Natural Disaster

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Program under faculty of commerce


Dr. Tukaram P Gadhave
(, B.ed, M.Phil, Ph.D.)




I Mr. AKASH M TOKE the student of M.Com-I (Evening) 2ND Semester (20142015), hereby declare that I have completed the project on “NATURAL
DISASTER”. The information submitted is true and original to the best of my

Signature of student:

Roll No: 52



This is to certify that Mr. AKASH M TOKE of M.Com-I (Evening) Semester-2
(2014-2015) has successfully completed the Project on “NATURAL DISASTER”
under the guidance of Dr. Tukaram P Gadhave


Project Guide: ___________________


Internal Examiner: ________________


External Examiner: ________________

DATE: ____________________
PLACE: ___________________



I would firstly like to thank the “UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI “for giving us the
liberty of choosing such topic which will be benefited to us in future. I would like
to thanks the Principal of Sydenham College Dr. Annasaheb Khemnar for giving
me the opportunity to study in this esteemed college and doing the course of
Accountancy. I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thanks to
Dr. Tukaram P Gadhave who is my project guide, as he has been the guiding light
for this project and has also provided me with the best of my knowledge, advice
and encouragement which helped me in successful completion of my project.
My colleagues and specially my parents who have also supported and encouraged
me, the success of this project to the large extent is also dedicated to them.
I would also like to thank all those who have helped me and whom
I have forgotten to mention in this space

SIGNATURE OF STUDENT: ______________

The definition of natural disasters is any catastrophic
event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of

the earth. The severity of a disaster is measured in lives
lost, economic loss, and the ability of the population to
rebuild. Events that occur in unpopulated areas are not
considered disasters. So a flood on an uninhabited island
would not count as a disaster, but a flood in a populated
area is called a natural disaster.
All natural disasters cause loss in some way. Depending
on the severity, lives can be lost in any number of
disasters. Falling buildings or trees, freezing to death,
being washed away, or heat stroke are just some of the
deadly effects. Some disasters cause more loss of life
than others, and population density affects the death
count as well.
Then there is loss of property, which affects people’s
living quarters, transportation, livelihood, and means to
live. Fields saturated in salt water after tsunamis take
years to grow crops again. Homes destroyed by floods,
hurricanes, cyclones, landslides and avalanches, a
volcanic eruption, or an earthquake are often beyond
repair or take a lot of time to become livable again.
Personal effects, memorabilia, vehicles, and documents
also take a hit after many natural disasters.
The natural disasters that really affect people worldwide
tend to become more intense as the years go on.
Frequency of earthquakes, mega storms, and heat waves
has gone up considerably in the last few decades. Heavy
population in areas that get hit by floods, cyclones, and
hurricanes has meant that more lives are lost. In some

areas, the population has gotten somewhat prepared for
the eventuality of disasters and shelters are built for
hurricanes and tornadoes. However, loss of property is
still a problem, and predicting many natural disasters
isn’t easy.
Scientists, geologists, and storm watchers work hard to
predict major disasters and avert as much damage as
possible. With all the technology available, it’s become
easier to predict major storms, blizzards, cyclones, and
other weather related natural disasters. But there are still
natural disasters that come up rather unexpectedly, such
as earthquakes, wildfires, landslides, or even volcanic
eruptions. Sometimes, a time of warning is there, but it’s
often very short with catastrophic results. Areas that are
not used to disasters affected by flash floods or sudden
hail storms can be affected in an extreme way.
However, despite the many natural disasters the world
over, mankind has shown amazing resilience. When an
area or country is badly affected by a natural disaster,
the reaction is always one of solidarity and aid is quick to
come. There are organizations set up with the primary
goal of being prepared for natural disasters. These groups
work on global and local scale rescue work. Aside from
those who have chosen to make disaster relief their lifework, when disasters hit, it’s the individuals who step in
who help to make a difference.
Many people talk about when a disaster has hit and their
neighbors and countrymen have come to aid, often to

their own loss. People will step in and donate items, time,
and skills in order to help those affected by a natural
disaster. Celebrities will often do what they can to raise
money through concerts, phone marathons, and visiting
affected areas with aid. People have also shown that they
can rebuild, lives can be remade or start over. Trauma is a
big after effect of natural disasters and getting counseling
has been the focus of aid—to heal emotionally as well as
It’s clear that natural disasters are a part of life as we
know it. However, science is making it more possible to
predict, aid is faster at coming, and people are learning
how to rebuild in safer areas.


What Is A Wildfire?
Wildfires are some of the worst types of natural disasters
to hit any part of the world. However, the wildfires are
uncontrollable and controlled also and usually start up in
areas which are in the wilderness. Some call these
wildfires or refer to them as a forest fire, bush fire, brush
fire and many other names. However, whatever they are
referred as, they are dangerous and unpredictable also.
However, a wildfire does differ from other types of fire
because of its sheer size. Every fire is deadly but a
wildfire is extremely dangerous and is another step up
from other types of fire. The size of a wildfire can be
extraordinary and is very difficult to control also even
with dozens of fire fighters working on the fires.
The speed of a fire can be quite fast also; and it does
even have the ability to jump gaps. These gaps such as
rivers and even roads, the fire can actually jump to avoid

this gap which is extraordinary and something which
most other fires cannot achieve. On almost every
continent, with the exception of Antarctica, wildfires
occur. They are mostly found in Australia and in fact,
Australia does have regular occurrences of wildfires and it
is due to the summers being extremely hot and longer
than most other countries.
The Four Risks
They are going to pose a huge risk on human life as well
as property and landscape also. These wildfires can
occur at any given time of the year but more often in the
hotter months such as spring and summer. There are
actually four main risks which can start a wildfire.
Lightning is a huge cause of fires starting but there are
also spontaneous combustion, sparks from rock falls and
even a volcano erupting can all cause a wildfire starting.
These things might not always occur every day of the
week but when they do, they can be terrible and cause a
lot of damage including starting a wildfire.
For the most part, arsonists are to blame; this and
accidents are some of the other risks contributed with the
breakouts of a wildfire. However, in some occasions,
these fires can be small and extinguished if the fire is
caught quickly and dealt with quickly also. This is the
case for most wildfires and it is difficult to deal with the
fire even if there are dozens of fire fighters working to
stop it.
Some wildfires occur in forest areas and in some cases,
dry land. It can be very easy to start a fire up in these


areas because they are many fuel sources to consume

The Properties of Creating a Wildfire
Wildfire can be a devastating and terrible natural disaster
to occur. These uncontrolled blazes can be fuelled by
almost everything including the wind, dry underbrush and
even by property. The wildfires can destroy everything
that is in path within minutes, seconds possibly because
these can get so out of control and so wild.
Across the world there have been thousand different
wildfires that stretch vast and get out of control. Millions
of acres of land have been destroyed because of the
wildfires. A wildfire however can move at great speeds, it
can in fact be almost fourteen miles an hour; and it can
burn home, brush, trees and even living people and
animals alike. Anything in its path can be destroyed.
The Conditions for a Wildfire Starting
 Oxygen
 Fuel
 Heat Source
These are the 3 ingredients for a wildfire starting and
burning. Of course, everything needs oxygen and fires
especially needs oxygen to burn continuously and they
also need fuel. Anything which is flammable, any

material which is flammable that is, can be used as fuel.
This can be anything from homes, grass, brush, trees;
almost anything that can be burned can be used as fuel.
If there is a greater fuel load, then the fire will intensify.
However, there is also a need for a heat source. This
helps to spark the fire and bring the temperatures up to a
terrible heat and if it does reach a certain point, it could
ignite a fire. A heat source could be things such as
burning campfires, hot winds, cigarettes being left in a
dry area or even lightning. Sometimes, the sun can offer
enough heat to start a wildfire.

Shockingly, most wildfires are going to be started by
every day people and not often nature. However, that
doesn’t mean to say nature doesn’t have a helping hand
in the starting of a fire. If the weather is dry and if there
has been a recent drought then it can all contribute to a
wildfire starting and it does happen more and more today.
If the ground does dry up then crops can actually become
a fuel source and if there are strong winds then it can
make the fire out of control. Winds can also spread the

fire very quickly indeed and with hot temperatures
forming it can contribute to combustion. All of these
things can create fires and it can be done by both human
hand and by Mother Nature also. It can be a combination
of both, because if there is a drought and an area has
become quite dry, then it takes one human act to ignite
the flames.
It can be an arsonist, an accident with a cigarette or even
a campfire. A wildfire can even start because of a
downed power line; and it just takes a second for ignition
and another minute for the fire to become out of control.
Sometimes, these wildfires can last only a short period of
time and sometimes it can be weeks and destroy
hundreds of land in the process.

Many people have seen the movie “Twister” and have
gotten a relatively good idea about what a tornado is, but

what really is considered a tornado? What makes up a
tornado? Why does a tornado happen? How do I protect
myself from a tornado in case there is one in my area? If
these are questions that you are interested in knowing
the answer to, keep reading on, as this excerpt will
answer all the questions you have about tornadoes.
What is a Tornado?
Tornadoes are destructive columns of air that rotate and
have contact between earth’s surface and a
cumulonimbus cloud. In unusual cases, tornadoes can
make contact with earth’s surface and cumulus clouds.
Twisters, or cyclones are other names for what is formally
known as a tornado. Tornadoes tend to come in many
different shapes and sizes, but most of the time they look
like a condensation funnel, with a narrow end that
touches earth’s surface and gets wider as it goes higher
up. Containing mostly debris and dust, most tornadoes
usually have a wind speed of 110 miles per hour or less
and are about 250 feet in width, traveling usually a few
miles before they deplete. The worst tornadoes can
exceed wind speeds of 300 miles per hour and move for
more than 100 kilometers before dissipating.


Types of Tornadoes
There are a few different types of tornadoes that are
classified by specific characteristics. These tornadoes
include the landspout, the multiple vortex tornadoes, and
the waterspout. Other less common tornado-like
phenomena that exist are the gustnado, the dust devil,
and the fire whirl. Each one of these tornadoes has its
own certain characteristics that separate it from the
others. It is important to know what kind of tornado you
are dealing with as they have their own amounts of
damage that they can cause.
Multiple Vortex Tornado
Multiple-vortex tornadoes are specific types of tornadoes
that have two or more columns spinning in the air that
rotate around the same center. This can occur in almost
any circulation, but is usually seen in intense tornadoes.
These separate vortices cause small areas of heavier
damage along the central tornado path. This an apparent
phenomenon from a satellite tornado, which is weaker
and forms very near a large, durable tornado that is
contained within the same mesocyclone. Even though the
satellite tornado appears to orbit the bigger tornado, it is
a distinct circulation, and is much more acute in size than
the main funnel.
Waterspout Tornado
The National Weather Service defines a waterspout
similarly to a landspout tornado, but over a body of water.

These types of tornadoes are not as severe as land
tornadoes, but are much more common. They can be
compared to dust devils and landspouts due to similar
characteristics. Waterspouts form from the bases of
certain types of clouds over tropical and subtropical
bodies of water and have rather weak winds with smooth
walls that usually travel quite slowly. These kinds of
tornadoes usually occur in the Florida West and in the
north region of the Adriatic Sea. Tornado waterspouts are
much more durable tornadoes of water and are formed
over water close in comparison to mesocyclonictornadoes
that cross over bodies of water. They can be much more
intense and live longer than weather waterspouts that are
fair since they are formed from severe thunderstorms.
Landspouts, also formally known as dust-tube tornadoes
are not in association with mesocyclones. The name
derives from its similar features to a fair weather
waterspout, but on land. Landspouts and waterspouts are
similar because they are both weak, are short lived, and
also have a small, unwrinkled condensation funnel which
most of the time doesn’t make it to the top. Landspouts
make a cloud of dust when they make contact with the
earth’s surface because the different mechanics from true
mesoform tornadoes. These types of tornadoes are
typically weaker than traditional tornadoes, but can still
cause destruction because they can create strong winds.
Similar Circulations to Tornadoes

Also known as a gust front tornado, a gustnado is small,
and has vertical swill from a gust front or downburst.
Gustnadoes are still being questioned as to if they are
actually tornadoes considering they don’t connect with a
cloud base. Gustnadoes form when fast moving cold,
outflows of air create a thunderstorm and are blown
through a mass of immobile, humid air close to the
outflow boundary. They are typically known for causing
small areas of heavy rotational wind damage in the
middle of straight-line wind damage.
Dust Devil
Dust devils are vertical swirling columns of air. They form
under clear skies and are as strong as the weakest
tornadoes. Dust devils form when strong convective
updrafts form close to earth’s surface on hot days. Even
though these forms of dust and wind are similar to
tornadoes, they are not considered tornadoes due to their
forming during fair weather and they are not associated
with clouds. Dust Devils can still cause immense damage,
hints the name.
Fire Whirls
Fire whirls are small, tornado-like circulations that occur
near wildfires. The only time these phenomena are
considered tornadoes is when they connect to a

pyrocumulus or other cumuliform cloud. Fire whirls can
inflict serious damage.
Steam Devil
Steam devils are rotating updrafts that consist of steam
or smoke. These are very rare phenomena. Smoke issued
from a power plant’s smokestack is usually the cause of a
steam devil. If cold air passes over warm water then a
steam devil can occur at that point as well.
Popular Misconceptions about Tornadoes
Some people believe that if you open the windows to your
house, it will prevent a tornado from doing maximum
damage because there is a large drop in atmospheric
pressure. Some believe tests show that this will cause
more damage to the house. Either way, a strong enough
tornado can destroy a house easily with or without the
windows open.
Another common misconception is that people believe
that they are protected from tornadoes or that tornadoes
won’t affect their area if it’s not a flat, farm or desert-like
surface. Though some areas are more susceptible to
tornadoes than others, no area is completely exempt
from having an encounter with a tornado.
Precautions to Take if You’re Ever in a Tornado
Even though tornadoes can happen instantly, there are
safety methods that you can use to protect yourself from
uncertain possible outcomes. Preparing for a tornado

before it actually strikes, such as having a safe room in
the house that has no windows like a closet or a
bathroom can help in case you do come across a tornado.
Many tornado-prone areas have buildings with storm
cellars that save thousands of lives. Weather radios can
also help you find out if there is a tornado alert in your
area, which can help you better, prepare for the worst
case scenario. These are just a few safety tips that can
help you survive through a tornado.
There are different types of tornados that can inflict
different amounts of damage. Knowing the basic
information about these different kinds of tornadoes can
help you better prepare for a disaster in your hometown.
Looking at the cloud connected to a tornado is a quick
way to identify what kind of tornado it is, and that will be
a great benefit. Remember, always stay away from


A Tsunami is a series of gigantic water waves that causes
a surge of water onto land. These surges can reach
heights up to 100 feet. The massive height of the surges
can lead to devastating effects when it crashes over land.
It can occur in large lakes but mainly occurs in seas.
Here are some terms that are associated with tsunamis:
Tide: The term ‘tide’ refers to the alternate rising and
falling of the sea level at shores.
Seismic waves: Seismic waves of energy that travel
through the Earth’s crust layers or plates, and are a result
of an earthquake or a volcano eruption which can lead to
causing tsunamis.
Surge: A surge of water is a strong swelling volume of
Earthquake: A sudden and violent movement of a
portion of the earth’s crust, and the series of vibrations
that follow.
Earth’s crust: This is the solid thin layer that covers the
outside of the earth. Is the solid layer upon which we live.
To put it in perspective, think of it as the skin on the
outside of an apple.
Plate: A plate is a section of the earths crust. Plates slide
along either beside, over or under each other, causing
friction and pressure between the plates.

Teletsunami: A tsunami which causes damage a long
distance away from the source has been given the name
‘teletsunami’. These types of tsunamis are not produced
by horizontal motions, but by vertical motions in the
Tsunami waves are caused by large underwater
earthquakes where there are tectonic plate boundaries.
They can also be caused by volcano eruption under the
ocean or lake. Even giant landslides have been known to
cause large tidal waves or tsunamis in the past.
Tectonic plates are sections of the earth’s crust that move
against each other.
When the pressure of the tectonic plate at the ocean floor
releases pressure, it causes the water above to create a
series of rolling waves which will build up to cause more
turbulent and fast moving waves. These waves will turn
into one large wave and will eventually result in a
Tsunamis do not appear as a breaking wave. Initially it
may resemble a tide that is rising rapidly. Tsunamis
generally consist of a series of waves with periods
ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in what can be
called a “wave train”.
The Pacific Ring of Fire
Almost 80 percent of tsunamis occur within the Pacific
Ocean’s ‘Ring of Fire’. This is due to the amount of
earthquake and volcanic activity in the area, which occur
due to the tectonic shifts in the earth’s plates.


Tsunamis can reach speeds up to 500 miles per hour,
racing across the sea. That is about as fast as a jet plane!
Tsunamis can travel the entire length of the Pacific Ocean
in less than a day. There is virtually no energy lost along
the way due to their extremely long wavelengths.
The formation of a Tsunami
When tsunamis begin to form, they only appear a foot of
so high in the deep ocean. This makes them impossible to
distinguish. The closer they get to the shoreline and enter
shallower water, their energy and height grow to drastic
measures. The speed and momentum increases due to
the top of the waves moving faster that the bottom does.
The lowest point under the wave usually reaches the
shore first. When it reaches the shore, it produces what is
described as the ‘vacuum effect’, which sucks the coastal
water into the sea and gives the opposite effect of a
tsunami. When this occurs, the sea floor is left completely
waterless and the seafloor is totally exposed. This is the
first sign a tsunami is about to hit.
The next stage causes the most serious and devastating
effects. About five to ten minutes after the water retreats,
the tsunami will hit. This gives people little time to
escape the wrath of the tsunami; however the warning
can save lives. When a tsunami hits it is important for
people to remember that the danger may not have
passed with the first wave or two. The aftershock of
earthquakes can cause more waves to occur, sometimes
even hours after the initial wave hits. The best defense
against any tsunami is early warning that allows people
to seek higher ground.


Pacific coastal countries are some of the most Tsunami
prone areas in the world. Here is a list of some of the
countries who have been affected or that could be
affected by tsunamis:
 Japan
 United States
 Mexico
 Philippines
 Russia
 Ecuador
 China
 Chile
 Papua New Guinea
 Maldives
 Indonesia
 Italy
Problems caused by Tsunamis
Tsunamis can cause great loss of life and a serious
decrease in population. Drowning is the most popular
cause of death when a tsunami hits. Here are some
dangers it can cause to the environment.


 Shipwrecks can be left ashore when tsunamis hit.
This can cause major pollution and can take time and
money to remove.
 Animals can be washed up to shore and die.
 They can also flood the lands near the shore. This
leaves crops damaged and the community can suffer
from a lack of food and work.
 Some people might left be trapped under buildings
for long periods of time while search and rescue
teams attempt to get a hold on the situation. The
damage can be so great that people often die while
 Tsunamis can cause economic decline as they have
to spend a lot of money rebuilding the houses and
restoring the original landscape. As the devastation
can occur in very poor countries, there is usually not
be enough help or money to completely rebuild
entire livelihoods.
Strongest Tsunami in history
One of the most well known and recent incidence of a
tsunami was in Indonesia, on the 26th of December 2004.
A 9.3 magnitude earthquake triggered a series of giant
tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses that
bordered the Indian Ocean. This was also one of the
largest earthquakes recorded. It killed over 230,000
people in fourteen different countries. It was recorded as
one was one of the worst natural disasters in history.
Indonesia was hit the hardest and Sri Lanka, Thailand and
India also suffered greatly.

Due to the distances involved, the disastrous tsunami
took between fifteen minutes and seven hours to reach
the all the different coastlines. The tsunami took seven
hours to hit Somalia. Sumatra, and Indonesian island was
hit very quickly especially in the northern regions. The
east coast of India and Sri Lanka were hit somewhere
between 90 minutes to two and a half hours later.
Thailand was hit around two hours later despite the fact
that it was closer to the epicentreThe reason for this is
because the water was more shallow in the Andaman
Sea, which is off the western coast.
The earthquake which caused the tsunami affected many
countries even beyond Southeast Asia. These other
countries included Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Thailand,
Myanmar, the Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania
and South Africa. Australia and Europe had a large
number of their citizens in the region at the time of the
disaster, along with many other countries. There were
543 Swedish people and 539 German people lost in the


What Is A Thunderstorm?
Thunderstorms are some of the most frightening and
powerful storms to hit the world. A thunderstorm can be
known as a lightning storm, a thundershower or even an
electrical storm. A thunderstorm is one of the most
powerful storms to hit and it forms when the weather is
turbulent. This is when the wind picks up greatly and rain
is present, though this doesn’t always need to be
present. However, lightning and the noise of thunder
creates the thunderstorms and if there are certain types
of clouds in the sky – cumulonimbus, then it could result
in thunderstorms.
On most occasions, thunderstorms will bring on heavy
rain falls and strong winds. However, these are the most
common types of weather associated with thunderstorms
but there are other types of weather that can accompany
a thunderstorm. Things such as hail, sleet and snow are
all common factors to present itself during a
thunderstorm. Some thunderstorms can rotate, if they
are quite severe, then they can create supercells which
are some of the worst thunderstorms.
How Thunderstorms Are Are Created?
A thunderstorm can be created because of a sharp or
rapid surge of moist and warm air. However, as the warm
and moist air moves upwards into the air, it will cool
down and condenses. When the air does this, the air will
form new cumulonimbus clouds. These cumulonimbus

clouds can in fact reach huge heights of almost 20
kilometres, sometimes much more than that.
Once the air reaches a certain point, at the dew point, ice
and water droplets are going to form and start falling
towards the earth and the earth’s surface. It falls from a
large distance; however, once the droplets fall, they will
be larger because they join up with other droplets. Once
the droplets are falling, they will create a new downdraft
of the air which will spread out vastly across the surface.
This creates winds – strong winds which coincide with
 Hail
 Rain
 Strong Winds
 Snow
 Sleet
Where Can Thunderstorm Form?
A thunderstorm can be formed or created in almost any
location around the world. Though, the countries that are
mid latitude – this is when the air is moist and warm but
comes into contact with cool air. Thunderstorms can form
anywhere if the air is warm and moist and comes into
cooler air. Though, most thunderstorms can be very
severe and can cause a lot of damage to landscapes and
populated areas also.
Though, most damage that comes from a thunderstorm is
due to the larger hailstones which fall with the storm and

the down burst winds. Though, on occasion, there have
been flash floods to cause a lot of damage. Though, with
some thunderstorm formations, they can be very strong
or – super cells as they can also be known as, and cause
water sprouts and even tornadoes. There are some
instances which are not going to be too severe and won’t
be anything more than a small rain shower. Some
thunderstorm cells which are stronger than average
storms can be fifty times the energy of an a bomb.

The Different Types of Thunderstorms
There are however four different types of thunderstorms
1. Supercells which are the most powerful
thunderstorms available
2. A single cell which are smaller and not too severe
3. A multi cell cluster which is stronger than a single
cell storm
4. Multi cell lines which are just below a super cell
The super cells are the strongest of thunderstorms that
form; and if the thunderstorms are present in the tropics,
it could contribute to hurricanes. However, there are also
dry thunderstorms which don’t cause any rain, hail or
snow fall, but they can cause wildfire outbreaks. This
happens because of the lightning that occurs; there might

not be any hail or rain but lightning still occurs and
causes wildfires.
Many weather observers use things such as weather
stations and weather radar to help keep a close eye over
pending weather storms including thunder. Interesting
though, it has been known for some thunderstorms, can
be created on both Venus and Jupiter and not just here on
The Cycle of a Thunderstorm
The cycle of a thunderstorm firstly starts off with warm
air. The warm air needs to have a lower density than
cooler air because the air will start to rise actually within
the cool air. When this happens, clouds will start to form
and they will become a little warmer because inside the
clouds, it will now carry moisture.
The moisture will condense and when it does, it will
release energy out; however, what this does is to cool the
air of the condensed air but the surrounding air will stay
the same. If there is instability in the atmosphere then it
will create cumulonimbus clouds and that helps to create
thunder and lightning. However, for thunderstorms to
form, they need moisture, unstable air mass and a lifting
force such as heat to create a thunderstorm.
There are different stages to create a thunderstorm.
There is the developing stage, then the mature stag and
finally the dissipation stage. Though, the thunderstorms
can vary from size but for the average storm, it is around
24 kilometres. The period of time in which the
thunderstorms can develop is anything from thirty

When the thunderstorm hits the cumulus stage, or the
developing stage; a mass of moisture will be taken up
towards the atmosphere. When the moisture goes into
the air, the wind will be forced upwards into the
atmosphere and will help to develop the thunderstorm.
However, the moisture will start cooling and this will form
water drops because of the cool temperatures at a high
With the mature stage, the air which is now warm will rise
further up and will continue to do so until it cannot rise
any further and the air becomes at its warmest point.
When it reaches this point, the air will be forced out a
vast area and will start to create an anvil shape creating
the cumulonimbus clouds. The water drops will then start
to grow larger because they will join up with one another.
They will now be heavier and larger and will start to
freeze into ice particles. Though, as the ice falls, it will
become, or rather melt, into rain.
With the final or dissipating stage, the thunderstorm is
created. A downdraft will work up and hit the ground
quickly and spread out vastly also. This can be known as
a downburst and the cool air will then cut the inflow and
stop the thunderstorm also. The thunderstorm will
The super cell storms are the biggest and the most
severe storms to hit. This is when the super cell storms
have different up and down drafts causing the super cell.
It can stretch out to a vast area and can cause a lot of
devastation and damage. When the super cells are


created, it will mean that the storms will be accompanied
with severe weather.



The definition of a solar flare is a very sudden, intense,
and fast change in brightness. These explosions or
ejections happen at different intensities and frequencies,
from several per day to one every week. There are times
when the sun gives of very few or low-intensity flares,
during its minimum stage of the cycle. The solar flares
will gain in intensity until the height of the cycle.

What causes solar flares?
When magnetic energy builds up in the solar atmosphere
and needs to be released, a solar flare occurs. In a typical
flare, there are three stages:

1. The release of magnetic energy is activated in the
first stage—the precursor stage. In this stage, soft xray emission will be detected.
2. In the impulsive stage, electrons and protons are
accelerated to energies well over 1 MeV (1 million
electron volts). Hard x-rays, radio waves, and gamma
rays are emitted during this stage.
3. The decay stage is the third and final stage. During
this stage, the slow build up and decay of soft x-rays
are detected.

The stages of solar flares vary in length and there is no
reliable way to predict their intensity or duration. Any of


these stages can take as little as a few seconds to as
much as an hour in length.
Even though solar flares will typically happen on areas of
the sun where the magnetic fields are higher, it’s still not
entirely clear what causes the flares to happen. Scientists
are still unsure as to how the magnetic energy is
transformed, or what causes the acceleration of the
How solar flares are detected
Solar flares cannot be seen by the naked eye and this
shouldn’t be attempted. Specialized instruments are used
to detect the flares. Optical telescopes can be used to see
flares. There are also radio telescopes which capture the
wavelengths of solar flares. Space telescopes are also
used to capture images of flares and transmit the data to
earth. While most solar flares go undetected by most
people, the stronger flares have been known to knock out
communications and electrical systems.
Solar flares are what cause the aurora borealis and the
aurora australis. These beautiful light shows are the result
of energetic particles in the magnetosphere.
Dangers of solar flares
Because there is no way to predict solar flares, the
greatest danger is to astronauts in space. The radiation
from the flares can affect any astronauts outside of their
ships much faster and stronger than anyone on earth.
The solar flare with the largest concentration of protons
(directly measured to date) happened on January 20,
2005. At the time, astronauts had only 15 minutes to get
to shelter.

Other problems caused by solar flares include the orbital
decay of low-orbiting satellites, interference with shortwave radio communication, and damage to spacecraft
electronics. In general, the solar winds caused by solar
flares can affect the earth’s magnetosphere and create
radiation hazards for astronauts, cosmonauts, and
Famous solar flares
The first solar flare to be observed was also the most
powerful flare ever detected. On September 1, 1859, a
British astronomer, Richard Carrington and an observer,
Richard Hodgson reported the mega flare. In this event,
the flare was visible to the naked eye and caused borealis
to be seen as far as Hawaii and Cuba. The flare set
telegraph wires on fire and left a trace of nitrates and
beryllium-10, which can still be measured today in
As recently as 2003, the largest modern-time flare was
detected and measured. Because it saturated the devices
used to detect the intensity of solar flares, it’s possible
that the classification of the flare is much higher than
recorded. This solar flare enabled astronomers to set the
bar higher, knowing that the flares can get that much


What is a Flood?
The definition of a flood is land covered by water that is
not usually covered by water. This means that any time a
river, lake, or other body of water overflows its banks, it’s
technically flooding. However, most people think of the
more catastrophic types of floods, as those are the type
that cause widespread damage and loss of life. Unless a
flood causes some kind of financial damage or loss of life
to humans or livestock, it’s not considered a significant
There are a number of causes for floods, and the most
common warning is that floods can happen anywhere it
rains. Just because an area has no history of flooding
doesn’t mean it can’t be flooded at some point. Some
floods have happened in areas where there has been no
flooding for hundreds of years, while some flooding
happens on a yearly basis in some areas and countries. In
general, flooding is hard to prepare for, though flood


maps are drawn up and in some cases, measures are
taken to prevent heavy flooding in the future.

Flooding causes
Floods cause so much damage because they’re
unpredictable and many things can cause floods. There
are flash floods, which happen quickly and rush through.
Then there are slow floods which build up over a period of
time. Either way, it’s very hard to predict exactly how
much damage will be done, how to best stop the flow,
and most of all, how to prevent it from happening again.

Though there are more causes for floods, these are the
most common
–Heavy rainfall: Flooding from rainfall generally happens
when more rain falls than the soil, rivers, and streams can
absorb. Tilled fields become swamps, creating a muddy
flood which moves large amounts of sediment. When
rivers and streams can no longer hold water, they start to
flood their banks as the water is carried further down to
the next body of water. Soil that is soaked can no longer
absorb water and if the rivers are already full, the water
continues to build up. Often, flooding happens on frozen
or concrete ground and the rain cannot be absorbed.
Often, the build up of water and debris can fill up gutters
and drainage pipes making it hard for the flood waters to
flow freely into the body of water.

–Melting snow and ice: Because snow and ice covers
large patches of ground, as it melts, it saturates the
ground as it flows into rivers and streams. The rivers are
often thawing as well, making for a higher level of water
as it is. Combine the melting with the rains that usually
come in spring, and flooding is likely. Especially during
long, harsh winters, snow and ice can build up, making
for a large amount of water needing to drain out in a
relatively short amount of time.
–Destruction: There are several catastrophic causes for
flash floods. These are often caused by a dam or levee
breaking and causing huge amounts of water to come
rushing down onto the plains. The destruction of a dam or
levee is often brought on by another natural disaster,
such as a hurricane, cyclone, or earthquake. When a dam
or levee can’t hold the water back anymore, water that is
meant to be stored or held back suddenly crashes down
on whatever is in its way, often causing incredible
damage in its wake. Other natural disasters that can
cause floods are earthquakes or volcanic eruptions which
bring tsunamis. Hurricanes and cyclones often cause
flooding as the large amounts of water can’t be absorbed
or the fast winds cause waves to crash and flood coastal
–River obstructions: There are times when development
means changing the natural course of rivers. In order to
clear land for crops or housing, rivers are “guided”
through a different course, often creating conditions for
flooding. In many areas where this happens regularly, the

rivers are given back the land, so that extra water can
flow easily. However, there are other times when a river
gets blocked by large sections of ice, debris, or
landslides. The buildup of water around these areas can
cause flooding and then flash floods if the obstruction
gives way. Very rarely animal habitats, such as beaver
dams can cause river flooding.
Flood damages
Because so much of the damage inflicted by floods has
long-lasting consequences, floods are among the more
catastrophic of natural disasters. Water can cause
permanent damage and cleanup after a flood includes
getting rid of huge amounts of mud, debris, and even
livestock carcasses.
There is often loss of life as a result of heavy flooding,
causing emotional trauma for those who have gone
through it. Even if people have not been directly affected
by the loss of life, losing property, houses, or land can
cause physiological damage. Especially if the people
affected are unable to rebuild due to the houses being
too badly damage, farm land being inundated with salt
water, or lack of resources to rebuild, many find the
recovery to be more than just physical.
Damage to property during flooding is often extensive.
Vehicles should not be driven through flooded areas, but
often they are caught unaware, creating the need for
replacement or extensive repairs. Houses that have been

flooded mildly might survive with just a good cleaning,
but big floods often render homes unlivable without
massive repairs or restructuring. Many personal items are
lost forever, such as paper documents, photographs,
clothing, and household items. Furniture and woodwork
are often damaged beyond repair and must be replaced
In severe floods, communication systems can fail due to
lines being broken. Power is often hindered if power
generators and transmission is in some way destroyed or
damaged. Getting power restored after a flood is
challenging as water transmits electricity and can hurt
anyone standing in water. If sewage or water systems are
compromised during flooding, water supplies can be
contaminated. This can result in waterborne diseases
such as typhoid or cholera among others.
Land that has be saturated often cannot grow new crops
for some time. If the water was saline, such as in flooding
near the sea, land will not be able to be cultivated for
some years. Loss of livestock can also result in farmers
losing their livelihood and needing to start over with
young animals means losing the profit that would have
come during that time. Any livelihood that depends on
farming or ranching can be seriously affected by floods as
farms and ranches often need to be near a body of water
in order to live.


Some precautions can be taken, such as creating flood
maps and working with nature to prevent excessive
flooding. In some areas levees have been built, but these
are not entirely flood proof. Modern advancements in
flood prediction enables people to be more prepared.
These predictions won’t be able to prevent the floods, but
enable people and livestock to get to safety in time. Flood
warnings are taken very seriously as lives depend on it.

Earthquakes, temblors, quakes, tremors: These names
are used to describe the sudden release of energy in the
earth’s crust causing movement.
Firstly, lets get to know some terms that are associated
with earthquakes:
Earthquake: A sudden and violent movement of a
portion of the earth’s crust, and the series of vibrations
that follow.
Earths crust: This is the solid thin layer that covers the
outside of the earth. To put it in perspective, think of it as
the skin on the outside of an apple.


Plate: A plate is a section of the earths crust. Plates slide
along either beside, over or under each other, causing
friction and pressure between the plates.
Magnitude: The amount of energy released during an
earthquake, which is computed from the measurement of
seismic waves.
Fault: The gaping hole which can occur as a result of an
earthquake. This hole can be the size of a small crack to
the size of an olympic swimming pool or larger.
Fault zones: Where giant rock slabs that are made up of
the earths crust collide and slide against each other
regularly, causing the land to be unstable.
Seismic waves: These waves are the vibrations and
movement that travel from the earthquake fault at very
high speeds. The vibrations of these waves are what
cause the most destruction during the earthquakes.
This gigantic release of energy creates what are known as
‘seismic waves’. These waves cause the one of the most
terrifying and destructive acts of nature on the planet.
These natural phenomena are sudden, violent shakes of
the earth that are caused by the breaking and moving of
the rock in the earths crust as it releases strained energy
that has built up over a long period of time. Earthquakes
occur when the energy has built up so long that is snaps
and cause smashing and crashing under the earths
surface and between the plates.
The ‘seismic activity’ of an area holds refers to the
frequency, type and size of earthquakes that are
experienced over a period of time. Frequency means the
strength of the earthquake.

Measurements of earthquakes
Measurement of earthquakes are measured using
readings from instruments called seismometers.
Scientists use the ‘magnitude rating’ to measure
earthquakes. This rating measures the strength of the
seismic waves and the period of time they lasted for. An
earthquake measuring between 3 and 5 on the
magnitude rating is considered normal. When they are
between 3 and 5 there usually is not too much damage
done, but the tremors can be felt in the ground. When the
magnitude rating is between the numbers 5 and 7, this is
regarded as moderate to strong. Earthquakes of this
magnitude do not cause a huge amount of damage or
loss of lives, but can leave some destruction in its trail,
like cracks in the ground, landslides. Major earthquakes
are rated between 7 and 8, and 8 or more is a seriously
large natural disaster.
The largest earthquake ever recorded was slightly over 9
on the magnitude rating. This earthquake occurred in
northern Japan in 2011, killing hundreds of people and
destroys buildings within the area. This earthquake also
caused a 23 foot tsunami and was followed by more than
fifty aftershocks.
Earthquakes can cause many other natural disasters
once they strike, here are their names and a brief
description of each:
 Tsunami – Are giant sea waves that are produced by
the sudden violent movement of the earths plates of
volcanos under the water. The time periods of these
waves can last up to an hour, causing massive
devastation as seen in Sri Lanka in 2004.

 Fires – Fires can be caused when earthquakes
damage electrical power stations or gas lines. These
fires can be impossible to stop sometimes. In 1906 in
San Francisco, fire caused by an earthquake killed
more people than the earthquake itself.
 Landslides and avalanches – Earthquakes can
produce unstable slopes which can lead to the
moving of the ground, which is called a landslide.
Landslides can cause sever damage after an
earthquake occurs, for example it can crash down
homes, cars of even people.
 Floods – A flood is an overflow of water that reaches
land. This occurs when a lake, dam or river overflows
due to the movement of land due to an earthquake
or landslide. Floods can have devastating effects on
terrain, animal life and human life.
 Human and animal death – Of course, earthquake
can cause severe injury and loss of life for both
humans and animals. Properties can also suffer, and
the collapse of buildings are expected when highly
measured earthquakes occur. The aftermath of an
earthquake can cause disease and lack of basic
necessities for people.



Natural disasters, however powerful and sudden they
may be, are not incapable of being guarded against. The
modern technology has given enough gadgets to people
for forecasting, and lessening if not totally preventing
heavy damages inflicted upon by the natural disasters.
Only requirement is that people must take interest in
getting as much awareness as possible about the
safeguard measures. It is also important to see that we
do not contribute to natural disasters by polluting the
environment and by not living in resonance with nature.
Natural disasters were few and rare in the past, but has
become more frequent and devastating recently. This is
mainly due to the 'Modern' man indulging in all sorts of
practices which are against natural laws. We human
beings must learn how to respect Nature and should not
meddle with the forces of Nature. If we do, it will bring
calamity sooner or later. This is one lesson that we have
not learnt so far. Even the modern scientist is sometimes
blind to this idea . If you want to cut down the forests and
build houses, there will be famine. It rains too much in
some other part of the country or globe resulting in
floods. Climate changes happen in the normal course, but
when we tinker with Nature we see that climate changes
are unusual and monsoon advances earlier than normal
or later than normal months and this results in disaster
again. Even the plants start giving grains, pulses or fruits
out of course and the quality of the products are greatly
affected. Man suffers again.


So the lesson is not to interfere with Nature any time and
lead a peaceful life !



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