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091 MUZEJ SUVREMENE UMJETNOSTI
natje~ajni projekt, Zagreb, 1999.

CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM
Competition Project, Zagreb, 1999

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb
090 Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

uglovnica corner building

situacija 1:8.000 site plan 1:8,000

situacija krova 1:8.000 site plan of roof 1:8,000

situacija 1:2.000 site plan 1:2,000

SUVREMENOST U suvremenom svijetu rije~ Moral toliko je otrcana da ima gotovo negativno zna~enje i to vjerojatno s pravom, jer su najve}im prevarantima i lopovima usta puna upravo rije~i Moral. Ipak, i ba{ zato, ovaj projekt po~inje od Morala. Dana{nji svijet nije dobar, on je u krizi i stoga je potrebno raditi i djelovati tako da svijetu bude bolje. Nedavno izvedeni muzej u Bilbaou arhitekta Gehryja iz 1998. godine svojim je probojem kroz medije popularne kulture postao predlo‘ak suvremenog muzeja, a mo‘da i suvremene arhitekture. Njegova popularnost zna~ajno sudjeluje u pritisku kraja stolje}a-tisu}lje}a i u zahtjevu da se arhitektura i arhitekti kona~no “izjasne” {to }e raditi u Tre}em Mileniju i za njega. Povrh toga, muzejska se funkcija poklopila sa sveop}om modom rekapituliranja svega i sva~ega. Zbog svega navedenog, muzej u Bilbaou potrebno je kriti~ki sagledati. Kao arhitektonsko djelo on je izvanredno uspje{an, ali je kao kulturolo{ko djelo ili, to~nije re~eno, kao civilizacijsko djelo, nemoralan. On je umjetni~ka razrada ve} dugo prisutnih ideja kaosa, dovedena do krajnosti. Stvaranje umjetnosti koja tako neizravno potencira Kaos, koji je ina~e suvremen i popularan, odnosno u modi, to jednostavno nije dobro... ako ‘elimo da nam bude bolje. Ako to ‘elimo. Za razumijevanje tog problema, vrlo se lijepo mo‘e usporediti vjerojatno potpuno suprotan projekt, odnosno gra|evina Doma likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu Ivana Me{trovi}a iz 1934.-38. To je primjer Reda i Obzira prema gradu i njegovom naslje|u, kao i obzira prema suvremenosti... {to je ~esto dobar put ka svevremenosti. Ili, jednostavno, to je Bolje. ULOGA MUZEJA Muzej Beaubourg u Parizu vjerojatno je najzna~ajniji muzej novijeg doba. Njegove dobre, ali i lo{e strane, postale su ishodi{ne to~ke za utvr|ivanje novih muzejskih standarda. Istodobni uspjeh i neuspjeh le‘i u iznimnoj atraktivnosti
092 Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum 093 Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

MODERNITY In the modern-day world, the word “morality” is so overused that it almost has a negative connotation, and perhaps rightly so, since the greatest impostors and thieves are those who most often speak of morality. Despite this, or rather, for this very reason, morality is the starting point of this project. Today’s world is not good; it is going through a crisis and one’s work and efforts should aim at making the world a better place. The museum at Bilbao produced by the architect Gehry in 1998 has, thanks to the popular-culture media, become the model for modern-day museums or even perhaps for modern-day architecture. Its popularity adds significantly to the pressure applied by the turn-ofthe-century-millennium era, and increases the demand for architecture and architects to finally “speak their mind” about what they will be doing in and for the Third Millennium. Similarly, the function of the museum has coincided with the general tendency to review everything in sight. For all these reasons, this museum should be critically analysed. The Bilbao museum is an outstandingly successful work of architecture, but in cultural terms, or more precisely, in terms of civilisation, it is immoral. It is but an artistic elaboration of the long-lingering ideas of chaos pushed to the extreme. The creation of a piece of art promoting chaos in such a straightforward manner - chaos being otherwise modern, popular and fashionable - is simply not good... if we want to make things better for ourselves. 1B we want to. To better understand this issue, a comparison can be made with a project which is quite the opposite - the building housing the Hall of Visual Arts, designed by Ivan Me{trovi} in Zagreb in 1934-38. This is an example of order and mindfulness of the city and its heritage, including its modernity... which is oftentimes a good way to achieve quality for all times. Or, to put it simply, it is better.

tlocrt podruma 1:1.000 basement plan 1:1,000

tlocrt prizemlja 1:1.000 ground-floor plan 1:1,000

tlocrt kata 1:1.000 1st floor plan 1:1,000

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Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

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Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

uzdu`ni presjek 1:1.000 longitudinal section 1:1,000

popre~ni presjek 1:1.000 cross section 1:1,000

gra|evine, a ona je toliko velika da je u potpunosti zasjenila njenu muzejsku funkciju. Trg ispred muzeja sa svojim uli~nim sadr‘ajima i eskalatori koji se uspinju iznad krovova grada preuzeli su publiku koja bi trebala razgledavati unutra{njost. Dakle, Beaubourg je uspio privu}i publiku, ali samo do svoje fasade. Ne u unutra{njost. Povrh toga, ubrzo se pokazalo da u muzeju nedostaje zidova za vje{anje slika, pa su naknadno umetnute pregradne stijene kao za klasi~ne sobe s ~etiri zida. Projektirani koncept staklene, otvorene i fleksibilne eta‘e proma{io je svoj cilj. Dobro iskustvo ovog muzeja pokazuje kako od muzeja napraviti gradsku i kulturolo{ku atrakciju, a lo{e iskustvo pokazuje da se ne smije zaboraviti klasi~na funkcija muzeja sa “zidom na koji se vje{aju slike”, unato~ sve ve}em pritisku umjetnina-performance-instalacija kojima to naizgled ne treba. PRU@ENA RUKA Kada ‘ele pomo}i, kada ‘ele dobro, ljudi to pokazuju gestom pru‘ene ruke. Ova gesta je ishodi{na slika iz koje je nastala ideja prilazne rampe ovog muzeja, koja se iz visine kao velika ruka pru‘a prema ljudima... da ih skupi kao mrave... i uzdigne. Ovakva gesta je u duhu funkcije projektiranog muzeja koji bi trebao uzdignuti ljude do umjetnosti koja jedina ima {ansu da bude Nova i Bolja. Za razumijevanje ove te‘nje i geste mo‘da se mo‘e uzeti sli~an primjer Le Corbusierove ruke, “Spomenik otvorene ruke” u Chandigarhu.

HRAM NA BRDU Zna~aj i potreba za muzejom u dana{njem svijetu postali su poput zna~aja hrama iz pro{losti. Dvadeseto stolje}e proteklo je u kontinuiranom i neopravdanom slavlju zbog otkri}a relativnosti. Pritom su ignorirane mnoge elementarne ljudske osobine, {to je u realizacijama ideja sprije~ilo o~ekivani napredak. U prostornom smislu to se mo‘e ilustrirati kao tako|er zanemarena potreba za Granicama koje definiraju prostor. Granice su dobre i na neki na~in va‘nije nego prostor sam za sebe. Zato upotreba Hrama kao arhetipskog predlo{ka mo‘e biti dobrodo{la i ugodna Novost. U taj predlo‘ak uklju~eno je i Brdo kao jednako va‘an, a mo‘da i va‘niji element postepenog prilaza i meditacije usmjerene prema sadr‘aju muzeja. UZDIZANJE Lokacija na kojoj se muzej nalazi je Novi Zagreb, prostor gigantskih praznina potpuno izvan ljudskog mjerila. Pojedina~ni red postignut u samim zgradama raspr{io se jer nema granica koje bi ga zadr‘ale, {to je tipi~an proizvod 20. stolje}a. Prizemlje-parter prostora za pje{aka je izrazito neugodan i te{ko savladiv. Ta neugoda }e prestati kada se prostor popuni izgradnjom, a to mo‘e biti tek za 10 ili mo‘da 100 godina. U tom smislu muzej se uzdi‘e iznad prostora, iznad problema. Prila‘enje i uzdizanje prilaznom rampom otvara posjetitelju vizure prema okolnom prostoru koje ina~e ne mo‘e vidjeti, ... {to mu daje osje}aj ponovnog dosezanja izgubljenih granica prostora, ... {to se mo‘e pretvoriti u ugodan osje}aj

THE ROLE OF A MUSEUM The Beaubourg Museum in Paris is probably the most significant museum of recent times. Both its good and bad points have become starting points for the definition of new museum standards. The museum’s co-existing successes and failures make the building extraordinarily attractive, so much so that the building completely overshadows its function as a museum. The square in front of the museum, with its street amenities and escalators rising above the roofs of the city, draws the attention of the audience away from the museum’s interior. Accordingly, Beaubourg has managed to attract audiences, but only as far as its façade. Not beyond. What’s more, it soon became clear that the museum lacks walls to hang paintings on, so that partition walls were subsequently introduced, forming in this way classical four-wall rooms. The planned concept of a glazed, open and flexible storey had failed. The positive experience arising from this museum illustrates how a museum can be turned into a cultural and city attraction, whereas the negative experience shows that one should not forget the classical function of museums of providing a “wall to hang paintings on”, despite the increasing pressure of artefacts-performances-installations which do not seem to need one. AN EXTENDED HAND When they wish to help, when they mean well, people show it with the gesture of an extended hand. This gesture is the image from which the idea of the access ramp of the present museum stemmed. The ramp stretches forth from a great height towards

people like an extended hand... to gather them up like ants... and lift them. Such a gesture is in the spirit of the museum’s purpose - to raise people to the level of art as the only field of human activity still left with a chance of being fresh and better. To illustrate both the aspiration and the gesture, the similar example of Le Corbusier’s hand might be taken: the “Open Hand Monument” at Chandigarh. A TEMPLE ON THE HILL In today’s world, the significance of, and the need for, a museum have become similar to the significance once attributed to temples. The 20th century has been characterised by the continuous and unjustified celebration of the discovery of relativity. Meanwhile, many elementary human characteristics have been ignored, curbing the expected progress in the realisation of ideas. In terms of space, this can perhaps be illustrated as a neglected need to determine space-defining boundaries. Boundaries are positive, and in a way more important than space itself. This is why the use of a temple as an archetypal model can be a welcome and pleasant novelty. This model also involves a hill as an equally important, or even more important, element of gradual access and meditation focused on the museum’s contents. REARING The location of the museum is Novi Zagreb, an area of enormous vacuums totally outside the human scale. Individual order achieved in single buildings is dispersed, as there are no boundaries to contain it, as is characteristic of a typical product of the 20th century.

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Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

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Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

pogled prema Novom Zagrebu view against Novi Zagreb

dosezanja izgubljenih granica duha, ... {to se mo‘e lijepo nastaviti kroz umjetnine muzeja, i to je dobro. GRAD NOVI ZAGREB Muzej se nalazi na centralnoj osi grada sjever-jug. Kri‘anje Avenije Ve}eslava Holjevca i Avenije Dubrovnik centralna je to~ka Novog Zagreba. Zgrada INE prva je od ~etiri predvi|ene uglovnice na tom kri‘anju. Muzej je uglovnica broj dva. Vezanje muzeja prema starom dijelu grada gotovo je nemogu}e zbog prevelike udaljenosti, ali to nije ni va‘no u ovom slu~aju. Novi Zagreb je takav kakav jest i muzej-uglovnica broj dva mora samostalno ‘ivjeti bez pomo}i staroga grada. Jednom u dalekoj budu}nosti ostvarit }e se kontinuitet grada koji }e dotaknuti muzej svojim osima i vizurama. Kada grad kona~no dotakne muzej, svakako }e se izgradnja grada morati prilagoditi muzeju a ne on njemu. Jer, ipak je ovaj muzej Nova katedrala i uglovnica u centru Grada Novog Zagreba. Grad Novi Zagreb ima vjerojatno 100 - 200 000 stanovnika ali jo{ uvijek nema prostor centra okupljanja. Ta potreba je nesumnjivo velika i zato je ovim projektom maksimalno
098 Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

iskori{tena stvaranjem velikih vanjskih prostora ispred i ispod - za mogu}nost okupljanja i aktivnosti mno{tva ljudi. Prostor ispred muzeja u svakom je gradu jedan od najdra‘ih prostora okupljanja, iako ve}inu ljudi zapravo ne zanima {to se nalazi u njemu. To treba iskoristiti i to muzeju u Novom Zagrebu ipak mo‘e pomo}i, jer postoji velika {ansa identifikacije gra|ana Novoga grada s Novim muzejom. Dakle, oblikovanje ovog muzeja proiza{lo je i iz potrebe Grada. STVARALA^KI DUH ZAGREBA Unato~ na{oj obi~nosti, u Zagrebu, u Hrvatskoj, postoji neuobi~ajena potreba za internacionalnim stvarala{tvom. To zna~i da postoji niz ljudi i djela koja mo‘emo slobodno pokazati svijetu s uvjerenjem da smo dobri, a ponekad i bolji od mnogih. Lijepo je vidjeti potrebu stvaralaca da budu internacionalni i da hrabro i nesebi~no odlaze u najdalju avangardu umjetnosti, iako im to zapravo nije nu‘no. Tako|er je lijepo primijetiti koliko na{e stvarala{tvo vrlo malo impresioniraju trenutne mode na svjetskom tr‘i{tu umjetnosti. Jedna od ljepota Hrvatske u tom smislu je i arhitektura, koja uporno i “prirodno” njeguje modernizam od samoga za~etka. Novi muzej mora pokazati taj Duh.

For pedestrians, the ground level of this area is most unpleasant and difficult to deal with. This unpleasant feeling will cease only when the space is occupied by buildings, which can only possibly happen in 10, or even 100, years. In this respect, the museum is raised above space, above problems. A visitor accessing and ascending the ramp is faced with a view of the surroundings that cannot otherwise be seen, ... giving him/her a feeling of having reached once more the lost boundaries of space, ... which can turn into a pleasant feeling of having reached the lost boundaries of the spirit, ... a feeling which can be further enhanced by the works of art contained in the museum, all of which is a good feeling. THE CITY OF NOVI ZAGREB The museum is positioned on the central north-south axis of the city. The intersection of Ve}eslav Holjevac Avenue and Dubrovnik Avenue is the central point of Novi Zagreb. The INA building is the first of the four corner buildings envisaged on these crossroads. The museum is corner building number 2. The great distance makes it almost impossible to establish a link between the museum and the old part of the city, and anyway, a link is not important in this case.
099 Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

Novi Zagreb should be accepted the way it is and the museum, as corner building number 2, must live an independent life without the assistance of the old town. In the distant future, the city will be integrated and will reach the museum with its axes and perspectives. Once the city reaches the museum, building developments will definitely have to be adapted to the museum and not vice versa. For this particular museum is a new cathedral and a corner building in the centre of the city of Novi Zagreb. The city of Novi Zagreb probably has some 100,000-200,000 inhabitants, but still lacks an area where people can come together. Undoubtedly, there is a great need for such a place, which is why this project has been used to the maximum extent to create large outdoor areas - in front of and beneath the museum - to enable people to come together in large numbers and take part in activities. In many towns the space in front of the museum is one of the preferred places of gathering, even though many people are not really interested in what can be found inside. This has to be exploited as a factor benefiting the museum in Novi Zagreb, as the odds are high that the inhabitants of Novi Zagreb will identify themselves with the New Museum. Therefore, the design of the museum has been derived from the city’s needs.

ulazna rampa entrance ramp

RJE[ENJE IZLO@BENE FUNKCIJE Rje{enje je ponudio Renzo Piano 1981. godine u Muzeju zbirke Menil u Houstonu, Texas. Kontinuiran stakleni krov - blagi vi{eslojni “shed” - omogu}ava kontinuirani prostor muzeja u jednoj eta`i, s idealnim prirodnim svjetlom sa stropa i potpuno fleksibilnim zidovima. Zahtjevnost rje{enja krovne konstrukcije opravdana je prostorom izvanredne jednostavnosti, potpune dosljednosti i racionalne ~isto}e. To rje{enje u potpunosti zadovoljava zahtjeve navedene na prethodnim stranicama i zato ga novi muzej preuzima. RJE[ENJE HORIZONTALNE I VERTIKALNE KOMUNIKACIJE Nakon preuzimanja rje{enja izlo‘benog prostora muzeja Renza Piana, koji je zapravo labirint, slijedilo je drugo logi~no rje{enje: stakleni fasadni hodnik-hall oko cijelog izlo‘benog prostora koji omogu}ava jednostavno ula‘enje i izla‘enje u i iz svakog dijela muzeja. Sve u jednoj velikoj fleksibilnoj izlo‘benoj eta‘i. Preostali tehni~ki i radni prostori jednostavno su raspore|eni ispod izlo‘bene eta‘e i najkra}im mogu}im vezama spojeni stubi{tima. Takvo rje{enje dodatno je pro~istilo funkciju i omogu}ilo oblikovnu jasno}u muzeja. Za razumijevanje ove logike vjerojatno mogu poslu`iti primjeri arhitekture kao {to su Koncertna dvorana Lisinski i Galerija Uffizi. RJE[ENJE INFRASTRUKTURE MUZEJA Izlo‘beni prostor u jednoj eta‘i, osam metara iznad zemlje, otvorio je mogu}nost da se cijelom povr{inom ispod muzeja rasporede sve infrastrukturne-servisne funkcije. Sve {to je potrebno da bi izlo‘ba na prvom katu funkcionirala jednostavno se priklju~uje ispod nje. Na isti na~in bi se ispod muzeja priklju~io-objesio radno-stru~ni dio s uredima, kao i klimatizacijski ure|aji s potrebnim razvodom cijevi. Takav na~in oblikovanja zgrade instalacijama infrastrukture upotrijebljen je na Lloydovoj zgradi u Londonu. Ova usporedba ve‘e se na muzej Beaubourg koji su radili Rogers i Piano zajedno, odnosno na obojicu ovih autora koji stvaraju sli~ne ~iste prostore, a “ne~isto}u” infrastrukture iskori{tavaju za oblikovanje. Lloyd ima priklju~ke na fasadi dok ih ovaj muzej ima obje{ene ispod. Prostor ispod muzeja postaje pje{a~ki trg kontrastnog ugo|aja i kvalitete.
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ZAGREB’S CREATIVE SPIRIT Despite our being ordinary, in Zagreb, or indeed in Croatia, there is an unusual need for creativity at the international level. There are a number of people, and there are many works, that we can boast about and show to the world, certain that they are of high quality, sometimes even better than many others. It is nice to see the need of creators to be international and to pursue the most advanced avant-garde with courage and unselfishness, although there is actually no need for it to be pursued. It is also nice to see that our creative circles are not so impressed with current trends on the world market of art. In this respect, architecture is also one of Croatia’s treasures, as it has persistently and “naturally” cherished Modernism from its very emergence. The new museum ought to reflect this spirit. ADDRES SING THE MUSEUM’S EXHIBITING FUNCTION A solution was offered by Renzo Piano at the Menil Collection Museum in Houston, Texas, in 1981. An uninterrupted glass roof - a gentle multilayered “shed” - allows the museum to be contained

in a single storey of continuous space, with ideal natural light from above and entirely flexible walls. The demanding nature of the roof construction is justified by the underlying space of extraordinary simplicity, complete consistency and rational purity. The design of the new museum fully meets the requirements laid out above. ADDRES SING HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL COMMUNICATION Since the museum’s exhibiting function has been modelled on Renzo Piano’s project actually consisting of a labyrinth, the following solution presented itself as logical: a glazed façade corridorhall stretching out along the entire exhibition area facilitating entry into and exit from each and every part of the museum. It has all been fitted into one large flexible storey intended for exhibitions. The remaining technical and service areas have been laid out beneath the exhibition area and connected by staircases at points closest to the exhibition area. In this way the function of the museum has been additionally clarified and the museum has been made transparent in terms of design. To understand the logic, some architectural examples

may be invoked, such as the Lisinski Concert Hall and the Uffizi Gallery. ADDRESSING THE MUSEUM’S INFRASTRUCTURE Placing the exhibition area on a single storey 8 metres above the ground has made it possible to distribute all the infrastructure and service-related facilities underneath the entire area of the museum. Anything required to make the exhibition function on the first floor can simply be connected from below. Likewise, office premises for professional activities could simply be connected-suspended from beneath, including any air-conditioning devices and related installations. The infrastructure installations of the building have similarly been used as a method of design in the Lloyds building in London. This comparison can be related to the Beaubourg Museum designed by both Rogers and Piano, and to their work in general, since they often create similar pure spaces and use the “impurities” of infrastructure as design. The Lloyds building has infrastructure connections on the façade, whereas in the present Museum of Contemporary Art they are suspended underneath. The area beneath the museum becomes a pedestrian square of contrasting atmosphere and quality.

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Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

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