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Q.1.1 Give any four definitions of OR.

Ans. Operation Research: 1. OR is an aid for the executive in making decisions by providing him with the quantitative information, based on the scientific method analysis. 2. OR is the art of giving bad answers to problems, to which, otherwise worse answers are given. 3.OR is the art of wining wars without actually fighting them. 4.OR is the application of scientific methods by interdisciplinary teams to problems involving the control of organised (man-machine) systems so as to provide solutions which best serve the purpose of the organisation as a whole.

Q. 1.2 Comment the following statement. (i) OR is the art of wining war without actually fighting it. (ii) OR is the art of finding bad answer where worse exists.

Ans. (i) An art of wining war without actually fighting it-During world war-TI, the military management in U K and U S A engaged mterdisciplmary teams of scientists to study the strategic and tactical problems of military operations. The objective was to find out the most effective allocation of limited military resources to the various military operations. The OR teams were not actually engaged in military operations and in fighting the war. But they were only advisors and significantly instrumental in wining the war. Hence OR can be associated with “an art of wining war without actually fighting it.” (ii) An art of finding bad answer where worst exist—For the use of techniques of OR, a mathematical model of the problem is to be formulated This model is actually a simplified representation of the problems in which only the most important features are considered for reason of simplicity.

Then an optimal or most favourable solution is found. Since the model is an idealized in- stead of exact representation of real problem, the optimal solution thus obtained may not prove to be the best solution to the actual problem.

Although, we may not get the best answers but defmitely we are able to find the bad answer where worst exist. Thus operation research techniques are always able to save us from worse situation of practical life.

Q. 1.3. What is an OR Model ? What are the characteristics of OR Model?

Ans. A model is defined as• idealised representation of the real life situation. It represents one or few aspects of reality. Characteristics of OR— 1. The number of simplifying assumption should be as few as possible. 2. Model should be simple but close to reality. 3. It should be adaptable to parametric type of treatment. 4. It should be easy and economical to construct.

Q.1.4 Give the main advantage and limitation of OR model.

Ans. Advantage 1 It provides a logical and systematic approach to the problem. 2. It indicate the scope .as well as limitation of a problem.

3. It makes the overall structure of the problem more comprehensible and helps in dealing with problem in its entirety.

Limitations— Models are only idealised representation Of reality and should not be regarded as absolute in any case. The validity of a model for a particular situation can be ascertained only by conducting experiments on it.

Q. 1.5 Distinguish between: (i) Iconic or Physical Model and Analogue or schematic model. (ii) Deterministic and Probabilistic model.

Ans. (i) Iconic Model—It represent the system by enlarging or reducing the size on some scale. In other words it is an image. Example-toy aeroplane, photographs, drawings, maps etc. Schematic Model—The models, in which one set of properties is used to represent, another set of properties are called schematic or analogue models. For example-graphs used to show different quantities. (ii) Deterministic model—Such models assume conditions of complete certainty and perfect knowledge. Example-LPP, transportatiOn, assignment etc.

Probabilistic (or stochastic) Model—These type of mOdels’ usually handle such situation in which the consequences or payoff of managerial actions cannot be predicted with certainty. However it is possible to forecast a pattern of events, based on which managerial decision can be made.

For example insurance companies are willing to insure against risk of fire, accident, sickness and so on. Here the pattern of events have been compiled in the form of probability distribution.

Q. 1.6 What is the objective of operation Research?

Ans. The object,ive of OR is to provide a scientific basis to the managers of an organisation for solving problems involving interaction of the components of the system, by employing a system approach by a team of scientists drawn from different disciplines, for finding a solution which is in the best interest of the organisation as a whole.

Q. 1.7. List the characteristics of operation research.

Ans. 1. System Orientation 2. Use of interdisciplinary teams 3. Application of Scientific methOds 4. Uncovering of new problems 5. Improvement in the quality of decisions

6. Use of computer 7. Quantitative solutions 8. Human factors

Q. 1.8. Write a short note on Heuristic Programming?

Ans. Heuristic programming uses rules of thumb or intuitive rule to find the problem solution. Thus checking all the alternatives so as to obtain the optimum one, is not required. They bridge the gap between strictly analytical formulation and operating principles which manager are habitual to use. They involve step by step search towards the optimal solution when a problem cannot be expressed in mathematical programming form. It does not provide optimum solution but very near to it.

Q. 1.9. What are the various phases of operation research problems? Or Explain the methodology of operation research Or Explain the steps involved in the solution of OR Problem.

Ans. Operation research is based on scientific methodology which proceeds as: 1. Formulating the problem. 2 Constructing a model to represent the system under study

3. Deriving a solution from the model. 4. Testing the model and the solution derivq4 from it. 5. Establishing controls over the solution. 6. Putting the solution to work i.e. implementation.

(i) Assignment of job to machine (ii) Product mix (iii) Advertising media selection (iv) Transportation. 2. Dynamic programming (i) Capital budgeting (ii) Employment smoothening (iii) Cargo loading. 3. Inventory control (i) Economic order quantity

Q. 1.10. What is the importance of OR in decision making?

Ans. 1. Better control 2. Better coordination 3. Better system 4. Better decision

Q. 1. 11. Explain briefly the applications of operation research. Or Explain the scope of operation research. Or What are the areas of applications of OR.

Ans. Applications—Operation research at present finds extensive application in industry, business, government, military and agriculture. Wide variety of. industries namely airlines, automobile, transportation, petroleum, coal, chemical, mining, paper, communication, computer, electronics etc. have made extensive use of OR techniques.

Applications of Various OR Techniques: 1. Linear programming (ii) Safety stocks (iii) Reorder level, 4. Queuing theory (i) Traffic congestion (ii) Repair and maintenance of broken down rn/c. (iii) Hospital operations etc. 5. Network techniques (i) Planning, scheduling and controlling of construction of dams, bridges, roads, highways etc.

6;Replacement theory (i) Optimum replacement interval of items. (ii) Staff replacement and recruitment. Scope and areas of applications: 1. Agriculture 2. Finance 3. Industry 4. Marketing 5. Personal Management 6. Production Management 7. L.I.C. schemes 8. Research and Development 9. Allocation and Distribution

Q 1 12 What are the limitations of using results from a mathematical model to make decisions about operations. Or What are the limitations of operation research?

Ans. 1. Mathematical models, do not take into account qualitative factors or emotional factors which are quite real. All influencing factors which cannot be quantified find no place in mathematical models.

2 Mathematical models are applicable to only specific categories of problems 3. Present day problems involve numerous factors; expressing them in quantity and establishing relations among them require huge calculation 4. Management, who has to implement the advised proposals, may itself offer a lot of resistance due to conventional thinking .

Q. 1.13 What are the advantages of using results from the mathematical model to make decision about operations?

Ans. The mathematical models provides the management a quantitative basis for decision making. For example it will give answer like, “The cast to the company, if decision A is taken is X, if decision B is taken is Y, etc” —Hence it improve the quality of decision making. — It provide a way to represent the reality in the mathematical from. —It highlights the bottlenecks in production system.

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