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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter will discuss about the background of study, statement of the problem, the objective of the study, the significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study and definition of the key terms. 1.1. The background of study Language is the system of sound and words used by human or speech community to express their feeling, thoughts, and idea. Language is very important because it’s used by people to communicate and get interaction one another. They interact by using language both oral speech and written speech. According to Lamuddin Finoza (2005-2006:2), language has function as: 1) Means of communication.2) Means of social control (Keraf 1994: 36). 3) Means to express our feelings. 4) Means to get integration and social adaptation 5) Means to think English is international language, so study English is useful for us, especially for developing country like Indonesia. English is the first foreign language in Indonesia and considered important to absorption and develops science, technology, culture art, and the other aspect. If people or students who graduated from school can’t speak English, they keep themselves a way from international association. They will have a lot of difficulties to get jobs.

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According to the school level curriculum’s objective of teaching English at SMP is that students are supposed, after they finished the study, they would have four English basic skills, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing in English. Those skills are obtained by the theme, which is selected based on degree of their interest and mental development degree of mastery of vocabulary, appropriate grammar, as a result. So the students can be competent in using target language and can take the important role in national development. Teaching English is not as easy as teaching Indonesian language, it needs good skills. The skills can support to the teaching learning process. The teacher needs to mastering the materials of teaching, beside that, the teacher must be competent in selecting an appropriate method in teaching process in order to the teaching learning purposes are able to reached by the teacher and the students. There are many methods and techniques which can be used by the teacher to reach the purposes of learning, and the teacher should choose it and take the suitable one for her / his students There are many methods and techniques that can be used by the teacher in teaching learning process of speaking, like audio lingual, direct method, silent way and etc. the teacher can choose one of these techniques, which one of them that suitable for their students to accelerate the teaching process of speaking. Some techniques present above are able to use interchangeably in the class to minimize the students problem in expressing their idea into target students,. Methods and techniques have the important role in everything which has process to change and to reach the purposes of teaching, especially in the teaching

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learning process, teaching need some methods and techniques because in the teaching learning the students has different capability and different needs, sometime of the students needs more explanations from the teacher and other one only need little explanation, and sometime the students needs an enjoying class to faster the learning. In a speaking class the teacher and the students need a comfortable class because of stimulating the students in the class to be effective class is very difficult. The speaking learning is very important, because it trains the students to express their opinion, idea, and feeling about the matters which are studied, and also to train the students to be perceptive in respond Metter of other speakers. Therefore, implementing speaking teaching learning, the teacher must be able to change the old attitude to be new attitude. This means, the English teacher is not only give information or teach knowledge in order to comprehend but also effort to stimulate the students in their process. Speaking skill has been useful for the students therefore; the teacher must stimulate the students to speak logically in this manner. The students must be given more opportunities to speak, to avoid receiving information from the teacher only. The teacher must facilitate the students to interact, both with the teacher and among the students themselves. For instant, the teacher gives a topic to the students and ordering to discuss it. The teacher is as the mediator and facilitator in the class, so the students are more active then teacher. In reality, there are many teacher who teach speaking class didn’t know to choose and apply some appropriate methods in their class, as the effects of it,

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there are many students feel bore to their class, and they are lazy to practice and speak in target language. The teacher should understand to the situation and the condition of the class and the students, because the students not only need to study but also they need more in the classroom. The teacher is a model for the students in learning process that will be imitated by the students, it means that, if the teacher speaks English actively, of course the students will speak English actively too. Therefore, to increase the students speaking skill, the teacher not only carrying out teaching learning carefully, resolving the students difficulties and asking students to memorize the words and practicing, but also the teacher has to speak actively with his/her students. From the above description it’s known that learning to speak in second or foreign language will be facilitated when learners are actively suggested that we learn to read by reading, also we learn to speak by speaking. In teaching learning process of speaking, the teacher and students often find some difficulties, the teacher is difficult to form the class become the active class, and the students find the difficulties in practicing their ability to express their own words with their friends and with their teacher. Here the methods become the solving of the problems above, and the researcher expects to every English teacher to consider of the suitable usage of the method in order that the class become the effective class and are able to reach the purpose of teaching learning.

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1.2.

Statement of the Problems

From the explanation above the researcher formulates the mean problems of the study as follow: 1. How does the teacher use the methods in teaching speaking? 2. What kinds of methods are used by the teacher in teaching speaking? 3. How are the student’s responses in the teaching speaking process?

1.3.

The objectives of study The objectives of study is to obtain the illustration about the techniques

in teaching speaking 1. To describe how the teacher uses the technique in teaching learning process. 2. To describe what techniques are used by the teacher in teaching speaking 3. To describe the students responses in teaching speaking process.

1.4.

The Significance of the study

The result of the study is expected to give contribution for: 1. To the teacher

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The teacher is able to use the methods in the teaching learning of speaking and give them solution in teaching learning problems. 2. To students The students are able to study English speaking easily and it will help them to increase their capability in English especially in speaking. 3. researcher The researcher can increase his/her knowledge in the technique of teaching, study to get new thing from her/his experience during learning English and use it as well as possible.

1.5.

The scope or limitation of the study. This study is limited on the technique in teaching speaking. The scope

of the study is discussion about technique and speaking. The limitation of the study is limited on MTs Sulthan Muhammad Bulangan Haji Pegantenan Pamekasan.

1.6.

Definition of the Key Terms The terms that are used in this thesis proposal are:

1.

Method

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-

An overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, which is based upon the selected approach (Edward Anthony, 1963)

2. -

Techniques the ways of doing something especially one that needs special skill (Oxford learners pocket dictionary, university press, 2003)

3. -

Teaching Teaching is a process of transferring knowledge and experience from the teacher to the students in the class or in the out side of class. And it can be a process of training and educating students in the class to reach the education purposes.

4. Speaking - is a process of expressing the idea, argument, feeling and etc, by using oral speech to communicate each other. Speaking is the single most important aspect of learning a second or foreign language, (David Nunan. Teaching Methodology, 1986 ) speaking is closely intertwined, more often than not etc, curriculum that treat oral communication skill will simply be labeled” course. (H.Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles, 1997) use rather than the form of the language this has meant in the class room.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter aims at reviewing some literature containing underlying theories which closely related to study.

2.1. Approach method and technique Edward Anthony in 1963. He identified three levels of conceptualization and organization, which he termed approach, method and technique. The arrangement is hierarchical; the organizational key is that technique carry out a method which is consistent with an approach. An approach is a set of correlative assumption dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. An approach is axiomatic. It describes the nature of the jet matter to be thought. Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which based upon the selected approach, an approach axiomatic, a method is procedural. A technique is implementation that which actually takes place in the classroom. It is a particular trick, strategy, or contrivance used to accomplish an

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immediate objective. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well. (Anthony 1963:63-7).

According to Anthony’s model, approach is the level at which assumption and beliefs about language and language learning are specified; method is the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skills to be thought, and the order in which the content will be presented; technique is the level at which classroom procedure are described.

2.1.1. Method Instructional method is a way to implement composed plan in the real form and practical to reach the purpose of instructional.

A. Approach Whatever the activity has done by the teacher in instructional, it can be classified in two approaches according to B.O`Bannon. They are Teacher Centered Approaches (TCA) and Student Centered Approach (SCA) or Learner Centered Approach (LCA).He said instructional method that belong to TCA are demonstration, direct instruction, lecture, and lecture discussion. While instructional method that belong to SCA or LCA are case studies, cooperative

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learning, discussion/discussion boards, discovery learning, graphic organizers, journals/blogs, know-what to know Learn (KWL),learning centers, role play, scaffolding, problem based learning (PBL) and Inquiry learning, simulations and storytelling/digital storytelling. Selecting instructional approach early will influence the next activity in the use of model, strategy, method, and technique chosen by the teacher in their learning activity.

B. Design 1. The General and Specific Objective of the Method 2. A Syllabus Model Criteria for the selection and organization of linguistic or subject matter content 3. Types of Learning and Teaching Activities Kinds of task and practices to employed in the classroom and in materials. 2. The role of the learner Types of learning tasks set for learner. Degrees of control learners have over the content of learning. Patterns of learner group that are recommended of implied. Degrees to which learners are influence the learning of other.

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The views of the learners are as a processor, performer, initiator, problem solver, etc. 3. The role of the teacher Type of function is teacher fulfill. Degree of the teacher is influence over learning. Degree to which determines the content of learning. Types of interaction are between teacher and learners. 6. The role of the instructional materials Instructional materials are Primary function of materials. The forms of materials are taken from (e.g. text book audio visual) The instructional materials have relation to other input. The assumption mode is about teacher and learners.

C. Procedure Classroom techniques practice and behaviors are observed when the method is used. Resources in term of time, space and equipment are used by the teacher. Instructional patterns are observed in the lessons.

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Tactics and strategies are used by the teacher and students when the method is being used.

2.1.2. Kind of Method 1. The Direct method. 2. The Audio lingual method 3. Suggestopedia . 4. The communicative approach A. The Direct Method The direct method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be directly with the target language, without going through the process of translating into students’ native language. Here are the principles of direct method by observing an English teacher in using it in a scholar media (lower level secondary school). The goals of the teacher who use the direct method intend that students learn how to communicate in target language, in order to do this successfully, although the teacher directs the class activities, the students’ role is less passive than in the GTM the teacher and the learners are more like partner in the teaching learning process.

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Some characteristics of the teaching learning process are the teacher who use the direct method believe that the students need to advocate meaning of the target language directly. In order to do this, when the teacher introduces a new target language words or phrase, he demonstrates its meaning through the use the regalia, pictures, or pantomime, he never translate it into the students native language. The students speak in the target language a great deal and communicate as if they were in real situations. In fact, the syllabus used in the direct method is based upon situations, for instant, one unit would consist of language that people would use at a bank, another of the language that they use when going to shopping, or topics such as geography, money and the weather. Grammatical are taught inductively; that is the students are presented when the explicit grammar role may never be given. Students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences. The natural of the students – teacher interactions and the nature of the students – students interactions are the initiation of the interactions goes both ways, from the teacher to the students and from the students to the teacher, although the letter is often teacher directed. Students converse with one another as well. Language is viewed as primarily spoken, not written. Therefore students study common everyday speech in the target language. They also study culture consisting of the history of people who speak the target language, the geography of the country or countries where the language is spoken, and information about the daily lives of the speaker of the language. Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening) occurs from the starting, oral

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communication is seen as a basic. Thus the reading and writing exercise are based upon that the students practice orally first, pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of the course. In the direct method, students are asked to use the language not to demonstrate their knowledge about the language. They are asked to do so using both oral and written skills. For example, the students might be interviewed orally by the teacher or might be asked to write the paragraph about something they have studied. The teacher employing various techniques tries to get students to self correct whenever possible. The Techniques of the Direct Method 1. Reading aloud. Students take turn reading section of a passage, play or dialog out loud. At the end of each student’s turn, the teacher uses gesture, pictures, regalia, example or other means to take the meaning of the section clearly. 2. Question and Answer Exercise This exercise is conducted only in the target language, students are asked questions and answer in full sentences so that they practice with new words and grammatical structure. The have the opportunity to ask questions as well as answer them. 3. Getting Students to Self-correct

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The teacher of this class has the students self correct by asking them to make a choice between what they said and alternate answer he supplied. There are however, other ways of getting students to self-correct. For example, a teacher might simply repeat what a student has just said; using a questioning voice to signal to the students the something was wrong with it. 4. Conversation Practice The teacher asks students a number of questions in target language, which students have to understand to be able to answer correctly. In the class observed, the teacher asked individual student question about them selves, the question contained a particular grammar structure. Later, the students were able to ask each other their own question using the same grammatical structure. 5. Fill in the Blank Exercise This technique has already been discussed in the GTM, but differs in it application in the direct method. All the items are in the target language furthermore, no explicit grammar rule would be applied. The blanks from examples are practiced with earlier part of the lesson. 6. Dictation The teacher reads the passage three times while the students just listen, and then write down what they have heard. 7. Paragraph Writing

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The teacher in this class asked the students to write a paragraph in their own words on the major geographical of their country. B. The Audio Lingual Method A. The Syllabus Audio lingual is a linguistic, or structure- based, approach to language teaching. The starting point of linguistic syllabus, which contains the key items of phonology and syntax of language arranged according to their order of presentation. The language skills are taught in the order of listening, speaking, reading and writing. The learners activities must at first be confined to the audio lingual and gesture-visual bands of language behavior. Recognition and discrimination are followed by imitation, repetition and memorization. Only when they are thoroughly familiar with sounds, arrangements and forms, they do center his attention on enlarging their vocabulary. Throughout they are concentrated upon the gaining accuracy before striving for fluency. (Brooks 1964:50) B. Types of Learning and Teaching Activities Dialogues and drills from the basis of the audio lingual classroom practices, dialogue are used for repetition and memorization, correct pronunciation, stresses, rhythm and intonation are emphasized.

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The role of the teacher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavior of the students and the teacher also is responsible for providing the students with a good model for imitation whereas. The good of audio lingual method according to the teacher who use it in level English class, the students to be able to use the target language communicatively. In order to this, they believe students need to over learn the target language. The natural order of skill presentations is adhered to: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The oral skills receive most of the attention; pronunciation is taught from beginning, often by the students working in language laboratories on discriminating between members of minimal pairs. The respond of teacher to the students errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the teacher’s awareness of where the students will find difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say. C. The Techniques of Audio Lingual Method 1. Dialog Memorization Short conversations between two people are often used to begin a new lesson. (Students memorize the dialog) 2. Backward Build-up (Expansion) Drill This drill is used when a long line of a dialog is giving students trouble. The teacher breaks down the line in a several parts. The students repeat a part of sentence, usually the last phrase of the line. Then, following the

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teacher’s cue, the students expand what they are repeating part by part until they are able to repeat the entire line. 3. Repetition Drill. Students are asked to repeat the teacher’s model as accurately and as quickly as possible. 4. Single-Slot Substitution Drill. The teacher says a line usually from the dialog. Next, the teacher says a word or phrase called the cue. The students repeat the line that is the teacher given in drilling. 5. Transformation Drill The teacher gives the students a certain kinds of sentences, an affirmative sentence for instant the students are asked to transform these sentence into a negative sentence or changing a statement into a question. 4. Multiple- Slot Substitution Drill.

The students must recognize what part of speech each cue is, where it fits into the sentence, and make any other changes such as subject verb arrangement. 5. Question and Answer Drill.

This drill gives students practice with answering question. The students should answer the teacher’s question very quickly. Although we didn’t see it

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in our lesson here, it is also for the teacher to cue the students to ask question as well. 6. Use of Minimal Pairs.

The teacher works with minimal pairs of word which differ in only one sound; for example, “ship/sheep” students are first asked to perceive the difference between the two words and later to be able to say the two words. 7. Complete the Dialog Students complete the dialog by filling the blanks with the missing words. 8. Grammar Game.

Game like the supermarket alphabet game describe in this section are often used in the Audio lingual method. The games are designed to get students to practice a grammar point within a context. C. Suggestopedia Suggestopedia is a method that is developed by the Bulgarian psychiatrist educator George lozanov. Suggestopedia is a specific set of learning recommendation derived from suggestology, which lozanov describes as a “science …concerned with the systematic study of no rational and /or coconscious influences” that human beings are constantly responding to (stevick 1976:42) Suggestopedia aims to deliver advanced conversational proficiency quickly. Lazanov emphasized, however, that increased memory power is not an

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isolate skill but is a result of “positive, comprehensive simulation of personality” (lozanov 1978:253) A variety of activities is passing in the discussion of the syllabus. sThis includes imitation, question and answer, and the role play which are not activities. “That other language teachers would consider being out of the ordinary” (stevick 1976:157) A. The Techniques of suggestopedia According to Diane Larsen Freeman, there are ten techniques of the activities in suggetopedia which are able to apply in the teaching learning process to increase the students competent, those are: 1. Classroom Set up The teacher create a classroom environment which doesn’t look or feel like a normal classroom. This was accomplished in the classroom by using the dim light, soft music, cushioned armchairs, and wall decorated with scenes from a country where the target language is spoken. 2. Peripheral Learning This technique is based upon the idea that we perceive much more in our environment than to which we consciously attend. It is done by putting posters containing grammatical information about target language on the classroom walls. 3. Positive Suggestion

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It is the teacher’s responsibility to orchestrate the suggestive factors in a learning situation, thereby helping students break down the barriers to learning that they bring with them. The teacher can do this through direct and indirect means, for instant; a teacher tells students they are going to be successful. 4. Visualization The students are asked to close their eyes and to concentrate on their breathing, after a minute or so, the teacher, speaking in a quite voice, describes a scene or event. The description is detailed so the students feel they are really there. When the description is complete, the teacher asks students to slowly open their eyes and turn to the present. 5. Choose a new Identity Students choose a target language name and a new occupation. So the students have opportunities to develop a whole biography about their fictional selves. 6. Role Play Students are asked to pretend temporarily that they are someone else and to perform in the target language as if they were that a person who meet someone else in a party or other places in practicing their ability of target language in the class. 7. First Concert

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The teacher reads the dialog in target language. The students have copies of the dialog in the target language and their mother tongue and refer to it as the teacher is reading. Music is played, after a few minute, the teacher begin a slow, dramatic reading, synchronized in intonation with the music. 8. Second Concert The students are asked to put their scripts aside. They simply close their eyes and listen to the teacher reads the dialog at a normal rate of speed. the teacher is seated and reads with a musical accompaniment. 9. Primary Activation The students playfully reread the target language dialog out loud. as individual or in a groups. In the lesson, we observed three group of students read a part of the dialog in a particular manner, the first group, sadly; the next, angrily, the last amorously. 10. Secondary Activation This section provide the students the enjoyable moment in learning target language, those activities include singing, dancing, dramatization and games. B. The Role of the Teacher and Students The teacher is authority in the classroom, in order for the method to be successful; the students must trust and respect her. C. The role of The Instructional Materials

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Materials consist of direct support materials, primarily text, tape and indirect support materials, including classroom fixtures and music. D. The Communicative Approach 1. Approach The communicative approach in language teaching is started from a theory of language as a communication. The goal of language teaching is to develop what Hymens (1972) referred to as” communicative competent” Hymens coined this term in order to contras a communicative view of language and Chomsky’s theory of competent, discourse competent and strategy competent. At the level language theory, communicative approach has a rich, if somewhat electric, theoretical base. Some of the characteristics of the communicative view of language follow: 1. Language is the system for the expression of learning. 2. The primary function of language is for interaction and commutation. 3. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. 4. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning exemplified in discourse. Here are some characteristics of the teaching learning process. The most obvious characteristics of communicative approach is that almost everything that

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is done with communicative activities such as games, role plays and problem solving task. Activities that are truly communicative, according to (Johnson and morrow 1981) have three features: information gap, choice and feedback. Language functions are emphasized over form. Typically, although is not always, a functional syllabus is used. a variety of forms are introduced for each function. Only the sampler forms would be presented the first, but as students get more complex form are learned. Breen and Candling describe the teacher roles in the following terms: The teacher has two main roles: the first role is to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom. and between these participants to the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as independent participant within the learning teaching group. The letter role is closely related to the objectives of the first role and arises from it. These role imply a set of secondary roles for the teacher; first, as an organizer of resources and as a resource himself, second a guide within the classroom procedures and activities a third role for the teacher is that the researcher and learner, with much to contribute in terms of appropriate knowledge and abilities, actual and observed experience of the nature of learning and organizational capacities (Breen and Candling 1980:99) 3. The Techniques of Communicative Approach A. Authentic Materials B. Scrambled Sentences

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C. Language Games D. Picture Strip Story E. Role play

Chapter lll RESEARC METHOD

In this chapter will discuss about the research method, covered research is designed by using qualitative approach, Moleong (1988:3) defines that qualitative research is a research procedure which produces descriptive data in the form of oral and the behaviors of the people observed. The writer uses a qualitative

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approach because of the following reason: 1) this research uses human who is the writer as instruments. 2) The data is collected in the form of statements and action and 3) data analysis uses the inductive conclusion. The qualitative approach is used because the writer wants to describe the effort of teacher in increasing English skill, the kind of methods are used by the teacher in teaching speaking, and the respond of the students about the method of teaching speaking . The research is designed by using qualitative approach which is done by the following procedure: 1) the pre-field activities, 2) working on the field, and 3) data analysis (Bodgan and Moleong, 2001:94). The main activities that is done in this research are: 1) arranging of the research design, 2) choosing the field of the research, 3) managing of the research license, 4) evaluating of the field conditions, 5) choosing of the research subject, and 6) preparing of the research completeness, for instant, the research daily noting. 3.1. Subjects of Research

The subjects of this research are English teacher and all of the second year students in MTs Sulthan Muhammad Bulangan Haji I Pegantenan Pamekasan. The mentioned subjects are as informant that giving information. 3.2. Setting of Research The study was taken place at MTs sulthan sulthan Muhammad Bulangan Haji I Pegantenan Pamekasan in 11 till 30 November 2010.

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Source of Research The source of this study is teaching method which is used at the eight grade of MTs Sulthan Muhammad Bulangan Haji I. the research will be focused on the methods which are used for Teaching Speaking. 3.4. Data Collection The researcher engages observation in taking data collection as the primary data collection. Some techniques which are used in collecting data by writer or observer are observation, interview and documentation. 3.4.1. Observation Observing is a special skill that requires management of issues such as the potential deception of the people being interviewed, impression management, and the potential marginality of the researcher in strange setting, (Hammersley and Atkinson, 1995 in Creswell). According to Hadi (1989:152) observation is a complex process, a process which is including biological and psychological process. The two important things in the process are observation and remembering. The observation will be done by taking direct observation to the subjects of inquiry or research (book) after taking permission to the institute. 3.4.2. Interview Interview is a dialogue that carried for getting information from the interviewer (Arikunto, 2002: 132)

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This research uses structured and unstructured interview. The data that is going to be collected are about the methods which are used in teaching speaking, and the students respond in the teaching learning process of speaking. 3.4.3. Documentation Documentation is document used as evidence or proof (Oxford learners pocket dictionary, 2007:127) Documentation is done by the teacher to collect the information about something that has relation to the study. 3.5. Data Analysis The data of this inquiry uses descriptive qualitative, it means that the data is in written form not numbering data. The result of the data is described in written describing only. There are some steps which will be used in analyzing data, such as follow: 1. Identifying the data The first step is done by the writer is by using identifying the data, here the writer identifies the method which is used by the teacher in teaching learning process of speaking. 2. Classifying data The writer classifies the data on what the teacher and students do in the class room in teaching speaking.

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2. Drawing conclusion The last step is the writer make summary that has correlation to the data; the summary is the answers of the statement of the problems

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