.1

Concrete shall conform to the requirements specified in Section 5.01 "Concrete and
Concrete Mixes and Testing".

A.2

Reinforcement shall conform to the requirements specified in Section 5.03 "Steel
Reinforcement and Fixing".

B.

Products supply requirements

B.1

Manufacturer's certificate: Materials shall be supplied with a certificate for each
delivery. The certificate shall clearly state that products comply with the specified
Standards and have been factory tested accordingly.

B.2

Marking: Unless otherwise specified in the relevant Standard products shall have
legibly cast, stamped or indelibly painted on, the following marks, as appropriate:








B.3

Manufacturer's name, initials and identification mark.
Nominal diameter.
Class designation.
Initials and number of relevant Standard.
Length of pipe i f shorter than standard length.
Angle of bends in degrees.
Date of manufacture.

Special tests: Whenever required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall supply and
transport samples of materials selected by the Engineer to a testing laboratory. The
number of samples shall not exceed 0.5% of total supplied. However, at least one
sample from each class, diameter and manufacturer shall be tested. Failure of any
sample shall be followed by a second and if necessary a third test from the same
batch regardless of whether the limits on number of tests has been exceeded or not.
A third test failure shall result in all material from that manufacturer being rejected
and replaced by material from a different manufacturer, subject to approval and
satisfactory tests. Laboratory test report in an approved form must be provided.

Page 115 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

C.

Products handling

C.1

General

Technical Specification for Water Network

C.1.1 Manufacturer's recommendations on handling, repairing, laying, jointing,
anchoring, testing and other works for pipes and fittings shall be strictly followed.

C.1.2 For loading and unloading, the Contractor shall use cranes, hoists or skidways as
directed by the Engineer. Use of hooks, spreader beams, ropes, band or wire
slings etc. shall be as recommended by the manufacturer of each type of pipe and as
approved by the Engineer.

C.1.3 Pipes shall be stacked on horizontal surfaces. Pipes shall not be stored on their
sockets or jointing fairlings. End pipes in bottom row shall be secured by chocks.
The allowable height of stacks shall be to the manufacturer's instructions.

C.1.4 Material and equipment shall be handled with care whenever moved by hand,
skidways or hoists and any damage incurred shall result in the material being
rejected.

C.1.5 The Contractor shall provide safe storage for the material. The interior of pipes,
fittings etc. shall be kept free from dirt and foreign matter. Shade for materials shall
be provided as required by manufacturer's instructions and to the Engineer's
approval.

C.1.6 Cutting hacksaws, manually operated wheel cutters or pipe cutting machines shall
be used as per manufacturer's instructions. I f , in the opinion of the Engineer,
special precautions are to be taken to eliminate airborne particles, methods and
equipment shall be used as directed by the Engineer. Ends shall be prepared
according to type of joint used and as per manufacturer's recommendations. Care
shall be taken to avoid any damage to the lining. Minor damage may be repaired on
site as directed by the Engineer.

C.1.7 The Contractor shall repair damaged coating, sheathing or lining in accordance with
the Specification and manufacturer's instructions. Material used for repair work
shall be compatible with that originally used. A l l repair works shall be approved by
the Engineer before incorporating materials into the work.

C.1.8 Bricks and cast iron frames and covers of valve chambers and all other construction
materials shall be loaded and unloaded by fitting with hoists or skidding so as to
avoid shock or damage. No hooks shall be used inside pipe. Under no
circumstances shall such materials be dropped. Pipe handled on skidways shall not
be skidded or rolled against the other pipe or other materials already on the ground.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

C.1.9 A l l materials shall be delivered and distributed at the site by the Contractor. In
distributing the material at the site of the work, each pipe shall be unloaded opposite
or at the nearest possible place where it is to be laid in the trench.

C.1.10 A space of suitable width, clear of any spoil materials shall be left all along the
trench so that no pipes shall be placed on excavated material.

C.2

GRP Pipes and Fittings

For handling GRP pipes, fittings and rubber ring gaskets, instructions of the manufacturer
shall be strictly adhered to GRP pipes and fittings shall be suitably wedged or braced to
prevent damage during shipment and transportation and rubber rings gaskets and lubricants
shall be packed in suitable containers.
The allowable stack height is 2.5 meters or as per manufacturers specification. When
storing the pipes directly on ground, the ground shall be free of stones and materials
causing any damage.
While lifting, the supports shall be pliabe straps or ropes and shall not be steel cables or
chains unless sufficient padding is provided to protect pipes surfaces. Pipes shall never be
dropped.

C.3

HDPE Pipes and Fittings

Manufacturer’s instructions shall be strictly adhered to while handling pipes and fittings.
Extreme care shall be taken when handling pipes and fittings.
The pipes shall be loaded using enough supports to avoid any sort of bending, distortion,
damage, scratches to the barrel or ends or any part of pipes and fittings. When off loading,
pipes shall be lowered taking all precautions to avoid bending, distortion, damage,
scratches and never be dropped to the ground. Pipes shall be given adequate and enough
supports while stacking. Pipes shall never be stacked in large piles or under direct sun light
to avoid ultraviolet degradation and manufacturer’s instructions shall be strictly adhered to.
Any pipe with ends prepared for jointing shall be stacked in layers with sockets placed at
alternate ends of the stack and with the sockets protruding to avoid unstable stacks.
For long term storage, pipes shall be stored in pipe racks providing continuous support
under a shed with insulated roof and shall never be kept under sunlight to avoid ultraviolet
degradation.
Also while loading pipes and fittings, care must be taken to avoid their coming into contact
with any sharp corners such a angle irons, sharp steel sheets, loose nail-heads. While in
transit, pipes shall be well secured over their entire length. While off-loading, care shall be
taken that pipes and fittings do not fall one upon another or to any hard or uneven surfaces.
pipes and fittings shall be transported to the site in special pile rack type containerized
units to facilitate loading, unloading, onsite storage, retrieval and protection of pipes and
fittings from sunlight and ultraviolet radiations.

Page 117 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

C.4

Technical Specification for Water Network

Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Pipe

For handling RCC pipes, the instruction of the respective manufacturer shall be strictly
adhered to. RCC pipes shall be handled with great care while transporting to the site and
while installing. Each pipe shall be properly wedged to stop any movement, which may
cause damage to the bell and spigot or tongue and groove ends of the pipes.
Each pipe shall be carefully inspected before being laid and no cracked or defective pipe
shall be used. Chipping of the bell and spigot or tongue and groove pipe ends, which in the
Engineer’s opinion may cause defective joints, shall be avoided. A l l cracked and defective
pipes shall be rejected.

C.5

Ductile Iron Pipes and Fittings

A l l ductile iron pipes and fittings shall be handled and stored strictly according to the
instructions of manufacturer.
Pipes, fittings, valves, hydrants, cast iron frames and covers and all other construction
materials shall be loaded and unloaded by lifting with hoists or skidding so as to avoid
shock or damage. No hooks shall be used inside the pipe. Under no circumstances shall
such materials be dropped. Pipe handled on skidways shall not be skidded or rolled against
pipe or other materials already on the ground.
In distributing the material at the site of the work, each pipe shall be unloaded opposite or
near the place where it is to be laid in the trench.
Pipe shall be so handled that coating and lining will not be damaged. If, however, any part
of the coating or lining is damaged, the repair shall be made by the Contractor at his
expense according to manufacturer’s specifications or in a manner satisfactory to the
Engineer, or be replaced as determined by the Engineer.

C.6

Rubber Ring Gaskets

A l l gaskets for vitrified clay (VC), unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC), Glass fibre
reinforced concrete (RC) pipes and fittings shall be handled and stored strictly according to
their respective manufacturer’s instructions.

For storage of gaskets, the storage temperature is to be between + 5C and + 25C. If stored
at low temperatures and taken out for immediate use, their temperature must be brought to
approximately 30C prior to their use. The gaskets are to be protected from direct sunlight
and a strong artificial light with ultraviolet content. The gaskets must be protected from the
surrounding air either by wrapping them up or storing them in hermetically sealed boxes.

Page 118 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.

Materials and Equipment Furnished by the Contractor

D.1

The Contractor shall furnish all materials and equipment that will be incorporated in
the works and all other materials and equipment needed during construction. He
shall also furnish such constructional plant and equipment as in the opinion of the
Engineer, is necessary and adequate to perform all work within the scheduled time
for completion.

D.2

The tenderer shall state in the schedule provided in the trade name of materials and
equipment he intends to incorporate in the works as well as the name of the
manufacturer and his full address. The Contractor shall be bound to use the same
manufacturer materials and equipment quoted in his Tender.

D.3

The Contractor shall, within 60 days after receipt of the order to commence, submit
to the Engineer in triplicate certified copies of the unpriced agreements with the
manufacturers of the materials and equipment to be used in the works. Such
agreements shall embody all the appropriate specification clauses including testing
and inspection and shall state delivery periods.

D.4

Materials and equipment furnished by the Contractor shall be brand new and of the
type and quality described in the specification. The Contractor shall procure all
materials and equipment, whether specified or substituted, from eligible sources.
Where, because of Employer’s priorities or other causes, materials or equipment
required by the specification become unavailable, substituted materials or equipment
may be used.

D.5

The Engineer’s decision as to whether substitution shall be permitted and as to what
substitute materials.

E.

Inspection of Materials and Equipment

E.1

Materials and equipment furnished by the Contractor which will become a part of the
permanent works shall be subject to inspection at any one or more of the following
locations as determined by the Engineer: at the place of production or manufacture,
at the hipping point, or at the site.

E.2

The allow sufficient time to provide for inspection , the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer, at the time of issuance, copies in triplicate of purchase orders, including
drawings and other pertinent information, covering materials and equipment on
which inspection will be made as advised by the Engineer, or shall submit other
evidence in the event such purchase orders are issued verbally or by letter. The
inspection of materials and equipment or the waiving of the inspection thereof shall in
no way relieve the Contractor of the responsibility for furnishing materials and
equipment meeting the requirements of the specification.

Page 119 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

F.

F.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

Rejected Materials

Should any materials, equipment or manufactured articles prove to be, in the
judgment of the Engineer or as a result of testing, unsound or of inferior quality or in
any way unsuitable for the works in which it is proposed to employ them, such
materials, equipment or manufactured articles shall not be used in the works but shall
be branded, i f in the opinion of the Engineer this is necessary, and shall forthwith
be removed from the site and replaced at the Contractor’s expense and in each case
as the Engineer shall direct.

G.

Approved Manufacturer’s Instructions

G.1

The Contractor shall supply the equipment, materials or other items from the
approved manufacturers listed or equal and approved.

G.2

All equipment or materials shall be delivered to the site in the manufacturers’
original unopened containers with the manufacturers’ brand and name clearly
marked on.

G.3

All equipment or materials shall be assembled, mixed, fixed, applied installed or
otherwise incorporated in the works in accordance with the printed instructions of
the manufacturer of the equipment or materials and/or the relevant standards as
specified.

H.

Certification and Third Party Inspection

H.1

A l l material provided by Contractor shall be procured from ISO/BS certified
manufacturers. The certificate should cover all the processes associated with the
production of the manufactured item and should be submitted to the Engineer
approval with the material submittals by the Contractor. Upon the request of the
Engineer, the Contractor shall propose an internationally accredited and reputable
audit firm to act as a third party inspector who shall certify that all material
manufactured and shipped for the project have been manufactured and conforms to
the specified international standard governing the manufacture of the finished item
/ product as specified in the project Tender Documents. The scope of the third party
inspection shall cover at least the quality control tests listed in the forth coming
sections of the Specification. The cost of the third party inspection shall be borne
by the Contractor.

Page 120 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

SECTION 4.03

4.03.1

Technical Specification for Water Network

PIPES, FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES

MATERIALS

The following pipe material for water supply network shall be used:

Usage Recommendations
Type of Pipe

HDPE

Dry Areas
(Aggressive soil)

Wet Areas
(Ground water)
(Aggressive soil)

For small diameters up to 200mm- pressure class 16 bars

D I – cement
coated
(Class K9)

GRP/GRE
stiffness not
less than
5000N/m2

Steel

Dry Areas
(Non-aggressive soil)

For diameters greater
than 200mm and
operating pressure up
to 24 bars

For diameters grater
than 200mm and
operating pressure up to
24 bars with additional
external protection
(Polyethylene sleeves
250 microns thickness)

Conveyance pipes outside cities with diameter of
400mm and greater and operating pressure not
less than 16 bars with granular bedding.

For diameters greater
than 200mm and
operating pressure up to
24 bars and with external
protection (bituminous
layers)

Conveyance pipes
outside cities with
diameters 400mm and
greater and operating
pressure not exceeding
16 bars with granular
bedding and textile
protection

Conveyance pipes with diameters 1200mm and
greater and operating pressure up to 40 bars.

The following paragraph describes the specifications of each of these pipes:

A.

Ductile iron pipe

A.1

Use DI pipes Class K9 for water supply network for diameters greater than 200
mm and operating pressure up to 24 bars.

A.2

Ductile iron pipe for water shall be to BS EN 545 or equivalent. Unless
otherwise indicated in the Bill of Quantities or the Drawings, Class K9 shall be
used for all pipe diameters, and in the case where pressure does not exceed 16
bars for large diameters, class K8 pipes shall be used.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.3

Ductile iron fittings shall be to IS02531 or BS EN545 [1] or equivalent with socket/
spigot ends. Joint deflection at installation shall not exceed 50% of the maximum
allowed by manufacturer.

A.4

Spigot and socket ended pipes shall be used for straight runs and adjacent to
elbows or fittings. These joints shall be provided with rubber gaskets, and an
external thrust block is required at elbows or fittings. Anchored or self restrained
joints shall be used for sections adjacent to elbows in areas where space is
restricted or indicated on the Drawings or Bill of Quantities. Anchored joints are to
be push-in, self anchored type able to take up the axial forces thus allowing concrete
thrust blocks to be dispensed with. The Contractor shall submit calculations verifying
the number of restrained joints required noting that pipe pressure testing will be
made when pipes are partially backfilled and joints are exposed.

A.5

Rubber gasket shall be to BS/EN545 or ISO 4633 or equivalent.

A.6

Flanged pipes wherever specified shall have screwed-on or cast-on flanges to
sustain working pressure of - PN 16 minimum.

A.7

Flanges shall conform to ISO 2531 or BS 4504 [2] or equivelent.

A.8

Factory protection for pipes:

A.9



Pipes shall be internally cement lined to confirm with ISO4 179 or BS EN
545 [1] or equivalent and according to specified thicknesses.
The cement mortar lining shall be certified as suitable for use with potable
water by an internationally accepted organization such as UK’s WRC
(Water Research Center)



Externally, pipe shall be coated with metallic zinc to conform with BS EN
545 [1] or ISO 8179 or equivalent and followed by a bitumen coat to BS
3416 [4] or ISO8179 or equivalent.

Additional Site Protection for Ductile Iron Pipes

A.9.1 Polyurethane Coating
The coating shall be 100% solid polyurethane consists of two components: one
isocyanides-rich solution and one oplyol-rich solution.
The coating shall be completely continuous and free from all holidays, voids, pinholes or
other defects.

Page 122 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

The test certificate shall state the property of the coating and shall specify the test method
used.
The polyurethane coating system shall comply with the data included in the following
Tables:
Technical Data of Polyurethane External Coating
Material
Color
Density
Tensile Strength
Adhesion to Steel
Dielectric Strength
Water Absorption
Impact Resistance
Temperature Resistance
Salt Water Spray
Elongation
Chemical Resistance
Thickness

Polyurethane, 2 Components airless applicator
Black
1 .6g/mm3
25N/ mm3
> 8Mpa (Stee grit blasted SA21/2)
200 Kv/cm
3.5% at 25C
> 15Nm
90C continuous
No effect after 1000hrs
> 10%
Water solution of salts, acids, and bases of pH 1-14
1-1.5mm

A.9.2 Polyethylene Sleeves
Protective polyethylene sleeves shall be used with all D I pipes and fittings to be installed in
buried condition and shall be in accordance with ISO 8180.
The minimum nominal thickness of the sleeve shall be 0.0 10 inch (250 microns) with a
maximum minus tolerance of 10%.
The material shall be made from a polymer with a melt flow index as measured according to
BS 2782, of 10 or less and a density in the range of 0.915 to 925g/ml. The sleeve shall be
free from pinholes, gels, undispresed raw materials and particles of foreign matter. The film
may not contain more than 5% by weight of material other than polyethylene.
Polyethylene sleeving shall be stored in cool dry store away from direct sunlight or
excessive heat, the length of the roll, the pipe size for which it is intended.

A.9.3 Repair of Coating and Lining
In case of repairs are needed the Contractor shall take immediate action to correct the
situation.
A l l the repairs to the coated or lined pipe and fitting shall be at the Contractor own
expense.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

The Contractor shall submit the repair procedure to the Employer for approval. The
procedure for the repair shall be as directed by the Engineer and the manufacture
specification.

A.9.4 Anti Corrosion Pipe Wrapping Tape
The tape shall be supplied 150 mm or 225 mm wide in 15 m or 25 m rolls, or approved by
Engineer depending upon the requirements.


Pipe diameters up to 200mm, 150mm width tape shall be used.



Pipe diameters above 200mm, 225mm width tape shall be used.

The adhesive compound shall be of the pressure sensitive type (that is, not requiring a
primer in order to achieve bond to the substrata) and shall have thickness between 0.75 to
0.90 mm. Flow coefficient of bitumen viscosity at 200C and 175C shall be 5.5 poise and 7.5
poise respectively.
The tape shall be supplied with a wider high quality silicon release paper covering
complete tape. Both sides of the tape shall have a minimum of 5mm wider silicon release
paper to prevent edge contamination.
During storage at maximum storage temperature of 500 C for six months, the adhesive
material shall not flow out of the release paper and there shall not be any end blocking.
Wrapping tape shall be marked with the following information:


Manufacturers name & logo



Date of manufacture



Width of the tape



Batch number

A.9.5 Wrapping Procedure
To increase the wrapping protection efficiency, pipe diameters up to 300mm must be
wrapped using semi-automatic tape wrapping machine and for pipe diameters above 3
00mm, fully automatic wrapping machine should be used.

A.9.6 Storage
Wrapping tape should be stored in dry, cool, well ventilated condition, out of direct
sunlight.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.9.7 Packing

Roll shall be placed in a cardboard carton in layers in vertical position. A proper separator for
safe storage shall separate each layer. The boxes shall be marked at two places given name
and logo of manufacturer, tender no., type, size and quantity of material in black/blue color
letters with a minimum height of 50mm.
The wrapping tape shall also conform to the following specifications given below;
S. No.
1
Color
1.1 Backing

Pro perty

Test Method
-

Unit
-

Data
Blue RAL
5000/5001/
5005/5010/2017

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

1.2 Adhesive Compound
1.3 Release Paper
Backing Thickness Min.
Total Thickness Min.
Elongation
Tensile Strength Tape
Modules
Tear Strength
Impact Resistance (Two Layers)
Viscosity at 200C
Viscosity at 175C
Adhesion to Steel
Adhesion to Tape
Electrical
Dielectric Strength
Insulation Resistance
Cathodic Disbondment
Water Vapor permeability
Water Absorption
Bacterial Growth Disbondment
Temperature
For Wrapping
In Service
For Storage

BS 2782
BS 2782
BS2782
ASTM D1004
DIN 30627

mm
mm
%
N/mm2
N/mm2
N
Nm

Cone & Plate
Cone & Plate
ASTM D 1000
ASTM D 1000

Poise
Poise
N/mm
N/mm

BS 2782
kV
ASTM D 257 Ohm/cm2
ASTM G 8
mm2
BS 2782
g/m2/24h
ASTM D 570
%
- C
- C
- C

Black
White / Cream
0.75
1.5
270
14.8
50
50
15
5.5
7.5
2.75
2.75
30
1012
NIL
0.4
0.1
NIL
0 to + 50
0 to + 50
Up to + 50

A.10 Factory protection for fittings

Fittings shall be coated internally and externally according to EN 545 Clause 4-5 using epoxy
based material, minimum epoxy content 70% and minimum thickness 10 mil.

Page 125 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.11 Testing on Ductile Iron Pipes
The following tests shall be carried out on samples from every batch of DI pipes delivered
to site. A report of the third party inspector shall cover at least these tests all as approved
by the Engineer. A l l tests shall be carried out according to BS/EN545 or ISO 2531 or
equivalent:










B.

Visual inspection
Microscopic structure
Tensile strength
Elongation
Brinell hardness
Lining thickness
Composition and thickness of external coating
Ring bending and detachment of lining for pipes > 500 mm diameter
Hydrostatic test

Polyethylene HDPE Pipe

B.1 Use HDPE pipes PN16 for small distribution pipe diameters up to 200 mm.
Pipes and fittings shall be to SASO 1401, ISO 4427, DIN 8074/8075 or AWWA C906-99.
Pipe 60m shall be supplied in straight pieces and not rolled on a drum. The ends of each
pipe shall be plain and suitable for heat fusion. Pipe and fittings shall be class 10 or 16
kg/cm2.

B.2 Materials used shall have a standard PE code designation 3408 and a minimum
hydrostatic design basis of 1600 psi (or 180 kg/cm2) according to AWWA C906 Table 1.

B.3 Manufacturers shall provide certification that stress regression testing has been
performed on the pipe products. Materials shall also meet elevated temperature
requirements as given in Table 2 AWWA C906.

B.4 Fittings shall be to AWWA C906, extruded or injection moulded suitable for class of
pipe required.

B.5 Joints for pipes and fittings shall be by butt fusion or by socket fusions and in strict
accordance with pipe manufactures recommendations. Joints shall have a tensile strength
equal to that of the pipe. Fusion temperature, interface pressure, alignment and cooling
time, shall be according to manufactures recommendations.

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B. 6 Tests on PE compounds: Where PE is used for potable water, PE compounds in

pipes and fittings shall contain no ingredients in an amount that has been demonstrated to
migrate into water in quantities considered to be toxic. PE compounds shall be tested and
certified suitable for potable water by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Testing
Laboratory – USA, or the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Testing Laboratory, or
other accredited testing agency. Tests shall be made in accordance with requirements no
less restrictive than those in the NSF Standard No. 14 (1976), Sections 3 and 4. The seal
and mark of the testing laboratory shall be included on pipes and fittings.

B. 7 T e st s o n HD P E P i p e s

The following tests shall be carried out on samples from every batch of pipes delivered to
site by the third party inspection. The test report of the third party inspector shall cover at
least the following tests all as specified and indicated by SASO ISO or DIN standards.











Visual inspection
Wall thickness
Out of roundness
Hydrostatic strength at 20 and 80 C
Longitudinal reversion / shrinkage test
Tensile properties
Visual inspection
Thermal stability – oxidation induction time
Environmental stress crack resistance
Density

C. G R P Pip e

C.1
Use GRP pipe minimum stiffness 5000 N/m2 for transmission line outside cities
for diameters 400 mm and greater and working pressure not exceeding 16 bars. Pipes
and fittings shall be to BS 5480, 1990 [11] or AWWA C950-01 or equivalent.

C.2
Pipe and fittings shall include a corrosion resistant liner, a structural wall and a
resin rich exterior surface.

C.3
The liner shall have a nominal thickness of 1.0 mm. The liner surface shall be
reinforced with "C" glass. The remainder of the liner thickness shall be reinforced with an
acid resistant chopped "E" glass strand or mat.

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C.4 The pipe structural wall shall consist of glass reinforcement, and fine silica sand, all
impregnated with resin. The fine silica sand shall be added to the structural layer to achieve
the design thickness for the required stiffness specified such that the overall hoop flexural
modulus (E) for pipe is not less than 24 GN/m2. Silica sand and filler content shall not
exceed 50%.

C.5 Pipes shall be provided with a resin rich outer layer reinforced with one layer of "C"
glass veil. The exterior layer shall have a minimum thickness of 0.2 mm. The layer shall be
resin rich and reinforced with one layer of C glass.

C.6 The resin used for the corrosion resistant liner of the pipe and fittings shall be high
grade polyester resin (isophthalic or better) type. For the structural wall and exterior layer of
the pipe a high grade isophthalic polyester resin shall be used. No dark pigments shall be
used in the pipe or fittings.

C.7 All glass reinforcements except for the inner and outer surfaces of the pipe and
fittings shall be of the "E" type. Surface reinforcement shall be of the "C" glass type.

C.8 Pipes shall be designed for a life of not less than 50 years. Contractor shall submit
calculations for initial and long term deflection with Truck loads, Buckling, Vacuum,
Pressure Class, and Strain in accordance with Appendix "A" of AWWA, C-950-01 or
equivalent. The maximum calculated long term deflection should not exceed 3%. Copies of
the design calculations shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.



Stiffness: Minimum 5,000 N/m2. Suitability of stiffness shall be verified by
Contractor for the various trench and pipe laying conditions and as
recommended by the manufacturer. Pressure class 6 kg/cm2 minimum or as
shown on Drawings.



Longitudinal Strength: Conform to BS 5480 [11] table 2 or ASTM D3262
table 7.



Hoop strength shall according to ASTM D3517 Table 8.



Strain corrosion resistance tests shall be carried out as per ASTM D 3681
or BS 5480 strain corrosion value at 50 years to equal or exceed 0.7%.



Markings shall be to BS 5480 [11] clause 11.



Joints shall be GRP double socket couplings with rubber rings to ISO 4633
or BS EN 68 1-2 [10]. The allowable angular deflection shall conform to the
requirements of BS 5480 [11] Table 3.

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C.9 Testing on GRP Pipes: The following tests shall be carried out on manufactured
pipes. Details of testing program shall be submitted to the Engineer for review and
approval prior to commencement of pipe manufacture. The manufacturer quality control
scheme shall be to BS 5750-8 [12] or ISO 9004. Guidance on quality control and sampling
shall be BS 5480 Appendix Q [11]. At least the following tests shall be carried out and
reported for approval.











D.

Visual inspection
Longitudinal Strength:
Hydraulic Test:
Stiffness:
Wall Thickness:
Diameter:
Hardness:
Loss of Ignition:
Hoop Tensile:

to ASTM D3262
to ASTM 3517.
to ASTM D 2412 or BS 5480 [11]
to BS 5480 [11] to
BS 5480 [11] to
ASTM 2583 to
ASTM D 2584 to
ASTM 3517

Steel Pipe

D.1 Use steel pipe for transmission lines of diameters 1200 mm and above, for operating
pressure up to 40 bars.

D.2 Steel pipe size 150 mm (6") and smaller shall be welded black steel, seamless or
welded, and shall conform to BS 1387 [15] medium class, ISO 65 or DIN 2440.

D.3 Steel pipe size 200 mm (8") and larger shall be welded black steel, and shall
conform to AWWA C200, grade A, or equivalent. Wall thickness shall conform to AWWA
C200-97 Section 3-4. Minimum wall thickness shall be to BS 3600 [16] or as given in the
Bill of Quantities.

D.4 Steel pipe shall be round and straight and shall be free from injurious defects.
Defects shall be considered injurious when the depth of defect is greater than 12.5% of the
tabulated wall thickness. Pipe shall be free from rust.

D.5 Fittings normally made from manufactured and tested pipes or fabricated by welding
to AWWA C208. Material is to be same nominal pressure

D.6 Steel pipes shall be joined by welding. All welding including surface preparation
methods, welding procedures and qualification of welders and welding operators shall be
performed in conformance with AWWA C206 1997. .

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D.7 A l l steel pipes and specials shall be lined internally to the thickness specified with
concrete made from ordinary Portland cement to BS EN 197-1 [3] and fine aggregate. The
materials used for lining, the method of lining and curing of the finished lining and the
manufacture and testing of test cubes shall comply with BS 534 [17] and shall be carried
out to the approval of the Engineer.
D.8 Steel pipes, fittings and specials shall be protected externally with bituminous
laminate tape 1.6 mm thick and with 55% overlap or as recommended by the
manufacturer.

D.9 Testing on Steel Pipes
The following tests shall be carried out on steel pipes delivered to site. The test report of
the third party inspection shall cover at least the following tests all as specified by
International Standards.








4.03.2
A.

Visual inspection
Pipe wall thickness
Weld seems
Tensile strength
Hydrostatic testing
Lining thickness
Composition and thickness of external coating

CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION
Pipe Bedding

A.1
Pipe bedding material shall be as specified in section 2.04.5 of Division 2 herein
before

A.2

Type of Bedding shall be as indicated on the Drawings

B.

Pipe Laying and Jointing - Generally

B.1
The pipe shall be brought to grade and approved prior to the lowering of the pipe
into the trench. Pipes shall be laid to slopes shown on drawings.

B.2
Lowering of pipes into the trench shall be carried carefully in a manner that does
not cause damages to the pipes or trench itself. Lowering pipes shall be carried out using
ropes, wire slings, band slings, spreader beams etc. as recommended by manufacturer for
each type of pipe and as approved.

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B.3 A l l material shall be carefully examined for damage and tested in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions before laying to the satisfaction of Engineer.

B.4 The Contractor shall examine material to ensure internal coating or lining and outer
coating or sheathing are undamaged. I f damaged, make good or dispose of as directed.

B.5 Pipe Cleanliness: The Contractor shall remove dirt and other materials before
lowering, and shall clear construction debris from inside of pipe before making joint.

B.6 Pipe Placement: The Contractor shall lay pipes on even formations true to grade and
line, with sockets (if any) facing up the gradient.

B.7 Pipe on Solid Ground: The Contractor shall cut holes in bottom of trench to allow
proper jointing and for barrel of pipe to bear evenly on the bedding for its full length.

B.8 Pipe on Granular Bedding: The Contractor shall scoop out locally at
sockets/couplings to enable pipe to rest uniformly on barrel and adjust to exact line and
level. After testing the Contractor shall lay and compact further granular material in 150
mm layers or as approved to levels shown on the Drawings.

B.9 Pipe on Concrete Bed or Surround: The Contractor shall provide rectangular blocks
of concrete Class 210/25, made in approved moulds at least 14 days before use, and
hardwood folding wedges approved by the Engineer and also provide two concrete blocks
for each pipe, set and bone into correct level on formation bottom and lay pipe properly
centred and socketed. The Contractor shall insert two hardwood folding wedges of width
equal to width of concrete block between body of pipe and block and drive together until
pipe is brought to exact level required and leave blocks and wedges undisturbed while
pipes are being jointed and concrete bed and haunch or surround are being placed. The
Contractor shall ensure blocks and wedges are of sufficient size and strength to prevent
settlement of pipe and leave sufficient space to enable joints to be made, tested and
inspected.

B.10 Pipe Plugs: When pipe laying is not in progress, the Contractor shall close open
ends of pipes with properly fitted temporary wooden plugs or standard caps as directed.

B.11 Pipe minimum cover shall be 1.0 m unless specified by drawings or Engineer
directions.

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C.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Jointing

C.1 Manufacturer's instructions shall be followed regarding placement of bedding and
backfilling, cleanliness of joint surfaces, lubricant used, correct location of components,
provision of correct gaps between end of spigot and back of socket for flexible joints etc.

C.2 Deflection of Joint: The Contractor shall not deflect flexible joints beyond 50 percent
maximum permissible angles given by manufacturer and/or relevant Standard.
C.3 Patent Detachable and Flexible Joints: The Contractor shall strictly comply with
special instructions issued by manufacturers of proprietary joints when laying and jointing.
C.4 Differing Pipe and Fitting Material: The Contractor shall joint with adaptors as
recommended by pipe manufacturer.
D.

Line and Gradient

D.1
In Open Excavation: The Contractor shall provide and maintain sight rails and
boning rods properly painted to ensure correct alignment of pipe runs. Sight rails shall be
positioned either vertically above the lines of pipes or immediately adjacent thereto. At no
time are there to be less than three sight rails in position on each length of pipeline under
construction to any one gradient.

D.2
Wherever possible and as per the Engineer instructions the Contractor should use
the suitable recent surveying devices to adjust the line and gradient of pipelines.

D.3
In heading the Contractor shall provide and maintain marks to establish line and
level of pipeline. Marks shall be fixed in each working shaft and two further marks
established in each length of heading.

E.

Floatation

E.1
Prevention: Whenever water is excluded from interior of pipe the Contractor shall
place sufficient backfill above pipe to prevent floatation.

E.2
Removal of Pipe: The Contractor shall correct bedding and relay any pipe that has
floated.

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F.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Pipe Built into Structures

F.1 Treatment of External Surface: The Contractor shall thoroughly clean outside surface
of pipes to be built-in immediately before installation and remove protective coating to
metal pipes, where ordered. The Contractor shall roughen clay and concrete pipes as
directed and paint plastic pipes with appropriate solvent cement and sprinkle with dry
coarse sand whilst wet. The Contractor shall cut away sheathing from sections to be
built-in and after installation restore protection up to external face of structure with
approved bituminous material.

F.2 Flexible Joints: The Contractor shall install two flexible joints or flexible patented joints
adjacent to structures and place the first joint not more than one pipe diameter from face of
structure and second not more than the following distances away from first:




Pipelines Not Exceeding 450 mm: 2 pipe diameters
Pipelines Over 450 mm and Not Exceeding 1000 mm: 1.2 m
Pipelines Over 1000 mm: 1.8 m.

In general, the length of the short pieces may be selected as recommended by the pipe
manufacturer.

4.03.3

A.

PIPE WORK TESTING

Field Testing: Generally

A.1
Provision of Test Equipment: A l l items for test have to be provided on site before
the test i.e pressure gauges, instruments, water etc...

A.2

The Contractor shall carry out tests in the presence of the Engineer.

A.3
Fittings and Joints: The Contractor shall permanently anchor fittings before testing
and leave all joints exposed for checking.

A.4

Test Sections: The Contractor shall limit test sections to not more than 500 m.

A.5
Test Sections: The Contractor shall test pressure lines between valve chambers
whenever possible.

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A.6 Test Sections: No testing shall be carried out against or through the pressure reducing
valves. The setting of the pressure reducing valves shall not be changed for testing
purposes.

A.7 Test Plug: The Contractor shall secure end of main and test plug by struts.

A.8 Closed Valve: The Contractor shall not test against a closed valve unless there is no
acceptable alternative.

A.9 The Contractor shall apply pressure by manually operated test pump or, in the case of
large diameter mains, by power driven test pump, i f approved.

A.10 The Contractor shall examine exposed joints and repair visible leaks.

A.11 Failure: Should a test fail, the Contractor shall locate the leak and replace or make
good defective pipe or replace and make good faulty joint. The Contractor shall retest
main.

A. 12 Records: The Contractor shall keep test records in an approved form and hand
original copy to the Engineer immediately after completion of test.

A.13 Pressure Lines: The Contractor shall carry out hydrostatic test while pipeline is
partially backfilled.

B. Hydrostatic Testing of Pressure Pipelines
B.1 The pipeline shall be filled slowly with water from the lowest point. After filling with
water, absorbent pipes shall be allowed to stand for at least 24 hours before testing to
allow for complete absorption.

B.2 Entrapped air shall be bled and pressurising shall then proceed until the specified
test pressure is reached in the lowest part of the pipeline section under test. Further
quantities of entrapped air shall be bled while the pressure is being raised.

B.3 Hydrostatic testing Pressure shall conform to (AWWA C500) specifications, and the
testing pressure should be equal to 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure for the
pipeline as per the Site Engineer directions without exceeding 75% of manufacture
hydrostatic pressure.

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B.4 The test pressure shall be maintained for one hour by pumping using a separate
test pump. Pumping shall then be stopped for 2 hours, at the end of which time the line
shall be re-pressurized to the original test pressure and the volume of water pumped
into the line recorded.

B.5 The pipeline shall be deemed to have failed the test i f visible leaks are detected
(regardless of leakage being within the allowable specified limit) or i f the volume of
water pumped to restore original test pressure after the period when pumping was
stopped exceeds or 0.1 litre/day per km of pipe per mm of pipe diameter for each 3 kg/
cm2 of applied pressure for other pipe material.

C.

Visual Inspection Test

C.1 Timing: The Contractor shall carry out test after total backfilling of length under test.

C.2 Limit of length to be tested at one time is three full- length pipes unless otherwise
approved.

C.3 Apparatus: The Contractor shall use rubber tyred bogies that do not damage lining of
pipe and an adequate supply of electric lamps.

C.4 The Contractor shall check joints by means of feelers to ensure rubber rings are
correctly located.

C.5 The Contractor shall check pipe barrel for visible cracks.

D.

Deflection Tests for GRP Pipes

D.1 The Contractor shall conduct deflection tests for GRP pipes as required by the
Engineer at 3 stages. Deflection shall be measured at the spigot end at mid point and at
socket end.


Stage 1: At completion of primary backfill (deflection at this stage should be
below 0.5%).



Stage 2: At final backfill (Maximum allowable deflection 2.5%).



Stage 3: Six months after final backfill (maximum allowable deflection
4.0%).

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D.2 Pipes not passing the deflection tests at stage 2 or stage 3 shall be removed and
replaced.

E.

Testing of Water Retaining Structures

E.1 Al l water retaining structures such as reservoirs, tanks, basins ponds, regardless
of the construction material, lining or final surface treatment shall be tested or
Water-tightness.

E.2 Tightness testing shall be carried out according to ACI 350.1-01/350.1R-01.

E.3
Allowable losses of water, after correction for evaporation, precipitation etc.
shall be as set in the table below:
Type of structure
Tanks/Reservoirs/Channels/Conduits for
water or wastewater, Concrete or metal,
Open or covered (Stormwater Channels not
included)
Pressurized Tanks

*

Test and Criteria*
HST-VIO & HST-NML

SHT-VIO & SHT-NML
PNT-VIO & PNT-NML
CPT-VIO & CPT-NML
As applicable or as directed
by the Engineer

For designations refer to ACI 350.1 - 01/350.1 R-01.

E.4 Notwithstanding satisfactory completion of the water absorption test, any leakage
visible on the outside faces of the structure shall be stopped. Any caulking or making
good of cracks in the wall section shall, where practicable, be carried out from the
inside face, and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

E.5 Upon completion of the test, the Contractor shall empty the structure, dispose of
the contents and shall clean the structure and any equipment therein of all deposits left
by the water.

F.

Flushing and Disinfection of Water Mains

F.1 Procedure: To AWWA C651-92.

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F.2 The Contractor shall provide equipment, gauges, temporary connections and chlorine
needed for flushing and disinfection and arrange with the Employer to draw water from
existing sources.

F.3
Sections: The Contractor shall flush and disinfect mains in sections as directed by
the Engineer.

F.4
Draining: The Contractor shall use washout valves and fire hydrants to drain
flushing and disinfecting water.

F.5 First Flushing: Before commencing disinfection, the Contractor shall flush mains until
effluent is clean and then clean as directed. 1 to 2 times volume of pipe is usually required
for such flushing.

F.6 Type of Chlorine: The Contractor shall disinfect with chlorine gas or solutions of
calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite and agree with the Engineer on method of
application.

F.7

Initial dosing shall be 40-50 ppm.

F.8

Contact period shall be 24 hours.

F.9 Residual Chlorine: The Contractor shall measure residual chlorine by Orthotolidin
test. Residual chlorine shall not to be less than 5 ppm or the test shall be repeated as
directed.

F.10 Final Flushing: After disinfection, the Contractor shall reflush network until chlorine
concentration in water leaving main is less than 1 ppm.

F.11 Tests: The Contractor shall perform bacteriological tests to AWWA C651-92, Section
9. Number of samples shall be one per 1 km of main feeders and one per 0.25 km of
distribution lines.

F.12 Procedure after Cutting into Existing Main: To AWWA C651, Section 11.

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G.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Field Protection and Coating

G.1 Iron Pipes: Polyethylene sleeving shall be to ANSI/AWWA C 105, Section 4.1 or ISO
8180 or in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Sleeving shall be heavy duty
blue color polyethylene with a minimum thickness of 225 microns.

G.2 Patented Detachable and Flexible Joints and Flanged Connections: The Contractor
shall protect metal joints with mastic compound and protective tape in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions. Minimum overlap shall be 55% and the Contractor shall press
out firmly all folds and irregularities.

H.

Anti Corrosion Tape

H.1 The tape shall consist of a PVC backing bonded to a self adhesive bituminous rubber
compound with a total thickness of approximately 1.65 mm.

H.2 The plastic backing shall be extruded PVC and shall have an approximate thickness
0.35 mm.

H.3 When the tape is to be applied with a 50-55 % overlap the tape shall have a
“guide-line” printed down the center of the tape to ensure accurate overlapping is
achieved.

H.4 The tape shall be black, cold applied complying with AWWA C209. The tape shall
have the following minimum properties:
-

-

Backing Thickness:

0.3 - 0.4 mm

Backing Adhesive Thickness:0.75 - 0.90 mm
Tensile Strength:
Adhesive Shear Strength:

14.8 N/mm2
0.10 N/mm2

Impact Resistance:

> 20 drops

Dielectric Strength:

20 kv

H.7 Coatings and tapes shall be inspected prior to and after laying, and the Contractor
shall notify the Engineer of any defects. Any defective areas shall be repaired in accordance
with the manufacturers instructions and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

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I.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Waterproofing of Structures

Waterproofing of water retaining structures shall not be commenced until tested
I.1
for water-tightness and found satisfactory.

I . 2 The waterproofing compound shall penetrate and react with the concrete to form

crystals that seal all capillaries, tracts and shrinkage cracks in the concrete structure.
The compound shall consist of a mixture of chemicals, quartz, sand and cement
supplied in powder form ready to mix with water. Application shall be carried out in
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and as approved by the
Engineer.

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4.03.4
A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

CATHODIC PROTECTION
General

A.1

This Section includes passive cathodic protection systems that use zinc anodes to
protect steel piping.

B.

Performance Requirements

B.1

Engage a qualified corrosion engineer to design and supervise, test, and inspect
installation of cathodic protection systems.
1.

Design cathodic protection for pipelines according to "The National
Association of Corrosion Engineers International (NACE)" RP0169.

2.

Design cathodic protection for metal underground storage tanks according
to "The National Association of Corrosion Engineers International (NACE)"
RP0285.

B.2

Select anodes and accessories relevant to level of protection. Design anodes for
an estimated life of 15 years before replacement.

B.3

Survey site and determine soil or water corrosivity (resistivity), current
requirements, potential surveys, stray currents, and water chemistry/corrosivity
(pH).

B.4

Cathodic protection systems shall provide protective potential that complies with
referenced NACE standards.

B.5

As-Built Drawings: At project close-out, submit Record Drawings of installed
cathodic protection, in accordance with requirements of the Specification, Division
1.

B.6

Measure structure-to-earth according to NACE RP0169, using one of the following
2 methods:
1. 850-mV Negative Voltage: With cathodic system in operation, measure a
negative voltage of at least minus 0.85 V between pipe and a saturated
copper/copper-sulfate reference electrode contacting the earth directly over
pipe.

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2. 100-mV Polarization Voltage: Determine polarization voltage shift by
interrupting protective current and measuring polarization decay. An
immediate voltage shift will occur i f protective current is interrupted. Use
voltage reading, after immediate shift, as base reading from which to measure
polarization decay. Measure at least a minimum polarization voltage shift of
100 mV between pipe and a saturated copper/copper-sulfate reference
electrode contacting the earth directly over pipe.

C.

C.1

Submittals

Submit product data for each of the following items:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Anodes.
Insulating flange sets.
Casings, insulation, and seals.
Dielectric unions.

C.2
Shop Drawings: Detail location of cathodic protection equipment, devices, and
outlets, with characteristics and cross-references to products. Include calculations and
details of anode designs. Include plans, elevations, sections, details for attachments to
other Work, and list of equipment and materials.

C.3
Field Test Reports: Indicate and interpret test results for compliance with
performance requirements. Include calculations of estimated life of anodes.

D.

Zinc Anodes for Buried Service Type Z-1

D.1

Comply with ASTM B 418, Type II.

D.2

Chemical composition as percent of weight shall be as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Aluminum: 0.005 maximum.
Cadmium: 0.003 maximum.
Iron: 0.0014 maximum.
Zinc: Remainder.

D.3
Bare Anode Ingot Weight: 13.6 kg, 50 mm square and 760 mm long. Packaged
weight of anode bag shall be 32 kg.

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D.4 Anode Wires: Cables, with copper conductors, suitable for direct burial; not less than
6 mm² with PVC insulation according to ASTM D 1248 and NEMA WC 5; long enough to
extend to accompanying junction box without splicing.

D.5 Anode Backfill: Backfill materials packaged in water-permeable fabric sack or
cardboard container. Anodes shall be factory installed in packaged backfill using methods
that result in dense packing of f ill with factory-installed anode spacers to ensure centering
of anode in packaged anode backfill. Backfill material shall have the following chemical
composition by weight:
1.
2.
3.

Hydrated Gypsum: 75 percent.
Bentonite Clay: 20 percent.
Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate: 5 percent.

E.

Wire and Cable

E.1

Direct-Burial Cable: Single-conductor Type HMWPE, insulated cable specifically
designed for dc service in cathodic protection installations.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Conductor: Stranded, annealed, uncoated copper, complying with ASTM B
3 and ASTM B 8.
Insulation:High-molecular-weight polyethylene, complying with NEMA WC 5.
Minimum Average Thickness of Insulation: 2.8 mm for 10 mm2 through 35
mm2, and 3.2 mm for 50 mm2 through 120 mm2; rated at 600 V.
Connectors: Copper compression type or exothermic welds.

E.2

Cables for Installation in Conduit: Type PVC copper conductors as specified in
Division 16 Section "Conductors and Cables."

F.

Conduit

Rigid galvanized steel as specified in Division 16 Section "Raceways and Boxes."

G.

Test and Junction Boxes

G.1

Junction Boxes: Waterproof; PVC as specified in Division 16 Section "Raceways
and Boxes."

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Technical Specification for Water Network

G.2 Test Stations: Flush-mounting type of high-impact-resistant PVC or polycarbonate,
with watertight conduit connections and cover and removable terminal board.

H.

Patch, Seal, and Repaire Coating

H.1
Sealing and Dielectric Insulating Compound: Black, rubber based, soft,
permanently pliable, tacky, moldable, and unpacked; 3 mm thick.

H.2

Coating Compound: Cold-applied, coal-tar-based mastic.

H.3

Pressure-Sensitive, Vinyl-Plastic Electrical Tape: Comply with UL 510.

J.

Potting Compound

Cast-epoxy, two-package type; fabricated for this purpose and covered with
J.1
heat-shrinkable tape.

K.

Identification Materials

Materials are specified in Division 16 Section "Basic Electrical Materials and
K.1
Methods."
1.
2.

L.

Wire and Cables: Laminated-plastic material with black letters on yellow
background. Include identifier legend on the Shop Drawings.
Cable Warning Tape: Polyethylene tape.

Insulating Flange Sets

L.1 Description: Insulating flange sets rated for operation at indicated pressure and
temperature of piping system, with full-faced gaskets, insulating sleeves and washers, and
steel washers.
1

Gaskets: ASME B 16.21. Neoprene-faced phenolic material.

2. Insulating Washers and Sleeves: 2 sets of laminated phenolic insulating
material. Select washers to fit within bolt facing on flange over the outside of
fabric-reinforced phenolic sleeve.
3. Washers: Steel, cadmium plated, to fit within bolt facing on flange.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

M.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Steel Flanges and Bolts

M.1 Steel Flanges: ASME B 16.5; 68 kg.

M.2 Bolts: ASTM A 307, Grade B for bolts; ASTM A 194/A 194M, Grade 2 for nuts.

N.

1.

Dimensions: ASME B18.2.1 for bolts; ASME B18.2.2 for nuts.

2.

Threads: ASME B 1.1; Class 2A fit for bolts, Class 2B fit for nuts.

3.

Extend bolts completely through nuts.

4.

Bolts may have reduced shanks of diameter not less than diameter at roof
of threads.

Dielectric Unions

Description: ASME B 16.39, Class [1] [2] for dimensional, strength, and pressure
requirements. Include insulation barrier that limits galvanic current to 1 percent of
short-circuit current in a corresponding metallic joint and has insulating material
impervious to material in pipe.

O.

Flexible Pipe Coupling Bonds

Description: Flexible copper straps with electrical resistance equal to 50 mm2 stranded
copper wire and with 5 holes for 5 exothermic welds to pipe.

P.

Exothermic Welds

P.1

Exothermic Weld Kits: Specifically designed by manufacturer for welding materials
and shapes required.

P.2

Exothermic Weld Caps: Dome of high-density polyethylene, 0.254 mm minimum
thickness, filled with mastic and containing a tunnel portion to separate lead wire
from exothermic weld.

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Q.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Zinc Anode and Cable Installation

Q.1 Install zinc anode horizontally in a hole at least 76 mm larger than anode. Install
anode under new copper water tubing, including service lines, blow offs, and air releases.
Separate piping and anode by at least 600 mm, but not more than 1500 mm.

Q.2 Install anode midway between both ends of piping. Install anode wire in piping trench
and connect to piping at an accessible location. Install anode wire in PVC conduit where
rising out of the ground to the aboveground connection.

Q.3 Install conduit according to Division 16 Section "Raceways and Boxes." Minimum
conductor size is 6 mm2.
Q.4 Install direct-buried cables according to Division 16 Section "Conductors and Cables."
1.

Minimum Conductor Size: 10 mm2.

R.

Test Stations

R.1

Install test stations as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

At 300-m intervals.
At insulating joints.
At both ends of casings.
Where pipe crosses other metal pipes.
Where pipe connects to existing piping system.
Where pipe connects to dissimilar metal pipe.

R.2
Install test stations on controlled backfill complying with requirements for trench
bottom f ill for anode wires, unless otherwise indicated.

S.

Insulating Flange Sets

S.1

Cut piping and install flanges without stressing piping. Weld flanges according to
ASME B 16.25. Cover flanges with sealing and dielectric compound.

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T.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Pipe Joints

T.1 Electrical Continuity: Install bonding straps on metallic pipe to and across buried
flexible couplings, mechanical joints, and flanged joints, except at places where insulating
joints are specified. Welded and threaded joints are considered electrically continuous.
Size bonding strap to allow for a total of 25 mm pipe expansion or contraction. Connect
bonding strap to pipe, coupling follower rings, and coupling middle ring or sleeve. Connect
bonding strap to pipe and coupling with 5 thermowelds.

T.2 Insulating Unions: Install electrical isolation at each building entrance and at other
locations indicated. Cut pipe ends square, remove fins and burrs, and cut tapered pipe
threads according to ASME B 1.20.1. Apply joint compound or thread tape to male threads
only. Install piping without stressing pipe. I f joints are backed off to permit alignment of
threaded joints, reapply joint compound or tape. Engage threads so not more than three
threads remain exposed. Cover unions with sealing and dielectric compound.

U.

Dissimilar Metals

U.1 Underground Dissimilar Piping: Install electrically isolated joints for new and existing
steel piping, except valves. Coat insulating joint and pipe with sealing and dielectric
compound for a minimum distance of 10 pipe diameters on both sides of joint.

U.2 Underground Dissimilar Valves: Coat dissimilar ferrous valves and pipe with sealing
and dielectric compound for a minimum distance of 10 pipe diameters on both sides of
valve.

U.3 Aboveground Dissimilar Pipe and Valves: I f dissimilar metal pipe joints and valves are
not buried and are exposed only to atmosphere, coat connection or valve, including pipe,
with sealing and dielectric compound for a minimum distance of three pipe diameters on
both sides of junction.

V.

Casings, Insulation, and Seals

V.1
I f piping is installed in casing, insulate piping from casing and seal annular space
to prevent intrusion of water.

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W.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Reconditioning of Surfaces

W.1 Sod Restoration: Restore grass and lawn surfaces disturbed during installation of
anodes and wires to their original elevation and condition. Preserve sod and topsoil and
replace after backfilling is completed. I f surface is disturbed in a newly seeded area,
re-seed area with same quality and formula of seed as that used in original seeding.

W.2 Pavement Restoration: Repair pavement, sidewalks, curbs, and gutters i f removed
or disturbed during construction. Saw cut pavement edges. Graded aggregate base course
shall have a maximum aggregate size of 40 mm. Before paving, prime base course with
liquid asphalt, Grade RC-70, complying with ASTM D 2028.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Match base course to existing thickness, but not less than 150 mm.
Asphalt Aggregate Size: 13 mm.
Asphalt Cement: Comply with ASTM D 3381, Grade AR-2000.
Match asphalt concrete to existing thickness, but not less than 50 mm.
Repair Portland cement concrete pavement, sidewalks, curbs, and
gutters using 21-MPa concrete, complying with ASTM C 94. Division 3
Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete." Match existing pavement, sidewalk,
curb, and gutter thicknesses.

X.

Identification

X.1

Identify test station as indicated on the Shop Drawings.

Y.

Field Quality Control

Y.1

Testing: Engage a qualified testing agency acceptable to the Engineer, to perform
the following field quality-control testing:

Y.2

Testing: Perform the following field quality-control testing under the supervision of
a qualified corrosion engineer:
1. Static Pull Test: Choose, at random, one completed anode of each type for this
destructive test. Demonstrate that anode wire connections have enough
strength to withstand a minimum tensile load of 136 kg. I f test fails, replace
all anodes and repeat test at another randomly selected anode.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

2.

Insulation Testing: Before anode system is connected to pipe, test insulation at
each insulating joint and fitting. Demonstrate that no metallic contact, or short
circuit, exists between the two insulated sections of pipe and tank. Replace
defective joints or fittings.

3.

Baseline Potentials: After backfilling of pipe, and anodes is completed, but
before anodes are connected to pipe, measure the static potential of pipe to
soil. Record initial measurements.

4.

Anode Output: Measure electrical current as anodes or groups of anodes are
connected to pipe. Use a low-resistance ammeter. Record current, date, time,
and location of each measurement.

5.

Pipe to-Reference Electrode Potential Measurements: On completion of
installation of entire cathodic protection system, make electrode potential
measurements using a copper/copper-sulfate reference electrode and a
potentiometer-voltmeter, or a dc voltmeter with an internal resistance
(sensitivity) of not less than 100,000 ohms per volt and a full scale of 1 or 2 V.
Make measurements at same locations as those used for baseline potentials.
Record voltage, date, time, and location of each measurement.

Y.3
Location of Measurements for Piping: For coated piping or conduit, measure from
reference electrode in contact with the earth directly over pipe. Measure at intervals not
exceeding 120 m. Make additional measurements at each distribution service riser, with
reference electrode placed directly over service line.

Y.4
Casing Tests: Test insulation between carrier pipe and casing. Correct short
circuits.

Y.5
Interference Testing: Test interference with cathodic protection from any foreign
[pipes] in cooperation with the Employer of foreign [pipes]. Report results and
recommendations.

Z.

Adjusting and Demonstration

Z.1
Adjust cathodic current using resistors as recommended by the Corrosion
Engineer.

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Z.2 During first year after Substantial Completion, test, inspect, and adjust cathodic
protection system every 3 months to ensure its continued compliance with specified
requirements.

Z.3 Train the Employer's maintenance personnel to adjust, operate, and maintain cathodic
protection system installation.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

SECTION 4.04

4.04.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

VALVES, GATES, STOPS, WATER CONECTION S FIRE
HYDRANTS AND SUNDRY WORKS

GENERAL

Scope

A.1 These works shall consist of furnishing all materials, constructing, installing and
completing in all respects of works described in this Specification and indicated on the
Drawings.

4.04.2

A.

VALVES

Gate Valves Cast Iron

A.1 Type: Gate valves shall be used for diameters from 50 mm to less than 300mm and
shall be of Ductile Cast Iron (Ductile Cast Iron GGG40) to DIN3202 or equivalent and anti
corrosive cast iron operation stem which does not rise during operation (Nonirising Stem)
and the gate in made of copper or cast iron covered with rubber.

A.2 Type: socket ends for diameters below 150 to BS 5163 or equivalent and flanged
ends for diameters 150 m and greater (in valve chambers) to BS 4504 or equivalent or
ISO3606 and ISO4422 or equivalent.

A.3 Material of component for socket and flanged valves:


The valve body from ductile cast iron to (GGG40) (EN –JS1030).



The gate is covered totally with rubber..



Valve non-rising stem from Stainless steel. The valve is operated
either directly by hard wheel or by a spindle.



Testing of valves is done as per specification o DIN 3230 or EN 12266
– Part 4 or equivalent.

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A.4 Operation is either by hand-wheel or by spur gear drive operated by removable key
with a rising stem depending on the depth of installation which may require inner gear as
per Engineers or manufactures direction.

A.5 Protection Type: Painting inner and outer surfaces by epoxy with a thickness not less
than 250 microns as per specifications.

B.

Butterfly Valves:

B.1 Type: Butterfly valves flanged on both sides with a pressure 10/16 Bars shall be
used for diameters greater or equal to 300 mm manufactured to comply with EN593
specification or equivalent.

B.2 Components:


Butterfly value is of the fixed plate type not coaxial with the stem.



Valve body is manufactured form ductile cost iron (GGG-40).



Valve length is to comply with DIN3202 F4 series 14 and EN558-1 or
equivalent.



Valve stem is of anticorrosion cast iron.



Flanges are to comply with DIN2501 or equivalent.



Valve is opened and closed via the gear box mounted on the valve.

B.3 Operation by hand-wheel.

B.4 Protection Type: Painting the inner and exterior surfaces by epoxy with a thickness
not less than 250 microns as per specification.

C.

Check Valves:

C.1
Check valves for sizes 50-250 mm will be equipped with a gate that will open
horizontally compatible to an operation pressure 10/16 Bars.

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C.1.1 Material of component parts: Valve body of cast iron (GG25) to specifications of
EN-JL 1040 or equivalent and the plate from cast iron or bronze, and the interacting parts
between plate and base should be cooper to rubber or cupper to cupper.

C.1.2 Parts connection will be flanged as per DIN2501 specification or equivalent.

C.1.3 Protection type is by epoxy paint with a thickness not less than 250 micron as per
specification.

C.2 Check valves for series greater than 300mm will be equipped with a stanted seat as
per EN12334 specification or equivalent for an operating pressure 10/16 bars.

C.2.1 Material of Component Parts:


Valve body and the plate is of ductile coast iron GGG-40 as or EN-JS 1030
specification or equivalent.



Valve stem is of stainless steel (I-4021).



Closing base between valve and plate shall of welded Nickel. C.2.2

Parts Connection shall be flanged as pr specification DIN2501 or equivalent.

C.2.3 Protection type is by epoxy paint with a thickness not less than 250 microns as
per specification.

C.2.4 Shocks Absorption Unit
Valves shall be suitable to be equipped with shocks absorption units that works
hydraulically by valve which will be the media to absorb shocks. Generally these
instruments are installed on valve sizes greater than 400 mm.

D.

Flap Valves

It is valve to prevent backflow installed at pipe ends.

D.1 Type: To be flange mounted, designed for use on end closures to prevent entrance
of backwater. Seating plane is to have 10 deg. inclination.

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D.2 Materials: Cast iron body and cover, bronze seat faces, bronze hinge pins and spring
pins, cast iron follow ring and plated steel ring draw bolts. Materials subject to dezincification or de-aluminuzation are not to be used.

D.3 End Connections: I f flange mounted, flanges are to be toDIN2501 or equivalent.

D.4 Factory Protection:. Painting surfaces with epoxy with layers not less than 250
microns as per specification.

E.

Float Valves

E.1

Type: Globe pattern mounted horizontally or vertically used to control water level
in tanks.

E.2

Control and operation shall be done through the valve external floater depending
on water level in the tank.

E.3

Valve positioning control consists of float operated linkage mechanism for remote
mounting which feeds water level changes back to main valve through low friction,
flexible push-pull cable supplied by same manufacturer.

E.4

Construction: Cast iron body (GGG-40) to ASTM A126 or equivalent, bronze valve
trim and valve operating mechanism to ASTM B62 and all stainless steel valve float
and pilots.

E.5

Factory Protection: Internal coating of epoxy to a thickness of at least 250 microns
and external coating of epoxy and nickel plating to a thickness of at least 250
microns.

H.

Air Valves for Water Mains

H.1 Generally: Valves are to have ductilecast iron body (GGG-40) to EN-JS 1030 or
equivalent and bolted cover rubber outlet seat, plastic or stainless ball. Valves are to be
dynamic type where there is no possibility of ball being drawn into orifice due to high air
velocities. Valves are to be factory tested to 1.5 times working pressure and factory coated
with epoxy to BS 4164 [5] or BS 3416 [4] respectively. Thickness of coat to be at least
250 microns.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

H.2 Double Air Valves (or Combination Air Valves): These are required for relieving air
under pressure and in bulk. Large orifice releases or admits air during charging or
emptying of mains while small orifice releases air accumulated at summits of mains under
pressure. Large orifice area is to be equal to or greater than inlet of valve. Valves are to be
fitted with nitrite rubber lined butterfly valve with nylon coated disc on stainless steel shaft
operated by lever handle with indicator and locking thumb screw. Valves are to be flanged
to BS 4504 [2] or DIN2501 or equivalent (PN16) and suitable for working pressures up to
NP1 6.

H.3 Single Air Valves: Type 1 (or air / vacuum valve) for releasing or admitting air during
filling or emptying of pipes. Type I I (or air release valve) for automatically releasing,
under pressure, accumulated air at summits of mains. Air valves larger than 50 mm are
to be flanged to BS 4504 [2] or DIN2501 or equivalent and are to have nitrite rubber lined
butterfly valve or gate valve with nylon coated disc on stainless steel shaft operated by
lever handle with indicator and locking thumb screw. Air valves 50 mm and smaller are to
have B.S.P. thread with brass or gun metal male screwed stop valves. Valves are to be
suitable for working pressures up to NP16.

I.

Sluice Gates / Penstock

I.2

Material of Component Parts: Manufactured of stainless steel and insulation rings
from EPDM and may be circular, rectangular or squared.

I.3

Operation: Byhand-wheel or stainless steel stem and may be operated by electric
motor as per specification or Engineers directors.

I.5

Protection: shall be manufactured from stainless steel (1.4301) or (1.4571) as per
specifications and manufacturer directions.

J.

Pressure Reducing Valves - Generally

J.1

Types: Installed where shown on the Drawings to pressure ratings and pressure
settings indicated, to automatically reduce higher inlet pressure to steady lower
downstream pressure regardless of changing flow rate and/or varying inlet
pressure. Valves are to be high pressure rating piston type and hydraulic pilot
operated type.

J.2

Accessibility: Maintenance is to be possible without removing valve from pipeline.

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J.3 Material of component: valve shall be to (DIN3202) F1 or (ISO5752 series 1) or
equivalent and the valve body and cover are of cast iron GGG-40 and the value base and
disk from stainless steel.

J.4 End Connections: Flanged to DIN2501 or BS 4504 [2] to pressure rating of 10, 16 or 25
as appropriate and provided from factory with necessary bolts, washers, nuts and gaskets.

J.5
Factory Protection: Internal coating of epoxy to a thickness of at least 250 microns
and external coating of epoxy and nickel plating to a thickness of at least 250 microns.

K.

Piston Pressure Reducing Valves

K.1 Type: Spring loaded type, balanced out against upstream pressure by high resistance
piston action.

K.2 Size: Valve shall be selected for maximum flow rate recommended by manufacturer
and for maximum water velocity of 1.5 m/s to prevent cavitation inside valve or in pipeline
downstream of valve. Valve diameter is to be same as pipeline but valve opening size is to
be suitable to ensure above requirements.

K.3 Balancing: The effect of upstream pressure on upper surface of main valve disc is to
be balanced by the effect of the pressure acting piston action from below. The effect of
downstream pressure acting under water on main valve disc is to be compensated by
adjustment of the spring compression.

K.4 Control Pressure: Valve shall control a constant downstream pressure to a maximum
variation of +/- 10% and close tight with zero flow rate.

K.5 Accessories: These shall include two pressure gauges with isolation cocks, one fitted
upstream and one downstream.

L.

Diaphragm Pressure Reducing Valves

L.1 Type: Pilot controlled, single seated, hydraulically operated, diaphragm type globe
valve. Control system is to be sensitive to slight pressure changes and is to immediately
control main valve to maintain desired downstream pressure. Pressure setting adjustment
is to be made with single adjustment screw protected by a housing that can be sealed.

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L.2 Construction: Body and cover are to be cast iron, ductile iron or cast steel depending
upon operating pressure. Main valve trim is to be stainless steel and pilot system all
stainless steel. Main valve is to have single removable seat and resilient disc.

L.3 Diaphragm assembly shall be fully guided by a precision machined stem with
bearings at both ends in the valve cover and seat. Diaphragm is to be nylon bonded with
synthetic rubber.

L.4 Accessibility: Repairs are to be possible without removing valve from line. Valve is to
have no external packing glands or stuffing boxes.

L.5 Pilots: Valve is to have necessary factory fitted pilot valves, small interconnecting
piping and accessories to perform required functions. Pilot control is to be direct acting,
adjustable spring loaded, normally open, diaphragm valve designed to permit flow when
controlled pressure is less than spring setting. Control system is to include Y-strainer,
fixed orifice and isolation cocks. Pilot control system is also to include flow control device to
regulate closing speed of valve. Valve is to close tight at zero flow rate.

M. Pressure Regulating Valves

M.1
Type: One-way valve to control water pressure and water shall be identical
around inner valve section and consisting of two annular plates perforated identically and
in the same manner with cone nozzles. Downstream plate is to be fixed and upstream
plate is to slide over fixed plate using a handwheel.

M.2
Function: These shall be used on by-pass of pump and on main pumping station
by-pass line to limit differential pressure and water flow across pump control valve and
by-pass valve.

M.3
Construction: Ductile Cast steel GGG-40 valve body, stainless steel fixed plate
with 13% Cr., bronze aluminum sliding plate, stainless steel valve shaft and perbuban 70
shore gaskets.

M.4
Accessories: Hand-wheel is to have micrometric indicator to indicate valve
position. Valve is to be designed for working pressure of 25 bars.

M.5
Protection Type: interior and exterior layer of epoxy with a thickness at least 150
microns.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

N.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Over-speed Isolating Valves

N.1 Type: Hydraulically controlled, butterfly valve opened by overhead hoist and closed by
weight. Valves are to automatically shut-off at rapid flow that may occur in case of pipe
bursts or increase in water velocity above normal average.

N.2 Install where shown on the Drawings, to the size, pressure ratings and water flow
closing settings shown.

N.3 Detection system shall comprise an apparelus connected to control panel supplied with
the valve to detect overspeed.

N.4 Shut-off mechanism shall consist of mechanical and hydraulic oil system ensuring
irrevocable shutting of valve when overspeed is detected.

N.5 Construction: Valve body, disc and accessories are to be as specified for butterfly
valves.

N.6 Accessories shall include necessary devices to provide controlled operation, shut-off
delay, non-operation by temporary overspeeding and remote signalling by limit switches.
Closing speed shall be adjustable.

O.

General Control and Operation Valves

O.1 General: Pump control valves, slow-closing slow-opening pump check valves, surge
control valves, air release and vacuum breaker valves and by-pass valves are to be
automatic, hydraulically operated, pilot controlled, piston actuated, single seated, globe or
angle pattern as shown on the Drawings, consisting of valve body, piston assembly and
cover with the piston assembly as the only moving part. Valves are to be size and pressure
rating shown on the Drawings and are to be the product of one reputable approved
manufacturer.

O.2 Construction: Valve body is to be ductile cast iron GGG-40 to EN-JS 1030standard,
flanged, with flange rating as shown on the Drawings and containing a removable seat
insert.

O.4 Accessibility: Repairs are to be possible without removing valve from line. Valve is to
have no external packing glands or stuffing boxes.

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O.5 Pilots: Valve shall be supplied complete with factory fitted pilot valves, small
interconnecting piping and accessories to perform required functions. Pilot control system
is to be stainless steel to AISI type 303.

O.6 Factory Protection: Internal coating of epoxy to a thickness of at least 250 microns
and external coating of epoxy and nickel plating to a thickness of at least 250 microns.

O.7 Design Data: The Contractor shall provide manufacturer with necessary and
pertinent data for setting control valves, at factory, to required settings to suit individual
conditions of different pumping stations.

O.8 Shop Drawings And Instructions: Prior to shipping valves from factory, submit shop
drawings for approval giving factory settings, range of adjustments, control diagram, wiring
diagram, size, arrangement and other pertinent data necessary for approval by the
Engineer of every control valve in the system. Submit with the shop drawings detailed
instructions for field adjustment and setting, installation, start-up and proper operation.

O.9 Factory Test: Each control valve is to be tested individually at factory and certified
test results submitted.

O.10 Field Adjustment: The Contractor shall provide the services of a specialized factory
technician or engineer to set, test, adjust and commission the control valves as specified.

P.

Washout Valve
-

Washout valves shall be gate valves as per flanged valves specifications,
and shall be installed in valve chambers as indicated on drawings or as by
Engineers direction.

-

Washout valves shall be installed at the lowest level in the main water as
per drawings or Engineers directions.

4.04.3
A.

FIRE HYDRANTS
General

A.1 These specifications shall corer fire hydrants installed on potable water pipes in the
streets and shall be of above ground hydrant type as to DIN 3222 specification or
equivalent.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.2 Fire hydrants shall be of Above Ground Type consisting of two separate parts
connected by a flange in the middle, and the bolts shall be designed in a manner that allow
dismantling the upper part from the lower part , and in a way that allows the fine hydrant to
receive shocks without allowing breakage of the fine hydrant body or leakage of water.

A.3 Fire hydrant shall be designed in a way that allows dismantling of inner parts such as
rising stem, control valve for maintenance needs without the need to dismantle the valve.

B.

Scope

B.1
Sizing: The height of upper part of the fire hydrant shall not be less than 60 cm
above ground, and the height of buried part of fire hydrant shall not be less then 120 cm
below ground level.

B.2

Parts

B.2.1 External Outlets shall be threaded in the upper part and the main internal nominal
diameter shall be 4 inch and the side outlets shall be 2.5 inch

B.2.2 Intermediate Plange
Dimension of flange with respect to diameter and number of openings for upper part
should be identical to those in lower part.

B.2.3 Lower Inlet
Water inlet in the lower part shall be with a hollow-end to hold a 100mm pipe, or the end
should be flanged as per request with dimensions to international specifications ISO 2531
or equivalent.

B.3

Material of Parts

B.4

B.3.1 Fire Hydrant Body and Upper Cover

Fire hydrant body shall have the Barrel Body shape that surrounds inner parts and covered
with a hydrant cap supplied by an insulating rubber ring bonnet gasket.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

B.3.2 The fire hydrant upper barrel part shall be of ductile cast iron (GGG40/50) to
international or German or equivalent specification.

B.3.3 The Bury standing pipe and the upper cap shall be of the best ductile cast iron type
or ductile cast iron GG25.

D.3.4 The body and cap shall be coaled with epoxy on inside and outside surfaces with a
layer of thickness at least 250 microns or what is equivalent from other types of
anti-corrosive paints that does not react with water. The coating shall be applied to clean
surfaces form dusts or oil. The coating for the external upper part should be red color.

C.

Stem

C.2.1 The stem shall connect the upper and lower part in such a way to control with it the
opening and closing of the regulating valve at the upper part of hydrant.

C.2.2 The stem shall be anti corrosive cast iron with chrome percentage not less than 13%
and Bronze plates.

C.2.3 The stem shall be mounted in the regulating valve body through a copper nut in
such a way where the opening can be done in a counter lock wise way.

C.3 Outlet Nozzles

C.3.1 Unless otherwise stated, the fire hydrant shall be provided with 3 outlets, one main 4
inch and 2 side threaded 2.5 inch outlets

C.3.2 A l l outlets shall be equipped with a metal cap connected to fire hydrant body in a
suitable way through a chain which allows rotation both way and do not make restrictions
during opening and closing of cap.

D.5 Inlet Base
The lower part shall be supply be supplied with a Duck Food Bend with a socket end for a
100mm pipe or with a flanged end as required.
The Dock Foot Bend shall be of ductile cast iron GGG-40/50.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

C.5 Junction Diameter

C.5.1 The junction connecting the fire hydrant and the water main shall be 100 mm when
the water main is 100mm.
The junction diameter shall be 150 mm when the water main size greater than 150 mm

C.6 Closing Valve
A gate valve shall be installed at a 1m distance from the fire hydrant and shall be to the
specification of gate valves.

D.

Over Flow and in Release System

D.1
The fire hydrant shall be supplied with a suitable system to drain water from the
hydrant body and prevent it from freezing when the hydrant is closed.

D.2
The hydrant shall be designed to empty entrapped air inside it through air release
valve or any compatible system.

E.

Installation of the Hydrants

E-1 The fire hydrants shall be installed as specified on plans or as per Engineer’s direction
at easily accessible locations and reduce any damages due to vehicles passage.

E.2

4.04.4
A.

Fire hydrant shall be supplied with safety bars for protection form traffic accidents.

HOUSE CONNECTION
Water connection

A.1
Water connection shall constitute of saddle connection mounted on water line,
connections, connection pipes, water meter boxes, connections and any other item.

A.2
Locations and diameters of house connections, location of connections shall be as
drawings and as Engineer’s directions during project construction, and number and
diameters that shall be installed as per drawing and bill of quantities.

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A.3 Connection Pipes
Domestic connection pipes shall be of high density polyethylene as mentioned in item
(4.3.1) pressure category (16) or 16 Kg/cm2.

A.4 Connection to water main (saddle connection)

A.4.1
House connections shall be connected to water main through saddle as shown in drawings
and as per Engineer’s direction.

A.4.2 Type of saddle that will be used in connecting house connection will be ductile iron
in case the water main is ductile iron or from polyethylene as specified in case the water
main or polyethylene.

A.4.3 The saddle connections will be installed as per drawings and manufacturers
specification that should be applied precisely.

A.5 Water meter Boxes for house Connections

A.5.1 Water Meters
Water meter shall be manufactured from an approved factory by the ministry of water and
electricity. The meters shall comply with the international standards (ISO 4064-1) or
American standards (AWWA) or SASO 238 and shall be accompanied by test certificate,
certificate of origin and shall comply with the following requirements:
1.

The water meter shall be of the metrological category Class- C. The dimensioning of
the water meter shall comply with the international dimensioning standards and shall
be installed into two positions vertical and horizontal and the reading precision shall
not be less then Class-C.

2.

The water meter shall be made of non corrosive brass solder or bronze and shall not
be affected by temperature and bronze percentage shall not be less than 60%.

3.

All internal and external parts shall be salt and temperature resistant and temperature
should be between 0 and 60 degrees and accompanied by a certificate and all
submerged parts shall be made of non poisoned material so that water properties
(quality, taste and odor) are maintained.

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4.

The water meter shall be resistant to high pressures (10 to 16 bars).

5.

Water meter shall be isolated from water line and evacuated from air and be of dry
type.

6.

Water meter glass shall be firmly treated against breakage and scratch and color
change.

7.

Each water meter shall have an external number that will be the meter number
which will be inscribed on the metal part of the meter and the year of manufacture
shall be shown.

8.

The water meter shall be measured in meter cube and should not be less than 5
digits in addition to 3 decimal places in different colors.

9.

The water meter material should be weather resistant and internal parts of meter
should be resistant to sand and water impurities.

10.

There shall be a guarantee for the availability of spare parts of the meter and its
parts for a period not less than 10 years; during this period any part of the meter or its
base or measuring chamber could be exchanged.

11.

The meter should be read clearly in addition to the possibility of being read
remotely as per the Ministry circulation No. 545/1 on 04/06/1428 h.

12.

I t should be printed on either side of the meter with big letters and numbers water
meter size and the flow direction with an arrow. Also the pins of the entrance shall be
different than the exit. This will ensure that the meter will not be installed wrongly.

13.

I t should be ensured that the meter shall not be affected by the cut of water supply
or being dry for a long time.

14.

Each meter shall have a non-corrosive screen installed at the meter entrance
before the measuring instrument and shall have a removable flap valve after the
measuring instrument.

15.

The readings gears shall be fixed in a manner that is not affected by internal and
external factors and shall be suitable for the water quality and temperature that reach
60o C.

16.

All meter sizes up to 4 inch shall be available and the meter box shall be fixed with
a lock that can be opened only with a special key to avoid vandalism.

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A.5.2 Meters Boxes


Meter box body shall be made of fiberglass (25% glass).



Box cover: the metal hinges are made of stainless steel that allow opening the box
with an angle of 18 o.



Reading opening made up of thermally treated glass to allow of taking clear
readings with a guarantee that the color will not change and shall be against scratch
and resist temperature effects.



Box Key: the locking pin of the box cover shall be of stainless steel which does not
rust, and shall be opened by a special key (imported quantity equal 5% of number of
imported boxes) and the key shall be of stainless steel.



Water pipe opening shall be 50 mm diameter in addition to two gaskets to fix the
entering and exiting pipes.



A circular opening to fix the reading instrument by a touching system with a 40 mm
diameter.



Ministry of water and electricity logo.



Bills collector fixed on the exterior side of the box made of polycarbonate,
transparent and anti breakage or scratch or color change.



Box color is white (RAL9010). Box thickness is 6mm for all surfaces. Surfaces shall
be resisting for all environmental deteriorating factors and sunlight with a guarantee
that color will not change or that the surface will not deteriorate.

A.5.3 Ground water meter shall be put in ground boxes as shown in drawings. The frame
and cover shall be prepared to be locked and resist a load of 10 tons and shall be coated to
specifications. And shall secure keys to open and close these frames, one key for every 50
boxes.

A.6 Installation of house connections
The contractor shall clean site, excavate, backfill, install, and put the bedding for pipes and
paving to the specifications as in the main network.

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A.7 Testing and Disinfecting House Connection
House connections shall be tested and disinfected to specifications and as done in the main
network.

A.8 Files of House Connection Locations
The Contractor shall reserve accurate files for the locations of house connections showing
diameter length and the files shall be in a pre-specified format and available for revision
and ready to be submitted to the owner. The contractor shall transfer the information into
charts in accordance with the Engineer in addition to three copies that shall be submitted to
the owner.

4.04.5

A.

JOINTING MATERIALS AND ADAPTORS

Generally

A.1 Gaskets: Elastomeric full face 3 mm thick joint rings to ISO 4633 or BS EN 681-2 [10]
with dimensions to BS 3063 [38].

A.2 Rings: Elastomeric to ISO 4633 or BS EN 681-2 [10] with dimensions to
manufacturer's recommendations to suit type of joint required.

A.3 Bolts and Nuts: ISO metric black hexagon to BS 4190 [39], minimum tensile strength
433 MN/m2, maximum elongation 17%. After fixing, bolt projection shall to be maximum 6
mm, minimum 3 mm.

A.4 Washers: Black steel shall be to BS 4320 [40] or ISO/R 887.

A.5 Dielectric joints shall have insulating gasket between flanges and Teflon sleeves and
washers between bolts and nuts and flanges. Joints are to be suitable for operating
pressure of system.

B.

Flexible Couplings

B.1 Type: Gasket sleeved type, to allow angular deflection and axial movement of two
joined pipe ends and to maintain permanent, leak-tight joint.

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B.2 Components comprise one centre sleeve, two end followers or flanges, two
rubber-compounded wedge-section gaskets and sufficient draw bolts and nuts to properly
compress gaskets. Tightening of bolts to draw end followers together is to compress
gaskets in recess between centre sleeve and followers onto pipe ends to effect positive
seal.

B.3 Size: Couplings are to have diameter specifically supplied for and to properly fit type
of joined pipe ends. Centre sleeve is to be of adequate thickness and whole coupling
suitable for minimum working pressures shown on the Drawings.

B.4 Centre Sleeve and Followers shall be true circular sections, free from irregularities,
flat spots or surface defects and formed from steel mill sections with space between sleeve
and follower designed to provide confinement of gasket.

B.5 Bolts shall be special steel having minimum yield strength of 2800 kg/cm2 (40,000
psi) and ultimate strength of 4200 kg/cm2 (60,000 psi). Bolts shall be track-head design to
prevent turning when nut is drawn up and threads are to be rolled with a nominal diameter
larger than diameter of shank. Manufacturer shall supply information regarding
recommended torque to which bolts are to be tightened.

B.6 Gaskets shall be synthetic rubber-base compound with other products to produce
material which will not deteriorate from age, heat or exposure to air and which is resilient
and able to resist cold flow of material so that joint will remain sealed and tight indefinitely
when subjected to shock, vibration, pulsation, temperature and adjustment of connected
pipes.

B.7 Factory Protection: Coupling shall be factory painted internally with 10 mils coating of
epoxy and externally with red primer to AWWA 203 Type B chlorinated rubber solution
compatible with bitumen, coal tar and general paints.

B.8 Installation: Couplings are to be assembled on site in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions to ensure permanently tight joints under all conditions of
expansion, contraction, shifting and settlement.

C.

Dismantling Couplings

C.1 Type: These shall ensure extensible connection between sections of pipework, to be
mounted next to valves to enable easy dismantling from pipework or to permit joining
pipework when butterfly valve is removed for maintenance.

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C.2 Components: Dismantling piece shall be flanged type composed of two parts, one
sliding into the other, and a free flange to compress a trapezoidal section seal to ensure
water tightness. Coupling shall have locking devices to provide elements of complete
rigidity.

C.3 Construction: A l l steel with flanges class PN 10, PN 16 or PN 25 depending upon
coupling location on pipework.

C.4 Size: Couplings shall have diameter specifically supplied for and to properly fit type
of joined ends of pipes and valves. Coupling shall permit tightening of end flanges
without risk of misalignment. Seal shall be locked after end joints are tightened.

D

Flanged Adaptor: Ferrous

D.1 Material: Cast iron to BS EN 545 [1].

D.2 Length of adaptor shall be 200 mm for diameters up to 150 mm, 250 mm for
diameters between 200 and 300 mm and as approved for diameters larger than 300 mm.

D.3 Factory Protection: Coated with bitumen or coal tar to BS 3416 [4] or 4164 [5]
respectively.

4.04.6

A.

VALVE ACCESSORIES

Accessories

A.1 Hand-wheels shall be to BS 5163 [25], of cast iron to BS EN 1561 [29]. Hand-wheels
are to be marked 'CLOSE' with an arrow to indicate clockwise direction of closure.
Diameters and other constructional details shall be to manufacturer's standards.
Hand-wheels are to be supplied at a rate of 1 in 5 valves.

A.2 Valve caps shall be to BS 5163 [25], of cast iron or malleable iron to BS EN 1561
[29] and BS EN 1562 [41] respectively. Set screw of valve cap is to be mild steel M12.

A.3 Operation Keys: Combination prising bar and lifting key type, with 1.5 m vertical bar
and 0.5 m horizontal bar. Keys are to be supplied at a rate of 1 in 5 valves.

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A.4 Extension Spindles for Gate Valves Manufactured from: Steel to BS 2470 [42] - M12 for
diameters less than 300mm. And the spindle will have manual key of T Type Protection
Tubes: Cast iron. Shape, sizes and other constructional details are to be to manufacturer's
standards and/or as shown on the Drawings. Tubes are to have caps circling extension
spindles.

A.5 Surface boxes shall be to BS 5834 [43] Part 2. Frames and lids are to be cast iron to
BS EN 1561 [29], studs, bolts, nuts and hinge pins are to be mild steel M12, chains are to
be mild steel or wrought iron and l i d is to have the letter 'W' cast on. Boxes are to be of the
following types:
-

For carriageways (wheel loads
up to 11.5 tons)
-

-

For use where heavy commercial
vehicles are exceptional (7 tons)

:

Heavy grade type A

:

Medium grade type M

:

Light grade type L

For use in places inaccessible to
wheeled vehicles (2.5 tons)

A.6
Lifting Key Sets: Malleable iron, supplied at the rate of 1 per 5 covers installed or
fraction thereof.

A.7
Guards for Underground Stop Valves: PVC, shape and size and other constructional
details to manufacturer's standards and/or as shown on the Drawings.

B.

Valve Chambers and Markers

B.1
Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings all backflow preventers, gate valves,
pressure regulators, electric solenoid valves, manual control valves, pressure gauges
and water meters shall be installed in chambers of suitable size for easy access.
Chambers shall be complete with access covers, ladder rungs and other incidental
works.

B.2
Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings all chambers shall be installed on a
suitable base for proper foundation and easy leveling to proper grade, and also to
provide for sufficient drainage.

B.3
Valve markers showing the reference numbers of the valves shall be of
materials and to the dimensions, shapes and details as shown on the Drawings.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

4.04.7

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

VALVE OPERATORS

General

A.1 Gate, butterfly and ball valves are to be manually or electrically operated depending
upon size, torque applied on valve stem or as shown on the Drawings.

A.2 Valves 350 mm and smaller are to be operated manually with a maximum applied
torque on handwheel of 100 Nm

A.3 Valves 400 – 500 mm are to be operated manually with a maximum applied torque of
150 Nm

A.4 Valves of higher torque are to have appropriate thrust bearings, slides and gearboxes
to fulfill these requirements

A.5 Gate valves 600 mm and larger and ball valves are always electrically operated using
thrust bearings, gearboxes and motor actuators

A.6 Butterfly valves 600 mm and larger are to be either manually or electrically operated as
shown on the Drawings.

B.

Manual Gearboxes

B.1 Type: Totally enclosed, sealed construction to protect moving parts from damage and
corrosion. Gearbox is to be either spur or level type depending upon mounting position of
valve.

B.2 Components shall include corrosion resistant bearings, and gearbox of cast iron or
aluminum with unpermeabile cover. Housing cover is to have indicator window to show
position of valve. Gearbox is also to have stainless steel bolts.

C.

Electric Valve Operators

C.1 Type: These shall consist of suitable gearbox and electric motored handwheel for
manual operation.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

C.2 Installation shall be suitable for flange mounting directly on valve body, for gate
valves the operating shall be of non rising stem type.

C.3 Rating shall be of adequate horse-power and thrust ratings to open and close
operated valve smoothly at all conditions of load and pressure.

C.4 Components shall include adjustable mechanical stop- limiting devices to prevent
over-travel of valve in either direction. In addition, components will include safety key to
prevent increase in rotation momentum.

C.5 Construction: Weatherproof, with rugged cast iron housing and with handwheel
having appropriate gearing for emergency manual operation such that maximum applied
torque is 150 Nm. Declutch lever is to disengage drive motor during handwheel operation
and prevent handwheel rotating during power operation for safety of personnel.
Handwheels are to close valve in counter clockwise direction and are to have arrows and
the word 'CLOSE' cast on.

C.6 Controls shall comprise integral electric controls enclosed within weatherproof
compartment and including magnetic starter and reversing controller for motor, open-stopclose push-button for local operation, and switches for manual or remote operation with
indication of operator condition.

C.7 Electric Motor: Totally enclosed, squirrel cage, induction type conforming to NEMA
Publication No. MG1 including characteristics, tests and ratings. Motor shall carry
maximum possible load encountered in valve operation under all normal and abnormal
operating conditions.

4.04.8

A.

CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION

Generally

A.1
Prior to Installation, the Contractor shall inspect for cleanliness of bores, seating
surfaces etc. and for handling damage, cracks, missing parts and tightness of
pressure-containing bolting.

A.2
The Contractor shall ensure gates and hydrants are in closed position before
installation.

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A.3 Operate hydrants through one complete opening and closing cycle in the position in
which they are to be installed to ensure proper functioning.

B.

Installation of Valves

B.1 Prior to installation, valves shall be inspected for cleanliness of bore, seating
surfaces etc. and for handling damage, cracks, missing parts and tightness of bolting.
Valves shall be in close position before installation.

B.2 Valves shall be operated through one complete opening and closing cycle in the
position in which they are to be installed to ensure proper functioning.

B.3 Valves shall be set and jointed to the pipe in the manner specified for laying and
jointing pipe and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Each
valve shall be provided with a concrete pad as shown on the Drawings so that the pipe
does not support the weight of the valve. Valves shall not be used to spring misaligned
pipe into alignment during installation.

B.4 Valves without concrete pads shall be placed on firm footing to prevent settling and
excessive strain on connection to pipe.

B.5
All stressed bolts (bonnet, seal plate and end connections) shall be inspected for
adequate tightness after installation and prior to field testing.

B.6 Valves shall be protected against action of external agents by a coat of approved
bituminous compound, applied cold by hand brushing after pressure tests on pipelines
have been completed. Buried bolts etc., shall be protected against corrosion, with
approved paint or polyethylene wrapping.

C.1
For each installation, the wall thimble, operating mechanism, stem and stem
guides shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
Tolerances between seating faces shall be maintained and any warping avoided.

C.2
Tapped holes in thimbles shall be protected during concreting and setting.
Surfaces of thimbles and gates shall be protected from concrete spillage, paint, oil and
debris. Thimbles shall be supported to prevent shifting during pouring and braced
horizontally and vertically to prevent distortion.

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C.3 Nuts shall be tightened in sequence after setting and the entire assembly shall be
cleaned, adjusted and lubricated after installation.

C.4 Sluice gates / Penstocks shall be operated through one complete cycle on
installation to ensure proper functioning.

C.5 Sluice gates / Penstocks shall be protected against action of external agents with
one coat of approved bituminous compound applied cold by brush after installation.
Buried bolts, etc. shall be protected against corrosion, with approved paint or
polyethylene wrapping.

D.

Field Protection

D.1
Valves: The Contractor shall protect valves against action of external agents by a
coat of approved bituminous compound applied cold by brush after pressure tests on
pipelines have been completed.

D.2
Hydrants: The Contractor shall apply one coat of paint, of colour specified by the
Engineer, after backfilling and surface restoration is completed.

D.3
Gates: The Contractor shall protect against action of external agents with one coat
of approved bituminous compound applied cold by brush after installation.

D.4
Bolts: The Contractor shall protect buried bolts against corrosion with approved
paint or by polyethylene wrapping.

Page 172 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

SECTION 4.05

4.05.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

BEDDING, SURROUND, HAUNCHING, ENCASEMENT
AND THRUST BLOCKS

GENERAL

Scope

A.1 Pipe bedding, surround and ways of securing pipe installations are specified in this
Section.

4.05.2

MATERIALS

A.
Pipe bedding and/or surround, and filling materials under and around pipes shall
comply with the appropriate requirements of Section 2.04.

B.

A l l concrete work shall comply with the appropriate requirements of Division 5.

C.

Concrete bedding shall be Class 110/25.

D.
0/20.

Concrete for encasements, thrust blocks, arches and haunches shall be Class 25

E.
Compressible board shall be 20 mm thick fibrous material or similar approved
material.

4.05.3

A.

WORKMANSHIP

Placing Concrete

A.1
After placing pipe the Contractor shall pour concrete in trench and thoroughly
work under pipe to provide solid and uniform bedding.

A.2
After pipe joint is completed the Contractor shall place the balance of concrete or
haunching and work into place on both sides simultaneously.

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A.3 The Contractor shall form vertical construction joints in concrete beds, surrounds etc.
at the face of pipe joints with compressible board and finish to profile of the concrete and
pipe. The Contractor shall f ill any gap between spigot and socket with approved resilient
material.

B.

Placing Material Other than Concrete

B.1 The Contractor shall place surround or bedding material in bottom of prepared trench
and carefully hand tamp to minimum thicknesses.

B.2 After pipe has been laid the Contractor shall place additional material or haunching in
successive layers not exceeding 150 mm thick on both sides simultaneously and
completely f ill spaces between pipe and side of trench and carefully hand tamp without
disturbing the pipe.

C.

Thrust Blocks

C.1 Thrust blocks shall be constructed to prevent thrust at all bends, T connections,
crossings, pipe ends, tapers and fire-hydraulic as per Engineers direction and design
drawings. Thrust blocks shall be constructed between the solid ground and the accessories
that need to be anchored as per the details of the design drawings or Engineer’s direction.
Polyethylene sheets of 3mm thickness shall be put between concrete and accessories to
prevent cohesion. Contractor shall submit shop drawings for thrust block constructed. No
pressure shall be applied to thrust blocks for 3 days after construction.

Page 174 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

SECTION 4.06
4.06.1
A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

CHAMBERS AND INLETS

GENERAL
Scope

A.1 This section specifies works related to valves chambers, for air valves, washout
valves and butterfly valves of diameter 300 mm and above.

4.06.2

MATERIALS

A.
Excavation and backfilling generally shall comply with Section 2 and section 3 of
the Specification.

B.
Concrete work generally shall comply with the appropriate requirements of
Division 5 of the Specification.

C.
Reinforcement shall conform to the requirements as specified in Section 5.03
"Steel Reinforcement and Fixing".

D.
Precast units to BS 5911 [13] Part 200 or ASTM C478. Except for thickness which
shall be as indicated on the Drawings. Concrete shall be Class 250/20. Cement shall be
ordinary Portland cement to BS EN 197 [3].

E.
Plain and reinforced concrete for cast In-Situ units shall be Class 2 10/25 and
250/25 respectively. Cement shall be ordinary Portland cement to BS EN 197 [3].

F.
Internal and External Coatings shall be as specified in A3, A4 and A5 of section
4.06.3. Water proofing for external surfaces is given in Section 4.07.

G.
Covers and frames shall be non-rocking, locking, solid top to specifications
followed by Ministry of Transport and comply with British Standards BS2789 or ISO 1083
or DIN 1229 or BS EN 124 [31]. Equivalent, wording on cover shall indicate nature of
network (water supply), Grades shall be as follows:
-

In Roadways: Heavy duty test load 40 tons

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In Sidewalks, Carriage Drive and Cycle Tracks: Medium duty test load 25
tons



In Footpaths and Fields: Light duty, test load 7 tons

H.
Covers shall be of circular pattern with a minimum diameter of 600 mm or
rectangular with an opening 1200mm x 600mm unless otherwise indicated on Drawings.
Frames shall be provided with opening for fixing bolts which ensure solid frame
embedment into manhole concrete neck. Covers for air release valve chambers should be
provided with holes for ventilation. Covers and frames shall be coated with two layers coal
tar epoxy (70% epoxy, 30% coal tar) to BS 3416 [4]. Minimum thickness 250 microns.

I.
Iron steps shall be mild steel to BS 4211 [51], galvanized to BS EN ISO 1461 [52]
with 200 grams of zinc per square meter and covered with two layers of polyethylene (PE)
or polypropylene.

J.
Fixing bolts shall be steel, type suitable for particular purpose and use and to
approval. When used to fix galvanized material, washers are to be galvanized and fixing
bolts and nuts cut to pre-plating limits and electroplated with zinc to BS EN 12329 [53].

K.
Steel castings shall be mild to medium strength castings and shall conform to
AASHTO M103 (ASTM A27). Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings or instructed by
the Engineer, castings shall be grade 65-3 5 fully annealed. Steel castings shall conform to
the dimensions shown on the Drawings. Test bars shall be prepared and tested as specified
in AASHTO M103.

L.
Wrought iron plates and shapes shall conform to the dimensions shown on the
Drawings. Rolled wrought iron bars and shapes shall conform to the requirements of
ASTM A207. Wrought iron plates shall conform to ASTM A42 .

M.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer all specified test coupons and
Manufacturers' Certificates of Guarantee for all structural steel, cast iron, cast steel and
wrought iron parts stating that the materials supplied meet the appropriate AASHTO or
ASTM specification. The submission of such test certificates shall not relieve the
Contractor of his obligations to carry out independent tests at an approved laboratory, as
directed by the Engineer, at his own expense.

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

4.06.3

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION

Valve Chambers

A.1 Construction shall be in situ concrete, precast concrete as indicated on the
Drawings.

A.2 Conrete works shall comply to concrete specifications as per concrete and
reinforcement specification in section 5.

A.3 Bituminous slurry External concrete surfaces for valve chambers shall be coated with
bituminous slurry. External coating shall consists of two coats applied by brush in
accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Minimum thickness shall be 400 microns.
A.4 Internal surface for valve chambers shall be coated with two coats of epoxy.

A.5 The Contractor shall submit details of insulation material and thickness of coatings
and type of coating as per the manufacturer.

A.6 The covers frame shall be set solidly in mortar and fix firmly using fixing bolts. The
Contractor shall position the cover centrally over the opening and level and square with
surrounding finishes and set cover in position to prevent twisting.

Page 177 of 259

PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories

SECTION 4.07

Technical Specification for Water Network

RECORDS

The Contractor shall maintain accurate records details for whole project components and
show details for the following works. These records should be submitted in both hardcopy
and digital forms, three copies for each form. Digital data and drawings should be
prepared in compliance with geographic information system (GIS) and digital mapping in
the directorate (if any):

A. As-Built House Connection Plan
This record showing the sketch of the particular section indicating the mainline and the
house connection. Listed below is the information required for this record;












Mainline number
Mainline section number
Length of mainline pipe
Mainline pipe diameter and type of pipe
Insert level of the mainline at the connection location
Connection number & position
Type of connection
House connection pipe diameter
Distance from centerline of mainline to the building
Invert of end lateral at the building
A column of remarks must be provided for future up-dating of house connections

B. Mainline Records
There are three (3) important records to be maintained from constructed mainlines, these
are the general layout and bench mark, site plan and the line profiles. Description of these
records are as follows;

B.1 For General Layout & Bench Mark
This drawing must be prepared in A-0 size drafting film covering the whole area of work
executed by the contractor with an “appropriate” scale that will accommodate on drawing
sheet. Required information is as follows:





Line numbers
Valve chambers and fire hydrants numbers
Name of street
Name of important landmark in the area (i.e mosque, school, garden, hospital,
clinic, shopping mall, government offices, etc…)

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PART 4: Pipe Works and Network Accessories




Technical Specification for Water Network

Location of bench marks with their designated numbers and elevations
A separate table is to be allocated describing the complete bench marks used in
the project.

B.2 For Sit e Plan s

This drawing must be prepared in A-0 size drafting film with a scale of 1:1,000 showing in
segments for the entire area of work executed by the Contractor. Required informationis as
follows;








Line numbers
Numbers of valve chambers, fire hydrants and other network accessories
Coordinates for each and every intersection, valve chamber and fire hydrant
Lateral distance location for each and every chamber(i.e. distance from center of
chamber to property wall or sidewalk curb stone or street light post or fire hydrant
traffic light post or any favorable base of measurement)
Name of street
Name of important landmark in the area (i.e. mosque, school, garden, hospital,
clinic, shopping mall, government offices, etc…)

B.3 For Line Prof iles

This drawing must be prepared in A-0 size drafting film with a scale of 1:1,000 horizontal
and 1:100 vertical for the entire mainlines constructed in the whole area of work by the
Contractor. Required information is as follows:











Line number
Surface condition
Ground level
Invert level
Depth-to-invert
Distance
Chainage
Pipe data (pipe diameter & type of pipe, slope and bedding)
Rock levels
Underground utilities crossing either below or over the mainline pipes




Type of utility
Description
Top elevation

Page 179 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

PART 5: CONCRETE WORKS

SECTION 5.01

5.01.1
A.

CONCRETE AND CONCRETE MIXES AND TESTING

GENERAL
Scope

A.1 These Works shall consist of the Specifications for concrete materials including
sampling, testing and storage of such materials, concrete strength requirements, concrete
testing procedures and requirements, and job mixes.

5.01.2

A.

MATERIALS

Cement

A.1 Cement shall be Portland Cement, originating from manufacturers approved by the
Engineer and shall comply with ASTMC 150:97a and BS 12 or AASHTO M85 Type I in the
case of Ordinary Portland Cement and with BS 4027 or AASHTO M85 Type I I or Type V as
directed by the Engineer in the case of Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement.

A.2 Only one type or brand of cement shall be used in any one structural member. Mixing
of types or brands will not be permitted.

A.3 A l l cement shall be subject to approval and shipments of cement shall be
accompanied by a manufacturer's Certificate of Guarantee and/or laboratory test certificate.
Approval of any cement sample shall not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility to
fabricate concrete of the specified strength.

A.4 When tests at the factory or field tests subsequent to the original approval tests show
that the cement does not comply with the specifications, the entire consignment from which
the sample was taken shall be rejected and the Contractor shall immediately remove the
rejected material from the Site and replace it with cement which meets the required
specifications.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.5 Whenever low alkali cement is specified the total alkali content estimated as sodium
oxide equivalent, shall not exceed 0.60% by weight. Approval of any cement sample shall
not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility to fabricate concrete of the specified quality
and strength.

A.6 I f no local test certificate is available, the Contractor shall obtain from each proposed
manufacturer a typical sample of cement which shall be fully and independently tested in
accordance with the appropriate standard and the results submitted for approval. Primary
and secondary sources of the required cements shall be given. All costs associated with the
testing shall be allowed for by the Contractor. All costs associated with the testing shall be
allowed for by the Contractor.

A.7 Details shall also be submitted of the manufacturer's name and address of producing

works, manufacturer's description of cement type and brand name and standards to which
compliance is guaranteed.

A.8 Average values and corresponding maximum and minimum values in respect of the

following composition and properties shall be submitted, covering a continuous production
period of at least 6 months ending not earlier than 3 months before submission of the data.
The Contractor shall state i f any material or production process changes have been made
since the end of the above period; i f any are proposed, brief details shall be given.
Composition

Properties

Insoluble residue
Silica (SiO2)

Lime saturation factor (LSF)
Alumina-iron ratio (A/F)
Tri-calcium aluminate (Ca3Al)
Free lime in clinker (as CaO)
Total acid solution alkalis Heat
of hydration

Alumina (Al2O3)
Total Iron (Fe2O3)
Calcium (CaO)
Magnesium (MgO)

Potassium (K2O)
Sodium (Na2)
Sulfate (SO3)

Sulfur (S)
Chloride (Cl)
Loss on ignition

− at 7 days
− at 28 days
Fineness (sq.m/kg)
Setting times
− Initial (min)
− Final (min)
Soundness (mm)
Compressive strength
− 3 days
− 7 days
− 28 days
− 3 months

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.9 The requirement of item A.8 may be dispensed with at the discretion of the Engineer,
who shall give such dispensation in writing.

A.10 The manufacturer's bulk average test certificate for each consignment of cement shall
be submitted, showing the results for chemical composition and physical properties
determined in accordance with the relevant standard. Samples shall be taken for each
consignment of cement and tested as directed by the Engineer in an approved independent
laboratory, at the cost of the Contractor.

A.11 Where bulk cement deliveries are proposed, the Contractor shall provide all
information required by the Engineer concerning off-site storage and loading arrangements
and shall provide reasonable facilities for the Engineer to inspect these arrangements for
approval purposes. Consignments shall be used in the order in which they are delivered.

A.12 Storage capacity shall be sufficient to meet the schedule of work so that continuous
work is achieved. Cement shall be stored in moisture-proof storage sheds. Neither stale,
caked, nor reclaimed or re-sacked cement shall be used. The Contractor shall not store
cement in areas subject to flooding.

A.13 Cement remaining in bulk storage at the mill, prior to shipment, for more than 6
months or cement stored in bags in local storage by the Contractor or a vendor for more
than 3 months after shipment from the mill, must not be used for concrete works.

B.

Aggregates

B.1 Potential aggregate sources shall be examined and particular attention shall be paid to
the following aspects of the deposits and the actual or proposed extraction and production
arrangements:


Name, location, local national grid reference, type of deposit, potential
variability, methods of extraction.



Methods and degree of control exercised over extraction.



Processing methods, types of plant, number of processing stages,
standards of maintenance and process control, producer's laboratory
facilities and technical staffing.



Stockpiling arrangements, loading and supply arrangements.

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Technical Specification for Water Network



Potential variations in end-products due to variations inherent in the deposit
and in the existing methods of extraction, processing and stockpiling.



Possible modifications to existing extraction, processing, storage and
handling arrangements, and to supervision arrangements to reduce
end-product variations.



Possible requirements for supplementary processing on site.



Photographs shall be provided of each of the proposed new sources and
related production arrangements. The source photographs should preferably
include low level (helicopter) aerial photographs and close-ups of working
faces.

B.2 Aggregate deposits shall be sampled and tested in an appropriate and systematic
manner to assess their potential variability and to assist in determining appropriate methods
of extraction and processing.

B.3 The deposit investigation and sampling programs shall be relevant to each type of
deposit and shall be devised and supervised by an experienced approved engineering
geologist, after he has made a field reconnaissance of the potential deposit areas, or the
existing workings.

B.4 Each size of aggregate shall be sampled at the discharge points on the production
plant (i.e. conveyors or hoppers, not stockpiles) at three well spaced intervals during the
course of each of three consecutive production days; these samples shall be designated
"production samples".

B.5 In addition, selected samples shall be taken from producer's stockpiles to represent
any readily visible variations in physical characteristics, or appearance, or materials ready
for loading, these samples shall be designated "stockpile samples".

B.6 A l l samples shall be taken by arrangement with and in the presence of the Engineer,
or his representative, and shall be tested as required below.

B.7 Representative portions of the above samples shall be taken for reference purposes
and shall be split and retained on site by the Contractor and by the Engineer.

Page 183 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

C.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Testing Aggregates

C.1 Each production sample shall be tested for the following:



Proportion of natural (uncrushed) material (% by weight) gradings, passing
75mm sieve (U.S. Sieve No.200 to AASHTO M92 or ASTM M81) when
tested in accordance to AASHTO T 11 .



Total acid soluble chloride content and total acid soluble sulfate content (%
by weight).



Flakiness and elongation indices.

C.2 Representative portions of equal weight shall be taken from each of the production

samples of each size of aggregate and then combined to provide composite production
samples for each size of aggregate. The composite samples shall be tested as for the
individual unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. The tests shall be as follows:


Potential Reactivity tests for alkali-silicate and alkali-carbonate reactions:
petrographic examination in accordance with ASTM C295, rapid chemical
method in accordance with ASTM C289 and rock expansion test in
accordance with ASTM C586.



I f one or more of the tests referred to above are positive then the mortar
prism test in accordance with ASTM C227 shall be carried out.



Partial chemical analysis, including insoluble residue (ASTM D3042-84),
chloride content, sulfate content and calculated approximate composition.



ASTM Soundness Test C88, using sodium sulfate solution or ASTM
Soundness Test C88, using magnesium sulfate solution.



Aggregate Impact Value by the Los Angeles test in accordance with
AASHTO T96-83 ASTM C131-81 , ASTM C535-81.



10% Fine Value to BS 812.



Aggregate Abrasion Value to BS 812.



Specific Gravities and Water Absorption to BS 812 or approved ASTM
equivalent.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

C.3 Stockpile samples shall be examined and tested in as many of the above mentioned
respects as are considered relevant by the Engineer.

C.4 The properties of the aggregates shall be such that the Drying Shrinkage of concrete
prepared and tested in an approved laboratory in accordance with the United Kingdom
Building Research Station Digest No. 35 (Second Series) shall not exceed 0.045 percent.
The Initial Drying Shrinkage of all the proposed concrete mixes prepared and tested in an
approved laboratory in accordance with BS 1881 shall not exceed 0.06 percent.

C.5 Aggregate for use in concrete or mortar that will be subject to wetting, extended
exposure to humid atmosphere, or contact with moist ground, shall not contain material
that is deleteriously reactive with the alkalis in the cement, or any which may be
additionally present in the aggregates and mixing water or water in contact with the
concrete or mortar, in amounts sufficient to cause excessive localized or general expansion
of concrete or mortar. The following shall be observed:

D.



Under no circumstances shall the Contractor use Dacite, Andesite,
Rhyolites, Opal Cherts and Tuffs.



Coarse and fine aggregates shall be tested for reactivity potential in
accordance with the methods listed above and shall satisfy the various
criteria given for innocuous aggregates in the relevant standard.



In case the aggregate source has no previous records and no performance
history, potential reactivity should be evaluated using the specified tests.
However, i f the aggregate has been used in previous works in adjacent
location and performed well without showing signs of Alkali reaction, the
results of these tests should not be used as the only factor deciding the usage
of the aggregate. The Engineer shall then decide on this matter.



The period of the tests is minimum 14 weeks to 26 weeks unless the
accelerated test is used instead of the mortar bar test (ASTM C227).

Fine Aggregates

D.1 Fine concrete aggregates shall conform to AASHTO M6 and shall consist of natural
sand or crushed rock having hard and durable particles or, i f approved by the Engineer,
other inert materials having similar characteristics, 100% passing 9.5 mm sieve and 2% to
10% passing 0.15 mm sieve. It shall not contain harmful materials such as iron pyrites,
coal, mica, shale or similar laminated materials such as flat and elongated particles or any
materials which may attack the reinforcement in such a form or in sufficient quantity as to
adversely affect the strength, durability and texture of the concrete.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

D.2 The Contractor shall, when directed by the Engineer, wash the fine aggregates to
remove deleterious substances or for consistency of concrete colour. Such washing shall
be carried out using fresh water. The water shall be replaced regularly as deemed
necessary to maintain its chloride and/or sulfate content low.

D.3 The total acid soluble sulfate content (BS 812:Part 118) of fine aggregate, expressed
as sulphur trioxide (SO3), shall not exceed 0.40% by dry weight (AASHTO T260-82,
BS812: Part 117). The total acid soluble chloride content, expressed as sodium chloride
(NaCl), shall not exceed 0.10% by dry weight of fine aggregate. The following additional
requirements shall apply to the concrete mix:


Total sulfate content (as SO3) of any mix, excluding that present in the
cement but including any present in the other materials, shall not exceed
2.5% by weight of cement in the mix.



Total chloride content (as NaCl) of any mix, including any chloride present
in the other materials and in the mix water, shall not exceed 0.35% by
weight of cement in the mix.

D.4 Fine aggregate shall meet the following additional requirements:


Fineness modulus, AASHTO M6: +0.20% of approved value which shall
be not greater than 3.1 or less than 2.3. Sieve analysis to AASHTO T27.



Sodium or Magnesium Sulfate Soundness AASHTO T104: max 12% , 18%
loss respectively.



Content of Clay Lumps and Friable Particles, AASHTO T112-82: 3% max.



Sand Equivalent AASHTO T176: min 75% .



Coal and Lignite, AASHTO T113-82: 0.5% Max.



Organic Impurities AASHTO T21-81: darker than standard colour .

D.5 The amount of hollow shells likely to form voids and present in material retained on a
2.36 mm sieve determined by direct visual separation, shall not exceed 3% by weight of
the entire sample.

D.6 When sampled and tested in accordance with the appropriate sections of BS 812
(using BS 812 test sieves) the grading of fine aggregates shall be within the limits of the
grading zones given in Table 4 of BS 882. The fine aggregate shall be described as a fine
aggregate of the grading zone into which it falls.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

D.7 I f the fineness modulus varies by more than 0.2 from the value assumed in the
concrete mix design, the use of such fine aggregate shall be discontinued until suitable
adjustments can be made in the mix proportions to compensate for the difference in
gradation.

E.

Coarse Aggregates

E . 1 Coarse concrete aggregates shall conform to AASHTO M80 and shall consist of

gravel, crushed gravel, or crushed stone free from coating of clay or other deleterious
substances. It shall not contain harmful or any other materials which may attack the
reinforcement in such a form or in sufficient quantity as to adversely affect the strength and
durability of the concrete. I f necessary, coarse aggregate shall be washed to remove
deleterious substances, or for consistency of concrete colour.

E.2 The total acid soluble sulfate content (BS812: Part 118) of coarse aggregate

expressed as sulphur trioxide (SO3), shall not exceed 0.40% by weight (AASHTO
T260-82, BS812: Part 117). The total acid soluble chloride contents of coarse
aggregates, expressed as sodium chloride (NaCl), shall not exceed 0.05% by weight.
These limits are subject to the following overriding requirements:

E.3



The total sulfate content (as SO3) of any mix, excluding that present in the
cement but including any present in the other materials, shall not exceed
2.5% by weight of cement in the mix.



The total chloride content (as NaCl) of any mix, including any chloride
present in the other materials and the mix water, shall not exceed 0.35% by
weight of cement in the mix.

Coarse aggregate shall also meet the following additional requirements:


Sodium or Magnesium Sulfate Soundness AASHTO T104: 5 cycles: Max
12%, 18% loss respectively.



Abrasion, in Accordance with AASHTO T96 Max 40% loss.



Content of Clay Lumps and Friable Particles AASHTO T112-81: Max 1%
by weight.



Soft Fragments and Shale AASHTO M80: max 5% by weight.



Flakiness Index, BS812: 30% max. Elongation index, BS 812:30% max.



Coal and Lignite, AASHTO T113-82: 0.5% max.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

E.4 The grading of coarse aggregate shall comply with AASHTO M43.

E.5 The coarse concrete aggregate, when tested according to AASHTO T27, shall meet
the following gradation requirements and shall be graded within the limits stated in Table
5.1.1.
Table 5.1.1: Limits of Gradation for Coarse Aggregates
Percent Passing by Weight for

AASHTO
Sieve
Size
3'
2 1/2"
2"
1 1/2"
1"
3/4"
1/2"
3/8"
No. 4
No. 8
No. 200

mm
75
63
50
37.50
25.0
19.0
12.5
9.5
4.75
2.36
0.075

Grading
I
100
90-95
30-65
10-30
0-5
0-1

Grading
II
100
95-100
35-70
10-30
0-5
0-1

Grading
III
100
95-100
35-70
10-30
0-5
0-1

Grading
IV
100
95-100
25-60
0-10
0-5
0-1

Grading
V
100
95-100
20-55
0-10
0-5
0-1

Grading
VI
100
90-100
40-70
0-15
0-5
0-1

E.6
The type of grading for coarse concrete aggregates shall depend on the maximum
size of aggregate, which shall not be larger than one-fifth (1/5) of the narrowest dimension
between sides of forms, nor larger than two-thirds (2/3) of the minimum clear spacing
between reinforcing bars, whichever is least.

E.7
Before batching, all types of coarse aggregate shall be separated into fractions
having uniform grading as determined by the Engineer.

E.8
However, the number of fractions and their gradings shall be fixed on the basis of
the maximum size of the aggregates in the cement concrete as proposed below
-

For fractions up to 1-1/4":
(31.5 mm)

between 3/8" and 3/4"
(9.5 - 19.0 mm).

-

For fractions up 1-1/2" to 3":
(37.5-75 mm)

between 3/4" and 1-1/4"
(19.0 - 31.5 mm)

Page 188 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

F.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Combined Aggregates
F.1 Combined aggregate is composed of a mixture of coarse aggregates and fine aggregates.
They shall be used only in proportions with the prior approval of the Engineer.

F.2 In no case shall materials passing the No. 200 (0.075 mm) sieve exceed 3% by weight of
the combined aggregate.

F.3 The combined concrete aggregate gradation used in the work shall be as specified,
except that when approved or directed by the Engineer. Grading 7 of Table 5.1.2 shall be
used for curbs, handrails, parapets, posts and other similar sections or members with
reinforcement spacing too close to permit proper placement and consolidation of the
concrete.

F.4 Changes from one gradation to another shall not be made during the progress of work,
unless approved by the Engineer.
F.5 For the proportion of each fraction of coarse aggregate and for the proportion of fine and
coarse aggregate, the combined gradings in Table 5.1.2 shall be utilized as a guideline for
the mix proportion design as to guarantee the maximum densities of the concrete. Before
batching, however, the Engineer or his representative shall check only the compliance of the
grading of the fine and coarse aggregate with the requirements of the Specifications, since
the grading of each fraction ultimately remains the sole responsibility of the Contractor.
Table 5.1.2: Limits of Gradation for Combined Aggregates
AASHTO

Combined Aggregate Percent Passing by Weight for

Sieve
Size

mm

Grading
1

Grading
2

Grading
3

Grading
4

Grading
5

Grading
6

Grading
7

3"
2 1/2"
2"
1 1/2"
1"
3/4"
1/2"
3/8"
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No.100
No.200

75
63
50
37.50
25.0
19.0
12.5
9.5
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.600
0.300
0.150
0.075

100
88-95
78-90
66-81
51-70
43-62
32-53
27-48
19-38
9-27
4-19
3-15
2-11
1-7
0-3

100
88-95
74-86
56-75
47-67
36-58
30-53
22-42
10-29
5-21
4-17
2-13
1-8
0-3

100
80-92
63-80
52-72
41-60
36-54
23-43
12-30
6-22
4-19
2-14
1-8
0-3

100
93-98
70-88
60-79
47-66
40-60
28-49
16-36
7-25
5-21
2-15
1-9
0-3

100
87-96
73-86
57-74
48-68
34-55
24-40
9-28
7-23
4-17
2-10
0-3

100
80-96
61-80
52-72
38-56
25-41
11-29
8-24
5-19
2-11
0-3

100
73-86
61-79
43-64
26-46
13-33
10-28
5-21
2-12
0-3

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PART 5: Concrete Works

G.

Technical Specification for Water Network

On Site Storage of Aggregates

G.1 Adequate stocks of tested and approved aggregates shall be maintained on site and
the capacity of the storage bins for each type and grading of aggregate shall be sufficient to
hold the respective quantities required for the maximum amount of concrete which the
Contractor is obliged or intends to pour in any continuous operation in one day. Stockpiles
shall be built in layers of 1.50 m maximum height and segregation of the aggregates
prevented. Different grades of aggregates shall be totally separated by concrete block
walls.

G.2 Dense concrete or bituminous slabs shall be laid with sufficient falls to cover all
aggregate stockpile areas or bins and shall extend to cover all surrounding areas where
aggregates are likely to be discharged or handled. These areas shall be swept and kept
clean at all times to ensure that the aggregates are not contaminated by the adjacent ground
through trafficking or otherwise, and shall be constructed with adequate drainage for
surplus water.

G.3 Windbreaks shall be provided where aggregates might suffer excessive contamination
by windblown materials. During periods of heavy rain the bins or compounds shall be
covered by tarpaulins or other approved means.

H.

Rejection of Aggregates

H.1 The general or localized build up of fines in aggregate stockpiles shall not be allowed
and any material which, in the opinion of the Engineer, is so affected will be rejected after
testing.

H.2 Aggregates which have suffered segregation or contamination during processing,
handling at source, transportation to the site, stockpiling and handling on site, or which
otherwise do not conform with requirements of the Specifications, either locally or
generally, will be rejected and shall be removed promptly from the site.

H.3 Aggregates which are found to be contaminated during transportation or during
stockpiling or during handling shall be promptly removed from the site by the Contractor
notwithstanding any prior approval of the source which may have been given by the
Engineer.

Page 190 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

I.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Washing and Processing Aggregate

I.1 The Contractor may be required to carry out on site supplementary processing or
effective washing of coarse and fine aggregates where the aggregate producer's methods, in
the opinion of the Engineer, may not result in end products which consistently comply with
all requirements of the Specifications, or where aggregates suffer unacceptable changes
during loading at source or during subsequent transportation to the site, or otherwise.

J.

Water

J.1
A l l sources of water to be used with cement whether for mixing or curing of
concrete, or compaction of backfill around the concrete structures, shall be approved by the
Engineer. I f at any time during construction, water from an approved source becomes
unsatisfactory, the Contractor shall provide satisfactory water from other mains sources.

J.2
Water shall be free from injurious quantities of oil, alkali, vegetable matter and salt
as determined by the Engineer. The water shall be reasonably clear and shall contain not
more than one quarter (0.25) percent solids by weight. Water shall comply with the
requirements of AASHTO T26 and BS 3148. I f the specific conductance is less than 1500
microohms per centimeter the total solids content requirement may be waived.

J.3
Non-potable water may be used when potable water is not available provided the
impurities do not exceed the values given in Table 5.1.3.

J.4
Mortar prepared with water submitted by the Contractor for approval shall show no
marked change in time of set, no indication of unsoundness and a reduction of not more
than ten (10) percent in mortar strength when compared with mortar made with water of
known satisfactory quality.

J.5
use.

The water used in the mix design shall be the same as the water approved for site

J.6
Water used for prestressed concrete structures or for concrete containing or in
contact with aluminium fittings or fixtures shall not contain chloride ions.

Page 191 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

Table 5.1.3: Maximum Permitted Impurities in Non-Potable Water
Impurity
Chloride as (Cl-)
a) Prestressed concrete
or concrete in bridge
decks

500

ASTM D512

Sulfates as SO4

1000
300

ASTM D516

Alkalis as
(Na2O+K2O)
Total solid

600
5000

b) Other reinforced
concrete in moist
environment or containing
aluminum embodiments or
dissimilar metals or with
stay in place galvanized
metals form

K.

Method

Max. Concentration
(ppm)

AASHTO T-26

Admixtures

K.1
The quantity and method of using admixtures shall be in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations and in all cases shall be subject to the approval of the
Engineer.

K.2
In all cases the Contractor shall provide the following information for the
Engineer's approval:


The quantity to be used, in kilograms per kilogram of cement and in
kilograms per cubic meter of concrete.



The detrimental effects caused by adding a greater or lesser quantity in
kilograms per cubic meter of concrete.



The chemical name(s) of the main active ingredient(s).



Whether or not the admixture leads to the entraining of air.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

K.3 The Contractor shall demonstrate the action of an admixture by means of trial mixes.

K.4 The use of calcium chloride in any form is prohibited.

K.5 Reference may be made to ACI Committee 212 report "Guide for Use of Admixtures in
Concrete".

L.

Admixture to Produce High Workability

L.1 Concrete for use in certain construction shall contain an approved superplasticising
agent, when so directed by the Engineer. The superplasticiser shall be stored and used
strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and must be fully compatible with
all proposed concrete mix constituents. The optimum dosage of the additive shall be
determined by site and laboratory trials to the Engineer's approval. The Contractor shall
submit to the Engineer full details of his proposed mix design which must ensure that the
minimum strength requirements as specified for the particular use of the concrete are
achieved. Only when the Engineer has approved the proposed mix design may such a mix
be used in full compliance with the Specifications.

L.2 The Contractor's mixing and transporting plant shall be so designed that accurate
metering of the superplasticising agent is possible and so that the additive may be
introduced immediately before placing.

5.01.3

A.

DEFINITIONS

Crushing Strength

A.1 The crushing strength of a test cylinder prepared in accordance with AASHTO T23 and
AASHTO T126. Alternative standard cubes may be tested in accordance to BS
specifications.

B.

Average Strength

B.1

The mean of the crushing strengths of specimens taken from a sample of concrete.

Page 193 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

C.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Characteristic Strength

C.1 The value of the crushing strength below which 5% of the population of all possible
strength measurements of the specified concrete are expected to fall.

D.

Fresh Concrete

D.1 Concrete during the initial period of two hours from the addition of water to the cement.

E.

Batch

E.1 The quantity of concrete mixed in one cycle of operations of a batch mixer or the
quantity of concrete conveyed ready-mixed in a vehicle, or the quantity discharged during
one minute from a continuous mixer.

F.

Sample

F.1 A quantity of concrete taken from a batch whose properties are to be determined.

G.

Regular Sampling

G.1 The sampling of concrete nominally of the same mix received regularly from the same
source.

H.

Specimen

H.1

Cylinder or cube taken from a sample for testing.

Page 194 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.01.4

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

CONCRETE STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS

Design Mixes

A.1 Mixes for the classes of concrete shown in Table 5.1.4 shall be designed by the
Contractor, when specified for use in any part of the Works. The quantity of water used shall
not exceed that required to produce a concrete with sufficient workability to be placed and
vibrated in the particular locations required. Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer, the
mix designs shall be on the basis of continuously graded aggregates and all mix designs
shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

A.2 The Cement content in any mix shall not exceed 450 kg/cu.m.

A.3 The 7-day compressive strengths shall not be less than 75% of the specified 28 day
strengths. I f the 7 days results are below 75% of the required 28 days strength, the
Contractor may postpone works related to the suspected concrete until the 28 days results
are available and successful, or i f the Contractor decides to continue work, he may do so
under his own responsibility and risk.

A.4 The ultimate cylinder compressive strength of concrete shall be determined on test
specimens obtained and prepared in accordance with AASHTO T23 and AASHTO T126
except that six inch by twelve inch cylinders shall be used for all compression tests.
Alternatively, the Engineer may require ultimate compressive strength of concrete to be
determined on test specimen obtained by taking and airing cubes in accordance with BS
1881. The Contractor shall furnish single-use cylinder moulds conforming to AASHTO
M205, or when approved by the Engineer, re-usable vertical moulds made from heavy
gauge metal.

Table 5.1.4: Concrete Class and Design Mixes
Class of
Concrete

Cylinder Works
Strength @ 28 Days
kg/cm2

Equivalent Works
Cube Strength @ 28
Days kg/cm2

Maximum Size of
Aggregate
mm

Minimum Cement
Content kg/m3

110/25
140/25
170/60
210/50
210/25
210/20
250/20
250/30
310/20
360/20

110
140
170
210
210
210
250
250
310
360

140
180
210
260
260
260
310
310
385
450

25
25
60
50
25
20
20
30
20
20

220
250
275
300
325
325
350
350
375
425

Page 195 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

B.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Nominal Concrete Mix

B.1 Concrete for use as backfilling for structural excavation shall be either no-fines
concrete or cyclopean concrete as directed by the Engineer. The cement : aggregate ratio of
such nominal mixes shall be not greater than 1:15 and the minimum cylinder strength at 28
days not less than 50kg/cm2.

B.2 No-fines concrete shall comply with the grading in Table 5.1.5 and shall be mixed and
laid in general conformity with this Section 5.01.

B.3 Plums used in cyclopean concrete shall consist of non-reactive broken stone spalls or
boulders ranging in size from 200mm to 300mm. They shall be free from sharp or angular
edges and shall not form more than 30% of the total volume of concrete. They shall be
evenly graded and shall be soaked in water prior to incorporation in the mix. Plums shall be
evenly distributed in the concrete mix with a minimum cover of 100mm.
Table 5.1.5: Grading For No-Fines Concrete
GRADING OF AGGREGATE
Sieve Size
90 mm
40 mm
20 mm
10 mm

C.

% by Dry Weight
Passing
100
85-100
0-20
0-5

Compliance with Strength Requirements

C.1 Cylinders (or cubes) from concrete as mixed for the Work will be tested in accordance
with AASHTO T22 (BS 1881 for cubes) after seven (7) days and twenty eight (28) days.
Test specimens shall be made and cured in accordance with AASHTO T23. These
specimens will be the basis for acceptance of the concrete in the structure.

C.2 Prior to the commencement of any concreting work and subsequently, whenever a
change is intended, preliminary tests shall be carried out. From each of three samples of
materials, a trial mix shall be made. For each class of concrete, the trial mixes shall
represent at least two different water cement ratios. From each trial mix, six cylinders (or
cubes) shall be made, three for testing at 7 days, and three for testing at 28 days. The
average strength of the cylinders (or cubes) tested for each sample shall be taken as the
preliminary cylinder (or cube) strength of the mix.

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C.3
The Engineer will require the preliminary test to be repeated i f the difference in
strength between the greatest and the least strength is more than 20 per cent of the average.

C.4 The water /cement ratio and slump adopted in the preliminary tests for each class of
concrete shall be used in the works concrete. It shall be such that, i f selected for use at the
Site, the concrete can be worked readily into the corners and angles of the forms and
around the reinforcement without permitting the materials to segregate, or free water to
collect on the surface.

C.5 Preliminary tests shall have these minimum ultimate strengths given in Table 5.1.6.

C.6 During the first four days of the commencement of concreting with any particular mix,
two sets of six works cylinders (or cubes) in each set shall be made each day. Three
cylinders (or cubes) from each set shall be tested at 7 days, and 3 at 28 days. The above
works tests shall be carried out for each class of concrete. Subsequently, the frequency of
making sets of test cylinders (or cubes) and the number in each shall be as directed by the
Engineer.
Table 5.1.6: Preliminary Tests for Strength
Class of Concrete
110/25
140/25
170/60
210/50
210/25
210/20
250/20
250/30
3 10/20
360/20

Cylinder Strength
(kg/cm2)
170
210
240
290
290
290
325
325
395
440

Equivalent Cube Strength
(kg/cm2)
210
260
300
360
360
360
400
400
490
550

C.7 The cylinders (or cubes) shall be cured in the same manner and environment as the
members they represent. The cylinder (or cube) strength shall be accepted as complying
with the specified requirement for work cylinder (or cube) strength i f none of the
compressive strengths of the cylinders (or cubes) falls below the minimum strengths given in
Table 5.1.4 or i f the average strength is not less than the specified minimum works cylinder
(or cube) strength and the difference between the greatest and least cylinder (or cube)
strength is not more than 20 per cent of the average.

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C.8 Alternatively, the criterion of acceptable test results shall be that not more than 5 per
cent of works cylinders fall below the specified strength. For this to be fulfilled, the mean
strengths of works cylinders (or cubes) less 1.64 times the standard deviation should not be
less than the required strength. This calculation shall be made for both 7 and 28 day cylinder
(or cube) tests as soon as 24 cylinders (or cubes) have been tested at each age.
Thereafter, it shall be repeated as further test results become available at a frequency
determined by the Engineer. The number of cylinders (or cubes) considered in each
calculation shall be the total number of cylinders (or cubes) of the mix in question tested
from the commencement of the Works.

C.9 Cores shall be taken in accordance with ACI 318-95, article 5.6.4, and tested in
accordance with AASHTO T24. Load testing shall be carried out in accordance with ACI 3
18-89, chapter 20. The Contractor shall hire an authorized independent laboratory to carry
out such tests at no extra cost to the Client.

C.10 The Engineer may make additional test cylinders to ascertain the effectiveness of the
methods by which the structure is being cured, and also to determine when the structure
may be placed in service. These cylinders shall be cured in the field in the same manner as
the concrete placed in the structure, and the Contractor shall protect the cylinders from all
damage.

C.11 The Contractor shall take every precaution to prevent injury to the test cylinders
during handling, transporting and sorting. He will be held solely responsible for any test
failure caused by improper handing and transportation, or any other cause which may be
detrimental to the test cylinder.

C.12 In order that the test cylinders may be transported from field to laboratory
undamaged, the Contractor shall provide a minimum of two (2) approved boxes. [One (1)
for the Contractor's use and one (1) for the Engineer's use.] Boxes shall be of such size to
receive a minimum of six (6) test cylinders and leave space for sawdust packing around all
surfaces of the cylinders. Boxes shall be approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall,
when directed by the Engineer, provide as many additional boxes as may be required by the
remoteness and/or magnitude of the concrete work.

C.13When test cylinders fail to meet minimum strength requirements, the Engineer may
require core samples to be taken to determine the acceptability of such structures. The
Contractor shall, at his own expense, furnish all equipment required for such core samples.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

5.01.5

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

COMPOSITION OF CONCRETE

Mix Proportions

A.1 The Contractor shall consult with the Engineer as to mix proportions at least forty-five
(45) days prior to beginning concrete work. The actual mix proportions of cement,
aggregates, and water shall be determined by the Contractor under the supervision of the
Engineer.

A.2 The Contractor shall, in the presence of the Engineer, prepare trial-mixes for each
class of concrete required for the project, made with the approved materials to be used in
the Work. The proportions of the trial-mixes shall be such as to produce a dense mixture
containing the cement content specified and meeting the plasticity requirements and the
preliminary test strength requirements specified for the designated class of concrete.

A.3 I f the materials supplied by the Contractor are of such a nature or are so graded that
proportions based on minimum cement content cannot be used without exceeding the
maximum allowable water content, the use of admixtures to maintain the water content
within the specified limit shall be permitted. At all times the concrete mix shall satisfy the
durability requirements by satisfying the minimum and maximum limits specified of cement
and water contents respectively. No additional payment shall be paid due to adding extra
amount of cement to the mix.

A.4 The Engineer will review the Contractor's trial - mixes and break the test cylinders at
seven (7) and twenty-eight (28) days. The Engineer will then determine which of the
trial-mixes shall be used. I f none of the trial-mixes for a class of concrete meets the
specifications, the Engineer will direct the Contractor to prepare additional trial-mixes. No
class of concrete shall be prepared or placed until its job-mix proportions have been
approved by the Engineer.

A.5 The approval of the job-mix proportions by the Engineer, or his assistance to the
Contractor in establishing those proportions, in no way relieves the Contractor of the
responsibility of producing concrete which meets the requirements specified in these
specifications.

A.6 A l l costs connected with the preparation of trial-mixes and the design of the job-mixes
shall be borne by the Contractor, except that the Engineer shall not charge the Contractor
for laboratory supervision and the breaking of the test cylinders.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

B.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Design Limits

B.1 The following will be designated by the Engineer within the limits of the specifications:

C.



The minimum cement content in sacks per cubic meter of concrete.



The maximum allowable water content in litres per sack of cement, or
equivalent units, including surface moisture, but excluding water absorbed
by the aggregates.



The ratio of coarse and fine aggregates.



Slump or slumps designated at the point of delivery.

Changes to Mix Design

C.1
Changes in mix proportions requested by the Contractor to previously approved mix
designs shall only be made after new approval by the Engineer.

C.2
When, in the opinion of the Engineer, cement is being lost due to windy conditions,
the Contractor shall add additional amounts of cement as directed by the Engineer. No
additional payment will be made for the added cement.

C.3
As the work progresses, the Engineer reserves the right to require the Contractor to
change the proportions from time to time i f conditions warrant such changes to produce
satisfactory results. Any such change may be made within the limits of the specifications at
no additional compensation to the Contractor.

C.4
When in the opinion of the Engineer, an adjustment for protection against concrete
deterioration due to salty environment is necessary, he may require the cement content be
increased ten (10) per cent over and above that cement content used in the approved
trial-mix design for non-salty environment. Water content shall be adjusted accordingly to
obtain a dense workable mix. All Structure footings and column lengths to the first
construction joint above the ground surface for the entire project are subject to this
increased cement content. No additional payment will be made for the increase in cement
content.

C.5
Failure of the mix to meet specifications determined by the Engineer under items A
and B in this sub-section will be grounds for the Engineer to reject the concrete.

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C.6 Mortar for laying stone for grouted stone riprap, grouted stone wash checks or grouted
stone ditch lining shall be composed of one (1) part of portland cement and three (3) parts
of fine aggregate by volume with water added to make a workable mix of such consistency
as to perform properly the functions required for the work being done. Amount of water
added shall be approved by the Engineer. The following criteria shall be observed:

5.01.6

A.



Aggregates for masonry mortar shall conform to AASHTO M45.



Portland cement shall conform to AASHTO M85, Type I , I I or III.

REQUIREMENTS FOR COMBINING MATERIALS

Measurement for Proportioning Materials

A.1 The cement shall be measured in bulk or as packed by the manufacturer, a sack of
cement shall weigh 50 kilograms. Measurement shall be accurate to within 3.0 per cent
throughout the range of use.

A.2 The mixing water shall be measured by weight or by volume. In either case the
measurement shall be accurate to within 2.0 percent throughout the range of use.

A.3 The aggregates shall be measured by weight. The measurement shall be accurate to
within (+ or - 2.0% fine , coarse aggregates) throughout the range of use.

A.4 Additives shall be measured by volume i f in liquid form and by weights i f solid. The
measurement shall be accurate to within 3.0 per cent throughout the range of use.

B.

Assembly and Handling of Materials

B.1 Aggregates shall be assembled in such quantities that sufficient material approved by
the Engineer is available to complete any continuous pour necessary for structures. The
batching site shall be of adequate size to permit the stockpiling of sufficient unsegregated
materials having proper and uniform moisture content to ensure continuous and uniform
operation. Aggregates shall enter the mixer in a manner approved by the Engineer and so
as to ensure that no matter foreign to the concrete or matter capable of changing the desired
proportions is included. In the event that 2 or more sizes or types of coarse or fine
aggregates are used on the same project, only 1 size or type of each aggregate may be used
on one continuous pour.

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B.2 A l l aggregates shall be stockpiled before use in order to prevent segregation of
material, to ensure a uniform moisture content, to provide uniform conditions for
proportioning plant control and to aid in obtaining concrete that is uniform as to materials
and moisture content. The use of equipment or methods of handling aggregates which
results in the degradation of the aggregates is strictly prohibited. Bulldozers with metal
tracks shall not be used on coarse aggregate stockpiles. A l l equipment used for handling
aggregates shall be approved by the Engineer. Stockpiling of aggregates shall be in the
manner approved by the Engineer, and in addition, every precaution shall be taken to
prevent segregation. Segregation shall be prevented by making no layer higher than 1.5
meters and i f 2 or more layers are required, each successive layer shall not be allowed to
"cone" down over the next lower layer. Aggregates shall not be stockpiled against the
supports of proportioning hoppers and weighing devices.

B.3 Segregated aggregates shall not be used until they have been thoroughly remixed and
the resultant pile is of uniform and acceptable gradation at any point from which a
representative sample is taken. The Contractor shall remix aggregate piles when ordered by
the Engineer.

B.4 I f aggregates are to be transported from a central proportioning plant to the mixer in
batch-boxes or dump trucks, such equipment shall be of sufficient capacity to carry the full
volume of materials for each batch of concrete. Partitions separating batches shall be
approved by the Engineer and shall be adequate and effective to prevent spilling from one
compartment to another while in transit or being dumped.

B.5 Cement may be stored in bulk (unpacked) or in bags in securely locked dry places.
The following shall apply:


A l l cement bags shall be marked with the date of manufacture. Additionally,
all bags shall be marked with the date of storage so that they can be taken
out for use in the same order as they were brought in to storage.



Cement bags shall be placed on wooden shelves at least 100 mm above
ground and 150 mm clear of walls.



Unpacked cement shall not be used six months after manufacture and
bagged cement three months after manufacture.



No cement shall be used which has been affected by humidity, regardless of
the date of manufacture.



Cement shall be transported to the mixer in the original sacks. Each batch
shall contain the full amount of cement for the batch. Batches where cement
is placed in contact with the aggregates may be rejected unless mixed within
1.5 hours.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

C.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Mixing

C.1 Concrete shall be mixed in quantities required for immediate use. Concrete which
has developed initial set shall not be used. Retempering concrete by adding water or by
other means will not be permitted. Concrete that is not within the specified slump limits at
the time of placement shall not be used and shall be disposed of as directed by the
Engineer.

C.1.1 I f washed sand is used while still wet the mixing time starts with the addition of
cement to the aggregate, even i f the water required for the mixing has not been added.

C.2 The concrete may be mixed at the site of the Works, in a central-mix plant, or in truck
mixers. The mixer shall be of an approved type and capacity. Ready-mixed concrete shall
be mixed and delivered in accordance with the requirements of Sub-Section 5.01.7
"Ready-Mixed Concrete and Central-Mixed Concrete".

C.3 The coarse aggregate shall first be loaded into the mixer followed by the fine
aggregate. Some mix water shall be added to the mix before the cement is loaded into the
mixer. Water shall be continually added throughout the mixing. Additives, i f required and
approved by the Engineer, shall be added according to the manufacturers' instructions.
Retarders shall be added within one minute or 25% of the total mixing time whichever is
the smaller.

C.4 The manufacturers' instructions shall be followed in respect of overloading the mixer
and the selections of the rate of revolutions of the mixer.

C.5 To avoid segregation in the fresh concrete, the free drop height on emptying the
mixer shall be not greater than 1.5 meters.

C.6 After mixing, the concrete shall be homogeneous and comply with the provisions of
these specifications. The Engineer may, if the mix fails to produce concrete of the required
strength vary the mix time.

D.

Central Mixing

D.1 Means provided for storing cement shall be as approved by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall clean all conveyors, bins and hoppers of unapproved cement before
starting to manufacture concrete for the Works.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

D.2 Coarse and fine aggregate to be used in concrete shall be kept in stockpiles and bins
apart from aggregate used in other work. Aggregate shall come from a source approved by
the Engineer. The Contractor shall clean all conveyors, bins and hoppers of unapproved
aggregate before starting to manufacture concrete for the Works.

D.3 The Contractor shall be responsible for producing concrete that is homogeneous and
complies with the provisions of these specifications.

D.4 Mixed concrete from the central-mixing plant shall be transported in truck mixers, truck
agitators, non-agitating trucks having special bodies or other approved containers.

D.5 The time elapsing from the time water is added to the mix until the concrete is
deposited in place shall be not greater than:


For concrete produced on site and transported by means other than transit
mixers or agitated trucks.




Thirty minutes when air temperature is 25°C or higher.
Forty minutes when air temperature is 18°C or below.
Interpolated time between 18°C and 25°C.



For concrete transported by transit mixer or agitators, the time taken for 300
revolutions of the transit mixer or agitator or 20 minutes, whichever is the
lesser.



The maximum haul time may be reduced at the Engineer's discretion i f the
slump changes or there are signs of the concrete beginning to dry.

D.6 The Contractor when supplying concrete from a central plant shall have sufficient plant
capacity and transporting equipment to ensure continuous delivery at the rate required.
The rate of delivery of concrete during concreting operations shall be such as to provide for
the proper handling, placing and finishing of the concrete. The method of delivery and
handling the concrete shall be such as will facilitate placing with a minimum of rehandling
and without damage to the structure or the concrete. Methods of delivery and handling for
each site shall be approved, by the Engineer. The Engineer may delay or suspend the
mixing and placing of concrete at any site, for which he considers the Contractor's delivery
equipment inadequate, until such time as the Contractor provides additional approved
delivery equipment.

Page 204 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.01.7

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

READY-MIXED CONCRETE AND CENTRAL MIXED CONCRETE

General

A.1 "Ready-Mixed Concrete" and "Central-Mixed Concrete" shall consist of a mixture of
cement, water and aggregate, without air entraining or water-reducing admixture. When
air-entraining or water-reducing or any other type of admixture is required it shall be at the
Engineer's discretion. The terms ready-mixed or central-mixed concrete shall include
transit-mixed concrete and will be referred to hereinafter as ready-mixed concrete.

A.2 Ready-mixed concrete may be used in the construction of all Works, when approved
by the Engineer.

A.3 Approval of any ready mixed concrete plant will be granted only when an inspection
of the plant indicates that the equipment, the method of storing and handling the materials,
the production procedures, the transportation and rate of delivery of concrete from the
plant to the point of use, all meet the requirements set forth herein.

A.4 Ready-mixed concrete shall be mixed and delivered to the point of use by means of
one of the following combinations of operations:


Mixed completely in a stationary central mixing plant and the mixed
concrete transported to the point of use in a truck mixer or tank agitator
operating at agitator speed, or when approved by the Engineer, in
non-agitating equipment (known as "central-mixed concrete").



Mixed completely in a truck mixer at the batching plant or while in transit
(known as transit-mixed concrete).



Mixed completely in a truck mixer at the point of use following the addition
of mixing water (known as truck-mixed concrete).

A.5 Permission to use ready-mixed concrete from any previously approved plant may be
rescinded at any time upon failure to comply with the requirements of the Specification.

B.

Materials

B.1 A l l materials used in the manufacture of ready-mixed concrete shall conform to the
requirements of Sub-Section 5.01.2 "Materials".

Page 205 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

C.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Equipment

C.1 Equipment shall be efficient, well maintained, and shall be of the type and number as
outlined in the Contractor's Program of Work. Transit mixers and agitator trucks shall
comply with the standards specified in ASTM C94. Non-agitating equipment used for
transporting concrete shall be water tight and be equipped with gates that will permit
controlled discharge of concrete and, when required by the Engineer, be fitted with covers
for protection against the weather.

D.

Supply

D.1 Where transit mixers are used, the constituent materials shall be mixed dry in the
mixer and water added directly before pour and mixed at the speed and number of turns in
accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations.

D.2 Where concrete is mixed at a central plant on or off site, the concrete may be supplied
to the pouring area by agitator trucks or transit mixers which rotate at the speed specified
by the manufacturers. Non-agitating trucks may be used if the central plant is on site.

D.3 Time of haul shall not exceed the maximum stated in sub-item D.5 of subsection
5.01.6 of the Specification.

E.

Uniformity Tests

E.1 Four samples of fresh concrete shall be taken, two after 15% of discharge from the
truck mixer or agitator truck and two after 85% discharge and within 20 minutes. Slump and
compaction factor tests shall be carried out including any other tests specified or required
by the Engineer.

F.

Samples

Samples for strength test shall be taken as specified in Clause C of subsection
F.1
5.01.4 of the Specification.

F.2
At least six specimens shall be prepared per sample. Three of these shall be tested
at 7 days and three at 28 days.

Page 206 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

G.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Control of Delivery

G.1 Driver of delivery trucks shall be provided with trip tickets, which shall be signed by a
responsible member of the central plant staff, for submission to the Engineer. The ticket
shall contain the following information.









Name and address of the Central Plant.
Serial number of the ticket and date.
Truck number.
Class and/or strength of concrete.
Cement content of the mix.
Loading time.
Slump
Any other type of relevant information.

G.2 The Engineer may send his representative to the central plant who may:




Check the batching and mixing.
Verify loading time.
Take a copy of the trip ticket.

G.3 The Contractor and/or concrete supplier shall afford the Engineer and/or his
representative, without charge, all facilities necessary to take samples, conduct tests and
inspect the central plant to determine whether the concrete is being furnished in accordance
with the Specification.

G.4 Concrete delivered in outdoor temperatures lower than 5 degrees C, or if the
temperature is expected to drop below 5 degrees C during the curing period, shall arrive at
the Works having a temperature of not less than 10 degrees C nor greater than 32 degrees
C.

G.5 In supplying ready-mixed concrete, the plant shall have sufficient batching and
transporting capacity to ensure continuous delivery at the rate required. The rate of delivery
of concrete during concreting operations shall provide for the proper handling, placing and
finishing of concrete. I f the rate of delivery does not provide a continuous concrete
operation, the Engineer may suspend all or parts of further concrete work until such time as
the Contractor provides sufficient additional delivery equipment which, in the opinion of the
Engineer, will provide for a continuous concrete operation.

Page 207 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

SECTION 5.02
5.02.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

CONCRETE HANDLING, PLACING AND CURING

GENERAL

Scope

A.1 These operations shall consist of the placing, compacting and curing of concrete for
mass concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures.

5.02.2

MATERIALS

A. General

A.1 A l l concreting materials shall comply with section 5.01 "Concrete and Concrete
Mixes and Testing" of the Specification.

5.02.3

A.

PLACING

General

A.1 Before preparing and placing any concrete, the Contractor shall submit a work plan
to the Engineer for approval. Besides specifying the characteristics of the concrete to be
employed, this plan shall indicate the time at which placing is to start, the way in which it
is to be performed, and the time at which it is to finish. The Engineer's approval shall be
sought in writing by the Contractor at least 24 hours in advance.

A.2 The method and sequence of pour, the equipment to be used, the method of
compaction and curing procedure shall be approved by the Engineer, prior to concrete
pour.

A.3 In order to allow proper vibration of the concrete, it shall be placed in horizontal
layers which, at no time shall be thicker than fifty centimeters (after vibration).

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.4 I f the concrete is placed in successive phases, there shall be no separations, or
discontinuity, or difference of appearance between two successive placings. Before each
successive placing is made, the surface of the concrete already in place shall be carefully
roughened, cleaned, washed free of loose particles and dampened.

A.5 Concrete shall be placed in such a way that it shall be left undisturbed once it is placed
(for example, slabs shall be executed by starting to place the concrete at the side opposite
the one from which the concrete is poured, so that there shall be no risk of it being disturbed
by workers or equipment, or of tools falling in).

A.6 When concrete is placed for upright reinforced concrete structures, the placing must be
completed (for small structures) or interrupted (for large structures) before the concrete
which has already been placed has started to harden and might, therefore, be disturbed, i f
the operation of placing were continued. In such cases placing shall be started again only
after twenty four hours have passed. This procedure is intended to avoid the risk of the
concrete which has already been placed coming away from the reinforcing bars, because it
is moved or disturbed during setting and the initial phase of hardening.

A.7 When the concrete is placed, its temperature shall be nearly the same as that of the
reinforcing bars, in order to avoid poor adhesion due to the different coefficients of thermal
expansion of the two materials. The reinforcing bars shall, therefore, be protected from the
sun (or the cold in winter) or cooled by water jets prior to the placing of the concrete, or the
pouring shall start during the cooler hours of the day and be suspended when the
temperature rises above thirty three degrees C.

A.8 The free-drop height of concrete shall be not greater than 1 .5m and the method of
placing shall be such as to suit the conditions and prevent segregation.

A.9 Placing of concrete shall be continuous between predetermined points such as
construction joints, contraction joints and expansion joints.

A.10 Concrete shall be placed so as to avoid segregation of the materials and the
displacement of the reinforcement. Concrete shall not be deposited in large quantities at any
point in the forms and then run or worked along the forms, thus causing segregation of the
materials.

A.11 The concrete shall be deposited in the forms in horizontal layers and the work shall be
carried on rapidly and continuously between predetermined planes agreed upon by the
Contractor and the Engineer.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.12 The slopes of chutes, where used, shall be not greater than 1 vertical to 2 horizontal
or smaller than 1 vertical to 3 horizontal. The slope of the chute shall be constant along its
length. The capacity of the chute shall be adequate to deliver the required volume of
concrete at the required rate.

A.13 Aluminum pipes shall not be used for delivering concrete. The internal diameter of
delivery pipes, i f used, shall be not less than 8 times the maximum aggregate size. At the
point of delivery, pipes shall be vertical.

A.14 Where bucket and hopper are used for delivery of concrete, the discharge opening
shall be not less than 5 times the maximum aggregate size. The sides of hoppers shall be
sloped at not less than 60 degrees to the horizontal.

A.15 When buggies are used to transport fresh concrete, they shall be run on level tracks
which are securely fixed. The buggies shall be run smoothly without sudden jerks and the
distance shall be not greater than 60 meters.

A.16 All chutes, buckets and hoppers, buggies and pipes shall be kept clean and free from
coatings of hardened concrete by thorough flushing with water after each run. The water
used for flushing shall be discharged clear of the concrete already in place.

A.17 The external surface of all concrete shall be thoroughly worked during the placing by
means of tools of an approved type. The working shall be such as to force all coarse
aggregate from the surface and to bring mortar against the forms to produce a smooth
finish, substantially free from water and air pockets, or honeycomb.

A.18 Concrete shall be deposited in water only with the permission of the Engineer and
under his supervision. The minimum cement content of the class of concrete being
deposited in water shall be increased 10 per cent without further compensation and the
slump shall be approximately 15 centimeters.

A.19 When depositing in water is allowed, the concrete shall be carefully placed in the
space in which it is to remain in a compact mass, by means of a tremie, bottom-dumping
bucket or other approved means that does not permit the concrete to fall through the water
without adequate protection. The concrete shall not be disturbed after being deposited. No
concrete shall be placed in running water, and forms which are not reasonably watertight
shall not be used for holding concrete deposited under water.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.20 When casing is used in drilled shafts, the casing shall be smooth and properly oiled in
accordance with the manufacturers' manual and shall extend sufficiently above the grade of
the finish shaft to provide excess concrete to be placed for the anticipated slump due to the
casing removal. When the casing is to be pulled, the concrete placed in the casing shall have
such a slump and be of such workability that vibrating of the concrete will not be required.

A.21 No concrete work shall be stopped or temporarily discontinued within 45 centimeters
of the top of any finished surface unless such work is finished with a coping having a
thickness less than 45 centimeters in which case the joint shall be made at the under edge
of the coping.

A.22 Concrete in simple slab spans shall be placed in one continuous operation for each
span, unless otherwise directed on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.

A.23 Concrete in in-situ beam and slab construction shall be placed in one continuous
operation, or when so shown on the Drawings or approved by the Engineer, may be placed
in two separate operations, each of which shall be continuous; first, to the top of the girder
stems, and second, to completion. Where a construction joint is permitted between the
girder stem and the roadway slab, shop drawings including complete details of key or other
methods of bonding will be prepared by the Contractor and submitted to the Engineer for
approval. When such a joint is permitted, deck concrete shall not be placed until the
concrete in the girder stem has hardened sufficiently so as not to be damaged by the
concreting operations of the deck pour.

A.24 Concrete in arch rings shall be placed in such a manner as to load the centering
uniformly. Arch rings shall be divided into section such that each section can be cast for the
full cross-section in one continuous operation. The arrangement of the section and the
sequence of placing shall be as approved by the Engineer, and shall be such as to avoid the
creation of initial stress in the reinforcement. The section shall be bonded together by
suitable keys or dowels. When permitted by the Engineer, arch rings may be cast in a
single continuous operation.

A.25 The method used for transporting concrete batches, materials, or equipment over
previously placed floor slabs or floor units or over units of structures of continuous design
types shall be subject to approval by the Engineer. Trucks, heavy equipment and heavy
concentrations of materials will be prohibited on floor slabs until the concrete has attained
its design strength.

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A.26 Slumb Limit
Concrete Type
Compacted by vibration
Compacted by rod

Slumb Limit * (mm)
70 - 80
100

*
If chemical additives are used to enhance the concrete super plasticization, then
above limits will not be valid.

B.

Pumping

B.1 The use of pumps will only be allowed after they have been carefully checked and
approved by the Engineer. Only low pressure piston type pumps, which will work with a
water/cement ratio of not more than sixty five hundredths (0.65), will be allowed. Using
superplastizisers to facilitate pumping for low water/cement ratios is allowed subject to
Engineer's review and approval.

B.2 In no case will "bell" or any other type of high pressure pump be allowed, since they
require too high a water/cement ratio and because the concrete segregates as a result of the
high pressure at which it is expelled, even i f filled with a suitable nozzle.

B.3 The mix design shall be checked for its suitability for pumping and the concrete shall
be tested regularly during pumping for its uniformity and that its properties have not been
altered by pumping. I f changes to slump, water-cement ratio, consistency or any other
characteristics occur, corrective measures shall immediately be taken to ensure that
concrete delivered by the pump complies with the requirements of the Specification.
Samples shall be taken at discharge from the mixer/agitator truck, from the pump and at
discharge from the pump.

B.4 The internal diameter of delivery pipe of the pump shall be not less than 3 times the
maximum aggregate size. The pipes shall not rest on any part of the formwork; they shall be
supported independently and securely and be readily accessible so that sections can
easily be detached to remove any blockage.

B.5 Before approving the use of a pump, the Engineer shall verify that the Contractor has
sufficiently reinforced the concrete placing team and the equipment for placing and
vibrating the concrete.

B.6 Pumping will not be permitted from the inside of the foundation forms while concrete is
being placed. I f necessary to prevent flooding, a seal of concrete shall be placed through a
closed chute or tremie and allowed to set.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

5.02.4

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

COMPACTING

General

A.1 The vibration of the concrete can be considered completed when a thin layer of
cement grout appears on the surface and when no more air bubbles, indicating the presence
of voids within the concrete, appear on the surface. At the same time, there must not be
too much vibration or this will produce segregation.

A.2 Vibration may be of three types:




Internal
External
Mixed.

A.3 Vibration of the concrete and operation shall be undertaken in such a way that the
proper and complete vibrations, but avoiding over vibration, is achieved. The guidelines as
given in Standard Practice for Consolidation of Concrete (ACI 309) of Part 2 Concrete
Practices and Inspection, Pavements, of ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (latest edition)
issued by American Concrete Institute (ACI) shall be followed, i f not otherwise directed by
the Engineer.

A.4 Internal vibration shall be executed in all sections which are sufficiently large to
permit the insertion and manipulation of immersion vibrators, previously approved by the
Engineer, in accordance with the following recommended practices:


The concrete shall be placed in horizontal layers not thicker than fifty
centimeters.



The vibrator shall be inserted vertically into the concrete to its full length
such as to reach the bottom of the freshly placed layer.



The distance between two successive insertions shall not exceed five
times the diameter of the vibrator itself.



The vibrator shall not rest on or against either the formwork or the main
reinforcing bars.

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A.5 External form vibrators shall be used for external vibration when it is impossible to
use internal vibrators (heavily reinforced thin walls, pipes or other precast, small
cross-section element, etc). The water/cement ratio shall be low (0.4 to 0.45) in order to
avoid the segregation of the concrete and, at the same time, to provide rapid hardening
and, in consequence, the early removal of the formwork and the finished element.

A.6 Mixed vibration shall be used in the construction of reinforced or prestressed
concrete beams. External wall vibrators shall also be used. These shall be mounted on the
outside of the formwork after this has been suitably reinforced with ribs of U-bars. The
mounting places of the wall vibrators shall be welded to these reinforcements. They must
be symmetrically positioned on each side of the beam and produce a rotary movement
within the concrete during vibration from the bottom towards the top and from the part
placed first towards the part placed last.

A.7 Only the vibrators in the zone of the formwork with newly placed concrete will be
used. As the casting of the beam advances, the vibrators shall be dismounted and
remounted as necessary.

A.8 It is absolutely essential, that elastic supports be provided both under the bottom of
the beam and in correspondence with the braces or tie rods of the formwork walls.

A.9 The network of reinforcing bars and tensioning cables should not move as a result of
the vibration. To prevent this from happening, either special ties (passing through the
formwork walls), or spacers shall be used. It is better, i f these last are made of concrete
and are of a size and shape that will ensure that the reinforcing and tensioning cables do
not move.

A.10 Before starting this kind of work the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his
approval a work plan giving the following details:


The position of the external wall vibrators.



Their power, frequency and amplitude.



The number of such wall vibrators that will be utilized at the same time.



The number and type (frequency and size) of the internal vibrators to be
used for the consolidation of the concrete.



The position of the spacers, or the number of ties, to be used to ensure
that the reinforcing bar network and the tensioning cables (if any) do not
move during vibration.

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-

Technical Specification for Water Network

The way in which the concrete is to be placed and the length of time this
operation is expected to take.

A.11 When required, vibrating shall be supplemented by hand spading with suitable tools to
assure proper and adequate compaction.

B.

Poker Vibrators

B.1 The type and size of poker vibrators shall suit the pour size, density of reinforcement and
member dimensions. Unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer, the vibrator shall be
selected from Table 5.2.1 below:

Table 5.2.1: Selection of Poker Diameter for Size of Pour
Size of Pour
(m3/h)
2–4
5 – 10
10 – 20
20 – 30
30 - 40

Poker Diameter
(mm)
20 – 45
50 – 65
60 – 75
80 – 115
140 - 170

Speed
(Vibrations/min)
9000
9000
7000
7000
6000

B.2 Poker vibrators shall be inserted into the concrete vertically at regular intervals which
shall be no greater than 0.5m. They shall be inserted quickly and withdrawn slowly. The
withdrawal rate shall be not more than 75mm/sec. A cycle of insertion and withdrawal shall
be between 10 and 30 seconds.

B.3 Poker vibrators shall be kept clear of formwork and concrete previously cast.

B.4 Vibrators shall be so manipulated as to work the concrete thoroughly around the
reinforcement and embedded fixtures and into corners and angles of the forms. Vibrators
shall not be used as a means to cause concrete to flow or run into position in lieu of placing.

B.5 Compaction shall be sufficient to achieve maximum density without segregation in the
fresh concrete.

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B.6 Standby pokers of the same type shall be provided at all times. The standby shall be
not less than half the number of pokers used for compacting the pour.

B.7 Vibrating shall only be carried out by professional technicians having experience in
this type of work.

C.

Other Vibrators

C.1 Form vibrators, vibrating tables and surface vibrators where required shall first be
approved by the Engineer and they shall conform to the requirements of ACI-309.

C.2 Where form vibrators are used, the form shall be adequately designed so that the
vibration will not cause joints to leak and dimensions and geometry to alter.

C.3 Unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer, the use of form vibrators shall be limited
to members whose thickness does not exceed 150 mm.

5.02.5

A.

CURING

Materials

A.1 Hessian or burlap shall be clean and free from harmful materials. Their unit weight
shall be not less than 230g/sq.m.

A.2 The following impermeable membranes may, with the Engineer's approval, be used:


Clear polyethylene film with no holes, tears, scratches and contamination
of any type.



Hessian coated with white polyethylene of density not less than
300g/sq.m. The coating may be on one side only but shall be not less than
0.1mm thick and shall not peel during and after use.

A.3 Curing compounds shall conform to AASHTO M148 (ASTM-C309).

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A.4 Sand shall be natural sand, free of silt and clay and contaminants which can be harmful
to the concrete.

A.5 Water shall satisfy the requirements of Section 5.01 of the Specification.

B.

Method of Curing

B.1
The method of curing to be used shall be approved by the Engineer. It shall not
cause any undesirable blemishes such as surface discoloration and surface roughness.
Curing compounds shall not be used on construction joints and surfaces that are to receive
waterproofing, paint or membranes.

B.2
Curing by ponding may be used for horizontal surfaces such as bases, pile caps and
slabs. Large horizontal surface areas shall be separated into ponds not exceeding 5 sq.m.
The ponds shall first be filled between 12 to 24 hours after pour, unless otherwise authorised
by the Engineer, and shall be replenished from time to time so as to maintain the ponding for
the specified curing period. The concrete temperature and the temperature of the curing
water shall be not greater than 10°C.

B.3
Unless otherwise approved by Engineer, curing by spraying shall commence
between 12 and 24 hours after the concrete pour. The concrete shall be maintained damp at
all times during the curing period by periodic light sprays.

B.4
Members to be cured by wet hessian or wet burlap shall be completely wrapped with
the material which shall be kept moist at all times during the curing period by regular
spraying. Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer, the overlap under normal conditions
shall be not less than one-quarter the width of the hessian or burlap and not less than
one-half the width in windy and/or rainy conditions. Before members are wrapped for curing,
they shall first be evenly moistened. Unless approved by the Engineer, burlaps shall be
supplied only in rolls and burlap bags shall not be used. Secondhand hessian and burlap, i f
approved for use, shall be clean without holes and contamination of any kind that can affect
the concrete.

B.5
Waterproof sheets used for curing shall, unless directed by the Engineer, be spread
immediately after the pour. The sheet shall, unless approved by the Engineer, be clear of
the concrete surface but be arranged in such a manner as to prevent the movement by air
over the concrete surface. Waterproof sheets shall not be used when the air temperature is
25°C or higher.

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B.6 Curing compounds shall be applied in two applications at a coverage rate of not less
than 1 ltr/ 7.4 sq.m. per application or as recommended by manufacturer and the following
criteria shall apply:


The first coat shall be applied immediately after the removal of the forms
and the acceptance of the concrete finish and after the disappearance of free
water on unformed surfaces. I f the concrete is dry or becomes dry, it shall
be thoroughly wet with water and curing compound applied just as the
surface film of water disappears. The second application shall be applied
after the first application has set. During curing operations, any unsprayed
surfaces shall be kept wet with water. The curing membrane will not be
allowed on areas against which further concrete is to be placed.



Hand operated spray equipment shall be capable of supplying a constant
and uniform pressure to provide uniform and adequate distribution of the
curing membrane at the rates required. The curing compound shall be
thoroughly mixed at all times during usage.



The curing membrane shall be protected against damage for the entire
specified curing period. Any coating damaged or otherwise disturbed shall
be given an additional coating. Should the curing membrane be
continuously subjected to injury, the Engineer may require wet burlap,
polyethylene sheeting, or other approved material to be applied at once.



No traffic of any kind will be permitted on the curing membrane until the
curing period is completed, unless the Engineer permits the placement of
concrete in adjacent sections, in which case the damaged areas shall be
immediately repaired as directed.

B.7 Steam curing shall be in accordance with ACI 516 and ACI 517.

C.

Curing Time

C.1
The minimum curing time shall be the number of days given in Table 5.2.2 unless
the average surface temperature of the concrete during the required number of days falls
below 10°C, in which case the period of curing shall be extended until the maturity of the
concrete reaches the value given in the Table.

C.2
The minimum curing time given in Table 5.2.2 above shall be compared with the
time required for cylinders (cubes), cured under identical conditions to those which the
concrete is subjected, to attain 70% of the characteristic strength. The greater shall be
taken as the minimum curing time.

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D.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Limitation of Temperature Differentials

D.1 The Contractor shall limit the development of temperature differentials in concrete after
placing by any means appropriate to the circumstances including the following:


Limiting concrete temperatures at placing lower than that set out in clause
5.02.6



Use of low-heat cement, subject to the agreement of the Engineer.



Insulation of exposed concrete surfaces by insulating blankets. Such
blankets shall have a thermal conductance C value less than 1.0 W/m2oC.



Leaving formwork in place during the curing period. Steel forms shall be
suitably insulated on the outside.



Preventing rapid dissipation of heat from surfaces by shielding from wind.



Shielding concrete surfaces from clear night skies, together with the use of
heaters where appropriate.

D.2 The Contractor shall ensure that the temperature differentials in a pour do not exceed
20 oC by appropriate design of mix and use of insulation.

D.3 The Contractor shall take all necessary steps to limit temperature rise such that the
temperature of the concrete shall not, at any stage, exceed 70 oC.

D.4 Thermocouples shall be used in large concrete pours where the possibility of
significant thermal gain is, in the opinion of the Engineer considered to be likely. The
disposition of the thermocouples shall be agreed with the Engineer.

5.02.6

A.

HOT WEATHER CONCRETING

Definitions

A.1 For the purpose of this sub-section of the Specification, Hot Weather is as defined in
ACI 305R Chapter 1.

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B.

Technical Specification for Water Network

General

B.1 The production and delivery of concrete, the placing and curing and the testing and
inspection of concrete shall, in addition to the requirements of the Specification, accord with
the recommendations of ACI 305R.
Table 5.2.2: Normal Curing Periods
Minimum periods of protection for different types of cement
Conditions Under Number of Days (where the
Equivalent Maturity (degree hours)
Which Concrete is Average Surface Temperature
Calculated as the age of the
maturing
of the Concrete Exceeds 10C
Concrete in Hours Multipied by the
During the Whole Period)

1. Hot weather or
drying winds
2. Conditions not
covered by (1)
NOTE.

7

Other *
or
RHPC
4

4

3

Number of Degrees Celsius by
which the Average Surface
Temperature of the Concrete
Exceeds Minus 10C
Other *
SRPC

SRPC
OPC

3

3500

2000

OPC
or
RHPC
1500

2

2000

1500

1000

Other* includes all permitted cements except OPC, RHPC and SRPC.

KEY. OPC = Ordinary Portland cement.
RHPC = Rapid-hardening Portland cement. SRPC = Sulfate resisting Portland cement.

B.2
No concreting shall commence when the air temperature is 33°C and rising. The
Contractor shall schedule his operations to place and finish concreting during the hours that
the air temperature will be below 32°C. This should preferably be in the latter part of the
day after the maximum temperature has been reached, and subject to the approval of the
Engineer.

B.3
I f air temperature rises above 33°C in shadow during concrete mixing or pouring,
some or all of the following precautions should be applied and according to the Engineer
recommendations:


Covering the storing areas of the gravel. The big size gravel may be cooled using
water spays.



I f cement is stored in silos, it should be painted by reflective material. I f stored in
bags, it should be stored in aired and covered areas.

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Cooling the water before adding it to the concrete mix.



Painting the mixers using reflective paint.



Spray water to the forms before pouring the concrete, in case of precast concrete, it
should be poured in shaded areas.

C.

Control of Temperature

C.1 Stockpile of aggregates shall be protected from direct sunlight by suitable covering. I f
directed by the Engineer, they shall be regularly sprayed with clean water.

C.2 Water shall be stored in tanks away from sunlight and insulated by suitable means so
as not to be affected by high air temperature. Water tanks liable to be exposed to sunlight
shall be covered with suitable reflective paint such as white gloss paint.

C.3 I f directed by the Engineer or as a condition for concreting in adverse weather
conditions, sufficient ice shall be added to the mix water to ensure that the temperature of
the fresh concrete shall not exceed 32°C.

C.4 The temperature of the concrete at the time of placing shall not be permitted to exceed
33 degrees C. Concrete materials shall be stored in a cool shaded position away from the
direct rays of the sun. Aggregates shall be cooled i f necessary prior to mixing and water shall
be cooled by means of a proprietary water chilling plant.

C.5 Additives as recommended in ACI 305R shall be used to improve workability and/or
delay initial setting.

C.6 Retarding admixtures to facilitate placing and finishing of the concrete shall conform to
AASHTO M194, Type D and used only i f approved by the Engineer.

D.

Mixing and Placing

D.1 The time available for handling and placing of concrete during periods of high
temperature may be considerably reduced and the Contractor must take appropriate
precautions. Concrete should be protected during transportation by use of damp hessian or
similar means. No additional water may be added at the time of mixing without the approval
of the Engineer, as this may lead to additional shrinkage of the concrete. On no account
shall water be added during transportation or placing of concrete.

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D.2 Aggregates and cement shall be thoroughly pre-mixed before adding water.

D.3 Transit mixers, i f used, shall be coated with a reflective paint and while waiting to be
discharged, shall be kept out of direct sunlight.

E.

Concrete Protection

E.1
Before the concrete can be de-shuttered, the formwork and shutters shall be cooled
by spraying with water.

E.2
The concrete and the falsework shall be protected against sunlight, i f directed by the
Engineer.

E.3

I f curing is by hessian, it shall be coated with a white polyethylene backing.

E.4
Members exposed to strong winds shall be provided with windbreakers. The
windbreakers shall, i f directed by the Engineer, be kept moist by regular spraying.

5.02.7

A.

COLD WEATHER CONCRETING

Definitions

A.1 For the purpose of this sub-section of the Specification, Cold Weather is as defined in
ACI 306.1, Section 1, Part 1.2.

B.

General

B.1

ACI 306.1-90 "Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting" applies.

B.2
The production and delivery of concrete, the placing and curing and the protection
requirement shall be in accordance with the recommendations of ACI 306R-88 "Cold
Weather Concreting".

B.3
No concreting shall commence when the air temperature is 6°C and falling, unless
authorised by the Engineer.

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C.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Mixing and Placing

C.1 Aggregates and water, forms, reinforcement etc. shall be free of snow, frost or ice.

C.2 Aggregates and water may be pre-heated in which case the aggregates and water
shall, i f directed by the Engineer, be mixed prior to introducing cement in the mix. The
aggregates shall not be pre-heated to a temperature in excess of 100°C and the water in
excess of 60°C with the additional requirement that the temperature of the water and
aggregate mix, before the introduction of cement, shall not exceed 38°C.

C.3 Water may be pre-heated by boiling and added to aggregates not pre-heated provided
the temperature of the water and aggregate mix, before the introduction of cement, does
not exceed 38°C.

C.4 The temperature of concrete at the time of discharge shall be between 10 and 27 °C
and for three days after the pour not less than 5°C.

D.

Protection

D.1
When directed by the Engineer, members shall be protected against cold winds by
suitable windbreaks.

D.2
Adequate insulation by way of insulation boards, planks, sheets etc. shall be
provided to maintain the required minimum concrete temperature during the curing period.

D.3
Protection measures shall be maintained for a period at which the concrete attains
a strength of at least 65% of the characteristic strength.

5.02.8

NIGHT CONCRETING

A.
Night concreting shall not be carried out unless prior approval of the Engineer, in
writing, is obtained.

B.
Details of the artificial lighting system shall be submitted in advance of the proposed
concreting for the Engineer's approval. In all cases, at least one stand-by generator shall
be available at all times of the concreting operation.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

SECTION 5.03
5.03.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

STEEL REINFORCEMENT AND FIXING

GENERAL

Scope

A.1 These works shall consist of the supply and fixing of the unstressed steel bars, wires,
mesh and mats for the reinforcement of concrete in accordance with the Drawings and
Specification.

5.03.2

A.

MATERIALS

Reinforcing Bars

A.1 High tensile steel reinforcement bars shall conform to AASHTO M31 (ASTM A615)
Grade 60 (with carbon content not exceeding 0.3%) or to BS 4449 with carbon
percentage that dose not exceed 0.3%.

A.2 M i l d steel reinforcing bars shall conform to AASHTO M31 (ASTM A615) Grade 40 or
BS 4461.

A.3

High tensile, low-alloy steel deformed bar shall conform to ASTM A706.

B.

Welded Fabric Reinforcement

B.1

Welded steel wire fabric shall conform to AASHTO M55 or BS 4482.

B.2

Cold drawn steel wire shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M32 or in the
case of hard drawn steel wire to BS 4482.

C.

Fabricated Mat Reinforcement

C.1 Fabricated mat reinforcement shall conform to AASHTO M54 (ASTM A184).

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D.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Certification and Identification

D.1 Three copies of a mill test report shall be supplied to the Engineer for each lot of billet
steel reinforcement supplied for use on the project. The mill test report shall be sworn to by a
person having legal authority to bind the manufacturer and shall show the following
information:


The process or processes used in the manufacture of the steel from which
the bars were rolled.



Identification of each heat of open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric furnace
and/or each lot of acid bessemer steel from which the bars were rolled.

D.2 The bars in each lot shall be legibly tagged by the manufacturer and/or fabricator
before being offered for inspection. The tag shall show the manufacturer's test number and
lot number or other designation that will identify the material with the certificate issued for
that lot of steel.

D.3
The fabricator shall furnish 3 copies of a certificate which shows the heat number or
numbers from which each size of bar in the shipment was fabricated.

E.

Inspection and Sampling

E.1 The sampling and testing of reinforcement bars may be made at the source of supply
when the quantity to be shipped or other conditions warrant such procedure. Bars not
inspected and sampled before shipment will be inspected and sampled after arrival at the
site.

5.03.3

A.

CONSTRUCTION

General

A.1 Reinforcing steel shall be protected at all times from damage. All reinforcement shall
be free from detrimental dirt, loose m ill scale, scaly rust, paint, grease, oil or other foreign
substance. There shall be no evidence of pitting or visual flaw in the test specimen or on the
sheared ends of the bars.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

A.2
Rust shall be removed by wire brushing or, i f directed by the Engineer, by sand
blasting. Light rust without visible sign of peeling need not be removed.

B.

Storage

B.1 Reinforcement shall be stored clear of the ground on platforms, skids or other supports
and be protected against contamination by dirt, grease, oil etc. at all times. I f directed by the
Engineer, the Contractor shall provide cover to the reinforcement.

B.2
Reinforcement of different grades and different diameters shall be stored separately
and marked to facilitate inspection and checking.

C.

Cutting and Bending

C.1
Cutting and bending of reinforcement shall be based on an approved bar bending
schedule.

C.2
Reinforcement shall be cut in specialist cutting machines or cold cut by hand only.
Cutting with oxyacetylene torch is strictly forbidden.

C.3

Bars shall be bent to the following bend diameters:
Bar Diameter, d.
Up to 25 mm
25 to 35 mm
35 to 60 mm

Mild Steel
4d
6d
1 0d

High Yield
6d
8d
1 0d

C.4
All reinforcement shall be bent at the temperature range of 5 degrees C and 100
degrees C. Bending by heating, i f approved by the Engineer, shall be carried out in such a
manner as not to impair the physical and mechanical characteristics of the bar.

C.5
The straight bar length for a hook of 180° shall be not less than 4 times the bar
diameter or 65 mm whichever is the larger.

C.6
The straight bar length of a hook of 90° shall be not less than 12 times the bar
diameter.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

C.7
The straight bar length after hook in stirrups shall be 6 times the bar diameter or
60mm whichever is the larger.

C.8 Cold worked bars and hot rolled high yield bars shall not be re-bent or straightened once
having been bent. Where it is necessary to bend mild steel bars projecting from the concrete,
the bend diameter shall comply with the requirements of item C.3 above.

C.9 I f bending of the bar in accordance with this Specification causes the bar to crack, the
bar shall be rejected, irrespective of any prior approval that may have been given, and
removed from the Site.

C.10 Bars shall be cut and bent to the following tolerances:
Bar length (mm)
Upto 1000
1000 - 2000
above 2000

Tolerance (mm)
5
+5, -10
+5, -25

C.11 No adjustment to bar length after bending will be permitted.

D.

Fixing

D.1
Reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in the position shown on the
Drawings. Unless agreed otherwise by the Engineer, all bar intersections shall be securely
tied together with the ends of the wire turned into the main body of the concrete. 1.2 mm
diameter stainless steel wire shall be used for in situ members having exposed soffits. 1.6
mm diameter soft annealed iron wire shall be used elsewhere.

D.2
The correct cover to reinforcement on all exposed faces of concrete shall be
maintained by using approved proprietary spacers. Where instructed by the Engineer the
adequacy of such spacers shall be demonstrated by site trials.

D.3
Concrete cover blocks, where permitted by the Engineer, shall be of approved
dimensions and designed so that they will not overturn when the concrete is placed. They
shall be made with 10 mm maximum size aggregate and the mix proportion shall be such as to
produce the same strength as the adjacent concrete. Tying wire shall be cast in the blocks for
subsequent tying to the reinforcement.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

D.4 Wherever it is necessary for the Contractor to splice reinforcement at positions other
than those shown on the Drawings, the approval of the Engineer shall be sought and
obtained before the reinforcement is placed. Splices shall be staggered where possible and
shall be designed to develop the strength of the bar without exceeding the allowable unit
bond stress.

D.5 Proprietary mechanical splicing devices shall be used only with prior approval of the
Engineer in writing. They shall be able to withstand without any slippage a force of not less
than 1.25 times the characteristic yield stress of the smaller bar spliced multiplied by the
cross-sectional area of the smaller bar.

D.6 Mesh reinforcement shall comply with the sizes of sheets and diameter and spacing of
bars as shown on the Drawings. The sheets of mesh shall be lapped as shown on the
Drawings. The method of placing the mesh and securing it in position shall be approved by
the Engineer.

D.7 Welding of reinforcement bars, i f allowed by the Engineer, shall be carried out in
accordance with the latest publications of the American Welding Society publication
"Structural Welding Code for Reinforcing Steel", and shall be able to withstand a force of not
less than 1.25 times the characteristic yield stress of the smaller of the welded bars
multiplied by the cross-sectional area of the smaller bar.

D.8

Cold worked steel bars shall not be welded.

D.9 Where galvanizing or epoxy coating is required to be applied to the reinforcement,
specific instructions will be given by the Engineer taking into account the particular design
conditions which apply.

D.10 Dowel Bars: Coat half of each bar with approved proprietary debonding compound or
fit with approved plastics sleeve. Fix bars securely at required level, perfectly level, at right
angles to and centred on the joint. Fit compressible caps to debonded ends of bars.

Page 228 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

SECTION 5.04 FORMS, FORMWORK AND FALSE WORK
5.04.1

A.

GENERAL

Scope

A.1
These works shall consist of the design, supply and use of forms, formwork and
falsework for the construction of concrete water tanks.

5.04.2

A.

DEFINITIONS

Forms and Formwork

A.1 The item of the temporary works used to give the required shape and support to poured
concrete. It consists primarily of sheeting material, such as wood, plywood, metal sheet or
plastic sheet, in direct contact with the concrete and joists or stringers that directly support
the sheeting.

B.

Falsework

B.1
Any temporary structure used to support a permanent structure while it is not
self-supporting.

C.

Scaffold

C.1

A temporarily provided structure that provides access, or on or from which persons
work, or that is used to support material, plant or equipment.

D.

Tower

D.1

A composite structure, usually tall, used principally to carry vertical loading.

Page 229 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.04.3

Technical Specification for Water Network

MATERIALS

A.

Wood

A.1

Soft wood free of faults such as splitting, warping, bending, knots etc.

A.2 When imported softwood or hardwood is used for falsework, the minimum timber
grade, determined in accordance with BS 4978 shall be SC3.

A.3
Hardwood used as load-bearing wedges and packing shall be limited to those listed
in Table 5.4.1.
Table 5.4.1: Permitted Hardwoods for Load-Bearing Wedges and Packing
Standard name
Ash
Beech
Greenheart
Jarrah
Karri
Keruing
Oak
B.

Botanical species
Fraxinus excelsior
Fagus sylvatica
Ocotea rodiaei
Eucalyptus marginata
Eucalyptus diversicolor
Dipterocarpus spp
Quercus spp

Plywood

B.1
When plastic coated plywood is used, the Phenol resin on melamine shall be not less
than 20% of the total coating weight.

C.

Steel

Except as otherwise specified or shown on the Drawings, the grades and qualities
C.1
shall conform to the following applicable standards of AASHTO and ASTM:


Structural carbon steel shall conform to AASHTO M183M (ASTM A36M).



Structural steel for welding shall conform to AASHTO M183M (ASTM
A36M).



High-strength low-alloy structural steel shall conform to AASHTO M222
(ASTM A588).

Page 230 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

D.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Aluminum

D.1 Aluminum shall conform to the requirements of ASTM B22 1.

E.

Other Materials

E.1 Other materials, with the approval of the Engineer, may be used for falsework. These
include, but not limited to, fibre-glass reinforced plastic, polystyrene, polyethylene, rubber,
concrete, brick etc.

5.04.4

A.

DESIGN

General

A.1 Forms and formwork and falsework shall be designed by the Contractor and submitted
to the Engineer with full design calculations, detailed drawings, material specification and
test certificates for approval. Falsework shall be capable of temperature changes without
causing damage to the concrete.

A.2

Falsework design shall be in accordance with BS 5972 "Code of Practice for
Falsework".

A.3 I f the Contractor intends to use ready made proprietary type of falsework, he shall
submit all relevant data, including independent test certificates, which will enable the
Engineer to determine whether or not the Contractor's proposed falsework are acceptable.

A.4 Notwithstanding any approval of falsework design by the Engineer, the Contractor will
not be relieved of his responsibility for the adequacy and correctness of the design,
manufacture and assembly of the falsework.

B.

Fabrication of Steel

B.1

Except as otherwise specified or as shown on the Drawings, all details concerning
fabrication shall conform to "AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges".

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Technical Specification for Water Network

B.2 Fabrication of all metal for steel structures and the erection of steel structures shall be in
accordance with shop and erection drawings furnished by the Contractor and approved by the
Engineer before any fabrication is commenced.

B.3

Fabrication tolerances shall comply with tolerances stated on the Drawings.

B.4 Compliance with tolerances shall be achieved both during and after fabrication before
any surface preparation. Remedial measures to remove imperfections must be approved by
the Engineer.

B.5 Approval of Contractor's drawings shall in no way release the Contractor from his
responsibilities for work under the Contract. Three copies of each shop and erection drawing
prepared by the Contractor shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval and further
copies of corrected or amended drawings shall be submitted i f required before final approval is
given. These drawings shall conform to the general drawings, stress sheets, design
specifications and fabrication tolerances. Shop drawings shall include a full and clear set of
marking drawings.

B.6
Weld to be visually inspected by the Engineer. I f testing is deemed to be required,
the Contractor shall bear all costs.

C.

Forms and Formwork

C.1
Formwork shall be sufficiently rigid so as to prevent any grout loss during concreting
and shall not distort due to environmental effects and concreting operations so that member
dimensions, shape, required finish and texture are within the tolerances specified.

C.2
Forms and formwork shall be designed to be readily assembled, stripped and
transported without distortion to panels and members of the formwork.

C.3
The method of stripping forms without damaging the concrete or special textured
surface finish, i f incorporated, shall be fully considered in the design.

C.4
I f form liners are to be used to achieve the specified surface finish, samples of a
size as directed by the Engineer shall be submitted for approval.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

C.5 Form lining shall not bulge, warp or blister, nor shall it stain the concrete. Form lining
shall be used in the largest practicable panels to minimize joints. Small panels of the lining
material shall not be permitted. The joints in the lining shall be tight and smoothly cut.
Adjacent panels of form lining shall be so placed that the grain of the wood will be in the
same direction (all horizontal or all vertical). Thin metal form lining will not be permitted.
Undressed lumber of uniform thickness may be used as backing for form lining. Wooden
plyform, of adequate thickness which is properly supported to meet the above
requirements, may be used in lieu of the lined forms specified herein.

C.6 Metal forms, i f used, shall be of such thickness that the forms will remain true to
shape. All bolt and rivet heads shall be countersunk. Clamps, pins or other connecting
devices shall be designed to hold the forms rigidly together and to allow removal without
injury to the concrete. Metal forms which do not present a smooth surface or do not line up
properly shall not be used. Care shall be exercised to keep metal forms free from rust, grease
or other foreign matter. Under such circumstances the continued use of the metal forms will
depend upon satisfactory performance and their discontinuance may be required at any time
by the Engineer. Steel panels or panels with metal frames and wood or combination shall be
so designed as to leave no lipping or ridges in the finished concrete.

C.7 The width and thickness of the lumber, the size and spacing of studs and wales shall
be determined with due regard to the nature of the Work and shall be sufficient to ensure
rigidity of the forms and to prevent distortion due to the pressure of the concrete.

C.8 Form bolts, rods or ties and removable ties through plastic pipes shall be made of
steel. They shall be the type which permit the major part of the tie to remain permanently in
the structure or removed entirely. They shall be held in place by devices attached to the
wales capable of developing the strength of the ties. The Engineer may permit the use of
wire ties on irregular sections and incidental construction i f the concrete pressures are
nominal and the form alignment is maintained by other means. Form ties will not be
permitted through forms for handrail. Pipe spreaders shall not be used unless they can be
removed as the concrete is placed. Wood or metal spreaders shall be removed as the
concrete is placed. The use of cofferdam braces or struts will not be permitted except in
unusual situations and then only with approval of the Engineer.

C.9 Where the bottom of the forms is inaccessible, the lower form boards shall be left
loose or other provisions made so that extraneous material may be removed from the forms
immediately before placing the concrete.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

C.10 Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the exterior side of forms shall be painted
with an approved, good quality high gloss white oil base enamel paint prior to placing
concrete. Paint shall be applied to metal forms only. When complete coverage is not obtained
with one coat, the Engineer will order additional coats as he deems necessary to obtain
complete coverage. Forms shall be repainted when ordered by the Engineer.

C.11 Unless provided otherwise on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, all exposed
edges shall be bevelled by using dressed, millcut, triangular molding, having 20 millimeter
sides.

C.12 Forms shall be maintained after erection to eliminate warping and shrinkage.

D.

Falsework

D.1
Falsework and centering shall be designed to provide the necessary rigidity to
support all loads placed upon it without settlement or deformation in excess of the
permissible tolerance for the structure given in the Specifications. Falsework columns shall
be supported on hardwood, concrete pads or metal bases to support all falsework that cannot
be founded on rock, shale or thick deposits of other compact material in their natural beds.
Falsework shall not be supported on any part of the structure, except the footings, without
the written permission of the Engineer. The number and spacing of falsework columns, the
adequacy of sills, caps and stringers and the amount of bracing in the falsework framing
shall be subject to approval of the Engineer.

D.2
A l l timber shall be of sound wood, in good condition and free from defects that might
impair its strength. I f the vertical members are of insufficient length to cap at the desired
elevation for the horizontal members, they shall preferably be capped and frames
constructed to the proper elevation. Ends of the vertical members shall be cut square for full
bearing to preclude the use of wedges. I f vertical splices are necessary, the abutting
members shall be of the same approximate size, the ends shall be cut square for full bearing,
and the splices shall be scabbed in a manner approved by the Engineer.

D.3
The Contractor shall compute falsework settlement and deflection for bridges so that
when the final settlement is complete, the structure will conform to the required camber,
section and grade as shown on the Drawings.

D.4
The Contractor shall provide means for accurately measuring settlement in falsework
during placement of concrete, and shall provide a competent observer to observe and correct
the settlement.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.5 Screw jacks, i f used, shall be designed for use with a slenderness ratio not exceeding

60. The slenderness ratio shall be taken as the ratio of the clear distance between effective
bracing in both horizontal directions to the diameter of the screw jack measured at the root of
the thread. The manufacturers' certificate showing the ultimate load capacity of the screw jack
shall be submitted with the design calculations for the falsework. I f directed by the Engineer,
the Contractor shall furnish a test certificate carried out at an approved independent
laboratory.

D.6 Props and towers supporting forms or partially completed structures shall be

interconnected in plan orthogonally at levels to be determined in the design. They shall also be
interconnected by diagonal bracings in orthogonal vertical planes.

5.04.5

A.

FINISHES

T yp es o f Finishes

A.1 Class F1: This class of surface finish denotes a special finish required from aesthetic
considerations. In additions to the requirements of Class F2 finish, the following additional
requirements shall apply.



It is of major importance that the special finishes required on F1 surfaces are
uniformly and consistently maintained with no variation in the colour or
consistency of the concrete within the same structure. In order to achieve
this, the Contractor shall make trial panels of the formed finishes specified.
These panels shall be not less than 1.5 m high and 1 m wide and 250 mm
thick and shall be cast in the manner and with materials as proposed for the
actual Work. These panels are for the approval of the liners and are
preliminary to the test samples carried out on site.



The Contractor shall provide at his own expense as many panels as required
by the Engineer until a satisfactory trial panel has been accepted by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer and obtain his
approval for all details before commencement of trials. These samples when
approved, will form the standard against which the corresponding finishes on
the actual work will be judged. In all cases of approvals, the decision of the
Engineer alone will be final.



Where forms and form-liners to be used for the special finishes specified are
manufactured outside the Country, the forms and form-liners shall not be
permitted on Site until the Engineer has inspected the forms and form-liners
and is satisfied that they are suitable for the Works. Samples and trial panels
carried out at the place of manufacture to demonstrate to the Engineer that
the forms and formliners and the methods of assembling and de-shuttering
them are acceptable shall not be paid for and will not relieve the Contractor of
the requirement for carrying out trial panels on site as described above.

Page 235 of 259

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Technical Specification for Water Network

- I f the required finish in the opinion of the Engineer, has not been obtained in the

Works, the Contractor shall promptly carry out at his own expense all
measures required by the Engineer to obtain the specified finish. These may
include grit blasting followed by the application of polyester or epoxy paint.
Where such remedial action is ordered by the Engineer, the entire exposed
surface shall be so treated irrespective of whether or not the defective areas
are localised or extensive.

A.2 Class F2: Formwork shall be lined with a material approved by the Engineer to provide
a smooth finish of uniform appearance. This material shall leave no stain on the concrete
and shall be so joined and fixed to its backing so that it imparts no blemishes. It shall be of
the same type and obtained from only one source for any one structure. The Contractor
shall make good any imperfections in the finish as directed by the Engineer. Internal ties
and embedded metal parts will not be permitted unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

A.3 Class F3: Irregularities in the finish shall be no greater than those resulting from the
use of wrought thick square edged boards arranged in a uniform pattern. The finish is
intended to be left as struck. Imperfections such as fins and surface discoloration shall,
however, be made good as and when required by the Engineer.

A.4

Class F4: No special requirements.

A.5 Permanently exposed concrete surfaces to classes F1, F2 and F3 finish shall be
protected from rust marks and stains of all kinds. Internal ties and embedded metal parts
will not be permitted.

A.6 The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer all details of formwork, liners, joints, and
materials including fabrication drawings and stating procedures involved in the use of
formwork for approval before commencement of any work on fabrication. No formwork
shall be brought to site without the prior approval of the Engineer. Adequate time shall be
allowed by the Contractor in his programme for these approvals after consultation with the
Engineer.

B.

Unformed Finishes

B.1 Class U1: The concrete shall be uniformly levelled and screeded to produce a plain or
ridged surface as described in the Contract. No further work shall be applied to the surface
unless is used as the first stage for Class U2 or Class U3 finish.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.2 Class U2: After the concrete has hardened sufficiently, the concrete Class U1 surface
shall be floated by hand or machine sufficiently to produce a uniform surface free from
screed marks.

B.3 Class U3: When the moisture film has disappeared and the concrete has hardened
sufficiently to prevent laitance from being worked to the surface, a Class U1 surface shall be
steel-trowelled under firm pressure to produce a dense, smooth uniform surface free from
trowel marks.

5.04.6

TOLERANCES

A.
The tolerances in the forms and formwork shall be such that members formed shall
be within the tolerances for the size and type of the member specified elsewhere in the
Specification.

B.
Falsework shall be fixed such that the completed structure shall be within the
required tolerances in plan, elevation and slope for the size and type of structure specified
elsewhere in the Specification.

C.
Surfaces which are to receive deck waterproofing shall be finished to an accuracy
such that when tested with a three meter long straight edge, the maximum depression shall not
exceed five mm.

5.04.7

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

A.
The forms and falsework shall be inspected by the Engineer after assembly on the
work area and immediately before concreting. No pour shall commence until the forms and
falsework have been approved by the Engineer.

B.
The inside surfaces of all forms shall, except for pavement formwork, or unless
otherwise agreed by the Engineer, be coated with a release agent approved by the Engineer.
Release agents shall be applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions
and shall not come into contact with the reinforcement or prestressing tendons and
anchorages. Different release agents shall not be used in formwork which will be visible in
the finished work.

C.

Immediately before concrete is placed, all forms shall be thoroughly cleaned out.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.
Forms that are to be re-used shall be thoroughly cleaned and re-oiled and, i f
necessary, shall be reconditioned by revision or reconstruction. Unsatisfactory lumber will be
condemned by the Engineer, and shall be removed from the Site.

E.
Formwork shall be constructed so that the side forms of members can be removed
without disturbing the soffit forms. I f props are to be left in place when the soffit forms are
removed, these props shall not be disturbed during the striking. Top shuttering is to be
provided to concrete i f the slope angle exceeds 25 degrees.

F.
Runways used to move plant, equipment or materials shall be clear of the
reinforcement and shall be robust enough not to deflect excessively or cause movement to
the forms due to dynamic effects.

G.
During concreting, the forms and their supports shall be constantly monitored for
signs of imminent failure. There shall be skilled operatives in constant attendance during
concreting who are qualified to make immediate adjustments to the forms and falsework so
that concreting can satisfactorily be completed.

H.
The Engineer may suspend concreting operations if , in his opinion, the forms and
falsework are in danger of failure and that the actions taken by the Contractor are insufficient
or inadequate to guarantee the safe and satisfactory completion of concreting. In such an
event, the Engineer may instruct the Contractor to remove, at his expense, the concrete
already poured.

I.
I f at any period of work, during or after placing of concrete, the forms show signs of
sagging or bulging, the Contractor, at his own expense, shall remove the concrete to the
extent directed by the Engineer, bring the forms to the proper position, and place concrete.

J.
Immediately after the removal of the forms, all fins caused by form joints and other
projections shall be removed and all pockets cleaned and filled with a cement mortar
composed of 1 part by volume of Portland cement and 2 parts sand. Sufficient white Portland
cement shall be mixed with the cement in the mortar, so that when dry the colour will match
the surrounding concrete. Patches shall be moistened prior to mortaring to obtain a good
bond with the concrete. When directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall at his own
expense, substitute an approved epoxy grout for the Portland cement mortar or provide an
epoxy bonding agent to be used in conjunction with the Portland cement mortar. I f , in the
judgment of the Engineer, pockets are of such extent or character as to materially affect the
strength of the structure or to endanger the life of the steel reinforcement, he may declare the
concrete defective and require the removal and replacement of that portion of the structure
affected. The resulting surfaces shall be true and uniform. Portions of the structure which
cannot be finished or properly repaired to the satisfaction of the Engineer shall be removed.

Page 238 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.04.8

Technical Specification for Water Network

REMOVAL OF FORMWORK AND FALSE WORK

A.
To facilitate finishing, forms on handrails, ornamental work, and other vertical
surfaces that require a rubbed finish, shall be removed as soon as the concrete has hardened
sufficiently that it will not be injured, as determined by the Engineer. In determining the time
for the removal of forms, consideration shall be given to the location and character of the
structure, weather and other conditions influencing the setting of the concrete.

B.
Formwork shall be removed in a manner not to damage the concrete, and at times to
suit the requirements for its curing and to prevent restraint that may arise from elastic
shortening, shrinkage or creep.

C.
Any remedial treatment to surfaces shall be agreed with the Engineer following
inspection immediately after removing the formwork and shall be carried out without delay.
Any concrete surface which has been treated before being inspected by the Engineer, shall be
liable to rejection.

D.
Where the concrete compressive strength is confirmed by tests on concrete
cylinders (cubes) stored under conditions approved by the Engineer that simulate the field
conditions, formwork supporting concrete in bending may be struck when the strength is 10
N/sq.mm or three times the stress to which it will be subjected, whichever is the greater.

E.
For ordinary structural concrete made with ordinary Portland cement only, in the
absence of control cylinders (cubes) the period before striking shall be in accordance with
the minimum periods given in Table 5.4.2 unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.

Table 5.4.2: Minimum Period Before Striking for Ordinary
Structural Concrete Made With Ordinary Portland
Cement

Type of Formwork
Vertical formwork to columns, walls
and large beams
Soffit formwork to slabs

Minimum Period Before Striking
Surface Temperature of Concrete
16C
7C
tC
12 hours
18 hours
300
ho rs

+

4 days

6 days

10
100
days

Props to slabs

10 days

+

5 days

100
d

Soffit to formwork to beams

9 days

ys

+

14 days

230
days

Props to beams

14 days

21 days

t

36010
t10 da
+

ys

Page 239 of 259

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Technical Specification for Water Network

SECTION 5.05 PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
5.05.1

A.

GENERALLY

Scope

A.1 This Section of the Specification describes the construction of plain and reinforced
concrete structures.

5.05.2

A.

MATERIALS

Concrete

A.1 Concrete shall be produced and supplied in accordance with Section 5.01 "Concrete
and Concrete Mixes and Testing".

B.

Reinforcement

B.1 Reinforcement shall conform to Section 5.03 "Steel Reinforcement and Fixing".

C.

Formwork and Falseworks

C.1 Formwork and Falsework shall be designed and supplied in accordance with Section
5.04 "Forms, Formwork and Falsework".

D.

Plant and Equipment

D.1 Plant and Equipment shall conform with the requirements set in Volume 1 and shall be
according to the type and number outlined in the Contractor's detailed Program of Work as
approved by the Engineer.

Page 240 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.05.3

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

CONSTRUCTION

General

A.1 The Contractor shall notify the Engineer his intention to concrete at least 24 hours in
advance.

A.2 The Engineer shall check and certify that:



The form and formwork meet the Specification requirements.
The falsework and support props are in accordance with the approved
Drawings.



The reinforcement conforms to the Drawings and that the correct covers
have been provided.
The forms are free of dirt and other deleterious matter.



B.

Concreting

B.1 Handling, placing and curing shall be in accordance with Section 5.02 "Concrete
Handling, Placing and Curing".

C.

Slump

C.1 Slump shall be within the limits given in Section 5.02 of the Specification.

D.

Construction and Expansion Joints

D.1 Whenever the work of placing concrete is delayed until the concrete shall have taken
its initial set, the point of stopping shall be deemed a construction joint. So far as possible
the location of construction joints shall be as shown on the Drawings, but i f not shown on
the Drawings, they shall be planned in advance and the placing of concrete carried out
continuously from joint to joint. The joints shall be perpendicular to the principal lines of
stress and in general be located at points of minimum shear.

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Technical Specification for Water Network

D.2 Where dowels, reinforcing bars or other adequate ties are not required by the
Drawings, keys shall be made by embedding water soaked bevelled timbers in soft
concrete. The key shall be sized as shown on the details, or as directed by the Engineer,
which shall be removed when the concrete has set. In resuming work the surface of the
concrete previously placed shall be thoroughly cleaned of dirt, scum, laitance or other soft
material with stiff wire brushes, and i f deemed necessary by the Engineer, shall be
roughened with a steel tool. The surface shall then be thoroughly washed with clean water
and pointed with a thick coat of neat cement mortar, after which the concreting may
proceed.

D.3 Expansion joints shall be constructed at the locations, of the materials and to the
dimensions shown on the Drawings.

E.

Cold Joints

E.1
When the continuous placement of concrete in any structural member is interrupted
or delayed, for any reason, for a period long enough for the previously partially placed
concrete to take its initial set, the Engineer shall declare such a joint a cold joint in which
case the Contractor shall immediately remove the previously partially placed concrete from
the forms. No extra payment will be made for the initial placement or the removal of
concrete which is wasted because of a cold joint. The Engineer may suspend all or any part
of the subsequent concrete work until he deems the Contractor has corrected the cause for
the cold joint occurrence.

E.2
The Engineer may, with due consideration to the location of the cold joint and/or the
importance of the member, allow the Contractor to retain the partially placed concrete and
complete the concreting by a subsequent pour, which for permission, the Engineer shall
instruct the Contractor to carry out at his own expense some or all of the following
measures before completing the pour:


Surface leitance shall be removed from the surface of the partially placed
concrete by wire brushing or light tooling or by sand blasting as directed by
the Engineer without damage to reinforcement and formwork.



Shear keys shall be cut in the partially placed concrete. The shape, size and
orientation of the shear keys shall be as directed by the Engineer. The
reinforcement and formwork shall not be damaged.



The cleaned surface of the partially placed concrete shall be coated with an
approved bonding agent before placing the subsequent pour.

Page 242 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

F.

Technical Specification for Water Network



Additives to facilitate bonding shall be added to the concrete used for the
subsequent pour.



Dowel bars of a type and length to be approved by the Engineer shall be
installed in the partially placed concrete using non-shrink cement grout or
resin grout as directed by the Engineer. The size and spacing of the dowel
bars shall be approved by the Engineer. Their installation shall not damage
the reinforcement or formwork.



The partially placed concrete and the subsequent concrete shall be stressed
by prestressing bars of a size and type approved by the Engineer to achieve
a level of compressive stress at the interface approved by the Engineer. The
method of installing the prestressing bars and type of anchors used shall be
approved by the Engineer. Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, the
drill hole shall be grouted with a cement grout containing expanding additive
to the manufacturer's recommendations.

Finishing

F.1 To be as shown on Drawings.

G.

Concrete Cover to Reinforcement

G.1
The cover shall be not less than the size of the bar or the maximum aggregate size
plus 5 mm or as shown on drawings. In the case of bundled bars, it shall be equal to or
greater than the size of a single bar of equivalent area plus 5 mm.

G.2
Where surface treatment such as grooved finish or bush hammering cuts in to the
face of the concrete, the expected depth of the treatment shall be added to the cover.

G.3
The cover to reinforcement should also be determined by considerations of
durability under the envisaged conditions of exposure. Minimum cover to reinforcement
under particular severe conditions shall be determined by Engineer on site.

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PART 5: Concrete Works

H.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Tolerances

H.1 The horizontal and vertical dimensions of in-situ concrete members, but not
cross-sections, shall be within the following tolerances:
Length (mm)

Tolerance (mm)

Up to 3000
3001-4500
Vertical lines out of plane

±3
±6
± 5 + 1 for every 3000 out of true line.

H.2 Slab and wall thicknesses and the cross-sectional dimensions of in-situ beams,
columns, piers etc., shall be within the following tolerances:
Member Dimensions (mm)
Up to 500
501 -750
Additional for every subsequent 100 mm

Tolerance (mm)
6
10
±1 mm

H.3 The horizontal and vertical dimensions of pre-cast members, but not cross-sections,
shall be within the following tolerances:
Length (mm)

Tolerance (mm)

Up to 3000
3000 and over

±2
±5

H.4 Slab and wall thicknesses and the cross-sectional dimensions of in-situ beams,
columns, piers etc., shall be within a tolerances of ± 3 mm.
Member Dimensions (mm)
Up to 500
501- 750
Additional for every subsequent
250 mm

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PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

H.5 For in-situ and pre-cast construction the tolerance between the short side and the
long side shall be within the following limits:
Member Size (mm)
Up to 3000
3000 and over

Tolerance (mm)
±3
±6

H.6 For in-situ and precast construction the straightness or bow, defined as deviation
form the intended line, shall be within the following tolerances:
Member Length (mm)
Up to 3000
3000 and over

Tolerances (mm)
±3
±6

H.7 The alignment of members shall be within the following tolerances:



Column and Piers: 1:400 of column or pier length.
Others:
1:600 of length.

H.6
The flatness of a surface, measured with a straight edge of 1.5 meter, shall be not
greater than 6 mm at any point.

H.7
Twist, measured as the deviations of any corner from the plane containing the
other three corners, shall be within the following limits.
Member Length (mm)
Up to 6000
Above 6000

Tolerance (mm)
6
12

Page 245 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

SECTION 5.06 WATERPROOFING FOR STRUCTURES
5.06.1

A.

GENERAL

Scope

A.1 These works shall consist of furnishing and placing approved waterproofing
membrane and dampproofing course to external concrete surfaces in contact with earth and
furnishing and placing epoxy coating to internal surfaces of concrete walls, slabs, and beds
and furnishing and installing waterstops to waterproof construction and expansion joints,
all as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

5.06.2

A.

MATERIALS

Asphalt

A.1 Waterproofing asphalt shall conform to AASHTO M 115 (ASTM D 449); Type I for use
below ground, and Type I I for use above ground.

A.2 Primer for use with asphalt in waterproofing shall conform to AASHTO M 116 (ASTM
D 41).

B.

Bitumen

B.1 Waterproofing bitumen shall conform to AASHTO M 118 (ASTM D 450). Type I I shall
be furnished unless otherwise specified.

B.2 Primer for use with coal-tar bitumen in dampproofing and waterproofing shall conform
to AASHTO M 121 (ASTM D 43).

C.

Waterproofing Fabric

C.1 Waterproofing fabric shall conform to AASHTO M 117 (ASTM D 173).

Page 246 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

D.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Self-Adhesive Polyethylene Sheet

D.1 Flexible, preformed waterproof membrane comprising strong, high-density
polyethylene film with self-adhesive rubber/bitumen compound, and having the following
minimum properties:
-

-

Total thickness
Weight
Tensile strength
Elongation
Tear resistance
Puncture resistance

:
:
:
:
:
:

1.5 mm
1.6 kg/m2
42 n/mm2
210% long.; 160% trans.
340 n/mm long.; 310 n/mm trans.
220 n 65 mm

or other equal and approved.

E.

Tar for Absorptive Treatment

E.1 Tar for absorptive treatment shall be a liquid water-gas tar that conforms to the
following requirements:






F.

Specific gravity, 25/25ºC ...........1.030 to 1.100
Specific viscosity at 40ºC (Engler), not more than ..................... 3.0
Total distillate, percent by weight, to 300ºC, not more than ..... 50.0
Bitumen (soluble in carbon disulfide) not less than, percent .... 98.0
Water, not more than, percent ..................................................3.0

Tar Seal Coat

F.1 Tar seal coat shall conform to AASHTO M 52, Grade RTCB-5 (ASTM D 490).

G.

Joint Fillers

G.1 Filler for use in horizontal and vertical joints in waterproofing work shall be a straight
refined oil asphalt conforming to the following requirements:


Flash point

:

Not less than 232ºC.



Softening point

:

48.9ºC to 54.4ºC.

Page 247 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network



Penetration

:



Loss on heating

:



Ductility

:



Total bitumen (soluble in carbon disulfide): not less than 99.5 percent.

H.

At 0ºC, 200 grams, 1 minute, not less than
15.At 25ºC, 100 grams, 5 seconds, 50 to 60. At
46ºC, 50 grams, 5 seconds, not more than
300.
At 163ºC, 50 grams, 5 hours, not more than
0.5 percent.
At 25ºC, 5 centimeters per minute, not less
than 85.

Waterstops

H . 1 Extruded PVC, heavy duty, of the types and sizes shown on the Drawings, and

complete with junction pieces shall be obtained from any of the following manufacturers:


Expandite Ltd.



Greenstreak Plastic Products



Servicised Ltd

or other equal and approved.

H . 2 Copper water stops shall be copper sheets of the thickness shown on the Drawings

and shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 138 (ASTM B 152).

H . 3 Plain rubber water stops shall be formed from a stock composed of a high grade

compound made exclusively from new plantation rubber, reinforcing carbon black, zinc
oxide, accelerators, anti-oxidants, and softeners. This compound shall contain not less than
72 percent by volume of new plantation rubber. The tensile strength shall be not less than
246 kg per sq.cm, with an elongation at breaking of 550 percent when tested in accordance
with ASTM D 412. The unit stresses producing 300 percent and 500 percent elongation
shall be not less than 77 kg. and 198 kg. per sq.cm, respectively. The Shore Durometer
indication (hardness) shall be between 55 and 65 when tested in accordance with ASTM D
676. After 7 days in air at 126 degrees (plus or minus 1 degree) C or after 48 hours in
oxygen at 126 degrees (plus or minus 1 degree) C both at 21 kg per sq.cm, the tensile
strength and elongation shall not be less than 65 percent of the original when tested in
accordance with ASTM D 572.

Page 248 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

H.4 Synthetic rubber water stops shall be formed from a compound made exclusively from
neoprene, or SBR, reinforcing carbon black, zinc oxide, polymerization agents, and
softeners. This compound shall contain not less than 70 percent by volume of neoprene or
SBR. The tensile strength shall be not less than 175 kg. per square centimeter with an
elongation at breaking of 425 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 412. The
Shore Durometer indication (hardness) shall be between 50 and 70 when tested in
accordance with ASTM D 676. After 7 days in air at 126 degrees (plus or minus 1 degree)
C or after 48 hours in oxygen at 126 degrees (plus or minus 1 degree) C, and 21 kg per
sq.cm. pressure, the tensile strength shall be not less than 65 percent of the original when
tested in accordance with ASTM D 572.

I.

Proprietary Waterproofing Systems

I.1 Proprietary waterproofing systems shall be bituminous membranes reinforced with
layers of suitable reinforcement, bituminous coated polythene sheet, plasticized polyvinyl
chloride sheet, other approved membranes or applications of resinous reinforced coatings.
The type to be used shall be as indicated on the Drawings and shall be chosen according to
its location and serviceability. The specific system shall be approved after site trials, should
the Engineer decide these to be necessary.

J.

Epoxy Coating System

J.1 An approved epoxy coating system shall be furnished and applied to the internal
concrete surfaces of culverts and open channels as shown on the Drawings or as directed
by the Engineer. The thickness of the epoxy coating shall be at least 400 microns in
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

K.

Chemical Water Proofing Coating

K.1 Chemical waterproof coating shall be surface-applied material that causes capillary
waterproofing system to protect concrete in-depth. Manufacturer's details are as follows:
Man: Xypex Chemical Corporation
Ref.: Xypex
Man: Meynadier
Ref.: Barra Slurry
Man: Vandex International Ltd. Ref.:
Vandex Super, Vander Premix
Man: Master Builders Technologies
Ref.: Masterseal 50 1/502.

Page 249 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.06.3
A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

SURFACE PREPARATION
Waterproofing

A.1 A l l concrete surfaces which shall be waterproofed shall be reasonably smooth and
free from projections or holes which might cause puncture of the membrane. The surface
shall be dry, so as to prevent the formation of steam when the hot asphalt or tar is applied,
and, immediately before the application of the waterproofing, the surface shall be
thoroughly cleaned of dust projecting tying wire and loose material.

A.2 No waterproofing shall be done in wet weather, nor when the temperature is below 4
degrees C, without special authorization from the Engineer. Should the surface of the
concrete become temporarily damp, it shall be covered with a 50 mm layer of hot sand,
which shall be allowed to remain in place from 1 to 2 hours, or long enough to produce a
warm and surface-dried condition, after which the sand shall be swept back, uncovering
sufficient surface for beginning work, and the operation repeated as the work progresses.

B.

Dampproofing

B.1 The surface to which the dampproofing coating shall be applied shall be cleaned of all
loose and foreign material and dirt and shall be dry. When necessary the Engineer may
require the surface to be scrubbed with water and a stiff brush, after which the surface shall
be allowed to dry before application of the primer.

5.06.4

INSPECTION, DELIVERY AND STORAGE

A.
A l l waterproofing materials shall be tested before shipment. Unless otherwise
ordered by the Engineer, they shall be tested at the place of manufacture, and, when so
tested, a copy of the test results shall be sent to the Engineer by the chemist or inspection
bureau which has been designated to make the tests, and each package shall have affixed to
it a label, seal, or other mark of identification, showing that it has been tested and found
acceptable, and identifying the package with the laboratory tests.

B.
Factory inspection is preferred, but in lieu thereof and/or addition thereof, the
Engineer may order that representative samples, properly identified, be sent to him for test
prior to shipment of the materials. After delivery of the materials, representative check
samples shall be taken which shall determine the acceptability of the materials.

C.
A l l materials shall be delivered to the work in original containers, plainly marked
with the manufacturer's brand or label.

Page 250 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

D.
Water proofing and damp proofing material shall be stored in a dry, protected place.
Rolls of waterproofing fabric and membranes shall not be stored on end.

5.06.5

A.

CONSTRUCTION

Asphalt and Bitumen Waterproofing Fabric

A.1 Asphalt shall be heated to a temperature between 148.7 degrees C and 176.5
degrees C and tar for hot application shall be heated to a temperature between 93.3 degrees
C and 121 degrees C with frequent stirring to avoid local overheating. The heating kettles
shall be equipped with thermometers.

A.2 In all cases, the waterproofing shall begin at the low point of the surface to be
waterproofed, so that water will run over and not against or along the laps.

A.3 The first strip of fabric shall be of half-width; the second shall be full-width, lapped
the full-width of the first sheet; and the third and each succeeding strip shall be full-width
and lapped so that there will be two layers of fabric at all points with laps not less than 50
mm wide. All end laps shall be at least 300 mm.

A.4 Beginning at the low point of the surface to be waterproofed, a coating of primer shall
be applied and allowed to dry before the first coat of asphalt is applied. The
waterproofing shall then be applied as follows.

A.5 Beginning at the low point of the surface to be waterproofed, a section about 500 mm
wide and the full length of the surface shall be mopped with the hot asphalt or tar, and
there shall be rolled into it, immediately following the mopping, the first strip of fabric, or
half-width, which shall be carefully pressed into place so as to eliminate all air bubbles and
obtain close conformity with the surface. This strip and an adjacent section of the surface
of a width equal to slightly more than half of the width of the fabric being used shall then
be mopped with hot asphalt or tar, and a full width of the fabric shall be rolled into this,
completely covering the first strip, and pressed into place as before. This second strip and
an adjacent section of the concrete surface shall then be mopped with hot asphalt or tar and
the third strip of fabric "shingled" on so as to lap the first strip not less than 50 mm. This
process shall be continued until the entire surface is covered, each strip of fabric lapping at
least 50 mm over the last strip. The entire surface shall then be given a final mopping of
hot asphalt or tar.

Page 251 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.6 The completed waterproofing shall be a firmly bonded membrane composed of two
layers of fabric and three moppings of asphalt or tar, together with a coating of primer.
Under no circumstances shall one layer of fabric touch another layer at any point or touch
the surface, as there must be at least three complete moppings of asphalt or tar.

A.7 In all cases the mopping on concrete shall cover the surface so that no gray spots
appear, and on cloth it shall be sufficiently heavy to completely conceal the weave. On
horizontal surfaces not less than 49 liters of asphalt or tar shall be used for each 10 sq.m. of
finished work, and on vertical surfaces not less than 61 liters shall be used for each 10
sq.m. The work shall be so regulated that, at the close of a day's work, all cloth that is laid
shall have received the final mopping of asphalt or tar. Special care shall be taken at all
laps to see that they are thoroughly sealed down.

A.8 At the edges of the membrane and at any points where it is punctured by such
appurtenances as drains or pipes, suitable provisions shall be made to prevent water from
getting between the waterproofing and the waterproofed surface.

A.9 A l l flashing at curbs and against girders, spandrel walls, etc., shall be done with
separate sheets lapping the main membrane not less than 300 mm. Flashing shall be
closely sealed either with a metal counter-flashing or by embedding the upper edges of the
flashing in a groove poured full of joint filler.

A.10 Joints which are essentially open joints but which are not designed to provide for
expansion shall first be caulked with oakum and lead wool and then filled with hot joint
filler.

A.11 Expansion joints, both horizontal and vertical, shall be provided with sheet copper or
lead in "U" or "V" form in accordance with approved details. After the membrane has been
placed, the joint shall be filled with hot joint filler. The membrane shall be carried
continuously across all expansion joints.

A.12 At the ends of the structure the membrane shall be carried well down on the
abutments and suitable provision made for all movement.

B.

Proprietary Waterproofing Membranes

B.1 Proprietary waterproofing membranes shall be installed strictly in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions and shall be laid so that no air is trapped between it and the
concrete surface or between successive layers of sheeting.

Page 252 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.2 Unless otherwise specified joints between sheets shall be lapped with end laps of at
least 150 mm and side laps of at least 100 mm. The joints shall be arranged so that at no
points are there more than three thicknesses of sheeting and, as far as possible so that water
will drain away from the exposed edge.

C.

Damage Patching of Waterproofing Fabrics

C.1 Care shall be taken to prevent injury to the finished fabric membrane by the passage
over it of workmen or wheelbarrows, or by throwing any material on it. Any damage which
may occur shall be repaired by patching. Patches shall extend at least 300 mm beyond the
outermost damaged portion and the second ply shall extend at least 75 mm beyond the
first.

C.2 Proprietary waterproofing membranes shall be repaired according to the
manufacturer's specifications and as directed by the Engineer.

D.

Dampproofing

D.1 Concrete, brick, or other surfaces that shall be protected by dampproofing shall be
thoroughly cleaned before the primer is applied. They shall then be brush or spray painted
with two or more coats (as indicated on the Drawings) of tar or asphalt for absorptive
treatment. Below ground not less than two coats shall be applied, using 0.56 L/sq.m. of
surface. On the well-primed surface one application of tar or asphalt seal coat shall be
applied by brush, using 0.45 L/sq.m.

D.2 Care shall be taken to confine all paints to the areas to be waterproofed and to prevent
disfigurement of any other parts of the structure by dripping or spreading of the tar or
asphalt.

E.

Protection of Waterproofing and Dampproofing

E.1 Over the waterproofing membrane and dampproofing course, there shall be
constructed a protection course which, unless otherwise specified or shown on the
Drawings, shall be a 50 mm course of mortar mixed in the proportion of one part Portland
cement and two parts sand. This mortar course shall be reinforced midway between its top
and bottom surfaces with wire netting of 150 mm mesh and No. 12 gauge, or an approved
equivalent. The top surface shall be troweled to a smooth, hard finish and, where required,
true to grade.

Page 253 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

E.2 The construction of the protection course shall follow the waterproofing so closely that
the latter will not be exposed without protection for more than 24 hours.

E.3 Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, vertical faces
waterproofed or dampproofed shall be protected by a porous concrete block wall of not less
than 225 mm thickness. I f approved by the Engineer, a proprietary synthetic sheeting may
be used as the protective layer in lieu of the porous concrete block wall.

F.

Chemical Waterproofing

Conditions and rate of application shall be in accordance with manufacturer's
F.1
recommendations.

G.

Water Stops

G.1 Copper sheets for water stops shall be of the width and shall be bent to the shapes
shown or ordered. The sheet copper in each joint shall be continuous, separate pieces
being connected by thoroughly workmanlike soldered joints to form a complete watertight
unit. The sheet copper shall be placed in such manner as to ensure its embedment in the
concrete on each side of the joints in the positions shown on the Drawings.

G.2 Rubber water stops shall be installed in accordance with the details shown on the
Drawings. The water stops shall be formed with an integral cross section which shall be
uniform within 3 mm in width and the web thickness or bulb diameter, within plus 1.5 mm
and minus 0.75 mm. No splices shall be permitted in straight strips. Strips and special
connection pieces shall be well cured in a manner such that any cross section shall be
dense, homogenous, and free from all porosity. A l l junctions in the special connection
pieces shall be full molded. During the vulcanizing period the joints shall be securely held
by suitable clamps. The material at the splices shall be dense and homogenous throughout
the cross section. Field splices shall be either vulcanized, mechanical, using stainless steel
parts, or made with a rubber splicing union of the same stock as the water stop, at the
option of the Contractor. A l l finished splices shall demonstrate a tensile strength of not
less than 50 percent of the unspliced material.

H.

Testing

H.1 Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer in writing, at least one site trial application of
the waterproofing system shall be carried out to determine the suitability of the surface
preparation, method of application and effectiveness of the protective layer. The size of
membrane laid shall be not less than 2.0 meters wide and 5.0 meters long.

Page 254 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

SECTION 5.07
5.07.1

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

JOINT SEALING AND JOINT FILLER

GENERAL

Scope

A.1 These works shall consist of furnishing and installing joint sealing and preformed
expansion joint filler materials as and where shown on the Drawings, or as directed by the
Engineer.

5.07.2

A.

MATERIALS: JOINT SEALING COMPOUNDS

Hot Type

A.1 This type shall be a mixture of virgin synthetic rubber or reclaimed rubber, or a
combination of the two, with asphalt plasticisers and tactified. Ground cured rubber scrap
shall not be used.

A.2 The joint sealing compound, after heating and application, shall form a resilient and
adhesive compound capable of effectively sealing joints in concrete against the infiltration of
moisture and foreign material through repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. It shall
be capable of being brought, by heating, to a uniform, smooth pouring consistency, free
from lumps, and suitable for completely filling the joints and without damage to the
material. It shall not flow from the joints or be picked-up and tracked by vehicle tyres at
summer temperatures.

A.3 The pour point shall be at least 11 degrees C lower than the safe heating
temperature. The safe heating temperature is defined as the highest temperature to which
the material can be heated and still meet all requirements of this specification. No sample of
the material will be tested until the manufacturer furnishes his recommended safe-heating
and pouring temperatures.

A.4 After 6 hours of continuous heating, with constant mixing in the laboratory at the
manufacturer's recommended pour temperature, the joint sealer shall meet all requirements
of this specification.

A.5 The penetration at 25 degrees C, 150 gm, 5 sec, shall not be less than 50 mm nor
more than 90 mm.

Page 255 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

A.6 The flow at 60 degrees C and at a 75 degree angle shall not exceed 10 mm in 5 hours.

A.7 Ductility at 25 degrees C shall be not less than 350 mm.

A.8 The material when tested at minus 17.8 degrees C to 100 percent extension 1270 mm
extended to 2540 mm shall, after 5 cycles, show no surface checking, cracking, separation
or other opening in the material or between the material and the block. At least 2 test
specimens in a set of 3 specimens representing a given sample shall meet this
requirement.

A.9 Recovery shall be not less than 25 percent.

A.10 Compression recovery of bond specimens shall be not less than 10 mm in 15
minutes.

A.11 No failure in cohesion or adhesion shall occur.

A.12 Samples for testing shall consist of not less than a 4.5 kilogram sample from each
batch of the joint sealer. A batch shall be considered as all finished material that was
manufactured simultaneously or continuously as a unit between the time of compounding
and the time of packaging or placing in shipping containers. Each package or container
shall be marked properly to indicate clearly the batch of which it forms a part. The material
shall be sampled in accordance with the requirements of the "Standard Methods of Sampling
Bituminous Materials" (ASTM D140) for solid materials in cakes.

A.13 Testing shall be in accordance with AASHTO T 187 except that the tolerances on
dimensions of test specimens, Article 6.3 shall be + 0.13 cm and the temperature
tolerances, Article 6.4 shall be + 2.2 degrees C.

B.

Cold Type

B.1 This type shall be homogeneous material of such consistency that it can be applied by
means of high-pressure pump through suitable nozzles to completely f ill the joints. The
compound may be blended with a suitable solvent or solvents by the manufacturer to
provide better workability during installation in the joints. The volatility of these solvents
must be such that they will evaporate within a short time after installation leaving a material
that is adhesive and resilient.

Page 256 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

Technical Specification for Water Network

B.2 The flow during a 5 hour period at 60 degrees C shall not exceed 50 mm.

B.3
After evaporation of the solvent, the penetration at 25 degrees C, 150 gm, 5 sec,
shall not exceed 220 mm.

B.4 When the compound is tested at minus 17.8 degrees C, the development at any time
during the test procedure of a crack, separation or other opening which is at any point over
64 mm deep in the material or between the material and the concrete block, shall constitute
failure of the test specimen. The failure of more than 1 test specimen in a group of 3
specimens, representing a given sample of joint sealing compound shall be cause for
rejection of the sample on the basis of this requirement.

B.5 Cold-type joint compound shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D 1851, except
that the material for test specimens Article 7(c) will be stirred manually rather than
mechanically.

B.6 Preformed Polychloroprene Elastomeric Joint Seals shall comply with the
requirements of AASHTO M 220 (ASTM D 2628).

C.
Joint Sealant for movement joints in water retaining structures shall be
polysulphide based compound to BS 4254 or as manufactured by:
Man: Expandite Ltd.
Ref: Thioflex 600
Man: Servicised Ltd.
Ref: Paraseal
or other equal and approved.

D.
Exposed Joint Sealant for movement joints is to be approved polysulphide rubber
based compound unless otherwise specified.
Man: Dunlop Ltd.
Ref: High butyl mastic 421.8
Man: Expandite Ltd.
Ref: Thioflex 600
or other equal and approved.
E.

Backing strip shall be the type recommended by joint sealant manufacturer.

Page 257 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.07.3

A.

Technical Specification for Water Network

PREFORMED EXPANSION JOINT FILLER

Description

A.1 This type of filler shall be a non-extruding and resilient bituminous type and shall
have relatively little extrusion and a moderate to high amount of recovery after release
from compression.

B.

Requirement

B.1 Nonextruding and resilient type of expansion joint filler shall conform to all the
requirements of the Standard Specification for "Preformed Expansion Joint Fillers for
Concrete Paving and Structural Construction (Nonextruding and Resilient Bituminous
Types)", AASHTO M 213 (ASTM D 1751).

C.

Movement Joint Sheet Material Filler

C.1 For expansion joints in water retaining structures is to be bonded granular cork to
ASTM D 1752 or ASTM D 1751 or as manufactured by:
Man: Expandite Ltd
Ref: Cork filler
Man: Servicised Ltd
Ref: Kork-Pak
or other equal and approved.

5.07.4

CERTIFICATE OF GUARANTEE

A. The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a manufacturer's certificate of
guarantee for each type of joint material delivered to the Site. The certificate shall note
compliance with the appropriate specifications and shall state the results of the tests
performed on the material, as required by the specifications. The Contractor shall, when so
directed by the Engineer, have the joint material tested for conformance to the applicable
specifications at an approved testing laboratory. A l l costs connected with certificate of
guarantee and any subsequent quality testing shall be at the Contractor's expense.

Page 258 of 259

PART 5: Concrete Works

5.07.5

A.

CONSTRUCTION

Joints shall be:



B.

Technical Specification for Water Network

Straight, vertical, horizontal or as detailed or approved.
Formed to accommodate projecting reinforcement.

Movement joints are defined as:




Formed expansion joints.
Formed contraction joints.
Induced contraction joints.

C.
Formed Movement Joints: Construct rigid stop ends and formwork at formed
movement joints to permit separate construction of structurally separate parts of the work.

D.
Construction Joints: Where not coincident with movement joints submit proposals
for positions of construction joints and obtain approval.

E.
Construction Joints: Lightly roughen face to expose coarse aggregate unless
otherwise instructed. Wet and cover with 1:1 cement and sand grout immediately prior to
placing fresh concrete. Stop roughening 25 mm from arrises to surfaces exposed to view in
finished work. Remove small mortar lips from exposed arrises with carborundum stone.
Face is to be clean and damp before fresh concrete is placed against it.

F.

Concrete Floors: Side and end forms are to be square edged with steel top

surface.

G.
Waterbars: Nail to forms prior to concreting and butt joint in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions.

H.
Sealing of Movement Joints: Preparation and application is to be strictly as
manufacturer's recommendations. Joints are to be thoroughly clean and dry, free from oil
and loose material. Vigorously wire brush or grit blast the joint faces and clean out with
compressed air. Prime faces of joint and allow to dry. Where exposed to view mask edges
of joint with tape before priming and remove immediately after sealing. Apply sealant
ensuring maximum adhesion to sides of joint and a neat, smooth and clean finish.

Page 259 of 259

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