Nonprofit Organization

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Nonprofit organization
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search A nonprofit organization (abbreviated as NPO, also known as a not-for-profit organization[1]) is an organization that does not distribute its surplus funds to owners or shareholders, but instead uses them to help pursue its goals.[2] Examples of NPOs include charities (i.e., charitable organizations), trade unions, trade associations and public arts organizations. Most governments and government agencies meet this definition, but in most countries they are considered a separate type of organization and not counted as NPOs. In most countries, NPOs are exempt from income and property taxation.

Nonprofit distinction
Ownership is the quantitative difference between for- and not-for-profit organizations. For-profit organizations can be privately owned and may re-distribute taxable wealth to employees and shareholders. By contrast, not-for-profit organizations do not have private owners. They have controlling members or boards, but these people cannot sell their shares to others or personally benefit in any taxable way. While they are able to earn a profit, more accurately called a surplus, such earnings must be retained by the organization for its self-preservation, expansion and future plans. Earnings may not benefit individuals or stake-holders.[3] While some nonprofit organizations put substantial funds into hiring and rewarding their internal corporate leadership, middle-management personnel and workers, others employ unpaid volunteers and even executives may work for no compensation. However, since the late 1980s there has been a growing consensus that nonprofits can achieve their corporate targets more effectively by using some of the same methods developed in for-profit enterprises. These include effective internal management, ensuring accountability for results, and monitoring the performance of different divisions or projects in order to better benefit from their capital and workers. Those require satisfied management and that, in turn, begins with the organization's mission.[4]

[edit] Nature and goals
NPOs are often charities or service organizations; they may be organized as a not-for-profit corporation or as a trust, a cooperative, or they may be purely informal. Sometimes they are also called foundations, or endowments that have large stock funds. A very similar organization called the supporting organization operates like a foundation, but they are more complicated to administer, they are more tax favored, and the public charities that receive grants from them must have a specially determined relationship.

Foundations give out grants to other NPOs, or fellowships and direct grants to participants. However, the name foundations may be used by any not-for-profit corporation — even volunteer organizations or grass roots groups. Applying Germanic or Nordic law (e.g., Germany, Sweden, Finland), NPOs typically are voluntary associations, although some have a corporate structure (e.g. housing cooperatives). Usually a voluntary association is founded upon the principle of one-person-one-vote.[citation needed]

[edit] Legal aspects
There is a wide diversity of structures and purposes in the NPO landscape. For legal classification and eventual scrutiny, there are, nevertheless, some structural elements of prime legal importance:
       

Economic activity Supervision and management provisions Representation Accountability and Auditing provisions Provisions for the amendment of the statutes or articles of incorporation Provisions for the dissolution of the entity Tax status of corporate and private donors Tax status of the foundation

Some of the above must be, in most jurisdictions, expressed in the document of establishment. Others may be provided by the supervising authority at each particular jurisdiction. While affiliations will not affect a legal status, they may be taken into consideration in legal proceedings as an indication of purpose. Most countries have laws which regulate the establishment and management of NPOs, and which require compliance with corporate governance regimes. Most larger organizations are required to publish their financial reports detailing their income and expenditure for the public. In many aspects they are similar to business entities though there are often significant differences. Both not-for-profit and for-profit entities must have board members, steering committee members, or trustees who owe the organization a fiduciary duty of loyalty and trust. A notable exception to this involves churches, which are often not required to disclose finances to anyone, including church members.
India

In India, NPOs are commonly known as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). They can be registered in four ways:
1. Trust 2. Society

3. Section-25 Company 4. Special Licensing

Registration can be done with the Registrar of Companies(RoC). The following laws or Constitutional Articles of the Republic of India are relevant to the NGOs:
     

Articles 19(1)(c) and 30 of the Constitution of India Income Tax Act, 1961 Public Trusts Acts of various states Societies Registration Act, 1860 Section 25 of the Indian Companies Act, 1956 Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 1976

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NGO is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government. The term originated from the United Nations (UN), and is normally used to refer to organisations that do not form part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue some wider social aim that has political aspects, but that are not overtly political organizations such as political parties. Unlike the term "intergovernmental organization", the term "non-governmental organization" has no generally agreed legal definition. In many jurisdictions, these types of organization are called "civil society organizations" or referred to by other names. The number of internationally operating NGOs is estimated at 40,000.[1] National numbers are even higher: Russia has 277,000 NGOs;[2] India is estimated to have around 3.3 million NGOs in year 2009 that is one NGO for less than 400 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India.[3][4]

History
International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least 1839.[13] It has been estimated that by 1914 there were 1083 NGOs.[14] International NGOs were important in the anti-slavery movement and the movement for women's suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the World Disarmament Conference.[15] However, the phrase "non-governmental organization" only came into popular use with the establishment of the United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter[16] for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states—see Consultative Status. The definition of "international NGO" (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on February 27, 1950: it is defined as "any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty". The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" in sustainable development was recognized in Chapter 27[17] of Agenda 21,

leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations.[18] Rapid development of the non-governmental sector occurred in western countries as a result of the processes of restructuring of the welfare state. Further globalization of that process occurred after the fall of the communist system and was an important part of the Washington consensus.[11] Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International treaties and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were centred mainly on the interests of capitalist enterprises. In an attempt to counterbalance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasize humanitarian issues, developmental aid and sustainable development. A prominent example of this is the World Social Forum, which is a rival convention to the World Economic Forum held annually in January in Davos, Switzerland. The fifth World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in January 2005 was attended by representatives from more than 1,000 NGOs.[citation needed] Some have argued that in forums like these, NGOs take the place of what should belong to popular movements of the poor. Others argue that NGOs are often imperialist[19] in nature, that they sometimes operate in a racialized manner in third world countries, and that they fulfill a similar function to that of the clergy during the high colonial era. The philosopher Peter Hallward argues that they are an aristocratic form of politics.[20] Whatever the case, NGO transnational networking is now extensive.[21]

Types of NGOs
NGO type can be understood by orientation and level of co-operation. NGO type by orientation
   

Charitable orientation; Service orientation; Participatory orientation; Empowering orientation;

NGO type by level of co-operation
       

Community- Based Organization; City Wide Organization; National NGOs; International NGOs;

   

BINGO, National NGO: [6] CSO,; DONGO:

   

   

ENGO: NNGO, IDCIs, SNGOs

Environmental NGOs
Environmental NGOs work on cases related to the environment. An example of an ENGO is Greenpeace. Just like other TNGOs networks, transnational environmental networks might acquire a variety of benefits in sharing information with other organizations, campaigning towards an issue, and exchanging contact information. Since Transnational environmental NGOs advocate for different issues like public goods, such as pollution in the air, deforestation of areas and water issues, it is more difficult for them to give their campaigns a human face than TNGOs campaigning directly for human rights issues. Advantages 1. They have the ability to experiment freely with innovative approaches and, if necessary, to take risks. 2. They are flexible in adapting to local situations and responding to local needs and therefore able to develop integrated projects, as well as sectoral projects. 3. They enjoy good rapport with people and can render micro-assistance to very poor people as they can identify those who are most in need and tailor assistance to their needs. 4. They have the ability to communicate at all levels, from the neighbourhood to the top levels of government. 5. They are able to recruit both experts and highly motivated staff with fewer restrictions than the government. Disadvantages 1. Paternalistic attitudes restrict the degree of participation in program/project design. 2. Restricted/constrained ways of approach to a problem or area. 3. Reduced/less replicability of an idea, due to non-representativeness of the project or selected area, relatively small project coverage, dependence on outside financial resources, etc. 4. "Territorial possessiveness" of an area or project reduces cooperation between agencies, seen as threatening or competitive. 5. Top-down models of development minimize the role of local knowledge and ownership to submit or conform to international norms and expectations.

6. Dependency on external assistance decreases the pressure for local and national governments to provide for their citizens.

Legal status
The legal form of NGOs is diverse and depends upon homegrown variations in each country's laws and practices. However, four main family groups of NGOs can be found worldwide:[36]
   

Unincorporated and voluntary association Trusts, charities and foundations Companies not just for profit Entities formed or registered under special NGO or nonprofit laws

NGOs are not subjects of international law, as states are. An exception is the International Committee of the Red Cross, which is subject to certain specific matters, mainly relating to the Geneva Convention. The Council of Europe in Strasbourg drafted the European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organizations in 1986, which sets a common legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in Europe. Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of association, which is also a fundamental norm for NGOs. AIMS & OBJECTIVES MAIN OBJECTIVES The Confederation is established to promote, develop, protect, aid foster and empower, directly and indirectly, the constituent member Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) working particularly in rural India, to achieve the following objectives inter alia :








To develop better co-ordination, collaboration, joint participation, relations and understanding amongst various constituents of the rural sector for promoting welfare of the rural masses by eradicating thirst, hunger, illiteracy, disease, poverty and by providing shelter and employment. To assist and guide the members in obtaining financial and technical assistance for rural development programmes from the Government(s), governmental organisations, corporate sector, NRIs, financial and other specialised bilateral and multilateral regional and international institutions such as World Bank, UNDP, ADB etc. To act as a channelising, monitoring and mentoring platform for effectively implementing programmes spread over a wider geographical area or programmes involving multitude of disciplines. To undertake capacity and quality appraisals of the constituent member NGOs, carry out periodical reviews and help them, in capacity building and performance enhancement so that they may contribute their best to the development of rural India .























To undertake integrated programmes for the upliftment and economic development of rural India and providing backward and forward linkages to the rural economy by allowing them access to the global technology, funds and market and for that purpose to set up commodity technology and rural stock exchanges. To assist in the development of Self Help Groups (SHGs) of farmers including small and marginal farmers, artisans, labour including agricultural labour and other service providers with special emphasis on women, youth, differentially-abled and other disadvantaged sections for accelerating the pace of rural development. To serve as a forum in association with professionals, research scientists, social scientists, reformists, technocrats, and agriculturists, to provide critical inputs on major issues, relevant to development of rural India and to seek appropriate representation on the various committees, bodies, delegations, teams etc. at the State, National and International level. To serve as a forum for addressing growing concerns in the areas of Right to Information, transparency and other issues of collective interests and to take up these issues with the appropriate authorities. To maintain a centralised pool of legal, technical, financial and management experts, advisors and professionals and in addition, professionals involved in the areas of subsidies, countervailing duties, issues relating to IPRs, geographical indications of goods, protection of plant varieties and farmers' rights, environment and other emerging frontiers of knowledge, in order to serve as a referral point for servicing the needs of desirous parties. To organise and conduct such promotional and training programmes, entrepreneurial development programmes, executive development programmes, quality orientation programmes, refresher courses, lectures and seminars for the executives of voluntary organisations, volunteers and target groups and relevant to any of the fields of interest of the constituent members. To undertake identification, development, adaptation and promotion of appropriate technologies, organise or assist in transfer of technology from national and international organisations and institutions engaged in or connected with any of the fields of interest to Confederation and arranging support services to the member organisations including technical guidance, training and skill up-gradation; To mobilise necessary support and inputs and to contribute by suitable means at the time of natural calamities and undertake and participate in disaster management and rehabilitation. To undertake, promote, facilitate, foster and co-ordinate, whether sponsored or otherwise, policy studies and research, economic and social research or technology initiatives in any of the areas concerning rural development, or having a bearing on any of such areas. To facilitate international exchange and sharing of information and technology by organising or participating in workshops, exhibitions, conferences and seminars or by collaborating with or establishing mutual relations with organisations and institutions in India and abroad, connected with or having a bearing on the objectives of the Confederation. To organise and participate in international and regional meetings, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, fairs and produce literature and undertake publicity.





To initiate and carry out, directly or indirectly, whether of its own or sponsored or otherwise, studies on the subject of common interest, collect, analyse, interpret and disseminate data and information useful to members. To undertake all such other lawful activities as may be incidental or conducive or ancillary to the attainment of the objectives of the Society.

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Rotary International
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs references that appear in reliable third-party publications. Primary sources or sources affiliated with the subject are generally not sufficient for a Wikipedia article. Please add more appropriate citations from reliable sources. (July 2011)

Rotary International
Rotary International Emblem Motto Formation Type Headquarters Location Membership Service above Self 1905 Service club Evanston, Illinois Global 1.22 million

English, Hindi, Urdu, Swedish, Portuguese, Italian, French, Official languages Spanish, German, Korean, and Japanese. President Key people Website Kalyan Banerjee (2011-12)[1] Paul P. Harris (Founder) www.rotary.org

Rotary International is an organization of service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. The stated purpose of the organization is to bring together business and professional leaders to provide humanitarian service, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help build goodwill and peace in the world. It is a secular organization open to all persons regardless of race, color, creed, gender, or political preference. There are 33,976 clubs and over 1.22 million members worldwide.[2] The members of Rotary Clubs are known as Rotarians. Members usually meet weekly for breakfast, lunch or dinner, which is a social event as well as an opportunity to organize work on their service goals.

Rotary's best-known motto is "Service above Self", and its secondary motto is "They profit most who serve best".[3]

History
[edit] Early years

The first Rotary Club was formed when attorney Paul P. Harris called together a meeting of three business acquaintances in downtown Chicago, at Harris' friend Sylvester Schiele's office in the Unity Building on Dearborn Street on February 23, 1905.[6] In addition to Harris and Schiele (a coal merchant), Gustave E. Loehr (mines engineer), and Hiram E. Shorey (tailor) were the other two who attended this first meeting. The members chose the name Rotary because initially they rotated subsequent weekly club meetings to each other's offices, although within a year, the Chicago club became so large it became necessary to adopt the now-common practice of a regular meeting place. The next four Rotary Clubs were organized in cities in the western United States, beginning with San Francisco, then Oakland, Los Angeles, and Seattle. The National Association of Rotary Clubs in America was formed in 1910. On the 22nd February 1911 the first meeting of the Rotary Club Dublin was held in Dublin, Ireland. This was the first club established outside of North America. In April 1912, Rotary chartered a club in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada,[7] marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States.[8] To reflect the addition of a club outside of the United States, the name was changed to the International Association of Rotary Clubs in 1912.[7] In August 1912, the Rotary Club of London received its charter from the Association, marking the first acknowledged Rotary club outside North America. It later became known that the Dublin club in Ireland was organized before the London club, but the Dublin club did not receive its charter until after the London club was chartered.[9] During World War I, Rotary in Britain increased from 9 to 22 clubs,[10] and other early clubs in other nations included those in Cuba in 1916 and India in 1920. In 1922, the name was changed to Rotary International.[11] By 1925, Rotary had grown to 200 clubs with more than 20,000 members.[12]
[edit] War time

In Germany, no club had been formed before 1927, because of "opposition from the continental clubs".[13] For a while after 1933, Rotary Clubs 'met with approval' of the Nazi authorities and were considered to offer 'opportunity for party comrades ... to provide enlightenment regarding the nature and policy of the National Socialist movement'.[14] The Nazis, although they saw international organizations as suspect, had authorised NSDAP members to be members of the Rotary through the Nazi Party's court rulings issued in 1933, 1934 and 1936. In 1937, more than half the rotarians were Nazi Party members.[15]

Six German clubs were formed after Hitler came to power. They came under pressure almost immediately to expel their Jewish members.[16] Rotary clubs do not appear to have had a unified policy towards the Nazi regime: while several German Rotary Clubs decided to disband their organizations in 1933, others practised a policy of appeasement or collaborated. In Munich the club removed from its members' list a number of Rotarians, Jewish and non-Jewish, who were politically unacceptable for the regime, including Thomas Mann (already in exile in Switzerland).[17] Twelve members resigned in "sympathy with the expelled members".[18] Beginning 1937 however, hostile articles were published in the Nazi press about Rotary, comparing Rotary with Freemasonry. Soon after that, the perceived conflict resulted in two decisions which would jeopardize the existence of Rotary in Germany: in June 1937, the ministry of the interior forbade civil servants to be members of the Rotary; in July, the NSDAP's party court reversed its previous rulings and declared Party and Rotarian membership incompatible as from January 1938. Rotary's cause was advocated before the NSDAP party court by Dr. Grill, Governor for the Rotary 73d district, arguing that the German Rotary was compliant with the goals of the Nazi government, had excluded Freemasons in 1933 and non-Aryans in 1936.[19] Other attempts were made, also by foreign Rotarians,[20] but appeasement failed this time, and, in September 1937, the 73rd district dissolved itself.[21] Subsequently the charter of German clubs was withdrawn by Rotary International, although some clubs continued to meet 'privately'.[17] Rotary Clubs in Spain ceased to operate shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.[22] Clubs were disbanded across Europe as follows:[22]
    

Austria (1938) Italy (1939) Czechoslovakia (1940) Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Luxembourg (1941) Hungary (1941/2)

[edit] From 1945

Rotary clubs in Eastern Europe and other communist-regime nations were disbanded by 194546, but new Rotary clubs were organised in many other countries, and by the time of the national independence movements in Africa and Asia, the new nations already had Rotary clubs. After the relaxation of government control of community groups in Russia and former Soviet satellite nations, Rotarians were welcomed as club organisers, and clubs were formed in those countries, beginning with the Moscow club in 1990. In 1985, Rotary launched its PolioPlus program to immunise all of the world's children against polio. In 2005 Rotary claimed to have contributed half a billion US dollars to the cause, resulting in the immunisation of nearly two billion children worldwide.[23]

As of 2006, Rotary has more than 1.2 million members in over 32,000 clubs among 200 countries and geographical areas, making it the most widespread by branches and second largest service club by membership, behind Lions Club International. The number of Rotarians has slightly declined in recent years: Between 2002 and 2006, they went from 1,245,000 to 1,223,000 members. North America accounts for 450,000 members, Asia for 300,000, Europe for 250,000, Latin America for 100,000, Oceania for 100,000 and Africa for 30,000.[24]
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Programs
The programs of Rotary are so diverse as to all but defy categorisation. In addition, there are the programs of The Rotary Foundation, which include educational, humanitarian and fellowship and vocational exchanges.
[edit] Interact

Interact is Rotary International’s service club for young people ages 12 to 18. Interact clubs are sponsored by individual Rotary clubs, which provide support and guidance, but they are selfgoverning and self-supporting. Club membership varies greatly. Clubs can be single gender or mixed, large or small. They can draw from the student body of a single school or from two or more schools in the same community. Each year, Interact clubs complete at least two community service projects, one of which furthers international understanding and goodwill. Through these efforts, Interactors develop a network of friendships with local and overseas clubs and learn the importance of: developing leadership skills and personal integrity, demonstrating helpfulness and respect for others, understanding the value of individual responsibility and hard work and advancing international understanding and goodwill. The first Interact Club met with 23 students at Melbourne High School in Melbourne, Florida in 1960.[37] It has since become one of the most significant and fastest-growing programs of Rotary service; with more than 12,300 clubs in 133 countries and geographical areas, Interact has become a worldwide phenomenon. Almost 290,000 young people are involved in Interact.
[edit] PolioPlus

The most notable current global project, PolioPlus, is contributing to the global eradication of polio. Since beginning the project in 1985, Rotarians have contributed over US$850 million and tens of thousands of volunteer-hours, leading to the inoculation of more than two billion of the world's children. Inspired by Rotary's commitment, the World Health Organization (WHO)

passed a resolution in 1988 to eradicate polio by 2000. Now a partner in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) with WHO, UNICEF and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rotary is recognized by the United Nations as the key private partner in the eradication effort. In 2008, Rotary received a $100 million challenge grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Rotary committed to raising $100 million. In January 2009, Bill Gates announced a second challenge grant of $255 million. Rotary again committed to raising another $100 million. In total, Rotary will raise $200 million by June 30, 2012. Together, the Gates Foundation and Rotary have committed $555 million toward the eradication of polio. At the time of the second challenge grant, Bill Gates said:
"We know that it’s a formidable challenge to eradicate a disease that has killed and crippled children since at least the time of the ancient Egyptians. We don’t know exactly when the last child will be affected. But we do have the vaccines to wipe it out. Countries do have the will to deploy all the tools at their disposal. If we all have the fortitude to see this effort through to the end, then we will eradicate polio."[38]

There has been some limited criticism concerning the program for polio eradication. There are some reservations regarding the adaptation capabilities of the virus in some of the oral vaccines, which have been reported to cause infection in populations with low vaccination coverage.[39] As stated by Vaccine Alliance, however, in spite of the limited risk of polio vaccination, it would neither be prudent nor practicable to cease the vaccination program until there is strong evidence that "all wild poliovirus transmission [has been] stopped". In a recent speech at the Rotary International Convention, held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Bruce Cohick stated that polio in all its known wild forms will be eliminated by late 2008, provided efforts in Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India all proceed with their current momentum.[40]
[edit] Exchanges and scholarships

Some of Rotary's most visible programs include Rotary Youth Exchange, a student exchange program for students in secondary education, and the Rotary Foundation's oldest program, Ambassadorial Scholarships. Today, there are six different types of Rotary Scholarships. More than 38,000 men and women from 100 nations have studied abroad under the auspices of Ambassadorial Scholarship, and today it is the world's largest privately funded international scholarships program. In 2006-07 grants totaling approximately US$15 million were used to award some 800 scholarships to recipients from 69 countries who studied in 64 nations. The Exchange Students of Rotary Club Munich International publish their experiences on a regular basis on Rotary Youth Exchange with Germany. In July 2009 the Rotary Foundation ended funding for the Cultural and Multi-Year Ambassadorial Scholarships as well as Rotary Grants for University Teachers.[41] Rotary Fellowships, paid by the foundation launched in honor of Paul Harris in 1947, specialize in providing graduate fellowships around the world, usually in countries other than their own in order to provide international exposure and experience to the recipient.[42] Recently, a new program was established known as the Rotary peace and Conflict Resolution program which

provides funds for two years of graduate study in one of eight universitites around the world. Rotary is naming about seventy five of these scholars each year. The applications for these scholarships are found on line but each application must be endorsed by a local Rotary Club. Children and other close relatives of Rotarians are not eligible.
[edit] Rotary Centers for International Studies

Starting in 2002, The Rotary Foundation partnered with eight universities around the world to create the Rotary Centers for International Studies in peace and conflict resolution. The universities include International Christian University (Japan), University of Queensland (Australia), Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) (France), University of Bradford (United Kingdom), Universidad del Salvador (Argentina), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (U.S.), Duke University (U.S.), Chulalongkorn University (Thailand) and University of California, Berkeley (U.S.) Since then, the Rotary Foundation's Board of Trustees has dropped its association with the Center in France at the Paris Institute of Political Studies and is currently ending its association with the University of California, Berkeley. Rotary World Peace Fellows complete two year masters level programs in conflict resolution, peace studies, and international relations. The first class graduated in 2004.[43] As with many such university programs in "peace and conflict studies", questions have been raised concerning political bias and controversial grants. As of August 2006, the Rotary Foundation had spent $18 million on its "peace and conflict" Centers, and the average grant was about $60,000 per enrollee in the two-year program. In 2004, Fellows established the Rotary World Peace Fellows Association[44] to promote interaction among Fellows, Rotarians, and the public on issues related to peace studies.
[edit] Literacy programs

Rotary clubs worldwide place a focus on increasing literacy. Such importance has been placed on literacy that Rotary International has created a “Rotary Literacy Month” that takes place during the month of March.[45] Rotary clubs also aim to conduct many literacy events during the week of September 8, which is International Literacy Day.[46] Some Rotary clubs raise funds for schools and other literacy organizations. Many clubs take part in a reading program called "Rotary Readers," in which a Rotary member spends time in a classroom with a designated student, and reads one-on-one with them.[47] As well as raising funds and reading with children, some Rotary clubs participate in book donations, both locally and internationally.[48]
[edit] Rotaract Main article: Rotaract

Rotaract: a service club for young men and women aged 18 to 30 with around 185,000 members in 7,000 clubs in 163 countries. Rotaract clubs are either community or university based, and

they are sponsored by a local Rotary club. This makes them true "partners in service" and key members of the family of Rotary.[49]
[edit] Rotary Community Corps

The Rotary Community Corps (RCC) is a volunteer organization with an estimated 157,000 nonRotarian men and women in over 6,800 communities in 78 countries.
[edit] Individual club efforts

While there are numerous Rotary-wide efforts, Rotary clubs are also encouraged to take part in local ventures; In a more unusual twist, Rosalie Maguire, a Batavia, New York, Rotarian, taking a cue from Calendar Girls convinced fellow members (a man for each month and a male cover) to pose for a "nude" calendar sold as part of a $250,000 fundraiser for a local hospital.[50] Members are occasionally assessed mock "fines" for minor infractions as a way of raising funds: these fines could, in 1951, range from 10 cents to $1,000.[51] Some clubs have "Happy Dollars" or "Happy Bucks" which include paying a dollar for the right to tell a story to the club.

Indian Red Cross Society
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December
2008)

Indian Red Cross Society
The Red Cross symbol Formation Type Purpose/focus Headquarters Region served 1920 Humanitarian organization Humanitarian aid New Delhi, India India

Secretary General Main organ Budget Website

Dr. S.P. Agarwal National Managing Body INR 592.8 lac (2008) www.indianredcross.org

Indian Red Cross Society is a voluntary humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, medical services, and education to rasise awareness regarding health related issues in India. It is the designated Indian affiliate of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. Indian Red Cross Society was founded in 1920. It has its headquarters in Delhi.The Indian Red Cross is a voluntary humanitarian organization having a network of over 700 branches throughout India, and provides relief during disasters and emergencies as well as promotes the healthcare of vulnerable people and communities.


[edit] Mission
The Mission of the Indian Red Cross is to inspire, encourage and initiate at all times all forms of humanitarian activities so that human suffering can be minimized and even prevented and thus contribute to creating more congenial climate for peace.

[edit] Origin
During the first World War in 1914, India had no organization for relief services to the affected soldiers, except a branch of the St. John Ambulance Association and by a Joint Committee of the British Red Cross. Later, a branch of the same Committee was started to undertake the much needed relief services in collaboration with the St. John Ambulance Association in aid of the soldiers as well as civilian sufferers of the horrors of that great war. A bill to constitute the Indian Red Cross Society, Independent of the British Red Cross, was introduced in the Indian Legislative Council on March 3, 1920 by Sir Claude Hill, member of the Viceroy's Executive Council who was also Chairman of the Joint War Committee in India . The Bill was passed on March 17, 1920 and became Act XV of 1920 with the assent of the Governor General on the March 20, 1920. The Indian Red Cross's programmes are grouped into four main core areas: Promoting humanitarian principles and values; Disaster response; Disaster preparedness; and Health and Care in the Community.

Red Cross promotes the Humanitarian values , which encourage respect for other human beings and a willingness to work together to find solutions to problems. From the seven fundamental principles, the movement aims to influence the behaviour of all the people. Disaster response continues to represent the largest portion of IRCS work, with assistance to millions of people annually ranging from refugees to victims of natural disasters. The sharp increase in the number of natural disasters countrywide in recent years has prompted the Red Cross to devote more attention to Disaster preparedness activities. These aim to make Red Cross Societies and communities more aware of the risks they face, how to reduce their vulnerability, and how to cope when disaster strikes. Too many people die as a result of access to even the most basic health services and elementary health education. Health and community care has become a cornerstone of humanitarian assistance, and accounts for a small part of Red Cross spending. Through these programmes, the Red Cross aims to enable communities to reduce their vulnerability to disease, and prepare for and respond to public health crises. Guiding and supporting the development of its Societies is one of the Red Cross's fundamental tasks and runs through these four core areas and others. Capacity building programmes and activities include : management and volunteer training, improving branch structures, planning, fund-raising and gender equality. creating the opportunity for Red Cross Societies to network . Other Major activities includes : hospital services, blood bank, HIV/AIDS programmes, home for disabled servicemen ,vocational training centers, tracing activities, maternity , child and family welfare, nursing, junior red cross activities, preparedness and prevention of communicable & infectious diseases, relief operations in fire, railway & other accidents and events . On June 7, 1920, fifty members were formally nominated to constitute the Indian Red Cross Society and the first Managing Body was elected from among them with Sir William Malcolm Hailey as Chairman. Indian Red Cross Society has a partnership with National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, St.John Ambulance, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (FRI3), International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Multinational firms. Individuals and others in supporting IRCS activities. It also coordinates with Indian Government and other agencies (UNDP, WHO etc.)

[edit] Emblem
A red Cross on a white background is the Emblem of Red Cross, recognized in 1864 as the distinctive sign for medical relief teams on the battle field. In the Russo-Turkish war, the Ottoman Empire used a Red Crescent in place of the Red Cross. Egypt, too, opted for the Red Crescent, while Persia chose a Red Lion on a white background.

These symbols were written and accepted into the 1929 Geneva Conventions. The IRCS adopted RED CROSS as its emblem. More recently, in 1977, India also requested a symbol different to the cross or crescent, as did several other countries. These requests seem fair, but were rejected on the grounds that having too many emblems would defeat the original goal of having just one, easily recognisable symbol that could be used to identify collateral that should be protected. Territorialism goes against everything the movement stands for. The issue remained however that the main symbols, the cross and crescent, are used as religious symbols. Therefore in December 2005 a Diplomatic Conference in Geneva adopted a Third Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions, creating an additional emblem alongside the red cross and red crescent. Having no religious, political, racial, ideological or any other connotation, the new emblem adopted was the Red Crystal.

[edit] Organization


Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS) was established in 1920 under the Indian Red Cross Society Act and incorporated under Parliament Act XV of 1920.The act was last amended in 1992 and of rules were formed in 1994. The IRCS has 35 State / Union Territories Branches with their more than 700 districts and sub district branches. His Excellency The President of India is the President and Hon'ble Union Health Minister is the Chairman of the Society The Vice Chairman is elected by the members of the Managing Body. The National Managing Body consists of 19 members. The Chairman and 6 members are nominated by the President. The remaining 12 are elected by the state and union territory branches through an electoral college. The Managing Body is responsible for governance and supervision of the functions of the society through a number of committees. The Secretary General is the Chief Executive of the Society.

      

A list of Chairmen of the IRC prior to 1947:


Sir William Malcolm Hailey G.C.S.I., K.C.S.I., C.S.I., G.C.M.G. C.I.E., D.LITT., D. LAWS, D.C.L.I.C.S. (1872–1969) - as first Chairman from 1920 to 1930

[edit] Seven Fundamental Principles
1. Humanity : The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, born of a desire to bring assistance without discrimination to the wounded on the battlefield, endeavors, in its international and national capacity, to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be

found. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. It promotes mutual understanding, friendship, cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples. 2. Impartiality : It makes no discrimination as to nationally, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. It endeavors to relieve the suffering of individuals, being solely by their needs, and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress. 3. Neutrality : In orders to enjoy the confidence of all, the Movement may not take sides in hostilities or engage in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature. 4. Independence : The Movement is independent. The National Societies, while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries, must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement. 5. Voluntary service : It is voluntary relief movement not prompted in any manner by desire for gain. 6. Unity: There can be only one Red Cross Or Red Crescent in any one country. It must be open to all. It must carry on its humanitarian work throughout its territory. 7. Universality : The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, in which all societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other, is worldwide.

[ [edit] Programmes and activities
Red Cross was formed to help the wounded in the wars. Therefore rendering First Aid to any wounded persons during wars, accidents, disasters etc is one of the prime duties and aims of Red Cross Society. The Indian Red Cross's programmes are grouped into four main core areas: Promoting humanitarian principles and values; Disaster response; Disaster preparedness; and Health and Care in the Community. Red Cross promotes the Humanitarian values , which encourage respect for other human beings and a willingness to work together to find solutions to problems. From the seven fundamental principles, the movement aims to influence the behaviour of all the people. Disaster response continues to represent the largest portion of IRCS work, with assistance to millions of people annually ranging from refugees to victims of natural disasters. The sharp increase in the number of natural disasters countrywide in recent years has prompted the Red Cross to devote more attention to Disaster preparedness activities. These aim to make

Red Cross Societies and communities more aware of the risks they face, how to reduce their vulnerability, and how to cope when disaster strikes. Too many people die as a result of no access to even the most basic health services and elementary health education. Health and community care has become a cornerstone of humanitarian assistance, and accounts for a large part of Red Cross spending. Through these programmes, the Red Cross aims to enable communities to reduce their vulnerability to disease, and prepare for and respond to public health crises. Guiding and supporting the development of its Societies is one of the Red Cross's fundamental tasks and runs through these four core areas and others. Capacity building programmes and activities include : management and volunteer training, improving branch structures, planning, fund-raising and gender equality. creating the opportunity for Red Cross Societies to network . Other Major activities includes : first aid training(basic and advanced levels,CPR), hospital services, blood bank, HIV/AIDS programmes, home for disabled servicemen ,vocational training centers, tracing activities, maternity , child and family welfare, nursing, junior red cross activities, preparedness and prevention of communicable & infectious diseases, relief operations in fire, railway & other accidents and events .

[edit] Youth Red Cross
Youth represent a substantial part of the membership of Red Cross for its humanitarian commitment. Young volunteers can make a significant contribution to meeting the needs of the most vulnerable people within their local communities through Red Cross youth programme. This has been designed to involve young people as much as possible in the movement and its activities not only as workers and also as beneficiaries, but as partners in management. The programme focuses on the following areas:
     

Promote life and health through training and education on safety, primary health care and healthy living, Encourage community service through training and education. Disseminate the seven fundamental principles of Red Cross and Red Crescent movement through activities that encourage the Red Cross ideals. Promote international friendship with activities that cultivate a humanitarian spirit. Technical support in the development of youth programmes, fund-raising, identification of material and human resources. The youth unit aims to have young people recognized by Societies leadership as equal partners who address the needs of the most vulnerable.

[edit] Junior Red Cross
Children and adolescent also represent a substantial part of the membership of Red Cross for its humanitarian commitment. Young volunteers can make a significant contribution to meeting the needs of the most vulnerable people within their local communities through Red Cross programme. This has been designed to involve young people as much as possible in the

movement and its activities not only as workers but also as beneficiaries, and as partners in management. The programme focuses on the following areas:


Promote life and health through training and education on safety, primary health care and healthy living,

Encourage community service through training and education.
  

Disseminate the seven fundamental principles of Red Cross and Red Crescent movement through activities that encourage the Red Cross ideals. Promote international friendship with activities that cultivate a humanitarian spirit. Technical support in the development of youth programmes, fund-raising, identification of material and human resources.

Rotary

Philosophy
The objects of Rotary are to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster:[4]
1. The development of acquaintance as an opportunity for service; 2. High ethical standards in business and professions, the recognition of the worthiness of all useful occupations, and the dignifying of each Rotarian's occupation as an opportunity to serve society; 3. The application of the ideal of service in each Rotarian's personal, business, and community life; 4. The advancement of international understanding, goodwill, and peace through a world fellowship of business and professional persons united in the ideal of service.

These objectives are set against the "Rotary 4-way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for restoring faltering businesses and was adopted as the standard of ethics by Rotary in 1942. It is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management:[5]
   

Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build good will and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned?

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