Park Bicycle Tools Repair Guide

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Table Of Contents
Derailleur Systems Front Derailleur Adjustments Rear Derailler Adjustments (derailleur) Rear Derailleur Overhaul Cutting Cable Housing Shift Levers (shifters) Chain Line Bar End Shifter Service Shift Housing Length Bottom Brackets Cartridge Bearing Type Bottom Bracket Service (BBT) Brake Service Linear Pull Brake Service (Vbrake style)

Housing Length Brake Levers Cassette and Freewheel Service Cassette and Freewheel Removal Crank Service Crank Installation and RemovalSquare Spindle Type Removal of Cranks with Damaged Threads (square type only) Trouble Shooting a Creaky or Noisy Drive Train Headset Service Threadless Headset Service Star Fangled Nut Installation Chain repair and service Chain Installation- derailleur

bikes Chain Length Sizing Tire and Inner Tube Service Inner Tube Repair Tire and Tube Removal and Installaton Miscellaneous Bike Washing and Cleaning Common Tools

Derailleur Systems

Front Derailleur Adjustments Useful Tools and Supplies
Repair Stand, holds bike secure for easy work. Hex wrenches as needed. Screwdriver (#2 Phillips or straight blade) Light liquid lubricant Derailleur cable inner wire and housing as needed Caliper or metric ruler

Cable end caps and housing end caps as needed Rags This article will discuss the basic adjustment of the front derailleur. See also related articles: This article assumes the derailleur is compatible with the shifting system and is not extremely worn out. Cable and housing length is not covered in the article, see How do I cut cable and housing and how long should housing be?

Service Procedures
The front derailleur simply shoves

the chain off one front chain ring and onto another ring. The cage surrounding the chain is pulled in one direction by the inner wire. A spring in the derailleur returns the cage to the other direction when the inner wire is relaxed. A properly adjusted front derailleur should shift the chain between the front chainrings but will not throw the chain off the rings. The basic adjustments for the front derailleur are the height, rotation, limit screws and inner wire tension (index setting). It is generally a good idea to lubricate the pivot point of the front

derailleur with a light lubricant. The cable inner wires should also be lubricated. If you have loosen the inner wire pinch bolt, lubricate those threads as well. When tightening this pinch bolt, secure to approximately 30-40 inch-pounds. This is about 10 pounds of effort hold a wrench 3 inches from the bolt.

Front Derailleur Height
Before checking limit screw adjustments, check the derailleur positioning. If the derailleur cage is too far above the large chainring, it is more likely to shift poorly. If the

derailleur is too low, it may scrape against the chainrings or jam the chain when shifting. Some front derailleur models do not have height or rotation adjustments. These models mount on a plate and both height and rotation settings are pre-set. Additionally, some bikes have a bracket commonly referred to as a "œbraze-on" for front derailleur mounting. This bracket will allow limited height and rotational settings. 1. Inspect height alignment of front derailleur. The outer cage plate must be positioned over

the largest chainring when viewing height. Simply grab the exposed front derailleur inner wire until outer cage plate is directly over outer chainring teeth. Use care to not shift the derailleur cage past this point. Note height and direction of change needed. It is then necessary to relax the cable to loosen the mounting bolt and raise or lower the height as needed. 2. The gap between the teeth of the outer chainring and lower edge of the outer cage plate should be 1-2mm, about the

thickness of a penny. Using a penny or a dime as a feeler gauge, fit it between the chainring teeth and the cage plate. It should just fit between the teeth and plate.

3. To lower cage, release inner wire tension completely by

shifting to innermost chainring. Note angle of outer cage plate relative to chainring. 4. Front derailleur clamps typically leave a mark on the frame, which is useful as a reference when changing height. Loosen derailleur clamp bolt, change derailleur height, and return cage to same rotation relative to chainring. Tighten clamp bolt. Move outer cage plate over outer chainring, and check height again. Repeat this process until cage plate height is 1-2mm above outer chainring.

Front Derailleur Rotational Angle
The front derailleur cage should be approximately parallel to the chain. If the derailleur cage is rotated too far from this position, it will shift poorly. If the derailleur mount is a clamp type, its rotation can be changed. Generally, the outer cage of the front derailleur should be aligned to the chain. The middle image below shows adequate alignment.

1. Shift chain to outermost chainring and outermost rear sprocket. 2. Sight chain from directly above chainrings. Consider the chain as representing a straight line.

Compare this line to outer derailleur cage plate. Outer cage plate and chain should be parallel. Keeping the cage and chain parallel will minimize the risk of the chain jumping off the outermost ring. If cage is not parallel, there will be a relatively large gap at either the back or the front end of the cage, and the chain may over shift. 3. If derailleur cage needs to be rotated, note direction of desired rotation. 4. Release inner wire tension by shifting to the innermost chainring.

5. Many clamps leave a slight marking on the frame. Use this scarring as a reference when changing height. It is also possible to use a pencil to make two reference marks on the frame, one for height and a second, vertical mark, to reference rotation. Use the marks to avoid inadvertently changing height. 6. Loosen clamp bolt and slightly rotate in correct direction. Use care not to change height. Tighten derailleur clamp bolt. 7. Shift to outer chainring and observe rotation alignment.

Repeat adjustment if necessary. NOTE: Some front derailleur models do not have height or rotation adjustments. These models mount on a plate and both height and rotation settings are pre-set. Additionally, some bikes have a bracket commonly referred to as a "œbraze-on" for front derailleur mounting. This bracket will allow limited height and rotational settings.

Front Derailleur Limit Screw Settings
Limit screws stop the inward and outward travel of the front

derailleur cage. Limit screws are marked "L" and "H". The L-screw will stop the motion of the derailleur toward the smallest chainring. The H-screw will stop the motion of the derailleur toward the largest chainring. If the limit screws lack any marking, you will need to determine which are the "H" and "L" by testing. Begin with the chain on the smallest cog. Relax the cable tension completely using the cable barrel adjuster. Place a hand on the derailleur body to feel for any lateral motion, and select one screw to turn one full turn clockwise

and then counter-clockwise. If you felt motion in the derailleur, this is the "L" screw. If there was no motion, do the same test with the other limit screw. You should consider marking the "L" screw permanently. The other screw by default is the "H" screw. Although the limit screws will stop the derailleur, it is the inner wire and derailleur spring that make the derailleur move. If the inner wire has too much tension, the derailleur will not rest on the L-screw stop. If the inner wire tension were to change, the derailleur inner limit would also change, possibly causing

the chain to fall off the rings.

Front Derailleur Adjusting L-screw
The L-screw controls the inward most travel of the front derailleur. Set adequately, it allows the chain to shift to the smallest ring, but not beyond so it falls off. 1. Shift chain to innermost rear sprocket and innermost front chainring. Inspect derailleur for marking indicating "L" screw. 2. Check inner wire tension. It should be fairly loose at this time. If inner wire is taut, turn

barrel adjuster clockwise into housing. The barrel adjuster is typically located where the cable housing enters the shift lever. If barrel adjuster is already fully turned into housing, loosen inner wire pinch bolt, slacken inner wire and retighten bolt. 3. Sight gap between inner chain plate and inner cage plate. Only a small gap should be visible, about 1/16" or 1mm, about the thickness of a dime.

4. Pedal bike slowly and continue to sight gap. Set clearance at tightest point in chainring rotation. Adjust L-screw so there is a small gap between inner

cage and inner chain plate. Pedal bike and check that chain is not rubbing cage as chainrings turn. If there is no gap and chain is rubbing cage, loosen L-limit screw 1/8 turn (counterclockwise). Inspect for gap again and repeat until slight gap appears. 2. If the gap appears larger than 1mm at its widest point, tighten the Lscrew, in small increments, until the gap closes. 5. Test the shift by shifting chain to next chainring then shift back to the innermost ring. Do not use the shift lever. Pull on the inner

wire to shift the derailleur. Using the lever may confuse limit screw issues with cable tension issues. If chain shifts quickly, limit screw setting is adequate. 6. If the shifting appears is slow (requires more than one pedal revolution to initiate shift), turn L-limit counter-clockwise 1/8 turn and repeat test. Repeat 1/8turn increments until shifting is adequate. The gap will open wider than the 1mm target, but will still be as small as possible with adequate shifting. 7. If chain is shifting beyond the inner ring and falls off the

chainring, gap may be too large or cage alignment may be off. Tighten L-screw 1/8 turn and check shift again. If chain ends up rubbing inner cage of derailleur, yet still drops off inner ring when shifting, other problems such as chain line or derailleur rotation exist.

Front DerailleurAdjusting H-screw
The outward travel of the front derailleur is stopped by the Hscrew. When viewing the H-limit adjustment, make sure there is enough tension on the inner wire by

either keeping extra pressure on the lever, or by pulling the exposed inner wire taut by hand. Use a rag to protect your hand if pulling the inner wire. After the H-screw is adjusted the inner wire should be re-tensioned to assure proper shifting. 1. Shift to outermost sprocket in rear and outermost front chainring. Inspect derailleur for mark indicating H-screw. 2. Pull inner wire with hand to increase tension to insure derailleur is against H-screw. 3. Maintain full pressure on inner

wire and check gap between chain and outer cage plate. Only a small gap should be visible, about 1/16" or 1mm. Pedal bike slowly and continue to sight gap. Set clearance at tightest point in chainring rotation.

A. If chain is rubbing cage, loosen H-screw 1/8 turn and pull fully on inner wire. Check gap again. B. If chain is not rubbing,

tighten H-screw repeatedly until chain is 1mm 4. Test shift to the large ring. Shift derailleur from next to largest to largest ring using hand pressure on inner wire rather than shift lever. If shifting is slow, loosen H-limit screw slightly and repeat test. If chain shifts off the outside of the large chainring, the outer-limit is set too loose. Tighten H-screw limit and test shift again.

Front DerailleurAdjusting Indexing (Three Chainring Bikes)

Some front derailleur systems have an index setting. If the shift lever has three distinctive stops or clicks, it is indexing. If the front shift lever is friction, there is no index setting. If the front shift lever has multiple clicks, such as some twist grip style shifters, it is shifted similar to friction levers. Set indexing only after completing all adjustment above. 1. Shift chain to middle chainring in the front and innermost rear sprocket. 2. View gap between inner cage plate and chain. Gap should be as small as possible without

rubbing chain.

3. To reduce gap, increase inner wire tension by turning barrel adjuster counter-clockwise. Adjusting barrel may be on

frame or on shift lever. Check gap again. 4. If chain is rubbing cage, turn barrel adjuster clockwise, or inward toward shifter body. 5. If barrel adjuster is all the way in or out and no adjustment is possible, reset inner wire tension. Shift to innermost chainring and loosen inner wire pinch bolt. Pull wire gently with fourth-hand tool and tighten pinch bolt. Begin adjustment of inner wire tension as above.

6. Test shift of front derailleur to all three front chain rings. If the derailleur rubs in the largest front chainring, double check Hlimit screw and inner wire tension, which may be too loose. If chain is slow to shift to smallest chainring, double check L-limit screw and inner wire tension, which may be too tight.

Front Derailleur-

Adjusting Indexing (Two Chainring Bikes)
Some front derailleur systems have an index setting. If the shift lever has two distinctive stops or clicks, it is indexing. If the front shift lever is friction, there is no index setting. 1. Shift chain to outer chain ring in the front and outermost rear cog. 2. View gap between outer cage plate and chain. 3. If outer cage plate clears chain, index setting is adequate. 4. If plate is rubbing chain, increase

inner wire tension by turning adjusting barrel counterclockwise and check again. 5. If barrel adjuster is all the way in or out and no adjustment is possible, reset inner wire tension. Shift to innermost chainring and loosen inner wire pinch bolt. Pull the wire with fourth-hand tool and tighten pinch bolt. Begin adjustment of inner wire tension as above. 6. Test shift of front derailleur to both front chainrings.

Front Derailleur Performance

The front derailleur should shift the chain between chainrings without throwing the chain off the extreme outer and inner rings. It is possible that the front derailleur will rub the chain slightly even on properly adjusted bikes. This is likely on some bikes when riding in the largest sprocket in front and the smallest cog in back. As the bike is pedaled with force the frame flexes and moves the chainrings side to side, which cause an intermittent rubbing noise. Loosening the H-limit would move the front cage out more, and may stop the rubbing, but it may also cause the chain to

shift over the largest ring and come off. If all aspects of front derailleur adjustments are correct on this bike, the rider is simply exceeding the engineering and design capabilities of the machine.

Rear Derailler Adjustments (derailleur) Rear Derailleur Adjustment
Typical Tools and Supplies Needed: Repair Stand, PRS and PCS stands. Screwdriver, Phillips #2 or straight blade Hex Wrenches, if changing innerwire AWS series. Light lubricant Forth Hand Tool BT-2 Cable cutter, if trimming cable CN-

10 Rags The article will discuss the adjustment of the rear derailleur. See also related articles: Derailleur bicycles have several sprockets on the rear hub. By using different combinations, the rider will find low gears for going up hill and high gears for going down hill. The gear system needs maintenance and adjustment to perform well. The cable system may also need replacement as it wears. The derailleur limit screws and index setting will need periodic checking.

This article will first discuss limit screw setting, and then index adjustments.

Derailleur Limit Screws (H-Screw and L-Screw)
Rear derailleurs "derail" the chain from one sprocket and move it to another. The upper derailleur pulley (called the "guide pulley" or Gpulley) pushes the chain to the next sprocket. A proper gear adjustment aligns the guide pulley under the intended sprocket. Changes to the inner wire tension causes movement in the derailleur. The derailleur body is fitted with a

spring that is pulled tight, or relaxed, by the inner wire. Pulling the inner wire moves the derailleur cage and guide pulley in one direction and tightens the spring. Relaxing inner wire tension allows the spring to move the body and pulley in the opposite direction. It is normal for a chain to make some noise during a shift. The shift may appear subjectively "noisy," "loud," or "rough". Factors like the type of chain or sprocket, the wear on each, and the amount and type of lubrication will affect the noise a chain makes during shifting. The limit screws typically can do nothing

to affect the noise during a shift between cogs. Noise from the chain as it rides on the sprocket is, however, a useful symptom. There is for any given bike a "base level" of noise from the chain as it passes over the sprocket teeth. When the derailleur jockey wheel is out of alignment, the chain may make excessive noise. To demonstrate the "base level" noise, shift the bike to the second sprocket by pulling the inner wire. Continue to pedal and move the inner wire slightly to hear changes in the level of noise. The quietest level of noise may be considered the base level for that

bike. Derailleur pulleys are limited in both inward and outward motions by using the derailleur limit screws. Properly set, the derailleur will shift to both the extreme outward sprocket (the smallest in size) and the extreme innermost sprocket (the largest in size). The limit screws do not control the derailleur on the sprockets between the two extremes. These are set using the barrel adjuster and tension on the inner wire. The limit screws are usually marked "H" and "L". The "H" controls the outer most limit of the derailleur, and the "L" controls

the inner most limit.

Using the shift lever to adjust limit screws can cause confusion and problems because it tends to focus attention on the inner wire tension (indexing) rather than limit screw settings. Instead of using the shift lever, pull the inner wire with one

hand to simulate shift lever action. This will help eliminate confusion between indexing problems and limit screw problems. With the bike in a stand, practice shifting with this method before adjusting the limit screws.

Turning the limit screws adjusts the

limit of travel of the pulleys. Tightening restricts the travel, while loosening allows more travel. The purpose of the following procedure is to find the tightest H-limit screw setting that will allow a good shift to the outermost cog, and the tightest L-screw setting that will allow a good shift to the innermost cog. The location of limit screws on the derailleur body may vary between manufacturers. Always look for the "H" and "L" marked adjacent to the screws.

H-Limit Screw
Shift chain to outermost

(largest) chainring. Shift chain to outermost rear sprocket (smallest sprocket). Check tension on rear inner wire. If inner wire appears to have any tension, it may interfere with the H-screw setting. Turn adjusting-barrel clockwise to eliminate inner wire tension. Proper cable tension (indexing) will be adjusted later. Pedal bike at a quick cadence, approximately 60 rpm or more. Pull inner wire to shift derailleur one sprocket inward. Adjust pull on inner wire until chain rides

quietly on second sprocket. Release inner wire quickly to shift back to outermost sprocket and note shift. When adjusting the H-screw, be concerned with two situations: 1. The outward shift from the second sprocket to the outermost sprocket. 2. How the chain rides on the outermost sprocket. 3. Do not be concerned with how the chain rides when it is held on the second sprocket. 4. If the shift outward seems

acceptable, tighten H-screw 1/4 turn clockwise and repeat shift. Even if shift appears acceptable, continue tightening H-screw by 1/4 turn increments and checking shift until shifting is slow or hesitant. Another symptom of a too tight H-limit screw is when the chain is on the smallest cog but makes a rattle from rubbing the second sprocket inward. View this last symptom by looking under the rear sprockets where the chain meets the sprockets. The inner plate of

the chain will rub against the next sprocket inward making the noise. 5. When symptoms of a too tight H-screw appear, loosen H-screw 1/4 turn and check shift again. Repeat process of shifting and correcting by 1/4 turn increments. When too tight symptoms disappear, Hscrew is at tightest acceptable setting, and limit screw setting is done.

NOTE: "Rapid Rise" or "LowNormal" derailleurs use a reverse spring application. When the inner wire tension is completely relaxed, the derailleur sits on the inner most sprocket, which is reversed from other common derailleurs. When adjusting the H-limit screw, it is

necessary to pull the inner wire until the chain is in the second to outermost sprocket then pull hard to shift to the outermost sprocket. The same concept is used to adjust the Shimano® "Rapid-Rise" or "Low-Normal" derailleurs. You want the tightest limit screw setting that allows good shifting to the extreme outer and inner cogs.

L-Limit Screw
The L-limit stops the derailleur from moving inward (toward the spokes). The limit screw does not make the derailleur move, pulling the inner wire makes the derailleur move.

The L-screw allows the pulley wheels to shift the chain to the innermost sprocket and yet not shift off the sprocket into the spokes. 1. Shift bike to middle chainring (or smaller ring of double chainring bikes) and to second-toinnermost rear sprocket. 2. Pedal bike at a quick cadence, approximately 60 rpm or more. 3. Pull inner wire by hand to shift derailleur sprocket inward. When adjusting the L-screw, be concerned with two situations: 1. The inward shift from the second-to-innermost sprocket

to the innermost sprocket. 2. How the chain rides on the innermost sprocket. 3. If shifting seems adequate, tighten L-screw 1/4 turn, and repeat shift. Continue to tighten L-screw until symptoms of too tight appear. These symptoms are that the chain will not complete shift even with pressure on inner wire, the chain hesitates before shifting inward even with constant pressure on inner wire, or the chain rattles excessively when riding on innermost sprocket

4. When symptoms of a too tight L-screw appear, loosen L-screw 1/4 turn and check shift again. Repeat process of shifting and correcting by 1/4 turns. When too tight symptoms disappear, L-screw is at tightest acceptable setting, and limit screw setting is done.

B-Screw Adjustment
After setting the L-screw, check the "B-screw" for an adequate setting. The B-screw controls the derailleur body angle, hence the name, Bscrew. Shift to the innermost rear cog, which is the largest cog. View the upper pulley relative to the

largest cog. If the pulley is rubbing against this cog, tighten the Bscrew to increase upper pivot spring tension, which pulls the pulley back and away from the cog. If there is a large gap between the upper pulley and cog, loosen the screw. To find a good setting, loosen the B-screw until the upper pulley begins to rub, then tighten the screw to get clearance.

Check for rubbing of largest sprocket and upper pulley

Change B-screw as necessary Campagnolo® Some Campagnolo® model derailleurs have a body tension adjustment at the pulley cage, not at the upper pivot. The screw is basically a "rack and pinonquot; system. The cage spring plate rotates to increase or decrease tension. The upper pivot and lower cage pivot springs oppose one another. In this system, the upper spring is fixed. Increasing cage tension (turning screw clockwise) will bring the upper pulley closer to the cog. Decreasing cage tension (turning screw counter-clockwise)

will increase the distane between upper pulley and cog.

SRAM® Derailleurs Sram® designates a 6mm between the largest rear cog and the upper pulley. Use a 6mm hex wrench to help estimate this gap.

NOTE: Shimano "Rapid rise" or "Low-Normal" Shimano® "Rapid rise" derailleurs or "Low-Normal" reverse the spring direction from conventional derailleurs. The derailleur moves inward (toward the spokes) when the cable tension in relaxed, or or "normal" position. To adjust L-screw, pull on inner wire and shift outward one sprocket, then release inner wire to shift inward. Tighten L-screw until shifting is slow, then turn counterclockwise 1/4 turn until good shifting is restored. The process above sets the limits to the tightest setting that still shifts

well. This allows the derailleur to wear with use and time, and yet still allow a good setting. After limit screws are set, proceed to index adjustments.

Checking the Rear Indexing Adjustment
The rear indexing adjustment should only be done after the Hlimit and L-limit screws are adjusted. The rear derailleur indexing is adjusted by changing the inner wire tension. For the common rear derailleurs, increasing inner wire tension tends to move the rear derailleur more to the left,

or toward the spokes. Less inner wire tension tends to move the derailleur to the right. The inner wire tension will not stop the derailleur at its extreme limits. The H-limit screw stops the derailleur at its right most setting, and the Llimit screw stops the derailleur at its left most setting. (Shimano® or "Low-Normal" derailleur are a bit different, see procedures at the bottom.) Modern indexing shift levers use dwell, which is a hesitation between movements in the lever. These hesitations are timed to match the movements of the

derailleur and the spacing in the rear sprockets. The design of some derailleur and shift lever brands requires more of a push (or twist) of the lever to complete the shift. The amount of extra push or twist is not consistent between manufacturers and each rider must learn the particular attributes of his or her system. Changes to inner wire tension are made at the adjusting barrel. Adjusting barrels may be located either at the rear derailleur or at the shift lever. The goal of adjusting the indexing is to find the tightest inner wire tension setting

that will allow good shifting to the gears normally used. This will allow the longest lasting indexing adjustment as the system wears and the cable system stretches with use. To find the tightest inner wire setting, you will purposely make the setting too tight then relax tension slightly. There are two basic symptoms for a "too tight" inner wire. These are a rattling noise from the chain rubbing against the next cog inward, and a slow or hesitant outward shift. These are symptoms for rear derailleurs that sit outward when inner wire tension is released.

NOTE: If the cable inner wire is not correctly routed into the derailleur pinch bolt, a good indexing setting may not be possible. The wire should leave the barrel adjuster and travel straight to the pinch mechanism. The upper image is correctly routed, while the lower image shows incorrect routing.

Index Setting
1. Set limit screws (if not already done). 2. Shift chain to outermost rear

sprocket (smallest). Shift chain to outermost (largest) chainring in front. 3. Test initial inner wire tension. Pedal a normal cadence and shift rear derailleur with one click on lever. Use care to only move lever one position. If derailleur moves one sprocket, tension is adequate. 4. If derailleur fails to shift one sprocket, inner wire may be too slack. Turn barrel adjuster fully into derailleur body (or shift lever) then turn counter clockwise two turns to allow for index adjustments. Loosen

inner wire pinch bolt and gently pull on inner wire with fourth hand tool or pliers to remove slack. Tighten inner wire pinch bolt. 5. If derailleur will not shift one sprocket after removing slack in "d", return lever back to outermost sprocket position and increase inner wire tension by turning barrel adjuster counter-clockwise 1/4 turn and attempt shift again. 6. Shift to second sprocket in rear. Pedal and increase inner wire tension by continuing to turn adjusting barrel counter-

clockwise until a definite rattling is heard. Rattle is from chain scrapping against next sprocket. 7. Once a too-tight rattle is achieved, turn barrel adjuster 1/4 turn clockwise, to release inner wire tension, and pedal again. Listen and look for signs of scraping or rattling. Continue turning barrel adjuster 1/4 turn clockwise at a time until rattle disappears. 8. Shift derailleur one sprocket inward at a time, listening for signs of rattle, indicating a too tight inner wire. Turn adjusting

barrel 1/4 turn clockwise to eliminate rattle. Note: Do not attempt shift to largest rear sprocket while in largest front sprocket. This gear is normally not used and adjusting tension to this shift may compromise other commonly used gears. 9. Shift to innermost (smallest) chainring and check gears again. If no rattling is present, index adjustment is done.

Shimano "Rapid Rise" or "Low-Normal" Derailleur Indexing Adjustment

Shimano "rapid rise" or "LowNormal" derailleurs use a return spring that puts the derailleur under the innermost rear sprocket when the inner wire tension is released. As with other indexing derailleurs, the inner wire tension should be set as tight as possible with good shifting. However, the symptoms of a too-tight setting are different, which for "Low-Normal" systems are when the derailleur shifts outward slowly, or a there is a rattle from the upper pulley being aligned too far outward. Look underneath the rear sprocket at the alignment of the upper pulley when there is a

rattle to see if this is the cause. 1. Shift chain to middle ring in front and innermost sprocket in back. 2. Pedal and shift lever one position. 3. Pedal and turn barrel adjuster counter-clockwise to tighten inner wire tension until chain begins to shift outward. 4. Turn barrel adjuster clockwise 1/4 turn until chain runs smoothly on second cog. 5. Shift outward one sprocket at a time trying each gear. Turn barrel adjuster 1/4 turn

clockwise if too tight symptoms occur. 6. Shift to all other normal gear combinations and test adjustment. NOTE: The indexing procedure here assumes that there are no unusual problems, such as bent derailleurs, bent derailleur hangers or excess inner wire friction from dirt in the housing. Additionally, manufacturers design shift levers and drive train components to work within their system. Mixing brands within the drive train may lead to poor shifting. This is referred to as an compatibility problem.

Rear Derailleur Overhaul Rear Derailleur Overhaul and Pulley Cage Tension
Typical Tools and Supplies Needed: Hex wrenches Screw drivers, narrow straight blade and #2 Phillips Work tray for small parts Seal pick (optional) Bench vise (optional)

Grease: Park PolyLube® Degreaser for cleaning small parts CB-2 Light lubricant such as CL-1 Chain Lube This article will discuss the overhaul of rear derailleurs. Some rear derailleur models allow the internal servicing in order to clean and lubricate. This often improves performance by removing dirt from pivots. Additionally, some models allow for the changes to the pulley cage tension spring. There are also after-market top pivot "break-away" bolts, which may be

installed in place of the original mounting bolt.

Derailleur Wear
The rear derailleur will become worn with use and abuse. As the derailleur wears, it will develop play at all pivot points. Grab the cage at the lower pulley of a new derailleur while mounted to a bike and wiggle it side to side. Do the same test on an old model to compare. Replace derailleur when this play becomes significant.

The derailleur pulleys will wear and eventually require replacement. The teeth will thin and become pointed, especially the lower pulley. Worn pulleys will not be able to hold or guide the chain as well as newer pulleys, and shifting performance will suffer. In the

image below, three pulleys are shown in progression of wear. Pulley bearings or bushings will also wear and create more play in the pulley.

Derailleur Service It will be useful to have a note pad and pen to help you remember correct orientation of parts. Sketch any parts that seem unfamiliar, or use a digital camera for the same

purpose. Have some wire ties or twine on hand to help tie parts in their correct orientation as they come apart. Begin by removing the rear derailleur from the bike. For bicycle chains with no master-link, the cage may be dismantled, which allows the chain to stay together. Note and record any marking distinguishing upper and lower pulley. Also note the orientation of the cage. Loosen and remove both derailleur pulley bolts. Remove the cage and chain from the derailleur.

Shimano® Derailleur

Overhaul
Shimano uses a tension spring in the upper pivot, at the mounting bolt. The pulley cage also uses a spring. The two springs oppose each other. Changes in spring tension will cause the body of the derailleur to rotate, causing changes of upper pulley relative to the larges cog. Increasing the tension of the pulley cage will require increasing tension in the upper pivot. If the upper pivot Bscrew adjustment is already as tight as possible, do not change tension in the pulley cage to a higher tension setting.

The procedure for derailleur overhaul is as follows: 1. Use a thin tipped screwdriver to pry off the C-clip on the back side of the derailleur mounting bolt. Work over a table to avoid loosing parts. Maintain pressure on the B-screw plate against the body while removing the clip. This helps prevent parts from flying off as spring tension is released.

2. Remove body-screw plate from derailleur body. Note and write down orientation of parts. Note especially any seals and the direction of seal lips.

3. Remove the lower cage from the derailleur body. There are several different systems of cage attachment. Many models from Shimano® use a screw under the body, called the Pscrew. This screw holds a stud mounted to the pulley cage. To

prevent premature release of cage spring tension, hold derailleur cage firmly to derailleur body and remove this screw using hex wrench.

4. Alternatively, there may be a set screw in the derailleur cage that acts as a stop. Pivot cage

away from stop, and remove set screw, then allow derailleur to unwind. Note direction cage unwinds for re-assembly.

For P-screw type derailleurs, hold both derailleur body and derailleur cage. Pull cage away from body and allow cage to

unwind. Note direction the cage unwinds.

5. The derailleur cage may be held to the body with a pivot bolt. The bolt head may face toward outside, away from the spokes, or it may face inside,

facing the spokes. Loosen and remove bolt. Note and record any washers or seals found on bolt or on cage.

6. As cage is removed from body, make note of the spring hole in the derailleur cage and body. There are commonly two or

more hole choices. New derailleurs are typically assembled with the spring in the hole that allows the most relaxed position of the spring. If more cage tension is desired, the spring end can be installed in the other hole.

7. Remove spring from inside derailleur body. Note especially the direction of the coil ends. The smaller end tends to face toward the derailleur cage, and the larger end goes into the derailleur body. There is

commonly a seal as well. Note direction of lip.

8. If derailleur cage is still together, loosen and remove one at a time each pulley bolt. It is common for the upper and lower pulleys to be different. Do not mix parts from upper

and lower pulleys. Upper pulley may be labeled as "G" pulley, or simply "upper".

9. Note parts orientation of cover plates, seals, and bushing. Use a wire or string to tie these parts together in the correct orientation.

10. Some pulley have have a cartridge type bearing. Use a seal pick to carefully lift the seal from the inside edge.

11. Clean all parts is a degrease and dry. Use compressed air if possible, but do not allow bearings to spin. 12. Use a light lubricant on pulley bushings and seals. Assemble pulleys into cage in the same

orientation as they were disassembled. Remember to refer to your notes on orientation. Install and tighten pulley bolts to about 30 inchpounds. Use of a mild thread locker is recommended. 13. Cover both springs heavily with grease. 14. Install cage spring into derailleur body, with smaller tapered end of spring facing outward toward cage. Be sure to engage spring into spring hole inside body. Place dust seal over derailleur body as it came off.

15. Engage cage spring into derailleur cage and body. Again refer to notes from disassembly. Changing spring hole location will change tension. In the image below, spring is in most relaxed position. Seen from this orientation, cage will be rotated counter-clockwise for working tension.

16. In the image below, the spring is engaged in the higher tension spring. Notice cage must now be wind further counter-clockwise, adding to

spring tension.

17. Press cage into derailleur body and begin to rotate derailleur cage toward back of derailleur. It is important to always wrap the spring tighter in the same direction as the coil.

18. Looking at the back side of the derailleur (opposite side of brand name) rotate cage clockwise to tension spring.

19. For P-screw type derailleurs, cage stop and derailleur body stop must clear. Pull slightly outward on cage and allow the two stops to pass. Push cage fully into derailleur body once stops are cleared.

20. For bolt type pivots, rotate cage until you can access stop screw.

21. For P-screw type, re-install set screw into derailleur body.

22. Mounting bolt spring can be difficult to engage and tension. It is useful to mount a hex wrench with the short "L" facing upward in a vise. The vise and wrench act as a holder and frees up your hands.

23. Install spring into body in same orientation as it came apart. Note direction of spring coils, which will indicate the direction of tensioning spring. Place dust seal over spring. Engage body tension plate on spring. Press plate fully down to see if plate will fully engage system. 24. Using needle nose pliers, grab body angle screw.

25. Again, tension spring with direction of wrap. Upper pivot springs wrap counter-clockwise. Rotate plate counter-clockwise to tension spring. Pull plate upward enough to clear stop tabs on each.

26. Push downward on plate and hold pressure downward before installing C-clip.

27. Install C-clip onto mounting bolt. Use needle nose pliers to fully engage C-clip.

CAMPAGNOLO The Campagnolo derailleurs share many service features of the Shimano derailleurs. Both upper and lower pivots have a spring. The derailleur is fully serviceable.

1. Remove C-clip from upper pivot. Use screw driver and same procedure as described in Shimano above. Note hole in plate that holds spring end. 2. Remove both pulley wheel bolts and inner pulley cage.

3. Loosen cage pivot bolt. Use care and proceed slowly as cage will unwind as it clears cage stop. 4. Remove spring from derailleur body. 5. Clean all parts. Assembly 1. Grease all springs.

2. Install the shorter spring in the upper pivot. Select the correct spring hole in the plate. One hole will require the plate be wrapped more and this increases upper pivot tension. This would result in pulling the derailleur back and away from

the cogs.

3. It can be useful to mount a hex wrench in a vise to hold the derailleur body and bolt. Rotate the place counter-clockwise and press downward to engage plate stop against body stop. Engage C-clip using needle nose pliers.

4. Install lower pivot spring into derailleur. Insert bolt through cage and place spacer at end. 5. Insert cage and bolt into derailleur body. Insert spring into cage spring hole. 6. Rotate cage to tension spring.

7. Push cage to body once it passes cage stop. Carefully thread bolt and secure. 8. Install both pulley bolts. The upper pulley is marked "upper." Use a mild thread locker on the pulley bolts.

SRAM® X.0 Derailleurs The X.0 derailleur may be overhauled at the lower cage pivot. The mounting bolt has no spring, and it is best to leave this bolt in place. No lubrication of the mounting bolt pivot is recommended. The SRAM® parallelogram spring is very strong. It is possible to use a zip tie to hold the derailleur body away from the cage, making it easier to work with the cage. Feed a zip tie through the body below the cable stop, and through the cable guide. Pull the cage away from the body as if shifting toward

larger cogs, and secure the zip tie to hold the body.

Lower Pivot Overhaul Procedure
1. Rotate cage to expose the cage stop screw. Loosen and remove

the stop screw. Cage will now rotate back past the stop screw position.

2. Allow cage to rotate forward and relieve spring tension.

Note position of cage to derailleur body in this relaxed position. 3. The pulley cage is held to the body with a stud pressed into the cage. The stud has a "Dfitting", that mates with a Dshape recess in the body. The body must be rotated to one position only before the cage can be removed.

4. There are three tension options in the cage, as seen in image above. The middle spring hole is used on new derailleurs. To decrease chain slap, increase

spring tension by moving spring to left hole of the three choices, as seen from the stud side. 5. After removing the pulley cage, loosen and remove pulley bolts. Pulleys use a cartridge bearing, use care when removing seal.

6. Clean all parts in a degreaser. Pack grease into seals of pulleys and re-install seals. Pack grease into cage pivot spring. 7. Assemble pulley wheels into cage and install pulley bolts. A mild thread locker is

recommended on the threads. Spin pulleys to check proper for alignment after securing bolts. 8. Place spring into body of derailleur in same orientation as it was removed. Engage spring end into desired cage hole. 9. Push cage to derailleur body. Cage must rotate to allow "D" fitting to engage into body. Approximate position of cage to body for "D" fitting alignment is shown below.

10. Rotate cage counter-clockwise as seen from orientation of image above. Install and secure cage stop screw. Remove zip tie. Derailleur is

ready to be installed.

Mavic® Mektronic
The Mavic® Mektronic derailleur has many internal parts, including electronic parts. There are very few user serviceable parts. The pulley wheels can be brushed clean with a dry bush. Avoid using solvents during cleaning.

There is a boot covering the arm that extends to shift the pulley cage. Use only a soapy water on a rag to wipe this clean. Use care not get water or soap into the working mechanism.

The derailleur uses a solenoid initiate the shift. It is activated by a battery. The battery cover is removed using a 1-Euro coin (substitute US twenty-five cent piece).

The derailleur B-screw is located at the top mounting bolt. There is a spring in this pivot, but it is recommend the pivot not be dismantled.

SRAM FORCE and RIVAL The SRAM Force and Rival rear derailleur use an upper pivot bolt that has no internal spring. It may may be cleaned and lubricated without disassembly. The pulleys may be removed for cleaning. The

lower cage pivot the should not be taken apart.

Remove pulley bolts using a hex wrench.

Pulleys and cage plate of SRAM Force derailleur.

Cutting Cable Housing
This article will discuss the cutting and sizing of both brake and derailleur housing. See also related article Brake and Shift levers. Typical Tools and Supplies: Cable Cutter: CN-10 Brake housing and cables as needed Shift housing (compressionless) and cables as needed Housing end caps (ferrules) as needed Light lubricant

Mill file (for brake housing as needed). Bench grinder or dermel also useable. Hex wrenches for cable binder bolts The Park Tool CN-10 is designed to cut multi-strand wires such as gear and brake cable, brake housing, and compressionless gear housing. Compressionless shift housing uses many inner support wires running longitudinally with the inner plastic liner. Compressionless shift housing is intended for shifting systems only, not braking. Brake housing is made of a wire wound around a plastic liner. Use ends caps or

ferules at the ends of housing when ever possible. It is recommended to lubricate inside the housing or the cable is installed.

The jaws of the cable cutter surround and then sheer the material. Using plain diagonal cutters can simply flatten and

smash cables. As with all cutting tools, it is recommended to wear eye protection. Grab and hold the cable or housing close to the jaws. Use care not to cut your fingers. Hold cable or housing perpendicular to jaws and squeeze levers quickly for a clean cut, as seen below.

After cutting the compressionless gear housing, inspect the end to see if it flattened a bit. Use the crimper section of the CN-10 or CN4 to open up the housing and inner liner before installing an end cap and cable. You can also use the

crimper section cutter to crimp on a cable end cap, as seen below.

How Long Should Housing Be?
Brake and gear housing allows the cable wire to be routed around bends and connects the levers to the frame stops. The less the drag on the cables, the better for the shifting and braking. Too short of housing will cause it to kink and bind, making even more friction. As a rule of thumb, try to size the housing so it is as short as possible but it still enters the stops and barrel adjusters in a straight

approach. For the rear derailleur housing, note especially how the housing enters the barrel adjuster.

In the image above, the housing bends immediately upon leaving the barrel adjuster. This can actually bend the housing end cap. The image to the right shows how longer housing in this case allows the housing to enter straight.

The image above is a typical new bike housing length. The housing bends and kinks as it enters the barrel adjuster. The image to the right shows longer housing allowing a straight entry into the barrel adjuster.

The image above shows brake and shift housing which is much too long. The housing could be shortened and still have a smooth, straight approach to the levers and housing stops. The routing of housing may affect the length. Typically the front

derailleur shift housing is run on the left side of the frame, while the rear derailleur shift housing is run on the right. This may at time cause unnecessary bending in the housing. In some cases, it is possible to "cross over" the housing, running the front shifter to the right side stop, and the rear shifter to the left side stop. It will then be necessary to again cross the cable. Consider this option, but if the cable ends up rubbing the frame, it is not a good idea. There may be some light rubbing between cables, but this would result in less friction than poorly routed housing.

Shift lever housing that is too long. Housing passes center line of bike, then must bend back to housing stops.

Shift housing is crossed over at headtube, and crossed again on downtube. Arc of housing is much smoother than black housing in example of too long housing.

Cutting Brake Housing
Brake housing is typically made of single strand flat wire wrapped

around an inner plastic tube. This housing may be cut with the CN-10, CN-4, or diagonal pliers. Because of the design of the housing wire, it is not always possible to get a flat, clean cut. It is best to finish any burr with a file. Lightly grinding the end will also improve the housing and reduce friction. NOTE: Compressionless housing does not require finishing.

Adjustment of the CN-4
As a cable cutter wears, it may require readjustment for best cutting results. Grab the handles

and wiggle them against the axis of the thread. If there is play between handles, turn locknut counterclockwise to loosen nut, turn bolt head clockwise slightly to tighten adjustment, and retighten locknut. Repeat adjustments as needed until tool cuts cable cleanly. If handles bind, turn locknut counterclockwise to loosen nut, turn bolt head counterclockwise slightly to tighten adjustment, then retighten locking nut. Repeat adjustments as needed until tool cuts cable cleanly.

Shift Levers (shifters) Useful Tools and Supplies
This article will discuss the shift wire (cable) installation. See also related article discussing housing length. SRAM® Shift Levers SRAM® shift levers are commonly called Grip-Shift. The levers mount to the handlebar between the brake levers and the grips. The lever may be rotated on the bar so the cable housing exits without interference. There have been different

generations of the Grip-Shift levers, and wire installation of the shift wire can vary. Inspect the lever an access hole or cover. Shift the lever to the most relaxed wire position. Remove the cover. Disconnect the wire from the derailleur. Pull housing away from lever and push bare wire to remove wire from lever.

Remove cover to expose wire end. Some models may have a small set screw over the wire end. Use a hex wrench to remove this screw.

Remove set screw. On some SRAM® models the wire end may be held in the lever by a small clip. Usea small screwdriver to pry back this clip, and then push the wire end out.

Pry clip back to access wire end.

Feed the wire in and out through

access hole.

Shimano® STI Shift Levers
Shimano® levers have had different generations that vary in wire attachment. There may be a cover on the lever body that must be removed. There are both pry-out type covers and threaded type covers. Remove cover, if any. Shift the lever to the most relaxed cable position. Detach wire from derailleur. Pull housing away from lever and push the wire outward from the lever.

XTR® and XT® levers may also have a cover plate. Use a #1 or #0 cross tipped (Phillps) screwdriver to remove two screws. The screws are quite small, so use care when removing. It is helpful to rotate the bike upside down until the screw heads are pointing upward.

The wire end is held in a fitting that allows easy removal. There is a slot in the adjusting barrel and the body. Rotate the adjusting barrel so the slots align, and lift the wire outward. Install new wire into fiting, and into adjusting barrel. Install cover plate and screws. Tighten screws until snug, but do not over tighten.

Shimano® XTR Rapid Rise Integrated Shifter The integrated rapid rise shifter uses a cover that must be removed. Use a small cross tip (Phillips) screwdriver to remove the small screw holding the cable cover.

Remove cable cover screw.

It is not necesary to remove any other screw, remove only on the cover screw.

Push gently but firmly outward on cable cover.

The cover plate may be a snug fit.

Push outward only, do not ply forward to remove.

The shift wire head sits inside a carrier. Articluate the shift lever to gain access to the wire end, and pry up and out. Install a new wire.

Replace cable cover by sliding it into place. Replace cable cover screw.

Shimano® Revo Shifter
The Revo Shifter is a twist type shifter. The lever must be partly dismantled to remove the shift wire. The lever is secured to the handlebar with a clamping screw

under the lever.

The Revo Shifter Shift the lever so the cable is in the most relaxed position. Rotate the lever toward the front, as seen from the rider"™s point of view. Detatch the cable from the derailleur and pull the housing from the lever body.

There is small screw holding the cable cover to the lever body. The screw is located on top of the shifter body toward the front of the bike. It will be inboard of the twisting part of the lever. Use a small Phillips screwdriver such as the SD-0 to remove.

Remove cover screw. The cover is plastic, use care, and do nothing drastic. The front of the cover will be free to lift, but do not pull up of the front at this time, it may break the cover. The rear of the cover is held by an internal boss fitted to the lever body. Pry with a blade or narrow tool at the back of the lever at the split. Lift the back of the cover upward.

Pry at back of cover to remove.

Lever is removed to expose cable end. Use a small pointed tool to bend cable head out of socket in lever. Pull old wire and remove it from lever. Install new wire into lever fitting and through wire routing in lever body. Inspect that wire

follows routing before installing cover and securing cover screw.

Drop Bar Intergrted Brake-Shift Lever Derailleur Wire Installation
The derailleur wire end attaches to

the shift lever by fitting through a small socket called the derailleur wire anchor pivot. The wire anchor pivot is sometimes difficult to see. Begin by shifting to the most lever relaxed wire position. Feed the cut end of the wire through the anchor pivot, and pull it fully through unit the head engages the pivot.

Derailleur wire attachment is on the outside of each Shimano® STI road lever.

Campangolo® derailleur wires access from the underside of the lever body.

Shimano 7900 Levers
Shift cable feeds from underneath the lever. Pull rubber cover forward to expose cable access hole on the

outer edge of each lever. Shift small lever several times to move the cable anchor socket to the correct position.

Shift cable installs from under the

lever body Feed cable end through cable anchor and out the top of the lever. Shift cable exit has two options. One option routes housing to the front side of the handlebar . The other option is the outer groove which routes housing to the backside of the handlebars. The brake cable exits from the inner hole.

The thinner shift wire is routed from the inner groove option. The thicker brake wire is routed from the brake hole.

Chain Line Typical Tools and Supplies:
Repair Stand, holds bike secure for easy work. CLG-2 chainline gauge (discontinued) Caliper and feeler gauges This article with discuss the use of the CLG-2 chainline Gauge and the concept of chainline. Also see related article on frame alignment.

Chainline and Shifting Issues

There are two related aspects to the term "chainline". First, chainline can be defined as the position of the cogs or chainrings relative to the center line of the bike. The bike center line is an imaginary plane running front to rear through the middle of the bike. For example, a front crankset and/or front derailleur might be desgined to have a chainline of 47.5mm. This means it will work best when the middle of the crankset is 47.5mm from the middle to the bike center line. Chainline can also refer to the relative position of the front and

rear cogs to each other, without regard to the bike centerline. This is called "effective chainline". A bike may have the crankset inward or outward some distance of the rear cogset center. Drive train manufacturers do not generally specify "perfect" or center-to-center alignment between rear and front cogsets. The front chainrings may be a few millimeters outward relative of the rear cogs. Additionally, drive train manufacturers do not generally consider all gear combinations to be "useable". For example, a so-called "27-speed" bike has three rings in

front and 9 cogs in the rear. However, it is likely when the chain is on the smallest cog in front and possibly 2 or 3 of the smallest cog in back, the chain will rub the side of the middle ring. This should not necessarily be considered a "chainline" error. If this bottom bracket length were increased until there was not rubbing in these combinations, there may be poor shifting in other gear combinations, such as the largest ring and the larger rear cogs. These combinations are commonly called "cross-chaining". Bicycle chains are quite flexible, and will work well at

various other then perfectly straight. Cross-chaining is primarily an issue when the chain hits the front rings. As a simple rule, if a gear combination causes a rubbing problem, avoid that gear.

Rear Cogs to Front Rings- Effective Chainline
The CLG-2 Chain Line Gauge helps determine effective chainline of the front and rear gears. The tool references off the rear sprocket center and extends this line forward toward the front rings.

To use the CLG-2, begin by checking the centering of rear wheel in frame. It should be centered between chain stays. Begin by getting the chain out of the way. Shift chain to smallest freewheel cog, and the innermost chainring (smallest ring). It is sometimes necessary to drop the chain off the front chainring onto the bottom bracket so it does not strike to CLG-2. For odd numbered rear cogs (5,7,9speeds), clamp the CLG-2 over middle cog. Snug the knob and do not over tighten.

For even numbered rear cogs (6,8,10-speed), the middle of freewheel is a space, with the same number of cogs on either side. Clamp the CLG-2 so the main bar is

falling in the middle space. The tool will clamp the cog inboard of this middle space (4th cog of 6 speeds, 5th cog of 8 speeds, 6th cog of 10 speeds.) Snug knob and do not over tighten.

Extend sliding gauge close to chainring, but do not allow contact with chainrings or the front derailleur. Most freewheels and freehubs have play. After clamping

gauge, move CLG-2 end side to side, and hold end to center of play for most accurate reading.

Reading the CLG-2
Odd Numbered Cogs Because the CLG-2 clamps over the center cog of odd-numbered freewheel (5, 7, 9), the black sliding gauge represents the middle of the rear cog set. The center of sliding gauge may or may not point to center of chainring set. If the sliding gauge is not pointing to the middle of the front crankset, estimate the amount to either side it is off. NOTE: Most component

manufacturers do not design drive trains for "perfect" or center-tocenter alignment. It is common for the chainrings to be slightly outward of the rear cog chainline by as much as several millimeters.

Even Numbered Cog Sets For even numbered rear cog sets

the CLG-2 clamps over the cog inboard of the cog set center. The main chrome arm, not the black sliding gauge represents the rear cog set center. It is therefore necessary to estimate the center where the end of the gauge points at the front chainrings. For three ring cranksets, the sliding gauge should point inboard, or just to the left from the rider"™s point of view, of the middle ring.

For double ring cranksets, the black

sliding gauge should point just outboard, to the right, of the inner ring.

Front Chainring Position and Bottom Bracket Length
The front chainrings should to be within a certain distance of the bicycle center line. If the rings are too far in or too far out from the frame, the front derilleur may not shifting properly. The position of

the front rings is in large part determined by the length of the bottom bracket spindle. Many bottom bracket spindles are specified with a certain chainline number, such as 47.5mm or 50mm. Spindles are also specified by spindle length, which is simply the length end-to-end. As an example, a particular bottom bracket may be specified wtih a 47.5mm chainline, and a 113 spindle length. A crank arm designed for use with this spindle will have the middle of the crankset 47.5mm from the bike center line. Manufacturers often specify both

spindle length and chainline, as both concepts are related. For example, cartridge bottom brackets may come in various spindle lengths. For example, the 118mm is 5mm longer than the 113mm bottom bracket. The chainline of the 118mm of this particular model 50mm. The 113 has a chainline of 47.5mm, or 2.5mm smaller. This is because in this case the 5mm shorter spindle is split between evenly between the left and right sides. However, a different model of spindle is available in 109.5mm or 118.5mm lengths. The difference in spindle length is 9mm. The

chainline of the 109.5mm is 43.5, and the chainline of the 118.5 is 45mm. The difference between the spindles in not even split between the two different lengths. Often, the combination of crankarm and spindle determine chainline. This is especially the case for the square-type spindles because the exact fit inside the square fitting of crankarms varies between brands and even between arms of the same model. It is sometimes necessary to simply guess at a bottom bracket for a bike, install the crank and then measure the results. The results will then let you

know if a longer or shorter chainline spindle should be installed. It is often useful to know the existing position of the front rings relative to the bike center plane. However, it is difficult to take a direct measurement from the center of the bike to the center of the front rings. It is necessary to take several measurements, and then determine chainline by adding or subracting the measurements. The accuracy of measuring for chainline is limited by the accuracy of the frame. If the bottom bracket or frame tubing is not centered, the chainline measurements may be

off. In our example here, we will assume the frame is aligned and shell is centered. Begin by measuring the diameter of the downtube, and divide this number by 2. In our case, the seat tube is 44mm, so it is 22mm from the right side edge the tube the bike center line. Next, measure the distance from the downtube edge to the middle of the chainrings. On a two-chainring bike, begin by measuring from the largest ring to the tube. Our bike below measure 29mm from the outer ring to the tube. Next, measure the outside-to-outise of

the two chainrings, and divide this by 2. The bike below is 9.8mm outside-to-outside, making it 4.9mm to the middle. Deduct 4.9mm from the 29mm, and it is 24.1mm from the middle of rings to the tube. Add the 22mm for the tube-to-center, and it is 46.1mm from the middle of the crankset rings to the centerline of the bike.

For three chainring bikes, measure

from the outer edge of the middle ring to the tube. Next, measure the thickness of the ring at the tooth. In our example, it is 23mm from the middle ring to the tube. Next, measure the thickness of the ring at the teeth. In the example below, a tooth is 2mm wide. Divide the 2mm by 2 to reference the middle of the middle ring. Deduct this 1mm from the 23mm, making it 22mm from the crankset center to the tube. Add this to the 22mm of tube to bike center, and it is 44mm from the middle of the rings to the centerline of the bike.

Chainline from Rear Hub
It is possible to estimate the desired chainline of a bike from the rear cogs. This method assumes the frame is aligned, or that you account for misalignment in the calculations. See Frame Alignment. Procedure for determining chainline: 1. Measure from the outer most cog face to the face of the locknut. This can be done with the wheel in place, or with the wheel removed. If measuring in place, use feeler gauges or even hex wrenches to measure

the distance from the inner face of the right dropout to the face of the smallest cog. These two options are seen in the images below.

2. Measure the width of the rear cassette or freewheel cogs from outside to outside cog faces. Below is a chart of the common cassette systems.

3. Measure the hub width from locknut to locknut face. It is most accurate to remove wheel and cogs. 4. To determine the rear cogs chainline, use the formula: (Hub width÷2) - (Cassette width÷2)- Gap to frame = Chainline of Rear Cogs What is desired in the formula is the distance from the bike"™s center plane to the cogset middle. Taking the hub width and dividing by two defines the mid plane or center of the bike. Dividing the cogset width defines the middle of

the gears. The gap from the cogset to the frame is then deducted. The resulting number represents the distance from the bike center plane to the middle of the cogset, or chainline. To help speed the process, find below some typical cogset measurements. It is always best to measure your own set, as these numbers may not represent your cogs exactly. Campagnolo® cassette 10 speed: 38.8mm Shimano® cassette 10 speed: 37.2mm

Campagnolo® cassette 9 speed: 38.2mm Shimano® cassette 9 speed: 36.3mm SRAM® cassette 9 spped: 36.5mm Campagnolo®: cassette 8 speed: 36.9mm Shimano® cassette 8 speed: 35.4mm SRAM® cassette 8 speed: 35.4mm Shimano® cassette 7 speed: 31.9mm

SRAM® freewheel (thread on type) 8 speed: 36.8mm SRAM® freewheel (thread on type) 7 speed: 31.8 As an example, assume some hub is 130.6mm wide at the locknuts. The bike is a Shimano® 8 speed. The cogs are about 35.4mm wide. Assume we measure the outer cog to frame and find it is 4.5mm. The bike center line is in the middle of the hub, so the center line is a 65.3mm from each locknut. The cogset middle is then: (130.6÷2) - (35.4÷2) - 4.5 = 43.1mm

The rear cog middle is effectively 43.1mm from the bike center line. The front chain rings should be about the same distance from the center line. It is possible, however, to still have acceptable shifting with less than perfect chainline. Manufacturers typically specify a

front crankset chain of slightly longer than the rear chainline. In this case, as 45mm chainline would likely work. A 50mm chainline would probably be too long.

Shifting Issues Related to Chainline
If either the front or rear sprockets are either too much inward or outward relative to the other, there may be certain shifting problems. However, if a bike chainline measures off, yet the bike has no problems shifting, the bike should be considered acceptable. No "fixing" of the chainline is then

required. The following are typical problems that may be caused by chainline issues. Chain jumping off large chainring when front derailleur is correctly adjusted. Chain riding off lower derailleur pulley when derailleur or hanger is not bent Chain rattling on inner faces of front chainrings. Chain derailling off inner chainring when front derailleur correctly adjusted. Front derailleur cannot be

adjusted to stop over shifts while still allowing good shifting. On certain bikes, the chain may tend rub and rattle against the front rings while riding in certain gear combinations. This is common on many bike when riding in the socalled "cross-chaining" combination of the smallest front ring, and the smallest rear cog. An example of a gear combination that is likely to rub is shown below.

Generally, the shorter distance from the bottom bracket to the rear hub, the more likely a rattle from gear combinations will occur. There may in fact be several gears that are unuseable on any given bike. It is possible to minimize or eliminate this problem by moving either the front or rear cogs. Even if the bike is has so-called perfect chainline, it may help the riding and shifting to create an "error" to solve shifting existing issues.

Bar End Shifter Service
This article will discuss bar end shifters. These are derailleur shift levers mounted to the ends of time trial or triathlon handlebars (Figure 1). They are also found on drop style handlebars (Figure 2).

Figure 1 Bar end shifters on a time trial handlebar.

Figure 2 Bar end shifters on drop style bars. The bar end shifters mount internally to the handlebar using an

expansion plug. Handlebars typically must have an inside diameter of approximately 1921mm. The shifter body and bolt are made with a cone shaped end that push into a set of wedges (Figure 3). The wedges then expand and tighten inside handlebar.

Figure 3 The component parts of the bar end shifter. To access the mounting bolt, it is necessary to remove the shift lever. Insert a 6mm hex wrench through the lever body and into the back of the mount bolt. The hex wrench fits

into the back of the mounting bolt. Turning bolt clockwise as viewed from end of lever frees bolt from the internal wedges (Figure 4).

Figure 4 Securing the lever body.

To secure body, turn hex wrench counter-clockwise. This turn bolt to tighten it into the wedges inside of handlebar. When working with bar end levers, always remember the body acts as the nut. The head of the bolt is inside the lever, and the hex wrench is fitting into the end of this bolt (Figure 5).

Figure 5 Hex wrench turn cone-shaped mounting bolt. After securing shift lever body to handlebar, assemble shift lever parts to body and secure lever screw with screwdriver (Figure 6).

Figure 6 Secure shift lever parts to lever body. Install gear wire through lever and into housing. Housing must fully seat into lever body. Secure housing to handlebars with tape.

This can later be covered with handlebar tape as desired (Figure 7).

Figure 7 Bar end shifter mounted to forward-

facing aero bar extensions. Handlebar tape may then be wrapped over the housing (Figure 8).

Figure 8 Bar end shifter housing under

handlebar tape on a drop handlebar. Shift wire may be removed or install with the lever mounted in the bar. Loose wire pinch bolt and free wire. Pull wire from lever (Figure 9).

Figure 9 Remove or install derailleur wire

from bar end shifter as necessary.

Shift Housing Length Typical Tools and Supplies
Cable Cutter:CN-10 Brake housing and cables as needed Shift housing (compressionless) and cables as needed Housing end caps (ferrules) as needed Light lubricant Mill file (for brake housing as needed). Bench grinder or dermel also useable.

Hex wrenches for cable binder bolts This article will discuss the cutting and sizing of both brake and derailleur housing. See also related articles on brake and shift levers. The Park Tool CN-10 Cable Cutter is designed to cut multi-strand wires such as gear and brake cable, brake housing, and compressionless gear housing. Compressionless shift housing uses many inner support wires running longitudinally with the inner plastic liner. Compressionless shift housing is intended for shifting systems only, not braking. Brake housing is

commonly made of a wire wound around a plastic liner. Use ends caps or ferules at the ends of housing when ever possible. There is also available a woven or braided-type of housing that is may be used for both brake housing and shift housing. It is recommended to lubricate inside the housing or the cable is installed.

The jaws of the cable cutter surround and then shear the material. Using plain diagonal cutters can simply flatten and smash cables. As with all cutting tools, it is recommended to wear eye protection. Grab and hold the cable or housing close to the jaws. Use care not to cut your fingers. Hold cable or housing perpendicular to jaws and squeeze levers quickly for a clean cut, as seen below.

After cutting the compressionless

gear housing, inspect the end to see if it flattened a bit. Use the crimper section of the CN-10 to open up the housing and inner liner before installing an end cap and cable. You can also use the crimper section cutter to crimp on a cable end cap, as seen below.

How Long Should

Housing Be?
Brake and gear housing allows the cable wire to be routed around bends and connects the levers to the frame stops. The less the drag on the cables, the better for the shifting and braking. Too short of housing will cause it to kink and bind, making even more friction. As a rule of thumb, try to size the housing so it is as short as possible but it still enters the stops and barrel adjusters in a straight approach. For the rear derailleur housing, note especially how the housing enters the barrel adjuster.

In the left image above, the housing bends immediately upon leaving the barrel adjuster. This can actually bend the housing end cap. The image to the right shows how longer housing in this case allows the housing to enter straight.

The left image above is a typical new bike housing length. The housing bends and kinks as it enters the barrel adjuster. The image to the right shows longer housing allowing a straight entry into the barrel adjuster.

The image above shows brake and shift housing which is much too long. The housing could be shortened and still have a smooth, straight approach to the levers and housing stops.

The routing of housing may affect the length. Typically the front derailleur shift housing is run on the left side of the frame, while the rear derailleur shift housing is run on the right. This may at time cause unnecessary bending in the housing. In some cases, it is possible to "cross over" the housing, running the front shifter to the right side stop, and the rear shifter to the left side stop. It will then be necessary to again cross the cable. Consider this option, but if the cable ends up rubbing the frame, it is not a good idea. There may be some light rubbing between

cables, but this would result in less friction than poorly routed housing.

Shift lever housing that is too long. Housing passes center line of bike, then must bend back to housing stops.

Shift housing is crossed over at headtube, and crossed again on downtube. Arc of housing is much smoother than black housing in example of too long housing.

Cutting Brake Housing
Brake housing is typically made of

single strand flat wire wrapped around an inner plastic tube. This housing may be cut with the CN-10, or diagonal cutting pliers. Because of the design of the housing wire, it is not always possible to get a flat, clean cut. It is best to finish any burr with a file. Lightly grinding the end will also improve the housing and reduce friction.NOTE: Compressionless housing does not require finishing.

Bottom Brackets

Cartridge Bearing Type Bottom Bracket Service (BBT)
Typical Tools and Supplies Needed. Park Tool Bottom Braket Tool: BBT-22 (or the previous version BBT-2) -a splined driver to fit the bottom bracket rings), or BBT-18 for eight notch Truvativ® and Bontrager®. For square type Campagnolo spindle cartridge bottom brackets, BBT-4. Park Tool torque wrench TW-2, or TW-6. Optional, but

recommended. A 32mm headset wrench, or a large adjustable wrench, if you do not have a torque wrench. Medium grade thread locking compound, such as Loctite #242 Grease, such as Park Tool PPL-1 Polylube 1000 or ASC-1 Anti Seize compound This article will discuss the removal and installation of the common cartridge bottom brackets of the three-piece cranksets. Most cartridge bottom brackets are held by retaining rings or cups on

either side. The description below is based on the Shimano® brand of bottom bracket, but most other cartridge type bottom bracket bearing units install in a similar fashion. NOTE: Shimano® XTR BB950 bottom bracket and DuraAce BB-7700 bottom brackets are adjustable type bottom brackets. See Adjustable type Bottom Brackets For the External Bearing System Cranksets, such as Shimano® Hollow Tech II, or Campagnolo® Ulta-Torque bottom bracketcrankset systems, see External Bearing System Service.

There are two different styles of Shimano® cartridge bottom brackets. One type has a fixed flange on the right side (drive side). The other type has a fixed flange on the left side (non-drive side). Each one uses a removable ring opposite the fixed flange. See the figure below.

There is a fairly simple test to determine if the bottom bracket bearing is worn out. Shift the chain to the inner most rear sprockets front and rear. Drop the chain off the smallest front ring, and arrange it so it will not strike the chainrings.

Spin the crank while holding the bike with one hand. If you feel an obvious rumbling or grinding feeling, the bearing are wore out and the unit should be replaced. Very worn bottom brackets will actually make a grinding noise.

Removal of Cartridge

Bottom Bracket
Begin bearing service by first removing both cranks. For square taperred spindle types, see Crankarm Removal. For round splined type spindles and arms see Splined Arm Removal. Some bottom bracket models use a steel or aluminum ring on one side and a plastic ring opposite. On these models, remove the metal side first regardless of left or right side. Otherwise, insert BBT-22 (or BBT-2) fully into splines on left side. Some brands use an eight notched ring, which will accept the BBT-18.

Use care to hold either tool firmly in place. Remove the non-drive side by turning counter-clockwise. For some models, this removes the ring, in some models this pull the cartridge body out.

Insert BBT-22 (or BBT-2) or BBT-18 fully into splines on opposite side. For non-drive side, remove by turning counter-clockwise. For drive side, turn clockwise to remove. The spline system used on many

cartridge bottom bracket is very shallow. If the spindle is hollow, use the rear hub skewer to hold the tool firmly in place. When using this technique to remove the spindle, break the threads free, then loosen the skewer as the cup comes out.

THREADING NOTE: Most modern bikes use an ISO thread standard for the bottom bracket. The left side thread is a right-hand direction thread, which tightens clockwise and removes counter-clockwise. This standard is also called English or BSC. The right side (drive side) thread is a left-hand thread, which tightens counter-clockwise and remove clockwise. There are some exceptions to the ISO. Bikes made in Italy may use "Italian" threading, with both drive and non-drive sides right hand thread. There may be markings such as "36 x 24" on the cups. Older bikes from France may

have right hand threads on both sides (35mm x 1mm). It is especially recommended for bikes with a right-hand thread for the drive side to use a thread locker in addition to full torque. See more on thread preparation and thread lockers a Basic Thread Concepts. Below is an image of the common ISO threaded cups. Note the threads of the left-threaded (drive side) cup slope upward to the left. Threads of the right-threaded (nondrive) cup slope upward to the right.

Cup direction for non-drive (left side of bike) and drive side (right side of bike) are shown below for the common ISO/English bottom brackets.

Non-drive (left side) cup direction.

Drive side (right side) cup direction.

Seized Cups
It can occur that the cup becomes seized in the frame. Be sure to double check thread direction when in doubt. The common 20-tooth

internal spline cup has shallow splines for tool engagement. Use a long bolt to secure the BBT-2 to the cup. A skewer can be used if the spindle is hollow. Use a bench vise to hold the tool. The frame become the lever. Again, double check thread direction before turning. Soak threads with a penetrating fluid before attempting removal.

Cup and Lockring Type
There several variations on the cartridge bottom bracket system. One type uses cups and seperate lockrings on both side. The bearings are typically common industrial types. The cups are removed and

then the bearings replaced. In the image below, the cup looks similar to the adjustable bearing types. A lockring spanner is used on the lockring, and then a spanner such as the SPA-4 is used in the cup. The cup is run up to the bearings and then the lockring is secured. There is no bearing adjustment in this sytem.

Installation of Cartridge Bottom Bracket
Begin by preparing the threads of the bottom bracket. A thread locker may be used when the frame shell is steel and the cups are either

aluminum or steel lockrings. A mild thread locking compound such as Loctite® #242 that is considered "service removeable" is preferred. This means that the parts are removeable with normal tools and without taking extreme measures. If no thread locking compound is available, grease threads heavily or ASC-1 Anti Seize Compound. For more on thread preparation see Basic Thread Concepts. If the bottom bracket frame shell is aluminum or titanium, use Park Tool ASC-1 Anti Seize Compound. Even if lockrings are steel, use antiseize. Anti-seize is available at

some bicycle stores, hardware stores, or automotive parts stores. Grease can be used in place of antiseize, but anti-seize is more durable and provides better lubrication during tightening. Apply this only to the threads. Plastic lockrings or cups need only grease on the threads. Do not use thread lockers on plastic as the chemical may cause the plastic to become brittle. It can sometimes happen a bottom bracket can creak where the lockring or cups meet the bearing body. To prevent this, apply a thread locking compound such as

Loctite #242 to the inside area of removable ring, where it meets the body. This will help prevent any creaking in the future. With plastic rings, do not apply any thread locking compound. Look on body of cartridge for "L" and "R". "L" goes to left side of bike, and "R" goes to right side of bike. For most bikes, the right side ("R"), has left-hand direction threads, thread this side in turning counter-clockwise. The left side ("L") has right-hand direction thread, so thread this side in turning clockwise. (See THREAD NOTE on thread direction above.)

Thread the cartridge body into bottom bracket by hand, being careful not to cross thread. Use BBT-22 or BBT-18 as appropriate to snug fixed flange against face of bottom bracket. Thread in removable ring to appropriate side. Secure removable ring to at least 360 inch pounds using torque wrench. If you are using hand wrench, and are holding the wrench 6 inches from axle, apply 60 pounds of pressure"¦ which is tight. By securing removable ring, you are securing the other side at the same

time. Removable ring pushes against fixed flange. Install cranks. For spline type cranks, see ISIS Drive or Octalink. For other see Square Spindle Type Removal.

Brake Service

Linear Pull Brake Service (V-brake style) Useful Tools and Supplies Repair Stand, holds bike secure for easy work. Hex wrenches (commonly 5mm and 6mm) Cable cutter, Park Tool CN-10 Grease, Park Tool

Polylube® 1000 Light liquid lubricant File, or grinder to finish housing ends Rags Service Procedures
Properly adjusted brake systems require attention to small details. This article will begin by discussing the brake lever, inner wire fitting at the lever, and brake housing. Caliper attachment to the frame, pad adjustment to the rim, and pad centering and clearance are then

reviewed.

Brake Levers
Brake levers should be positioned so they are easy and comfortable to reach. Loosen the lever mounting bolt and rotated the lever so it is in line with the rider"™s arm, making it comfortable to reach and use. Resecure brake lever body. Additionally, brake levers commonly have a setscrew on the lever body that allows the lever to be set closer to the grip. Use reach-setting screw to adjust lever reach according to hand size and riding style.

Cable System
The cable system connects the brake lever to the caliper at the wheel. The brake inner-wire has a fitting on one end, which sits in the lever. Upright bar levers use a round disc shaped end about 7mm (9/32") in diameter.

The brake inner wire end is held by the lever. The common system is shown below. Align the slot in the barrel adjust with the slot in the lever body. Fit the disc into the lever and pivot the wire into the adjustingbarrel. Turn the barrel to hold the inner wire in place. The Shimano® levers may use a clamp on the lever. Pull this clamp upward, and fit the inner wire disc in place. The inner-wire passes through a brake housing, which allows the inner-wire to connect from the levers to housing stops on the frame. Housing also allows for

bends around corners on the way to the brake caliper. To determine correct housing length, see Housing Length.

Calipers and Pads
Linear pull calipers are attached to the frame or fork at the "braze-on". If you are mounting the calipers or have removed them, grease the braze-on before installing the caliper. There may be three different spring hole options, it is typically best to choose the middle hole. Brake pads are bolted to the caliper arms. When the bolt or nut is loosened, they can be adjustable in several directions. The pad should be correctly adjusted for vertical height alignment, tangent

alignment, vertical face alignment and pad toe. Not every brand or model of brake caliper has every adjustment, and sometimes you must simply compromise when setting pads. Vertical height alignment: This is the setting up and down on the rim-braking surface. View caliper face-on and move the arms, watching the pads move to the rim. For most linear pull calipers, set the pad to the upper edge of the rimbraking surface.

Some linear pull models, such as Shimano® XT and XTR, use a parallelogram movement for the pad, and the pad travels straight to the rim. Set these pads to strike in the middle of the rim-braking surface.

Tangent Alignment
This is the setting of the pad tilt. Viewed pad from the side, the front and back of the pad should be level to the rim. One side should not be higher or lower than the other side. Use care when tightening the pad fixing bolt and hold the brake pad to keep it from twisting.

Vertical face alignment
This is the setting of the pad vertical surface relative to the rim vertical surface. The vertical face of the pad should be set parallel to the face of the braking surface.

Pad Toeing
This is the setting of pad angle as it touches the rim. Toeing refers to setting the pad so the pad"™s front edge strikes first, which tends to reduce squeal during braking.

Caliper arms tend to have play in the pivots and the arms flex when the brake is applied. This may cause squealing in the brake pads. It is simplest to first ride the bike and see if the brakes squeal.

Front of pad strikes rim first for "toe". Most models of linear pull calipers use a "threaded stud brake pad." Some models use a smooth stud pad with fixing bolt. For the

threaded stud types, a threaded bolt is fixed into the pad. The bolt is sandwiched to the caliper arm by a series of convex and concave washers, creating a ball and socket system. The bolt and pad move in the caliper arm for toe and vertical face alignment.

Threaded-stud pads use curved

washers to align pad face to rim.

Setting Pads
Before setting pads, begin by double checking that wheel is adequately centered in frame. If wheel is moved from current position, pad alignment will be effected. 1. Loosen pad nut/bolt and lubricate curved washers and thread. Adjust one pad to the rim at a time. 2. If desired, install rubber band shim at back edge of pad. This helps set toe.

3. Push caliper arm to rim and view pad alignment. Align pad correctly in four positions. Set pad vertical height on rim

braking surface. Set pad vertical face to be parallel to rim face Set front and back edge of pad should be level to rim, so it is tangent to rim. If toeing with shim, set so front edge and back edge with rubber band should be touching rim at same time. 4. Tighten pad nut and remove rubber band. Inspect pad alignment again. 5. Repeat alignment of other pad. Attach inner-wire to brake caliper.

Secure wire fixing bolt. Squeeze lever hard several times and set pad clearance at lever for rider preference. If brake feels tight, turn barrel adjuster into lever clockwise to loosen inner-wire tension. If brake feels too lose, turn barrel adjuster counter-clockwise to tighten inner-wire tension. If barrel adjuster is all the way engaged at lever and brake lever still too tight, loosen inner-wire pinch bolt and allow slack to feed through pinch plate. Tighten pinch bolt and test again, doing final adjusting at brake lever barrel adjuster.

Use barrel adjuster to set tightness of pads to rim. Inspect pad centering to rim. Use set screw on sides of caliper to center pads to rim. Tighten setscrew on arm with pad that is closest to rim. Inspect that pads are not rubbing tire. Re-adjust if necessary. Clean the rim surface

and test ride bike.

Use centering screws to move arms and center pads to rim.

Pad Wear
Pads will wear out with use and require replacement. Pads will also

harden and become ineffective with age. Pads may also become embedded with aluminum or other contaminants. Inspect and remove as necessary. Pads that are aligned too low on a rim will tend to develop a lip on the low edge. This lip makes correct alignment impossible.

Housing Length Typical Tools and Supplies
Cable Cutter:CN-10 Brake housing and cables as needed Shift housing (compressionless) and cables as needed Housing end caps (ferrules) as needed Light lubricant Mill file (for brake housing as needed). Bench grinder or

dermel also useable. Hex wrenches for cable binder bolts This article will discuss the cutting and sizing of both brake and derailleur housing. See also related articles on shift levers or brake levers. The Park Tool CN-10 Cable Cutter is designed to cut multi-strand wires such as gear and brake cable, brake housing, and compressionless gear housing. Compressionless shift housing uses many inner support wires running longitudinally with the inner plastic liner.

Compressionless shift housing is intended for shifting systems only, not braking. Brake housing is commonly made of a wire wound around a plastic liner. Use ends caps or ferules at the ends of housing when ever possible. There is also available a woven or braided-type of housing that is may be used for both brake housing and shift housing. It is recommended to lubricate inside the housing or the cable is installed.

The jaws of the cable cutter surround and then shear the material. Using plain diagonal cutters can simply flatten and smash cables. As with all cutting tools, it is recommended to wear eye protection.

Grab and hold the cable or housing close to the jaws. Use care not to cut your fingers. Hold cable or housing perpendicular to jaws and squeeze levers quickly for a clean cut, as seen below.

After cutting the compressionless gear housing, inspect the end to see if it flattened a bit. Use the crimper section of the CN-10 to open up the housing and inner liner before installing an end cap and cable. You can also use the crimper section cutter to crimp on a cable end cap, as seen below.

How Long Should Housing Be?
Brake and gear housing allows the cable wire to be routed around bends and connects the levers to the frame stops. The less the drag on the cables, the better for the shifting and braking. Too short of housing will cause it to kink and

bind, making even more friction. As a rule of thumb, try to size the housing so it is as short as possible but it still enters the stops and barrel adjusters in a straight approach. For the rear derailleur housing, note especially how the housing enters the barrel adjuster.

In the left image above, the housing bends immediately upon leaving the barrel adjuster. This can actually bend the housing end cap.

The image to the right shows how longer housing in this case allows the housing to enter straight.

The left image above is a typical new bike housing length. The housing bends and kinks as it enters the barrel adjuster. The image to the right shows longer housing allowing a straight entry into the barrel adjuster.

The image above shows brake and shift housing which is much too long. The housing could be shortened and still have a smooth, straight approach to the levers and housing stops.

The routing of housing may affect the length. Typically the front derailleur shift housing is run on the left side of the frame, while the rear derailleur shift housing is run on the right. This may at time cause unnecessary bending in the housing. In some cases, it is possible to "cross over" the housing, running the front shifter to the right side stop, and the rear shifter to the left side stop. It will then be necessary to again cross the cable. Consider this option, but if the cable ends up rubbing the frame, it is not a good idea. There may be some light rubbing between

cables, but this would result in less friction than poorly routed housing.

Shift lever housing that is too long. Housing passes center line of bike, then must bend back to housing stops.

Shift housing is crossed over at headtube, and crossed again on downtube. Arc of housing is much smoother than black housing in example of too long housing.

Cutting Brake Housing
Brake housing is typically made of

single strand flat wire wrapped around an inner plastic tube. This housing may be cut with the CN-10, or diagonal cutting pliers. Because of the design of the housing wire, it is not always possible to get a flat, clean cut. It is best to finish any burr with a file. Lightly grinding the end will also improve the housing and reduce friction.NOTE: Compressionless housing does not require finishing.

Brake Levers Useful Tools and Supplies
This article will discuss the cable (inner wire) installation in brakes. MTB levers secure to the handle bar by a clamp bolt. It is generally acceptable to secure the bolt so the lever body will move when forced. This may help prevent damage during a crash. Because the rider"™s body weight held by the handlebar, not by the brake lever body, it is possible to not have the body fully secure. Generally, begin alignment so the lever body is in

line with the rider"™s arm. MTB-type Brake Lever Cable Attachment

MTB-type brake lever. The MTB-type brake cable uses a disc shaped end. The lever will have a fitting in lever for this disc. Typically, begin by lining up a slot in the adjusting barrels.

SRAM® levers feed from the inside through the lever body.

For Shimano® type levers, engage cable end in lever first, the fit into adjusting barrel. The dropbar type lever body often is used by the rider to support

his/her weight. This effectively makes the lever similar to a "barend" extension. Secure these levers fully. The body should not move, even with the full weight of the user pushing downward.

Shimano® aero-type levers body bolt is on the under rubber hood of the outside of each lever.

Campagnolo® aero-type lever mounting bolts are under the upper outside corner of each rubber hood. CABLE ATTACHMENT The brake cable end attaches to the lever by fitting through a socket called the brake cable anchor pivot.

Feed the cut end of the wire through the hole in the pivot and out the backside. If the handlebars are taped, it is necessary the housing end be aligned with the cable hole in the lever body. It is sometimes necessary to wiggle the end until you find the housing end.

Campagnolo® brake lever cable installation.

Move brake lever inward as you pull back to expose cable anchor pivot of Shimano® brake/shift levers. Shimano 7900 Levers The brake cable installs through the front of the levers. Remove the

nameplate screw and nameplate. The plate pulls away forward. Use care not to scar the exterior of the plate.

Remove nameplate screw

Pull nameplate forward from top There is a reach adjustment screw behind the nameplate, adjacent to the cable hole. This screw turns a stud that will rotate the lever down and closer to the bars.

Location of reach adjustment screw

The lever position range from fully open to fully tightened position screw The cable access hole is the inner hole at the lever. As seen from the

front, it is the left most hole for front shift lever, and the right most hole of the rear shift lever .

Rear shift lever with brake cable fed through lever and body

Cassette and Freewheel Service

Cassette and Freewheel Removal
This article will review the removal and installation of rear cogs on derailleur type bicycle, and of single speed freewheeling BMX/Freestyle bikes. Typical Tools and Supplies Needed: Cassette cog remover FR series Sprocket Tool (chain whip) SR-1, SR-2, or HCW-16 Freewheel tool wrench, FRW-1, (substitute large adjustable wrench or vise)

Grease, such as PPL-1 or antiseize type lubricant The rear cogs are attached to the hub in one of two ways. Newer bikes tend to use type hub called a "cassette hub." The cassette hub uses a "freehub" sytem, which is a type of clutch mounted to the body of the hub. This cylindrical mechanism ratchets counterclockwise for coasting, and locks clockwise for driving the bike when pedaled. The freehub body has a series of splines on the outer shell. "Cassette" sprockets slide over these splines. A lockring threads into the freehub and holds the

sprockets, or cogs, in place. When the cogs are removed, the ratcheting freehub remains on the hub body. Most modern bicycles use the freehub system. See a typical cassette hub below.

Older bikes may have a large

external thread machined into the hub. The cogs and ratcheting body assembly, called a "freewheel," threads onto the hub. The ratcheting mechanism comes off with the cogs when the freewheel unthreads for removed.

To remove rear cogs, begin by determining the style of hub, the style or brand of cogs, and the removal tool required. The removal tool must fit the part correctly, or both may become damaged. After removing the wheel, look at the flat surfaces adjacent to the right rear axle for brand names. You will need to determine the style of hub you have and the style or brand of cog system. The table below shows several different options.

FR-1 Shimano® freewheel 12 splines, approx. 23mm diameter

FR-2 Older Suntour® two notched, 25mm across

FR-3 Suntour® four notched, 24mm across-

FR-4 Atom® and Reginia® 20 splines, approx dia. 21.6mm

FR-5, or FR-5G with guide pin 12 splines, approx. 23.4mm diameter

FR-6 BMX and Freestyle one-speed 4-notch freewheels-4 notches, 40mm across

FR-7 Falcon® brand freewheels-12 splines, approx 23mm diameter

BBT-5/FR-11 Campagnolo

cassettes-(for Campagnolo cassettes, not freewheels) 12 splines, approx. 22.8mm diameter

FR-8 Compact single speed(30mm thread, "flip-flop hubs") There may be older model freewheels where a tool is no tool available. It may still be possible re-use the wheel but at the loss of the freewheel. There are also current models of freewheels that do not have an adequate design for removal. If the image below, the freewheel has two very narrow and shallow notches that do not allow

enough purchase for a tool. Removal of this type of freewheel would likely result in ruining the tool, the freewheel, or both. For either situation, see destructive removal of freewheels

Very narrow and shallow removal notches in a single speed.

This model of freewheel has no removal tool fittings of any type.

Cassette Cog Lockring Removal and Installation
Shimano®, Campagnolo®,

SunTour®, Sun Race®, Chris King®, DT-Hugi®, and other brands.

If your cogs look like this, you probably have a lockring type cassette. With the modern cassette cog systems, all cogs are fitted with splines. Cogs slide onto the freehub body and are held in place by a lockring. The lockring sits outward from the smallest cog. Look for the

word, "LOCK", and an arrow on the lockring indicating direction to turn for locking. Turn the lockring counter-clockwise, the opposite way of the arrow, to loosen it. There may be a loud noise when the lockring breaks loose. There is often knurling under the lockring to help keep it in place, and this knurling makes noise when the ring is loosened or tightened. TOOLS: Park Tool FR-5, (For Campagnolo use BBT-5/FR-11), Park Tool SR-1 sprocket chain whip (2 if possible), or large adjustable wrench or vise. Mount bike in repair stand and

remove rear wheel from bike. a. Remove quick release skewer. b. Inspect cassette and select correct type of remover. c. Engage remover into splines/notches. d. Install quick release skewer and install skewer nut on outside of remover. e. Snug skewer nut against remover. Skewer acts as a holding device for freewheel removal tool. f. Hold cogs in clockwise direction with sprocket chain whip tool.

Turn remover counterclockwise, using a large adjustable wrench, the hex end of another Park Tool sprocket chain whip tool SR-1, or the Park Tool freewheel wrench FRW-1. It will require force to remove the lockring. Expect to hear a loud clicking sound as the locking teeth of the lockring separate.

g. If using a vise, grab removal tool tightly in vise with wheel held flat. Use sprocket chain whip tool to turn sprockets counter-clockwise. Do not hold wheel while turning sprockets, allow wheel to rotate, and pull only on sprocket chain whip

tool. The process is of a typical cassette lockring and cassette stack removal is in the short clip below.

Using FR-5G with Guide Pin
Remove the skewer and install the FR-5G. Make sure the teeth are fully engaged in the lockring. Hold cogs as described above and turn FR-5G counter-clockwise.

Installing Cassette Cogs
Cassette freehub bodies and cassettes are often designed so the cogs will fit in only one orientation. This permits manufacturer to align "shifting ramps" to specification.

a. Inspect splines of freehub body. Look for a wide space between splines. Inspect the internal splines of cogs. Look for a wide spline to mate with wide space in freehub body. Align splines and engage all cogs. b. Install spacers in same orientation as when removed. c. Grease threads of lockring and thread lockring into freehub. d. Install cassette lockring tool and install quick release skewer. Thread skewer nut on outside of lockring tool. e. Snug skewer nut against

remover. Skewer acts as a holding device for freewheel tool. f. Turn remover clockwise until lockring is tight, at least 360 inchpounds (approximately 40 Nm). For installing lockring, use of the sprocket chain whip tool is not required. FR-5G speeds installation as well. Simply insert the FR-5G into the lockring splines and tighten fully.

Threaded Freewheel Removal and Installation

This type of freewheel requires the FR-1 These types of cog systems will have either recessed notches or splines that sit inside and lower than the smallest cog. Older Suntour freewheels had two recessed notches. Some Suntour freewheels come with four recessed notches. Shimano freewheels and

Sachs freewheels have a series of small square shaped splines. Atom and Regina freewheel use a series of star shaped splines. Park Tool makes freewheel removes for all these types of freewheels. NOTE: Falcon freewheels have a larger spline than Shimano. Use only the FR-7. DO NOT use the FR-1 on the Falcon freewheels. a. Mount bike in repair stand and remove rear wheel from bike. b. Remove quick release skewer. c. Inspect freewheel center and select correct type of remover. d. Engage remover into

splines/notches. e. Re-install quick release skewer with skewer nut on outside of remover. If solid axle-type, use axle nut to hold frewheel tool. f. Snug skewer nut against remover. Skewer acts as a holding device for remover. g. Turn remover counter-clockwise using a large adjustable wrench. Park Tool removers will also fit the hex end of the Park Tool sprocket chain whip tool SR-1, or the Park Tool freewheel wrench FRW-1. It will typically require some force to turn the freewheel. Another option

is to mount remover flats in hard jaws of vise, and turn rim counterclockwise. h. Turn remover only 1 full revolution counter-clockwise. Loosen and remove skewer before continuing to remove freewheel. i. Continue to turn remover counter-clockwise until freewheel is unthreaded from hub. Lift freewheel from hub.

Installing Freewheel
a. Lubricate heavily with grease or anti-seize inside mounting threads of freewheel.

b. Lay wheel on bench, and hold flat. Hold freewheel so cogs are parallel to wheel rim and lower freewheel onto threads. c. Sight right side of hub and freewheel. Axle should appear centered in hole of freewheel. If axle appears off center, freewheel may be cross-threaded on hub threads. Remove and re-align. d. Begin threading cogs clockwise by hand until freewheel feels fully threaded. If a great deal of resistance is encountered, remove and attempt better thread alignment.

e. Use sprocket chain whip tool to rotate cogs clockwise. This will fully seat freewheel against hub. f. If a new freewheel was installed or in new wheel installed, check all adjustments of the rear derailleur. See Rear Derailleur Adjustments. There are some brands and models of thread-on freewheels that have use a lockring to hold the cogs to the freewheel body. This lockring can sometimes be removed, however, there is typically no need to do so. Individual cogs of these freewheels are not typically available. The lockring is used to

assemble the freewheel unit, and it is not intended for service. When the cogs wear out, the entire freewheel as a unit must be replaced. In the freewheels below, notice the cog lockrings. The top freewheel uses the FR-2, a double prong freewheel tool. The bottom freewheel uses the FR-1, a splined tool.

Older Cassette Hubs (non-lockring ring type freehubs)

a.Older freehubs may lack notches or splines adjacent to axle. These older freehub cogs did not use a freewheel or cassette lockring removal tool. There will be a dust cap for the hub on the right side,

but no recessed notches or lockring splines at all. The first cog acts as a lockring for the other cogs. b.Use two sprocket chain whip tool (Park Tool SR-1 or SR-2) c.Place first sprocket on second or third cog, holding it clockwise. d.Place second sprocket tool on first cog to rotate it counter-clockwise. e.Arrange sprocket tools so they form a "X". This gives you better mechanical advantage. See image above. f.Rotate first cog counter-clockwise while holding second sprocket chain whip tool. This loosens first cog.

Remove cog and pull off other cogs.

Installing Older NonLockring Freehub Cogs
a. Grease threads of smallest cog. b. Install cogs and spacers on freehub. c. Thread on smallest cog and secure clockwise with sprocket chain whip tool.

Crank Service

Crank Installation and Removal- Square Spindle Type
This article will discuss the removal and installation of cranks from square spindle bottom brackets. Crank pullers are used for two basic crank types: the square spindle type arms, and the splined type spindle arms. Figure 1 below is a crank with the bolt removed. The square spindle can be seen inside the square fitting in the arm. Figure 2 shows a bottom bracket bearing unit with square spindle.

Figure 1. Crank without bolt showing square hole and square spindle end

Figure 2. Common square spindle in a bottom bracket bearing assembly For the splined Shimano® Octalink and ISIS Drive® type cranks see Spline Cranks.

Typical Tools and Supplies Required:

Crankbolt wrench: typically 8mm hex wrench for newer bikes, such as HR-8 14mm or 15mm socket and driver (older bikes), or Park Tool CCW-5 for 14mm size bolt head or 8mm hex cap screw Crank puller- Park Tool CCP-22 or CWP-7 Adjustable wrench Rags Grease such as PPL-1 Torque wrench, if available, such as TW-2 or TW-6, and correct socket bits, such as the SBS-1

for crank bolt/nut Cranks connect the pedals to the bottom bracket spindle. The arms are pressed tightly to the bottom bracket spindle. Cranks must be removed from the spindle to service the bottom bracket bearings. On some models of cranks, the cranks must be removed to replace the chainrings. One-Key Release ("self extracting") Some cranks are sold with a "onekey release" or "self extracting" system (Figure 3). No crank remover is required. Leave the

retaining ring ("dust cap") in place and turn the crank bolt counterclockwise. For more detail, see Self-Extracting Crank Systems.

Figure 3. One-key system with pin holes in retaining cap

Crank Removal (Square Spindle Type)
a. Shift chain to largest chainring to protect hands against chainring teeth. b. Look for bolt or nut at end of crank in line with bottom bracket spindle. If no bolt is visible, remove dust caps (Figure 4). Some caps pry out and some thread out. NOTE: If the bike has a one-key release system, leave this cap in place. A retaining ring surrounds the bolt. Simply turn the center bolt counterclockwise to remove arm of one-key release system.

Figure 4. Dust cap hiding bolt beneath c. Inspect for bolt or nut (Figure 5, 6 and 7). Turn counter-clockwise to remove. Inspect inside arms for washers. Remove washers if present.

Figure 5. Hex head bolt

Figure 6. Socket head bolt

Figure 7. Crank nut on threaded spindle stud d. Before installing crank puller into crank, turn puller nut away from internal driver as much as possible. If puller nut happens to unthread from internal driver, thread it back on only 3-4 turns.

e. Thread large external thread of puller (nut) into arm, taking care not to cross thread. Tighten puller nut into crank using wrench (Figure 8). If puller nut will not thread into arm, or if threads in arm are stripped, see Removal of Cranks with Damaged Threads.

Figure 8. Secure puller nut into crank

f. Thread internal driver into puller nut. Using handle or adjustable wrench, tighten driver until crank is loose on spindle (Figure 9). Pull arm from spindle and unthread both parts of tool from arm. Use care not to skin knuckles when removing tool.

Figure 9. Turn handle to pull arm from spindle g. Repeat process on other crank. Crank Installation(Square Spindle Type) The video below provides a visual overview of the installation process: See Park Tool Video (Internet Required) Cranks are pressed tight onto the tapered square spindle. The square spidle is made with a slight upward sloping taper. The crank square fitting also has a slight taper

(Figure 10). The crank bolt or nut acts as the pressing tool and forces the arm up the slope of the spindle. The bolt or nut must be tight enough to keep from loosening, but not so tight that the spindle splites and damages crank. If possible, use a torque wrench. See Torque Recommendations.

Figure 10. The square hole and square spindle end Aluminum cranks typically do not require lubrication of this press fit. Aluminum by its nature is selflubricating as it is covered with a thin layer of oxidation. Adequate

torque is typically enough to keep arms from creaking. a. Wipe both sides of spindle and inside crank mounting holes with a rag. b. Grease under head and threads of both bolts or nuts. c. Install right crank onto right side of spindle. d. Thread crank bolt/nut to spindle. e. Tighten crank bolt/nut to manufacturer"™s recommended torques (Figure 11).

Figure 11. Fully tighen crank bolt or nut f. Grease threads of dust cap (if any) and install snug. g. Install left crank onto left side of spindle with arm pointing opposite direction of right side arm. h. Install crank bolt/nut and tighten. i. Grease threads of dust cap (if

any) and install snug.

Removal of Cranks with Damaged Threads (square type only)
If the removal threads for the crank puller in the crank are damaged, there is a possible repair. Begin by inspecting the threads. If only the outer threads are bad, you may still be able to remove it using a normal tool. Make sure the threads of the remover are clean. Start the tool straight to the threads and carefully thread it in place. Tighten the tool into the crank threads with a wrench before attempting to pull the arm. Even if there are only a

few threads left, it is worth trying to remove the arm with a crank remover. Another repair option involves a tool from the Bicycle Research Company, the TC-8. This is basically a fluted bolt that cleans the threads. It comes with a pivoting stud to align the tool centered to the threads. This tool is not a tap, it only aligns damaged and crossthreaded threads. It will not cut new threads. Typically, it will not damage threads, so there is nothing to lose in trying it. The TC-8 will work only with square drive cranks with an 8mm threaded bolt.

If the threads are completely stripped, the arm is basically ruined. A simple removal method uses the concept of how arms are kept on the bike. Pressure from the crank bolt keeps it on, so you will need to remove that pressure. Loosen the bolt or nut three or four turns. Ride the bike hard, uphill. The crank hole is a tapered fit onto a tapered spindle. The flexing under

stress will cause the arm to loosen, but it will also cause the crank hole to become enlarged, ruining the arm. Use care when riding; you Don'tt want the arm to fall completely off when pedaling. It is also possible to use a hacksaw to cut into the arm at the spindle joint. A cold chisel can then be used to split the arm. Again, the arm is basically ruined when the threads are completely stripped, so destructive removal should be considered as an option.

Trouble Shooting a Creaky or Noisy Drive Train
This article will discuss trouble shooting noisy drive trains. Creaking and squeaking noises are annoying, and can be a sign of more serious problems. Damage to component parts may result if they are left unattended. Creaking is usually caused by two things rubbing together, such as a crankarm rubbing on a spindle. Many of the solutions below rely on adequate torque on the parts. See also an article on Bicycle Torque

Specifications. Thread preparation is also critical, see also Basic Fastener Concepts. Correctly diagnosing the source of the noise can be difficult. It may help to have a friend assist you. Have them flex the parts while you listen and feel for noise. Creaking will often resonate enough to be felt as well as heard. If during a ride you hear a creak or squeak once per revolution, it is probably located in the crankset and pedal area. If the noise is once every 2 - 3 revolutions, it may be in the chain. There can be several causes of creaking. You may need

to proceed through the drive train step by step, part by part to eliminate potential problems. Here are some of the possible sources and remedies for drive train creaking.

Cranks
The most common cause of creaking is the crank being loose on the spindle. Remove the crank bolts, lubricate the threads and under the bolt head, and re-install. Tighten the bolts to the manufacturer recommended torque. Use a torque wrench if possible. Typically, 300 inch-pound is

considered a minimum torque, which is 50 pounds of effort holding a wrench six inches from the bolt.

Chainrings
The chainrings are held to the cranks by chainring bolts. Use a hex key wrench and check each bolt. Hold the back chainring nut from spinning with a chainring nut wrench, such as the Park Tool CNW2. Again a mild thread locker or grease on the threads is a good idea. Secure steel chainring bolts to about 60 inch-pounds, which is about fifteen pounds of effort holding a wrench four inches from

the bolt.

Pedal Shoe Cleats
If you have riding shoes, the cleats under the shoe can loosen and also cause noise. Use a mild grade of thread locking compound or grease on the bolts, and tighten them fully. Even regular "street shoes" on a platform pedal can cause noise. A shoe lace can tap against a

crankarm, and the rubber can move and squeak under the sole.

Pedals
Tighten pedals into crankarms. The

torque typically recommended is 300 inch-pounds, which is about 50 pounds of effort hold a wrench six inches from the pedal. Pedal bearings can also creak. Spin the pedal and listen for noise. Different makes of pedals have different bearing service options. For more detail see Pedal Installation

Chainring Cassette to Crankarm
Some cranksets use a chainring mounting arms (spider) that is

removable from the crank arm. There is a lockring on the backside of the arm that may need tightening. Remove the crankarm and then remove the snap ring with a screwdriver. Install the BBT-18 lockring tool on the ring, and loosen counter-clockwise. Drip some mild thread locker onto the threads, then tighten the ring to 400 inch-pounds. For more details see Chainring Cassette Installation

Bottom Bracket
The bottom bracket may not be properly secured into the frame. Most bike frames use a threaded

bottom bracket shell. If the bearing cups or retaining lockring are not tight, there may be movement between the internal and external threads.

Chain
Listen for dry links by spinning the chain in a repair stand. Lubricate as necessary, with a drop of lubricant on each roller and rivet. Look at each and every rivet to check misalignmet in the chain plates. Inspect for twists in side plate, or burrs, cuts or other damage to the side plates. Place chain in a gear combination that relaxes the rear

cage, and spin chain backwards. If the chain hops as it passes of the pulley wheels, it may have a tight link

Derailleur Pulley (idler) Wheels
The two pulley wheels of the rear derailleur spin as the chain turns.

Use a light lubricant to quiet them.

Wheel and Spokes
Creaking can be the result of loose spokes in the rim. Spoke may be moving in the rim or spokes may rub one another at the spoke interlace. In either case, increase spoke tension, using a spoke tension meter if possible. For more detail see Wheel Truing. Some rims are made with a hollow section, and junk can collect in this hollow area causing a rattling.

Housing End Caps
If there seems to be a creaking

when the handlebars are turned, inspect the housing end caps where they enter the frame. These end caps are often metal, and may creak inside the frame fitting as the housing is moved side to side. Lubing is a temporary fix. It is sometimes possible to shim the cap for a tighter fit.

Frame
It is possible non-drive train creaks will masquerade as coming from the drive train. After checking other possibilities, check the frame itself for problems. A crack in a weld or a glued joint that is separating can

also cause a creaking sound. If you suspect a crack, stop riding the bike and take it to a professional for further evaluation. The images below show a crack above the derailleur mount, a bonded bottom bracket shell separating, and a fork crown cracked. None of these bikes were crashed or wrecked. Once a crack has developed, repair is difficult and is often practically impossible.

Crack at right rear dropout. Likely cause is simply fatigue.

Failure of seat tube at derailleur mount

A carbon fiber frame, with bottom bracket shell coming unbonded, resulting in creaking under load

Fork crown failure above brake mount hole

Saddle
The saddle may also be loose on the seat post, causing a creak as the saddle rails move and rock. Check security of the saddle rail binder bolts. The seat post can

move slightly in the frame seat tube, especially in the fit inside the frame is marginal. Knurling the post, or even cutting off excess post may help.

Headset
The headset connects the main frame to the fork and front wheel. Some headsets rely on a tight pressed fit on parts into the frame or fork. If the fit is not properly tight the parts may move and creak when stressed. In some cases the fit can be improved using a "retaining compound". It may be best to consult a professional for

this repair. For more on headsets see Threadless Headsets or Threaded Headsets

Stem and Handlebars
A loose stem or bar bolt may also cause a creaking sound. If the bolts threads are dry and without lubrication, they may not secure properly. Remove bolt, grease the threads and under the bolt head, and re-secure. Some handlebars use a center section that is press on, called a sleeve. This sleeve may become loose with use, and may begin to creak. Replacement is the best repair in this case. You may try

a penetrating thread locking compounds if you have one, but it is likely to keep creaking. A center sleeve is seen in the left image below. In the right image below, the bar had no center sleeve. However, the bar developed a crack where it was held by the stem. A catastrophic failure was imminent.

Rear Cogs
The rear cogs are not a likely

source of a creak, but they should be checked in the interest of thoroughness. For cassette cogs, check security of lockring. For more detail see Cog Removal and Installation. Inspect teeth for burrs and wear, which may cause a pop noise rather than a creak.

Headset Service

Threadless Headset Service Threadless-type Headset Removal, Installation and Adjustment
Typical Tools and Supplies Needed: Hex Wrenches, for stem removal: AWS series. Race Remover, RT-1 or in some cases the RT-2 Headset Press, HHP-2 or HHP-3 . Crown Race Puller, CRP-1. (other options describe in procedure

below) Crown Race Installer, CRS-1. For 1.5 inch forks us the CRS-15 Degreaser, CB-2 Measuring Caliper Rags This article will discuss removing the old headset, installing and adjusting a new threadless headset. See also related articles: If you are confident the headset is properly installed and lubricated go directly to adjustment. Bearings on a bicycle allow the

parts to rotate relative to one another. The headset allows the fork to turn smoothly while riding. Bicycles, and all two wheeled vehicles, make small self corrections in steering while traveling forward. If the headset is pitted or worn, these corrections are not made smoothly and handling suffers. Very worn headsets tend to "lock up" when the front wheel is pointing straight. Pick up the front of the bike, and gently swing the handlebars back and forth from center. Pitting in the cups will cause the headset to stick as it passes through center position.

A pitted headset should be replaced. New headsets are pressed into the frame and fork. All bearings on a bike have some friction as they rotate. This is normal and does not affect the ride. Better quality bearing surfaces are ground smoother and will have less friction and resistance to turning. Adjustable type bearing systems use two opposing races which can be moved relative to one another. If the adjustment is too tight there will be too much pressure on the bearing surfaces and balls and the system will quickly wear out. If the adjustment is too loose there will

be movement or "play" between the parts. This will cause a knocking in the bearing surfaces and again they will wear out prematurely. Generally, the bearings should be adjusted as loose as possible without play or knocking in the system. The upper and lower bearing surfaces are connected by the steering column. The two bearing surfaces need to be parallel in order to operate smoothly. If the upper and lower surfaces of the head tube are not cut parallel, the bearings will tend to bind as the fork is rotated. This can lead to premature

bearing wear and a less than desired adjustment. The head tube can become deformed by welding or simply less than adequate manufacturing techniques. The base of the fork steering column should also be cut square to the fork. If it is not properly machined, the fork crown race will not sit square to the steering column and will add to the binding effect. The head tube can be machined (faced) so the surfaces are parallel by using the HTR-1 Head tube and Racing Tool. The fork can be machined with the CRC-1 Crown Race Cutter. This process is best left to

professional mechanics. Threadless headset bearings are held secure by the stem. The upper adjustable bearing race will slide up and down on the steering column. The stem binder bolts hold the stem secure on the column, which keeps the race from moving. To adjust the race, the stem must first be loosened. There is a cap in the top of the stem that will apply pressure to the race when the stem is loose. A typical threadless headset on the bike, and the various parts are seen below.

Headset Removal
1. If possible, disconnect cables shift and brake levers. Loosen

stem and remove bars and stem from steering column. 2. NOTE: If you are not removing bars completely, use care not to kink or damage housing when hanging bars on bike. 3. Remove any washers/spacers from steering column. 4. Pull fork from bike. It may be necessary to use mallet and tap top of steering column driving fork downward. Once fork is driven down as little as 25mm (one inch), lift fork back up and remove center cone from adjusting race. Remove

fork. 5. Note orientation of bearing retainer (if any). 6. Install Park Too RT-1 Race Tool with small side first upward through the bottom of the headset cups. Squeeze sides of prongs and pull tool fully into head tube. Do not press with hand on bottom of tool, as prongs will close and pinch flesh. A clicking sound will be heard as tool engages head tube cup.

7. Use a hammer at end of RT-1 and drive cup from head tube. Use care as cup approaches end of tube, as tool may fall to ground on last blow of the hammer.

8. Place RT-1 with small end first through remaining cup and remove. 9. Remove fork crown race from fork. Use the Park Tool CRP-1. For specific use of CRP-1 see Crown Race Removal.

10. An optional procedure to the above is to drive the race off using a punch and hammer. In some cases this may scar the fork and crown race.

Installing Headset Bearing Races
Headset bearing races are held by

an interference fit into the head tube. An interference fit occurs when parts are held together by internal and external surfaces forced together. There must be a slight diameter difference between the two pressed surfaces. Typically, the pressed headset race outside diameter should be between 0.1mm and 0.25mm larger than the head tube inside diameter. When the cups are pressed, the head tube will flex and enlarge slightly to allow the cups to press. This tension is what keeps the cups tight in the frame. Use a caliper to measure the

outside diameter of the cups. Next, measure the inside diameter of the head tube in two places, each 90 degrees from the other. Average the two reading. If the head tube more than 0.25mm smaller than the race, it may be reamed using the HTR-1 Headtube Reaming and Facing tool. If the race is between 0.01mm and 0.09mm, a different headset with a larger press race should be used. It is also possible to use a retaining compound such as Loctite® RC609. If the race is equal to or smaller than the head tube, a different race should be used. See discussion of press fit

standards below.

The fork bearing race is pressed to the fork crown race seat. The fork race is smaller than the crown race seat. It is the race that expands as it is pressed. Races are commonly made of bearing steel, which tend

to be very hard and brittle, and do not expand to the same tolerances as the head tube. The crown race seat should larger then the race by 0.1mm to 0.15. Much more difference may stress and crack the bearing race. When the crown race seat is too large for the fork crown race, it may be milled smaller with the CRC-1 Crown Race Cutter. If the crown race seat is only slighlty larger than the race, 0.02 to 0.09mm, use a retaining compound such as Loctite® RC609. If the crown race seat is equal to or even smaller than the race, use a different race. See discussion of

press fit standards below.

Pressing Headtube Cups
This discussion will assume use of the HHP-2 Headset Press and the CRS-1 Crown Race Setter. 1. Determine the acceptability of the headset press fit as described above. 2. Adjust threaded press plate of HHP-2 until top is flush with end of hex shaft thread 3. Remove sliding press plate and install cups onto guides. Guides are used to maintain cup alignment while pressing. Cup

guides fit most 1-inch and 11/8-inch standard headset cups. Before using cup guide, insert guide into cup. If guide appears to jam or is a tight fit, DO NOT use cup guides for that particular headset cup. Do not use cup guides #530-2 if guides press on any preinstalled cup-bearing unit (ex. Chris King® headsets). For headsets not fitting #530-2 cup guides, simply press using threaded press plate and sliding press plate. Pressure on the outer rim of aluminum head cups may visually scar the

cups. If not using the guides, it can help to press one cup at at time. 4. Place upper headset cup on top of head tube. Hold one cup guide onto top threaded press plate and lower assembly through top headset cup. 5. Install second cup guide onto sliding press plate, and place lower cup onto guide.

6. Engage sliding press plate onto hex shaft, and push plate upward until headset cup meets head tube. Release lever. Sliding press plate lever must be engaged in one of

seven hex shaft notches. Pull downward on lower press plate to test engagement.

7. Turn handle clockwise slowly

and inspect alignment of cups as cups enter head tube. Continue and press cups fully into head tube. If threaded press plate has bottomed on threads of hex shaft, turn threaded press plate counter clockwise until it is again flush with top of threads. Re-engage sliding plate to a higher notch, and continue to press cups. NOTE: Never use a "cheater bar" to extend leverage of handles. If cups will not press using handles, other problems are present and should be addressed.

8. NOTE: If the headcup has preinstalled cartridge bearings, check that any guide will not press directly on the rotating bearing. For these types of cups, press only with the flat plates of the headset press. Press only one cup at a time.

9. Inspect for full seating where cups meet frame. A gap indicates incomplete pressing, as seen below.

10. Remove HHP-2 from bike. Unthread handle 1 turn, press lever of sliding press plate and remove tool from bike.

Pressing Fork Crown

Race
The fork crown race must be pressed to the fork crown. Determine acceptability of press fit as described above. Place race on fork crown and select most compatible CRS-1 insert. Place tool and insert over fork. Use hammer and strike top of tool until race fully seats. The sound will change as it seats. Inspect sides of race for seating.

Installing the Star Fangled Nut
The threadless headset is adjust by pressure from the top cap. The

adjusting bolt threads into the "star fangled nut". For nut installation, see Star Fangled Nut Installation.

Headset Assembly

If the headset is using bearing retainers, check the orientation of the retainers before installing. Inspect the metal cage that retains the ball bearings. The cage traps each ball with a hook. Look for the open side of the ball retaining hook. This open side of the cage should face the cone shaped race, not the cup shaped race. If in doubt, install the cage, and place the race inside and turn. If the cage is correct, it will feel smooth. If the cage is upside down, the cage retainer will rub on the race and it will feel different. Reverse the cage and test again.

It is also possible to replace retainer ball bearing with loose bearings. Grease cups to hold bearings, and place balls into cup shaped races. Leave a wide gap the

size of two ball bearings, do not attempt to fully fill cup. 1. Grease bearing retainers and bearing race cups. NOTE: Do not grease steering column. 2. Install bearing retainers into cup shaped races. 3. Place fork through head tube. 4. Install adjusting race and race centering cone onto column. Press centering cone into adjusting race to help hold fork. 5. Install spacers and accessories as appropriate.

6. Install stem and snug stem bolts. Check for adequate clearance from top of column to top of stem. Add spacer under stem if necessary. Image below is view of steering column and stem. There is a gap between stem and top of column.

Headset Adjustment Threadless Type
Threadless headsets work on the same principal as threaded headsets. The bearing races need

to press against the bearings. The bolt in the top cap will put pressure on the stem, which presses on washers below the stem, which press on the bearing races, which press against the bearings. NOTE: The cap and bolt at the top of the stem do not secure the stem onto the steering column. The bolt or bolts on the side of the stem keep the stem from moving once the adjustment is made. The cap is used for bearing adjustment only. Begin by removing the adjusting bolt in the center of the steering column. Next, remove the top cap. There may be a star-shaped nut or

other fittings inside the steering column. The bolt threads into this fitting and pulls on the fork against the headset bearing surfaces, which acts to tighten the adjustment. Note the height of the steering column relative to the stem. It should be about 3mm (1/8") below the level of the stem. The stem needs to press down on the spacers in order to adjust the bearings. If the steering column is level with the top of the stem, another spacer is needed below the stem. 1. Remove bolt and top cap to inspect steering column. Lubricate adjusting bolt and re-

install cap and bolt by hand only. DO NOT TIGHTEN. 2. Loosen stem bolt(s) that secure stem to the steering column. Lubricate these bolts if they are dry. NOTE: DO NOT LUBRICATE INSIDE STEM OR ON STEERING COLUMN SURFACE. 3. Wiggle the stem side to side to see that it is loose. If the stem is jammed or rusted frozen to the steering column, no adjustment can be made. 4. Align stem straight to wheel and gently secure the top bolt. Stop when any resistance is

felt. 5. Tighten stem bolt(s). 6. Check for play by pulling back and forth on fork. Turn the handlebars in different directions while checking for play. There may be play at this early setting. Use care when grabbing suspension forks, because the legs may have play. Grab upper portion of fork. 7. To adjust bearings, LOOSEN STEM BOLT(S). 8. Turn adjusting bolt in center cap only 1/8th turn clockwise.

9. Secure stem bolts, check for play again. 10. Repeat adjustments as above until play disappears. Remember to loosen stem bolts before turning adjusting bolt in cap. 11. Check alignment of stem and tighten stem binder bolts fully. NOTE: Another test of play is to place the bike on ground and grab the front brake tightly. Press downward on the handlebars and rock the bike forward and back. A knocking sensation may indicate a loose headset. In effect this does

the same thing as grabbing and pulling on the fork. However, play in the brake caliper arms may also cause a knocking. Front suspension forks may also have play in the legs, which can cause a knocking.If the adjustment seems very tight, there may be other problems in the headset. Bearing surfaces may be worn out, or the ball bearing retainers may be upside down, or a seal may be improperly aligned. If play always seems present no matter the adjustment, the steering column may be too long for the stem and top cap. Add spacers beneath stem in this case.

Bearing Adjustment and "Feel"
Bearing surfaces are made from hardened steel. The surfaces are cut typically by grinding. Round ball bearings roll on the curved surface of the cup and cone. Even the highest quality bearing surfaces will have slight grinding marks. In the left image below is a high quality cone magnifed two hundred times. Notice the parallel marks from the grinding stone. Also note a slight pit from wear. The right hand image is a bearing magnifed the same amount. It does show some surface

marking, but is generally smoother than the cone or cup. Bearing surface smoothness will vary between manufacturers and between models. Some bearing system will simply "feel" smoother because they are smoother. This is why it is difficult to adjust by using a subjective feeling of smoothness. Generally, adjust bearings for the loosest setting that has no knocking or play, regardless of this relative smoothness.

Headset Sizing Standards
There are several standards for headsets found on bicycles. Headsets are named by the diameter of the steering column, not by the press diameter of the

cups. For example, a "one-inch" headset is for bikes with one inch diameter steering columns. There are three different headset standards using one inch forks. Two are common, the JIS and "Modern European" standard. The older BMX standard is seen less and less. The JIS and "Modern European" standard differ only in the diameter of the press fit. The two standards are NOT interchangeable, even though both use 1" x 24 TPI threading. A bicycle that was machined to the JIS standard may be reamed and cut to the "Modern European" standard. The head tube

would be ream to 30.0mm ID and the fork crown seat cut down to 26.5mm. A bicycle that was made in the "Modern European" standard can not use a JIS headset. Below is a list of "conventional" headset standard sizing. There are now in use other standards and designs, see also Headset Standards and Nomenclature. One-inch Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) Common on many Asian manufactures bicycles, both road and MTB Fork column outside diameter-

25.4mm (1") Head cup race OD- 30.0mm Acceptable head tube ID range29.75mm to 29.9mm Fork crown race ID- 27.0mm Fork crown seat OD acceptable range- 27.1mm to 27.2mm Threadless stem diameter25.4mm (1-inch) One-inch "Modern European" Standard Many road bike and some MTB bikes Fork column outside diameter-

25.4mm (1-inch) Head cup race OD-30.2mm Acceptable head tube ID range29.9mm to 30.1mm Fork crown race ID- 26.4mm Fork crown seat OD acceptable range- 26.5mm to 26.7mm Threadless stem diameter25.4mm (1-inch) 1-1/8" Oversized Many MTB bikes, tandems, some road bikes, BMX Fork column outside diameter- 11/8" (28.6mm)

Head race cup OD- 34mm Acceptable head tube ID range33.75mm to 33.9mm Fork crown race ID- 30.0mm Fork crown seat OD acceptable range- 30.1mm to 30.2mm Threadless stem diameter28.6mm (1-1/8 inch) 1-1/4 inch Oversized Tandems, some MTB bikes Fork column outside diameter- 11/4 inch (31.8mm) Head cup race OD- 37mm

Acceptable head tube ID range36.75mm to 36.9mm Fork race ID-33mm Acceptable fork race seat OD33.1mm to 33.2mm Threadless stem diameter31.8mm (1-1/4 inch) Threadless BMX BMX threadless is same as 1-1/8 above.

Star Fangled Nut Installation
Typical Tools and Supplies Needed Threadless Nut Setters TNS-1 or TNS-4 Hammer such as the HMR-4 Threadless headsets are adjusted by pressure on the top bearing race. Pressure is applied when the bolt in the top cap is tightened. The stem bolt(s) must be loosened, which makes the stem effectively a spacer during the adjustment. The bolt is threaded into the star fangled nut which be fitted into the

inside of the fork column. The star nut is designed not to pull upward. In otherwords, it is designed not to be removeable.

The star fangled nut outer diameter is slightly bigger than the inside diameter of the fork column. This allows the flanges to bite into the

fork walls and hold it tight.

Star Fangle Nut Installation with TNS-4
The TNS-4 is designed to help guide the star-fangled nut straight as it is pressed into the inside of the steering column. Thread the star-nut onto the threaded stud inside the TNS-4.

The convex surface will face outward of the tool, and face the steering column.

Place the TNS-4 over the top of the steering column. The inner mandrel will rise upward and the outer housing is slid over the column.

Hold the TNS-4 straight and in line with the steering column.

Strike the top of the TNS-4 with a hammer to drive in the star fangled nut.

Continue driving the nut util the drivr meets the outer portion of the tool. Unthread the hanlde from the fork. Nut is installed.

Star Fangle Nut Installation with TNS-1
Mount the nut with concave side toward tool thread. Hold TNS over steering column and tap on top on TNS with ball peen hammer. Hold

tool aligned while striking TNS.

The TNS places the nut about 15mm (9/16") below the top of the steering column. This allows the adjusting bolt to thread fully into the nut for adjustment pre-load.

It can also help maintain alignment to use the stem as an alignment guide. This technique works ONLY if you use the newer longer TNS models. Install stem onto column. Engage so most of the stem sticks up above the column. Do not

tighten any upper pinch bolt. Place TNS with nut inside stem and column and tap downward.

Removing the nut
The star fangled nut is basically designed not to be removeable. If it

is necessary to install another nut, simply use a punch and drive the first nut down until deeper than the new nut will sit. It is not necessary to completely remove the old nut. It is also possible to drive the old nut completely through the column and out the bottom. This will make the nut unuseable. It can also work to drill out the center of the nut, and then tap out the remaining pieces.

Screw Replacement in TNS
The TNS-1 and TNS-4 use a replaceable (6mm x 1mm) setscrew, part #822. Use a small

amount of removeable thread locking compound on the threads of the new screw. Use 3mm hex wrench in end of screw, and thread into body, leaving about 10 threads exposed.

Expansion Plug Installation
Another option for threadless headsets is the "expansion plug" systems. These insert inside the steering column and then expand and jam against the inside walls. This system is especially popular with the carbon steering columns. A typical expansion plug system

consist of an expandable sleeve. There is a cone at the top and bottom, and a hollow bolt passes through the sleeve. As this expansion bolt is tightened, it draws together the two cones and this expands the sleeve. As with most all threaded fasteners, grease or oil the threads. The headset adjusting cap and bolt then fit into the top of the expansion plug.

Install the assembled expansion plug into the steering column.

Secure the expansion plug

Install top cap and headset adjusting bolt into expansion plug hollow bolt.

Finished headset top cap.

Chain repair and service

Chain Installationderailleur bikes Typical Tools and Supplies
Chain Tools-CT-2, CT-3, CT-5 or CT-6 Repair Stand to hold bike (optional but nice) Special Replacement pin for Shimano® or special link for Campagnolo® chains as appropriate CL-1 Synthetic Blend Chain Lube Rags

This article will discuss the removal and installation of chain on derailleur bicycles. See also related articles: Chains are made up of a repeating series of inner plates, a roller, a chain rivet (also call a "pin"), and outer plates. The chain rivet presses into both outer plates, but the rivet slides freely through the inner plates and the roller. Chains have a small amount of play at each link, even when brand new. As a chain is ridden, it wears the rivets, and the play at each link increases. This is sometimes called "stretch", although the plates do

not literally become longer. A worn chain will not engage the cogs correctly, and will eventually slip over the cog teeth when pressure is applied. To check chain wear, use the CC-2 Chain Checker, or the CC3. New chains can be fitted to the bicycle, although new chains are longer than required and must be shorted to the correct length.

To install or remove a chain, a chain tool is required. Chain tools are made up of a driving pin and a

cradle to hold the chain-roller. Some models have two cradles. The primary cradle supports the chain plate for pressing the chain rivet in and out. The tight link cradle is only for fixing a tight link. The service procedure will vary between brands of chains. Always check the installation instructions on a new chain.

The Park Tool CT-3 and CT-5 are designed for use with 3/32" derailleur type chain. The CT-2 will service both 3/32" and the wider 1/8" chain. The CT-7 will work on 3/16 inch chains and 1/8 inch chains common on freestyle bikes. The CT-7 will not work on derailleur

chains. When installing a chain, keep in mind that most chain failure is due to one of the pins being improperly installed. Modern chains are very narrow, and even a small amount of misalignment in rivet as it sits in the side plates could cause the chain to break under load. Check even new bikes by viewing each and every pin for protrusion at the side plates.

Also inspect any pre-mounted chain

for bent side plates or missing rollers. Inspect side plates for deformity or other anomalies.

Procedure for Shimano® Chain
Some chains, including Shimano®, use chain rivets which are peened.

This creates a "mushroom" effect at the ends of the rivets, which adds to the strength of the chain side plates. When a rivet is pressed even partially out, this peening is sheered off on the side pressed by the chain tool. If this rivet were reused, it would create a weak link at that rivet. In the image below, a Shimano® rivet is shown in an optical comparator, which magnifies the rivet. The original peening is seen at the bottom of the rivet. The top of rivet has the peening sheered off. This top section was pushed through the outer chain plate.

Shimano® chains use a special connecting rivet when the chain is installed new or when one is removed and re-installed. This connecting rivet has special flaring that is guided in by a long tapered

pilot. The pilot is then broken off before riding. Only Shimano® brand chains should use the Shimano® connecting rivet.

The 7 and 8 speed chains use a black connecting rivet. The narrower 9-speed chain uses a silver-colored connecting rivet. The Shimano ® CN-7800 chain for 10-speeds uses a silver colored rivet with an extra-machined line for identification on the pilot. The Shimano ® CN-7801 chain for 10speed sprockets uses a connecting rivet with three machined identification lines. The 10-speed chain rivets are not interchangeable.

A= 7 or 8 speed connecting rivet B= 9 speed connecting rivet C= 10 speed connecting rivet for model CN-7800

D= 10 speed connecting rivet for model CN-7801

Shimano® Chain Service Procedure
a. Select a chain rivet identical to adjacent rivets. Do not select a previously installed connecting rivet, or a rivet immediately adjacent to a connecting rivet. Avoid selecting the special connecting rivet, and avoid any rivet that looks different from the others.

Some Shimano® chains use a rivet around the entire head.

b. Place the roller of the chain fully in the primary cradle of the chain tool.

c. Turn the chain tool pin until it contacts chain rivet and stop. Note position on handle. d. Drive rivet from chain plates. Some models of chain tools may not fully drive rivet from chain.

Use connecting rivet to finish driving old rivet from chain. e. Back out chain tool pin and lift chain out of cradle. f. Grab chain on either side of protruding rivet. Flex chain toward the protruding chain rivet then pull on chain to separate.

g. Pull on non-rivet end to remove chain from bicycle.

To reinstall the special connecting rivet: a. Reinstall chain on bike with protruding chain rivet facing away from you. The design of the Shimano ® chain requires that the connecting rivet leads the chain plate as it engages the sprockets. b. Open outer plates slightly and insert inner plates. Align protruding rivet with hole in inner plate. c. Lubricate connecting rivet and install into chain rivet hole, with tapered end first. Replacement rivet will protrude outward toward mechanic.

d. Back chain tool pin into tool body to make room for replacement chain rivet. e. Place roller into primary cradle of chain tool.

f. Drive replacement rivet into chain. Replacement rivet will drive

out original rivet if it was left in chain. Continue to drive until chain tool pin is almost adjacent to outer side plate.

g. Remove the chain from tool and

inspect rivet. Non-tapered end of replacement rivet should protrude same as any neighboring rivet. Press further if necessary. Image below shows a protruding chain pin. Repair as necessary.

h. Break off pilot of connecting rivet. With Park Tool, use groove of body of CT-3 or CT-5 and twist pilot sideways. Pliers can also bemused to break rivet. Inspect rivet again and press further if necessary.

i. The connecting chain rivet should not be used again to separate the chain. Re-using same rivet hole wears plate holes and may weaken chain. Use other original rivets for future chain cutting. j. Inspect for tight links and repair

as necessary. Shift to a gear that will relax derailleur cage. Pedal backwards and note any hoping or jumping of chain as it passes through pulleys. See also Tight Link Repair.

Re-useable Rivet-type Chains
There are several brands of chain that are serviced by pressing out a rivet partially, then re-pressing the same rivet to re-install. Check with the manufacturer"™s literature when in doubt. a. Inspect chain for "master link", if any. Disengage master link

according to manufacturer"™s instructions. a. If no master link is present, place a roller of the chain fully in the primary cradle of the chain tool. b. Drive chain-tool pin until it contacts chain rivet. c. For most non Park Tool brand chain tools, turn handle 5 complete turns. Use care not to drive out chain rivet. For Park Tool CT-3, drive T-handle until it is stopped by C-clip. For Park Tool CT-5, drive Thandle until body stops screw. d. Back out chain-tool pin and lift chain out of cradle.

e. Grab chain on either side of protruding rivet. Flex chain toward the protruding chain rivet then pull on chain to separate. f. Remove from bicycle by pulling on rivet end of chain. To reinstall the chain rivet: a. Re-install chain on bike with protruding rivet facing toward mechanic. b. Open empty outer plates slightly and insert inner plates. Push inner plates until hole aligns with chain rivet.

c. Back chain-tool-pin into tool body to make room for chain rivet. d. Place roller into primary cradle with chain rivet facing chain tool pin. e. Drive chain rivet back into chain, taking care to center rivet exactly

between both outer plates. If more chain rivet appears on one side of outer plate than other, push rivet until it is evenly spaced. f. Inspect for tight links and repair as necessary. See Tight Link Repair.

Master-Links in Derailleur Chains
Some chain manufacturers offer a "master-link" to join the chain. Be sure to read the manufacturers directions. Typically, the bicycle chain ends must have inner plates on each end. In other words, neither chain end has an outer plate with a rivet. The link comes in

two pieces.

Install one piece through inside face of chain, and install second piece through outside of the other chain end. Engage the two pieces so link rivet mates to link plate hole. Pull chain to lock the link. The best method to do this is to move master link to top section between rear cogs and front chainrings and press hard on pedals. This insures the link is fully locked. Inspect link before riding the chain.

Note: Some master links are reusable, while others are disposable and should be replaced after each removal. Check manufacturer"™s specifications.

Campagnolo® 10-speed Chains
These chains currently use a special system called the HD-Link. It consists of a short section of links and two special piloted rivets. When determining chain length, you

must deduct an additional amount of chain equal to this section.

Both ends of the special link section are out plates, and these must attach to the inner plate section of the chain. Install the pilot into the chain rivet and place this into the chain. Engage pilot and rivet so that the rivet faces the inside of the bike, toward the spokes. The pilot is then pushing outward, away from the spokes.

It is especially important with the Park Tool chain tools to press downward on the chain at rivet to keep in fully engaged. In the image below, the thumb presses down on the chain.

After the rivet is fully pressed, remove the pilot simply by pulling outward.

It is best to clean the Campagnolo chain in place on the bike rather then remove it, and reinstall. If you are removing the chain and installing it to a different bike, select a section of chain other then the HD link set. Do not re-use a link once the special rivet has been used. Re-pressing in the same outer plate will weaken the press fit and consequently weaken the chain.

Installing Chain Through Derailleurs
The chain is routed through the rear and front derailleurs before being joined. It is best to first determine chain length before installing chain. a. Shift front and rear derailleur under smallest rear cogs. b. Pull back on rear derailleur and feed short section of chain over the tension pulley and straight to the guide pulley.The design of the Shimano ® chain requires that the connecting rivet leads the chain plate as it engages the sprockets. For Shimano ®, feed the outer

plate end of the chain onto the pulleys.

NOTE: Chain should not drag on any part of the derailleur cage.

Image on left shows correct routing. Image on right shows incorrect routing.

c. Pull chain behind rear cogs and then forward toward front rings.

d. Hold a short section of chain and feed chain through front derailleur cage. Turn cranks slowly as you feed chain onto smallest ring.

e. Joint chain at lower section between front and rear cogs. Use correct procedure according to brand of chain. See process above.

f. After installing the chain, check for any tight links. Before riding the bike, check the derailleur adjustment.

Chain Length Sizing Typical Tools and Supplies
Chain Tools-CT-2, CT-3, CT-5 or CT-6 Repair Stand to hold bike (optional but nice) Special Replacement pin for Shimano® or special link for Campagnolo® chains as appropriate Tape measure (optional, for "Equation Method" only) Chain Lubricant CL-1 Synthetic

Blend Chain Lube Rags Chains for derailleur bicycle should be an adequate length. A chain that is too long or too short can cause shifting and riding problems. However, the rear derailleur cage should be long enough to take up slack as the chain is moved between the different gear combinations. This is referred to as "total capacity", and is discussed below. This article will describe three methods to achieve adequate chain length. All three methods tend to

yield adequate chain lengths. It is not necessary to use all three methods, as one method may appeal to you and your situation. The first system described is the EXISTING CHAIN method. It assumes the bike already has a chain in place. The second system is LARGEST COG-TO-LARGEST CHAINRING method, and does not require the pre-existing chain. The last system is the EQUATION METHOD, and uses simply math to determine chain length. NOTE ON REAR SUSPENSION: If the bike has a rear suspension linkage, it is usually necessary to

account for the movement of the rear hub from the bottom bracket. If the rear hub moves away from the bottom bracket, set chain length is the longest position. Consult the bike manufacturer for correct chain length if in doubt. DERAILLEUR CAPACITY: The derailleur capacity refers to the derailleurs ability to take up chain slack as the derailleur shifts between different gear combinations. Some bicycles may have sprocket combinations that do not allow the derailleur to take up the chain slack. In this case, the gearing on the bike exceeds the

capacity of the derailleur. If the derailleur capacity does not match the gear sizes on the bike, the chain may appear to fail either the "too long" test or the "too short" test. A chain length cannot be found that will pass both tests. In this case it is better to size a chain for too long rather than too short. Both the EXISTING CHAIN and EQUATION methods below will safely size a chain when a bike is violating the derailleur capacity. It may be necessary to avoid gear combinations that cause problems in pedaling or shifting on these bikes.

Chain Sizing-Existing Chain Method
Before removing the old chain, check the bike for acceptable length. Cut the new chain relative to the old chain length. Shift bike to smallest chainring in front and smallest cog in back. Inspect the section of chain between lower derailleur pulley wheel and bottom of smallest chainring. There should not be an obvious sag in the chain. Check also that the lower section of chain does not rub chain at upper pulley. It is normal for there be low chain

tension in this position, but the chain should not sag. Sagging in this position indicates a chain that is too long.

Too long a chain length sags in smallest cog front and rear. Note chain-to-chain contact at upper pulley.

Adequate chain length will not sag. If the chain is too long, find the chain rivet contacting bottom of chainring, and mark the chainring at this point. Count two chain rivets toward derailleur, lift this rivet and move to position of mark. Chain is now effectively shorter. Check for sag again. Repeat counting two rivets and moving to chainring mark. Number of rivets to shorten

must be an even number (2, 4, 6, etc.) Repeat until chain has no visible sag. To determine if the chain is too short, shift chain to largest chainring and second largest rear cog. Chain will appear tighter in this position. Inspect chain for "S" bend as it passes through pulley wheels. Shift slowly and carefully to largest rear cog. If chain appears to jam, it is too short. If chain does shift, but there appears to be no double bend of the chain at the pulley wheels, it is too short. You will need to add two rivet lengths to new chain compared to the old chain. NOTE:

Do not attempt to lengthen an old chain by adding new links.

Adequate chain length seen above in largest sprockets front and back. Note the chain bends at both pulleys.

Chain length in the two images above short it is too short. Note the

lack of an obvious bend at pulleys. If the current chain length passes one of the tests above, but fails the other, it is likely the dereailleur capacity does not match the gearing on the bike. Set the chain length so it passes the large ring to largest rear sprocket test. It will then be the responsibility of the user to avoid shifting to gear combinations that cause chain slack. If a new chain is being installed and the old chain is the correct length, the new one may be shortened to the old length before being installed. First, remove the old

chain and lay it on a flat surface with the rollers aligned vertically. Pull the chain straight. Lay the new chain next to the old chain in the same fashion. Make sure the ends of the two chains match, with either a rivet or no rivet at each end. The new chain will appear shorter, so push the links of the old chain back to match up with the new chain. Locate the matching end rivet on the new chain with the rivet on the old chain. Add or subtract chain links as necessary from inspection results stated above and cut the chain at this point.

Chain Sizing - Largest

Cog and Largest Chainring Method
An alternative method for determining chain length for new chains is to use the largest size sprockets on the bike. It is easiest to size the chain without threading it through the derailleur. 1. Remove the old chain. 2. Shift the front derailleur over the largest chainring, and the rear derailleur on the smallest cog. 3. Thread the new chain through the front derailleur. It is not

necessary to thread the chain through the rear derailleur at this point. Simply wrap the chain around the largest front chainring and around the largest rear cog. 4. Pull the chain tight, and note the closest rivet where the two could be joined. Keep in mind a chain can only be joined by mating inner and outer plates. 5. From the closet rivet, lengthen the chain by counting over an additional two rivets (two links), which is a distance of one-inch. Cut the chain at this point.

6. Remove the chain from the bike and thread it through both derailleurs and join the ends. MASTERLINK NOTE: If the bike chain uses a "master link", it is necessary to account for the link. Install one-half of the master link on one side of the chain. Size the chain by cutting the other end of the chain.

Chain Sizing by Equation
Bicycle chains consist of inner and outer plates. It is only possible to join inner plates to outer plates. Because of this, chains can only be connected at whole (integral) inch increments. For example, some derailleur bike chain could only be 51, 52, 53 inches, etc. Chains

cannot be cut to 52-1/4", 53-1/8", or even 52-1/2". It is possible to determine chain length from industrial drive train equations, and then cut the chain before installing it on the bike. Begin by counting the number of teeth on the largest front sprocket and largest rear. These numbers are often printed right on the sprockets and cogs. Next, measure the distance between the middle of the crank bolt to the rear axle. This is also the chain stay length. Measure to the closest 1/8", and convert this to decimal form. A simple chart below will assist this

conversion. Fractional conversion to decimal for 1/8" measurements: 1/8" = 0.125" 1/4" = 0.25" 3/8" = 0.375" 1/2" = 0.5" 5/8" = 0.625" 3/4" = 0.75" 7/8" = 0.875" For most bicycles, a relatively simple chain length equations may be used. For bicycles with extreme differences in chainring sizes and short chain stays, the more rigorous and complete equation may be used. This is discussed later in this article. SIMPLE EQUATION: L = 2 (C) +

(F/4 + R/4 + 1) L = Chain length in inches. Round the final result to closest whole inch figure. C = Chain stay length in inches, measure to closest 1/8". Use chart below to find decimal measurement. F= Number of teeth on largest front chainring. R= Number of teeth on largest rear cog. Example: A bike has a 42-32-22 front chainring set up. Use only the 42 for the equation. The rear cog set has 32 tooth largest cog. The bike measures 16-3/8" from the center of the rear axle to the center

of the crank bolt. The decimal equivalent for 16-3/8" is 16.375 inches.

L = 2 (16.375) + (42/4 + 32/4 + 1) In the example above, this becomes 32.75 + 10.5 + 8 + 1 = 52.25 inches. Chains cannot be joined at 52.25 inches, so this length is rounded to 52 inches.

For this system, round up from 0.5. For example, a chain length figured to be 55.5 would be rounded to 56 inches. To measure the new chain, lay it on a flat surface with the rollers and plates aligned vertically. Pull on each end to straighten out the chain. Measure from either end. Remember, you can only shorten the chain at whole inch increments. If the chain uses a master link, install it on one of the chain for purposes of measuring, and measure including the master link.

Rigorous Equation

Examples of bikes using the rigorous equation would be a track bike with a large front ring, perhaps a 55 tooth, and a small rear cog, such as a 11 tooth. Additionally, to require the rigorous equation, the bike would need a very short chain stay, such as 15 inches or under in length. As the front and rear sprockets differ more in size, the chain must diverge more off a line represented by the chain stay. This is the hypotenuse of a triangle, which can add to the chain length. Again, it is only a concern in very extreme cases.

For an example of the rigorous equation, assume a one speed bike has a 15 inch chain stay, a 58 tooth front ring and an 11 tooth rear sprocket. For one-speed bikes, eliminate the "1" at the beginning of the equation. This is the extra inch added by derailleur manufacturers when sizing chain. The short equation yields an answer of 47.25 inches, which should be rounded to 47 inches. The rigorous equation yields an answer of 48.17 inches, which is rounded to 48 inches. The short equation would be an inch too short. This again is an extreme

situation. Even in this one-speed example, if the chainring is reduced to a 55t, the two equations come up with the same answer.

Tire and Inner Tube Service

Inner Tube Repair
Typical Tools and Supplies Needed 1. Pre-glued Patch Kit such as the GP-2 or Vulcanizing Patch Kit VP-1 2. Floor pump PFP-4 or PFP-3, hand pump PMP-3, PMP-4, PMP-5, or air compressor. 3. Useful items- marking pen, rags, alcohol solvent This article will discuss the patching of bicycle inner tubes. Both the preglued patches and the vulcanizing patches will be reviewed. See also related articles: Wheel Removal

and Installation and Tire and Tube Removal. The GP-2 Super Patch Kit uses preglue patches. There is no tube of glue to leak or dry up. To fix a flat, first locate the hole in the inner tube. If possible, re-inflate inner tube to at least twice the normal width. Inspect for air leaks by holding tube close to the sensitive skin of lips or by holding tube near your ear to hear leaks. Move the tube around its circumference. If you find one hole, keep looking for more. Inspect inside the tire for sharp objects or glass. Also inspect the rim strip in

the rim. It should not have any holes around the spoke holes and should fully cover the holes. If you plan to repair the inner tube, use a marking pen to mark hole. Make four marks, one to each side of hole. Do not mark close to hole, as the mark may be sanded off.

To Patch an Inner Tube Using the GP-2 Super Patch
1. Locate hole marked during inspection. Using fine emery cloth or sandpaper, clean the tube by lightly abrading area

around hole. Excessive sanding or heavy pressure can cause grooves in the rubber, which may lead to patch failure.

2. If available, wipe the area with clean rag and alcohol. Allow it to dry completely. 3. Peel patch from patch backing. Handle patch as little as

possible and by edges only. 4. Center patch to hole and lay patch on tube. 5. Apply pressure to patch to assure seal. Roll patch and tube between thumbs and forefingers.

6. Tube is ready to install. DO

NOT test patch by inflating tube while outside of mounted tire. This may stretch tube body and weaken patch bond.

Patching an Inner Tube Using the VP-1 Vulcanizing Patch Kit
Glue type patches require the application of a thin layer of selfvulcanizing glue on the tube before the patch is applied. 1. Locate hole marked during inspection, as described above.

2. Using fine emery cloth or sandpaper, lightly abrade area around hole. Abrade an area larger than patch size. 3. When possible, clean area with alcohol and allow it to dry completely. 4. Open glue tube and puncture seal. Apply thin coat of glue

and spread evenly around hole area. Spread area of glue larger than patch size. Use a clean finger or back of patch to spread glue evenly in a thin layer. Do not apply too much glue. Glue layer should not appear "glopped" on.

5. Allow glue to dry. This may

take several minutes. Test by touching only perimeter area of glue, not where patch will contact. 6. Peel patch from patch backing. Handle patch only by edges. 7. Center patch to hole and lay patch on tube.

8. Apply pressure to patch,

especially at edges. 9. If possible, maintain pressure for several minutes. 10. Leave clear plastic cover on patch, do not peal up. 11. Mount tube inside tire and inflate.

Temporary Repair of Tire with Tire Boot TB-1
If the tire has been ripped and the casing damaged, it may not hold an inner tube. It is possible in some cases to make a temporary repair with a Tire Boot. A booted tire should not be considered a

permanent repair. The tire should be replaced as soon as possible. 1. Locate rip in tire. Compare rip to size of tire boot. Tire boot must completely overlap rip to be effective. 2. Wipe clean inside of tire adjacent to rip. 3. If using Park Tool Boot TB-1, peal off backing of TB-1. 4. Align patch so edges do not extend beyond tire bead. If necessary, cut boot so it does not extend past tire bead. 5. Center patch to rip and press patch to inside of casing.

NOTE: Always replace ripped tires as soon as possible.

Tire and Tube Removal and Installaton
Typical Tools and Supplies Needed Repair stand (optional, makes the work a lot easier) Tire levers TL-1, TL-4, TL-5, or body of various take-a-long tools. Patch Kit such as the GP-2, or VP-1. Air pump: see Pumps, or air compressor. Wrenches for non-quick-release type wheels that use outer axle

nuts. The wheel must be removed to replace the tube and tire. If possible, begin by mounting bike in stand. If no stand is available, bike should be laid on its left, nonderailleur, and side when the rear wheel is removed. Do not stand bike upright without the rear wheel in place, as this will damage the rear derailleur. 1. Rear wheels, shift derailleur to outermost gear and innermost front chain ring. 2. Release brake quick-release, if any. Typical MTB brakes and

road brake quick release mechanisms are shown below.

3. Release wheel quick-release by pulling quick release lever outward. Pull outward on end

of quick release skewer lever. If necessary, loosen quick release adjusting nut to clear any tabs at end of fork. For wheels with axle nuts, loosen both nuts outside of dropouts. 4. Front wheels guide wheel down and out of fork. For rear wheels, pull back on rear derailleur to allow cogs to clear chain. Lower wheel, guiding the wheel down through brake pads and forward to clear chain and derailleur. Guide the wheel through the brake pads and out the fork ends.

Removing Tire and Tube from Rim
Tires can be tightly fitted to the rim. Use tire levers to pry tire bead

up and over rim sidewall. Do not use a screwdriver, knife, or other sharp object, which might damage tire or tube. Fully threaded valve shafts may have a locking nut next to rim. Loosen and remove locking nut before deflating. 1. Deflate tire completely. Even a small amount of air left in the tube can make it more difficult to get the tire off. For best results, press downward on wheel while depressing the valve. 2. Push one bead of tire toward rim center. The tire bead will be pressed tight against rim.

Pushing it inwards loosens the bead from the rim. Repeat on other bead.

3. Engage one tire lever under bead of tire. Engage second lever 1-2" (25-50mm) from first lever then pull both levers toward spokes to lift bead off rim. Disengage one lever. Move

it two inches (5cm) along the rim and engage lever in the bead. Pull lever to lift next section of bead off rim.

4. Repeat engaging the lever until the bead loosens. Then slide the lever along the rim under the bead.

5. Starting opposite the valve, pull inner tube from tire. Lift valve from valve hole and remove tube from wheel. Other tire lever options: Some tires remove easier with a thinner and wider lever such the TL2

Some tire and rim combinations require a very strong steel lever, such as the TL-5

6. Remove second bead from rim, which removes tire completely from rim. To fully inspect the tube and tire, it is best to remove both completely.

Inspecting the Inner Tube
When servicing a flat tire, always inspect tire and tube carefully to locate the cause of failure. This will help prevent future flats from the same cause. 1. Inflate inner tube if possible. Inflate until tube is twice its normal width. 2. Inspect for air leaks by holding tube close to the sensitive skin of lips or by holding tube near your ear to hear leaks. Move the tube around its circumference. If these steps

do not work, submerge tube in water and watch for bubbles at the hole. 3. If you plan to repair the inner tube, use a marking pen to mark hole. Make four marks, one to each side of hole. Do not mark close to hole, as the mark may be sanded off. The type of cut or hole in the tube will help determine the cause of the flat. Common causes of tire and tube failures are: Cut at valve core, commonly from misalignment of tube in rim or riding with low pressure.

Be sure tube is mounted straight in rim and check pressure before rides. Leaky valve core, tighten with a valve core tool. More common with Schrader type valves, but also possible on some Presta valves. Blow causing a large shredded hole. These are usually not repairable. Check tire and rim as well for damage. Hole on inside edge of tube indicates a problem inside the rim, such as from rim strip failure, a protruding spoke or

other sharp object inside the rim. A long cut or rip may indicate a tire blow out. Typically this is not repairable. Use care when seating tire during installation. A single puncture or small hole is commonly from a thorn, wire, or small nail. These may be repairable. Check tire as well for thorn, etc. Double slits are commonly from a rim pinch. The tube was pinched between rim and object in road/trail. Increase air pressure or use wider tires.

V-shaped slits may be from nails or glass.

Inspecting the Tire
It is important to always inspect the tire as well as the inner tube. The cause of the flat, such as a nail or piece of glass may still be embedded in the tire or tread. Inspect both the outside of the rubber tread and the inside of the casing.

1. Inspect outside of tread for protruding nails, pieces of glass, thorns, or other objects. Squeeze any cut to look inside for objects such as slivers of glass. 2. Visually inspect inside of tire casing for nails, glass or debris. Wipe inside of casing with a rag, and then carefully feel

inside with fingers. 3. Inspect sidewall for rips, holes, or damaged rubber and casing.

4. Inspect wire or fabric tire bead for damage.

Rim Strip and Rim

Cavity
The wheel rim is made with holes between the rim sidewalls for spoke nipples. A rim strip covers the holes or nipples. The rim strip can be made out of different materials such as cloth, rubber, or polyurethane plastic. The strip protects the inner tube from sharp edges in the base of the rim and from spoke ends and nipples that might puncture the tube. Inspect inside the rim cavity, looking at the rim strip and for any sharp corners or protruding spokes.

The rim strip should be wide enough to cover the bottom of the rim, but not so wide it interferes

with the seating of the tire bead. Inspect the rim strip whenever changing a tire or inner tube. Look for tares and rips, and make sure rim strip is centered over the nipple holes. In the image below, the rim holes are exposed, which may cause a flat tire.

Valve Types
There are two common types of valve stems on bicycles, the schrader ("American" type) and the presta ("French" type). The schrader or American-type valve is

common on cars and motorcycles. It is also found on many bicycles. The valve stem is approximately 8mm (5/16?) in diameter and has an internal spring plunger to assist in shutting the valve. To deflate the schrader valve tube, it is necessary to stick a small hex wrench or other object into the valve in order to press on the stem and release the air. Upon release of the stem, the stem spring shuts. Schrader compatible pump fittings press on the internal stem with a plunger, allowing the tube to be filled.

The schrader valve core can be removed if necessary. This is rarely required, but a valve can become stuck and cause a slow leak. A loose core can also be the source of a slow leak. A special tool will remove and or tighten the core.

The presta or French-type valve is common on mid and higher priced road bikes and on higher priced MTB bikes. Presta stems are nominally 6mm (1/4?) diameter, thinner than Schrader valves. At the top of the stem is a small locknut,

which must be unthreaded before air can enter the tube. To deflate the inner tube, unthread the locknut. Depress the valve stem to deflate. To inflate the tube, unthread the locknut and tap the valve to insure it is not stuck.

Presta valve tubes come with different length valves. The longer

valve stems are needed for the deeper aerodynamic rims.

The rim valve hole should match the valve of the tube. It is possible to use the smaller presta valve in a rim intended for the larger Schrader by using an adapter sleeve.

Repairing an Inner Tube
Simply replacing the punctured

inner tube with a new tube is always the safest and most reliable procedure. However, it is possible in some cases to repair a small hole in an inner tube. If the hole is quite large, it may not be possible to repair. When in doubt replace the tube. The GP-2 Super Patch Kit uses preglue patches. There is no tube of glue to leak or dry up. The VP-1 uses a vulcanizing fluid to bond the patch to the inner tube.

Installing Tire and Tube on Wheel
1. Note directional arrows of tire

manufacturer, if any. Directional arrows printed on the sidewalls indicate rotation of wheel. Not all tires have direction orientation. 2. Inflate tube enough for tube to just hold its shape. 3. Install tube inside tire. Install with tube valve adjacent to air pressure recommendations written on tire sidewall. 4. Lower tire and valve into rim valve hole and align valve so it is pointing straight toward hub. A crooked valve can lead to a flat tire later.

5. Install one bead at a time. Work tire bead onto rim with hands. If tire bead will not seat using hand, use tire lever as a last resort. Use caution when using tire levers to avoid pinching inner tube. Engage tire lever using same orientation as removing bead.

6. Work tube over rim sidewall

and into rim cavity. 7. Install second bead onto rim. Use care if using a tire lever. 8. Inspect both sides of tire for bead seating and for any sign of the inner tube sticking out. Re-install if necessary. 9. Inflate to low pressure and inspect bead again on both sides. Look for small molding line above bead. This line should run consistently above rim.

10. Inflate to full pressure and check with pressure gauge. It may be necessary to press downward above the valve in order to engage the pump head. For fully threaded valve shafts, re-install the locking nut, if any. Do not use wrench or pliers to tighten nut. Tighten finger tight.

Installing Wheel on Bike
The wheels must be properly mounted to the bicycle frame. Misalignment can result in problems with shifting and bike handling. If the wheel is not securely mounted in the dropouts, it may come out when the bike is ridden, possibly causing injury to the rider. Quick release wheels use a hollow hub axle fitted with a shaft, a lever that operates a cam mechanism, and an adjusting nut. The cam puts tension on the shaft and pulls both the cam and the adjusting nut tight against the dropouts. This tension

is what holds the wheel securely to the frame. The adjusting nut determines the amount of tension on the quick release lever and cam. Lubricate the cam mechanism if it appears sticky or dry. The quick release is fitted with two conical shaped springs. The small end of the spring faces the axle, and the large end faces outward. These springs make the wheel easier to install. If one or both springs become twisted or damaged they may be removed. The springs serve no purpose once the wheel is tight on the bike.

Disc Brake Note
Bicycles using disc brakes at the hub need special attention to skewer use. Rim brake systems (Dual Pivot, Linear Pull, Cantilever, Sidepull, etc.) tend not to apply significant pressure on the axle. Disc brake systems are mounted on the fork and apply a load on the rotor, which is attached to the hub. There is an outward load on the

hub axle that tends to push the axle out of the dropout.

It is especially critical the skewer be properly and fully secure on disc brake systems. Non-quick release hubs use axle nuts outside the dropouts. The axle nut will have a washer built into the

nut, or a separate washer. If the washer has teeth or knurling, these face the dropout to help secure the wheel. Lubricate the axle threads while the wheel is off the bike. It is often easiest to install the front wheel when the bike is standing on the ground. The quick release skewer must be fully engaged on the dropout surfaces. By placing the bike on the ground, the axle will be fully up in the dropouts. 1. Check that the quick release skewer lever is in open position. Check that brake quick release mechanism is open.

2. Install front wheel between dropouts with skewer on left side (from rider"™s point of view). Pull wheel fully up into dropouts. For non-quick release wheels with axle nuts, washers go to outside of dropouts. 3. Rear wheels, pull back on rear derailleur to open chain. Place smallest cog between upper and lower sections of chain. Guide wheel between brake pads and engage smallest cog on chain. 4. Determine final closing position of hub quick release lever. Rotate front lever and

adjusting nut so the lever will end up just in front of fork. Position the rear lever so it falls between the chain stay and seat stays. Reposition the lever as necessary if it will not fully close.

5. Adjust closing tension of quick release skewer. For most skewers, hold lever parallel to the hub axle, which is half way

through its swing from fully open to fully closed. Tighten adjusting nut snug against dropout. Check results by moving lever back and forth through its swing. Lever should meet resistance to closing half way through its swing. Close lever fully.

6. For non-quick release wheels, tighten axle nuts fully. 7. Close brake quick-release mechanism. View wheel centering in fork. Wheel should be centered between fork blades. To adjust wheel centering, open skewer, move

wheel either left or right until wheel appears centered, then close skewer. For non-quick release wheels, loosen axle nuts and center wheel, then tighten nuts fully. 8. Inspect brake pad alignment and centering by closing and opening pads with brake lever. If brake pads are not centered to wheel, see Chapter 6, Brake Systems. If wheel fails to adequately center in frame, either the frame or wheel may be miss aligned. 9. Spin wheel and double check pad alignment to rim. Be sure

pads do not strike tire. 10. Orient skewer so lever will end up between the seat stay and chain stay, unless this prevents lever from fully closing. 11. Close brake quick release or attach MTB brake release wire. 12. View centering of wheel between chain stays and seat stays. Also sight rim centering to brake pads. Open skewer or loosen axle nuts and adjust as necessary to center wheel in frame. If brake pads are not adequately centered to wheel re-adjust brakes. If further

attempts to align the wheel fail to adequately center it in frame, either the frame or wheel may be miss aligned. Seek a professional mechanic for help. Note: So called "open cam" skewers may require more tension from the skewer. These skewer levers have the cam mechanism exposed, and should be lubricated often. Always check with skewer manufacturer for specific procedures.

Axle Nuts
Wheels may also be held on with a nut. The rear dropouts may also have a derailleur hanger that bolts to the dropout. There should be a

bolt and nut that holds the hanger to the frame. The wheel installs over hanger bracket. The axle should extend to the back of this bracket. However, the left side axle will appear not to sit at the back of the dropout. This is because the right side is displaced forward by the hanger bracket. Center the wheel and fully secure nuts.

Front axles on some bike may include a tabbed washer. There will be a hole in the fork for the washer tab.

Miscellaneous

Bike Washing and Cleaning Useful Tools and Supplies
This article will discuss bicycle washing. Cleaning the bicycle makes it look great, last longer, and improves performance. For more detail on cleaning the chain specifically see Chain Cleaning. Washing a bike is a messy job. Begin by changing to clothes that fit the job, and putting on an apron such as the SA-1 or SA-3. Next, find a work area that is appropriate. Gather together all the materials for

cleaning. See list above.

Gather supplies before being the work. Fill the buckets with hot water. Just like when washing dishes, warm water cleans better. Use a biodegradable dishwashing liquid or

similar soap, and mix it in one of the buckets.

Add soap to water and mix. If the bike is to be clamped, scrub inside the jaws holding the bike. Also wash area you will be clamping. The jaws will not scratch,

but if there is dirt between the jaw and the paint, it may mar the finish.

Begin by cleaning the dirtiest items first, which is typically the chain and drive train. Use a chain cleaner such as the Park Tool CM-5 Cyclone Chain Scrubber.

Use the CM-5 to clean the chain. The PRS-20 and PRS-21 Repair Stands offer an option for holding the chain. Remove the rear wheel and reverse the frame on the stand. The axle will hold the chain for cleaning.

PRS-21 or PRS-20 holds the chain for cleaning. Use the GSC-1 brush to clean the derailleur pulley wheel, derailleur cage, and chainrings. Use solvent, but do not drip solvent into hub or bottom bracket bearings.

Clean greasy items with brush and solvent.

Clean all chainrings with GSC-1. After scrubbing the chain with the CM-5, empty the CM-5 and fill it with soapy water. Using two different types of solvents, a degreaser and a soap, is very effective in cleaning the chain and removing grit.

Use soapy water to scrub chain after using a solvent.

Wrap a rag or sponge around the chain while you spin it.

Rinse the chain with water. If the wheels and rear gears are especially dirty, it is best to pull them from the bike. Scrape out packed in grass, dirt, and grime from between the gears with the GSC-1.

Clean between the teeth by scrapping with a "gear comb."

Lean the wheel so the cogs are facing the ground to minimize solvent dripping into bearing as you scrub the cogs with solvent.

With the wheel either in or out of the bike, use the pointed brush to clean the hub between the flanges and outside flanges. .

Use the sponge brush to get between spoke nipples of the rim. Clean the frame and the bike components. Use the sponge with soapy water to clean the tubing. Use the tapered detail brush to clean hard to reach places such as behind the bottom bracket, derailleur and even under the

saddle.

Don'tt be shy with the sponge and soapy water.

Use brush to clean all components.

Bottle brush cleans the hard-to-get to places.

Use the tire and frame tube cleaning brush for large tubes and tires. If you are using a hose, use only low pressure with a wide spray. Let the water drip down from above. A water bottle may also be used for rinsing. NOTE: Mark the water

bottle as unusable, as it may become contaminated with soap.

Rinse bike from top down. Allow the bike to dry after rinsing. Use compressed air if available, but do not blast bearings directly. Use a light lubricant such as CL-1 on the chain, pulley wheels, cables, and

pivots points. After the bike is washed, take the time to rinse off the BCB-4 brushes and clean the repair stand.

Common Tools

AWS-1 Three Way Hex Wrench

BT-2 Fourth Hand Cable Stretcher

Digital Caliper

Hex Wrench Set

CN-10 Cable Cutter

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