PLJ Volume 2 Number 7 - 02 - George A. Malcolm - Philippine Statutory Construction

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 Dean of the Col~

of Law, Unive1'sity of the Philippines.

The co cour urts ts an and d pu publ blic ic offic officer erss g gen ener erall ally y in the Ph Phili ilipp ppin ines es ar are e gu guid ided ed in th their  eir   *

interpreta interpr etatio tion n of the laws b by y ele elem men entary tary pri princ nciple ipless to be fo foun und d in the Cod Codes. es.   They will a also lso a app pply ly th the e rule ruless of America erican n sta statu tuto tory ry co cons nstru tructi ction on as set for forth th in sta stand ndar ard  d  authorities.   t   Com ombi bini ning ng th thes ese e pr prov ovisi ision onss of th the e Cod odes es with th the e lea leadi ding ng do doct ctrin rines es es estab tablis lishe hed d by the the Su Supr prem eme e Cou ourt rt of th the e Ph Phili ilipp ppin ines es an and d ad addi ding ng a few ac acce cept ptab able le and an d un unim impe peac acha habl ble e au auth thor oriti ities es,, a m min iniat iatur ure e te text xt on P Phi hilip lippi pine ne St Statu atuto tory ry Con onstr struc uc-tion tio n wou ould ld rea read d as fol follo low ws:

Each Ea ch of the thre three e de depa partm rtmen ents ts of go gove vernm rnmen entt an and d ma many ny off officia icials ls in th these ese dep departartments may be re req quir ired ed to pass upon co con nst stit itu uti tio onal

questi estio ons.

Only when le leg gal

cont co ntro rov ver ersi sies es ar aris ise e do ssu uch iss issu ues p pas asss ou outt of tth he re real alm m of th the e ab abst stra ract ct..

It is, is, there there--

fore fore,, the the pe pecu culia liarr pr prov ovin ince ce an and d ob oblig ligato atory ry du duty ty of th the e ju judi dicia ciary ry un unde derr th the e Amer erica ican n  politica  polit icall sy syste stem m to de decla clare re la law ws un unco cons nstit titut utio iona nall or in inva valid lid (th (the e lat latte terr th the e more ore appr approo priat  pr iate e ter term m be beca caus use e of th the e Ph Phili ilipp ppin ine e sta statu tus) s),, if th they ey tra trans nsgr gres esss th the e au auth thor ority ity of th the e legisl leg islat atur ure. e.

So in th the e Ph Phili ilipp ppin ines es th the e co cour urts ts will pron pronou ounc nce e Act ctss of th the e Ph Phili ilipp ppin ine e

Com omm missi ission on an and d Leg egis isla latu ture re rep repugn gnan antt

to the the fu fun ndam amen enta tall

la law w to be inv inval alid id an and  d 

void.   t   The ef effe fect ct of iin nvalid alidit ity y is tth hat th the e in inv val alid id act "is no nott a la law w; it co con nfers fers no right rig hts; s; it im impo pose sess no d dut uties ies;; it affo afford rdss no p pro rote tecti ction on;; it cre create atess no of offic fice; e; it is, in le lega gall cont co ntem empl plat atio ion, n, as ino inope pera rativ tive e as tho thoug ugh h it ha had d ne neve verr be been en pa passe ssed. d." "   §   Th The e co court urtss will furth further er ap appl ply y th the e well e esta stab~ b~sh shed ed ril rille le co conc ncer erni ning ng pa parti rtial al in inva valid lidity ity..

"W "Whe here re

 part  pa rt of a sta statu tute te is vo void id as repu repugn gnan antt to th the e Organ rganic ic Law aw,, whi hile le an anot othe herr pa part rt is va valid lid,, the the va vali lid d portio rtion n, if sepa separa rab ble fro from the inva invali lid, d, may st stan and d an and d be en enfo fo~ ~ced ced.


in orde orderr to do thi this, s, the the va vali lid d por orti tio on must be so fa farr ind indep epen ende dent nt of the inva invali lid d po porrtio tion that that it is ffai airr to pre presu sum me that that the the Leg egis isla latu ture re would hav have e en enac acte ted d it by its itsel elf  f  if the they y ha had d su supp ppos osed ed th that at th they ey co coul uld d n not ot co cons nstit titut utio iona naJly Jly en enac actt th the e ot othe her. r.

Eno noug ugh h

must rem remai ain n to mak ake e a co com mplete lete,, inte intell llig igib ible le,, an and d va vali lid d st stat atut ute, e, whi hich ch carr carrie iess out th& th& legi legisl slat ativ ive e inte inten nt.

The voi oid d pro rov vis isio ion ns must be el elim imin inat ated ed wit itho hou ut

cau causi sing ng

re resu sults lts af affe fecti cting ng the 'm 'main ain pu purp rpos ose e of th the e Act in a man anne nerr co cont ntra rary ry to the in inten tentio tion n Esp pecia eciall lly y Art rts. s. 3, 4, 5, 7 of the the Civil ivil Cod Code; and and Sees. ees. I, 2, 4, 28 287 7, 288, 294 of the the Cod ode e of  *   Es Civi Civill Pr Proc oced edur ure e take taken n from from the laws laws of Cali Califo forn rnia ia.. Also lso See. See. 9, Rev Revis ised ed Or Ordi dina nanc nces es,, City City of Man anil ila. a. Coole oley, y, C Con onsti stitut tution ional al Lim Limita itatio tions ns.. 7th 7th ed. ed.,Le ,Lewi wiss Suthe Sutherla rland nd Sta Statut tutor ory y Co Cons nstru tructi ction on (leadi (leading ng t Co auth author ority ity); ); Black lack on In Inte terp rpre reta tati tion on of La Laws ws;; and and 36 C Cyc yc.. 929 wil willl be fo foun und d cite cited d in the the Phil Philip ippi pine ne Repor eports ts and the opini opinion onss of the Atto ttorne rneyy-G Gene eneral ral.. Ocam Oc ampo po •. Ca Caban bangis gis (191 (1910) 0) 15Ph 15PhiE6 iE626 26,, 631 31;; U U.. S.•. S.•. Ten Ten   (191 (1912) 2) 24 Ph Phil. il. 1, 10. 10. Poss Possibl ibly y more ore J?ro J?rope perl rly y spea speak king ing "voi "voida dabl ble" e" beca becaus use e a c cou ourt rt can can not "r "rep epea eal" l" a law law.. She hepa pard rd •. Whe Wheel elin ing g (188 (1887 7) 30 W. Va. Va. 4 479 79;; Co Coole oley' y'ss Co Cons nstitu titutio tiona nall Lim Limita itatio tions ns,, 7th 7th ed ed., ., p. 1 163 63.. 'Nor 'Norto ton n •. Sh Shel elby by Cou ount nty y (18 (1886) 118 U U.. S. 42 425, 442, 30 L. E Ed. d. 178; 6 R. R. C. L. 117. But se see e Burge Bu rgess ss,, Polit Politica icall Scien Science ce and Co Cons nstit tituti ution onal al Law, Law, Vol. Vol.   n,  pp. 327, 327, 36 365. 5.

 Y "


of the the Le Legi gisl slat atur ure. e. Ie Iepl pl

Th Thee Iao& Iao&ua ua&e &e UB UBeedin din the the inva invali lid d pa part rt 01 a ssta tatu tute te

fo forc rcee or eeff ffic icac acy y for for an any y pu purp rpoe oeee wh what atev ever er,,

the legi the legisl slat ativ ivee wi will ll in inde depe peQd Qden entl tly y Je Jecia ciaIa Iate. te."" •

and, and, wh what at re rema main inss

can can ha have ve no mU mUll lltt ex expf pft8 t88 8

01 the the vo void id pa part rt,, mo more re the the co cour urtt hR hRaa no Po Powe werr to

That Th at th thee Su Supr prem emee Co Cour urtt of th thee Ph Phil ilip ippi pine ness li like ke th thee Un Unit ited ed St Stat ates es Su Supr prem emee Co Cour urtt Wlll ex Wlll exer erccis isee th thee po powe werr to nul nulli lify fy st staatute tutess caut cautio ious usly ly an and d sole solemn mnly ly is show shown n by the the few few laws laws he held ld in inva vali lid. d.   t   Says Judge Cooley: "It must be eev vident to an any yone that thee po th powe werr to de decl clar aree a le legi gisl slat ativ ivee ena nact ctme ment nt 01 the the falli libi billit ity y

of tthe he ju jum man

wheere he ca wh can n co cons nsci cien enti tiou ousl sly y the res respons ponsibil ibility. ity.""


ju judg dgm ment,

wi will ll sh shrrink from exercising sing in an any y   cue

rul ulee, cou ourrts will n no ot   Pl\8S   upon a cons t.itutio utional nal

be iinv nval alid id un unle less ss th that at qu ques esti tion on is ra rais ised ed an and d pr pres esen ente ted' d'

and is necess ssaary to a de dete terrmin inaati tion on st stat atut utee

CO COII II8C 8Cio ioua ua

arid ar id wi with th du duee rega regard rd to dut duty y an and d of offi fici cial al oa oath th de decl clin inee

  As a p pn neral

ques qu esti tion on or de deci cide de a st stat atut utc/ c/to to

vo void id is on onee whi which ch the the judp judp,,

of tth he case; se; on th thee ot othe herr ha han nd, the he''fact

th thaai a

hn hnss be been en acce accept pted ed as va vali lid, d, an and d invo invoke ked d an and d app ppli lied ed fo forr ma many ny ye year arss in ease easess

wheere its wh its vali validi dity ty wa wass no nott rais raised ed or p pas asse sed' d'on on,,

do does es no nott pr prev even entt

  II. II.

  cour courtt fr from om lat.  er 

 passing on its validity whl'l'e that question is properly raised and presented. Eveery statu Ev tatute te announced

is pre presu sum med

to b bee v vaalid id..

time and again that

constit stitut utio iona nal, l,

sho houl uld d be sus usttain ineed. d."· "···

has sa saiid:

"Cour urtts

of the the vali validi dity ty

If the herre is d do oub ubtt,

th thee expr preessed sed will o off tth he

The S Sup uprreme Cou ourrt of the hese se Island landss concor ord dantl tly y

are sl slo ow tto o pr pro onou ounc ncee

:; :;ta tattut utees

of eeve very ry st stat atut utee   1 . - ;   fi firs rstt de dete term rmin ined ed

of the the gov gover ernm nmen entt of its its va vali lidi dity ty..

Th Thee Uni nite ted d States tes Sup uprreme Cour urtt aha

"the courts ought not to declare a la law to be un un--

unles less it is clearly so.

l~t ~tur uree


in inva vallid or voi oid d.

The qu queesti tion on

by t. t.he he legi legisl slat ativ ivee de depa part rtme ment nt

it itse self lf,, an and d the the co cour urts ts shou should ld re reso solv lvee eve very ry pr pres esum umpt ptio ion n

Co Cour urts ts are are no nott just justif ifie ied d in adjud djudgi ging ng stat statut utes es

in fa favo vor  r 

inva invali lid, d, in the the face face o of  f 

the conc conclus lusion ion of the le legis gisla latur ture, e, whe when n the que quest stion ion or its val validi idity ty is at all dou doubtf btful. ul."·t "·t Agai Ag ain n an and d mo more re sp spec ecif ific ical ally ly-" -"In In

co cons nstr trui uing ng


  stat statut utee

en enac acte ted d

Comm Co mmis issi sion on we de deeem it o our ur du duty ty no nott to gi give ve it a co cons nstr truc ucti tion on na nant nt to an Ac Actt of Co Cong ngre ress ss,, if the the la lang ngua uage ge of tthe he sta statute tute ot othe herr con onst stru ruccti tion on

no nott in co conf nfli lict ct wi with th the the hi high gher er law. law."· "·tt

ing in g wa wass fo foll llow owed ed wh when en the the Ph Phil ilip ippi pine ne ci cial al au auth thor orit ity y

by the the Ph Phil ilip ippi pine ne

wh whic ich h wo woul uld d be rrep epug ug--

is fa fair irly ly suse suseep epti tibl blee

The The same same li line ne of re reas ason on--

co cour urts ts ca came me to ccon onsi side derr or ordi dina nanc nces es..

to de decl clar aree an ordi ordina nanc ncee un unre reas ason onab able le

of an-

is   l\   powe powerr to be cauti cautiou ousl sly y

"Jud "Judiiex exer er--

cised."   .§ • B Bar arra ram meda eda •. Moir (19 (1913\ ~5 Phil. il. 44. 4 47 7, citi citing ng ra rasses. es. See P Pol ollo lock ck r. Fa Far.m r.mer er'. '. Loan Bnd  Co Co.. (18 (1895) 158 U U.. S. 6 60 01, 63", 39 L. L. Ed. Ed. 1108; 6. R. C. L. 121. t The United ited Sta tate tess Suprem preme e Court ourt has has ann annulled lled Congre ngre •• ion ional le leg gisla islati tion on in b but ut 33 ca case sess. B. F. Moore oore,, The SUi>~ i>~eme eme Court ourt and and Unco nconstit stitut utio ion nal Leg egis isla lati tio on, Appen end dix I. In the Phil il-ip ippi pine nes, s, Casan asanov ovas as •. Hord Hord (1 (19 907) 8 Phi Phil. l. 125 (Act (Act 1189, se sec. c. 134); Omo •. Ins Insul ular ar Gover overnm nmen entt (1 (19 908) 11 P Phi hil. l. 67 (Act (Act 648); Weiga eigall ll •. Sh Shus uste terr (19 (1908), 11 P Phi hil. l. 340 (c (cus usto tom ms la laws ws); ); Barra arram med edB B •. MOl MOlr, r, id. id.,, (Acts (Acts 2041 and and 2131); McG cGir irrr •. Ham amilt ilton on (19 (1915) 13 O. G G.. 878 878 (Ac (Actt 1627, sec. sec. 16), etc etc.. : Coo Coole ley y's Const onstit itut utio iona nall Lim imit itat atio ions ns,, 7th ed ed., ., p. 227. Rea ead d Ch. VII VII ther thereo eof. f. § McG McGirr irr •. Hamilto Hamilton, n,   id.,   cit citin ing g Co Cool oley ey'. '. Co Cons nsti titu tutio tiona nall Limi Limita tatio tions ns,,   id.,   p. p. 231 and dec decisi isions ons Tr Trus ustt


  0 ..

of th the e Unite nited d St Stat ates es Su Supr prem eme e Court ourt;;   S.• S.•.. Norieg oriega a (19 (1915) XIII III G..21 G..2 154. See 6 R. R. C. L. 7 76 6. . •• Munn •. Il Illi lino nois is (1877) 94 U U.. S. 1 11 13, 123,24 ,24 L. Ed. 77, fo foll llo owed in U U.. S.•. S.•. Gra ran nt, 18 P Ph hil. il. 122, 140. To sa sam me ef effe fect ct Fletc letche herr •. P Pec eck k (18 (1810), 6 Cranc ranch, h, 87, 128, 3 L L.. Ed. Ed. 162; Si Sink nkir iril ilF Fund  und  Ca Case sess (1 (18 879), 99 U. U. S. 7 70 00, 718, 25 L. Ed. Ed. 496; Powe Powell ll •. Pen Penns nsyl ylva vani nia a (18 (1888), 127 U U.. 8. 678, 32 L. Ed. 253; 6 R R.. C. L. 97. nite ted d St Stat ates es •. Ten Ten Yu (19 (1912) 24 Phi hil. l. 1, 10. *t Uni •: In   rs Gua Guaril rilla la (19 (1913)2 )24 4 Ph Phil. il. 37,4 ,46 6. •1   City ity of ::\I \Ian anil ila a •. Manil anila a E. It. It. and and L. C Co. o. (19 (1912), 23 P Phi hil. l. 547, 551.




Ordin ina aril ily y the courts merely apply the the law law to a state statem ment

of fac facts ts..


fir first st and and fu fund ndam amen ental tal duty duty of the the cour courts, ts, in our our judg judgm ment,. ent,. is to   apply   the law. law. ConConstruc str uctio tion n and and inte interp rpre retat tatio ion n

com come only only after after it has has been been dem demonstr onstrat ated ed

that that appl applica ica--

. ti tion on is is"i "im mpossi ossib ble or inad inadeq equa uate te witho ithou ut them them." ." They are are the the very very last last "fu "func ncti tion onss whic ich h a cour courtt shou should ld exer exerci cise se.. or cons constru truct ctio ion. n.

The maj ajo ority rity

of the the law laws need eed no inte interp rpre reta tati tion on

They They re requ quire ire only only appl applic icat atio ion, n, and and if ther there e were were mor more e appl applic icat atio ion n

-a -and nd le less ss cons constr truc ucti tion on,,

ther there e w() ()u~ u~d d be more ore st stab abil ilit ity y in the the law law, and and more ore peop people le

would ould kno know what hat the the law law is." is."   * CARD CAR DINA INAL L RU RULE LE OF CON CONSTR STRUC UCTION TION  A B   above above

st stru rue e th the e la law w.

sugg sugges este ted, d, the the (', (',() ()ur urtsmu tsmust st in some some case casess nece necessa ssaril rily y inte interp rpre rett or co connThe one ca card rdin inal al ru rule le of stat statut uto ory

cons constr truc ucti tion on then then is is   to ascertain' 

and give an effect   11 0   tI tIWint Wintent ention ion of the law makin making g body. body.   The The Code Code of C Civil ivil Procedur Procedure e legi legisla slate tess th this is into into form formal allaw law

by pro provi vidi ding ng Jhat Jhat::

th the e in inte tent ntio ion n of the the le legi gisla slatu ture re   *


"In "In the the cons constru truct ctio ion n of a sta statu tute te,,

*   "is "is to be purs pursue ued; d; and and when hen a ge gene nera rall and  and 

 part~  pa rt~cu cula larr prov provisi ision on ar are e inco incons nsist isten ent, t, tp.~ .latte tterr is para param mount ount

to the the form former er..

 parti  pa rticu cular lar in inten tentt will cont contro roll a gene genera raLo Lone ne that that is inco incons nsist isten entt

So a

with it." it."   t   The The

Supr Su prem eme e Cour Courtt of the the Phili Philipp ppin ines es indo indors rses es the the prin princi cipl ple e by statin stating g that that "w "whe here re the the langu lan guag age e of a statute statute is fairl fairly y suscep susceptib tible le of two or more more constru constructio ctions, ns, that that const constru ruccti tio on sho should uld be ado adopted pted whic ich h will ill most most tend tend to giv give effe effect ct to the the man anif ifes estt inte intent nt of th the la law wmak aker er and and pro rom mote the the ob obje ject ct fo forr which hich the st stat atut ute e was en enac acte ted d, and and a const constru ructio ction n should should be rreje ejecte cted d which which would would tend to rende renderr abort abortive ive other other pro provis vision ionss of th the e st sta atu tute te and to def defe eat th the e objec ject which ich th the e leg legis isla lato torr so sou ught to atta ttain


its enactm enactment." ent."   t   Never everth thel eles esss the the Legis egisla latu ture re mus ustt us use e word rdss which hich in so som me way expre express ss inten intent, t, fo forr a cou court can can no nott am amen end d the the law law to make make it agre agree e with ith what hat it is believ believed ed th the e Legi Legisla slatu ture re must ust have have.. inten intende ded. d.   § Practieally Practie ally speak speaking ing,, commo common n sense sense is the the best best guide guide for the devio devious us and and ob obscu scure re  path  pa th of legisl legislati ation on.. Chief hief Justi Justice ce Fulle ullerr in lang langua uage ge follo follow wed by ~) ~)U UrSupr Suprem eme e 90urt urt has has said said th that at "n "not oth hing ing is bett better er sett settle led d than than that that st stat atut utes es sho should uld re rece ceiv ive e a sens sensib ible le cons constru truct ctio ion, n, such such as will will effe effectu ctuate ate the the legisl legislati ative ve inte intent ntio ion, n, and, and, if pos possib sible. le. so as as to avoi avoid d an unju unjust st or an absu absurd rd conc conclu lusio sion. n." "   ** SUBSIDIAR SUBS IDIARY Y PRINCIPLES

Only a few of the more import Only importan antt subsid subsidiary iary princ principle ipless of legis legislatio lation n and and canon canonss of con constr struc uctio tion n by whic which h the the cour courts ts ende endeav avor or to asce ascerta rtain in the the legi legisla slativ tive e inte intent nt can can  be mentio entione ned. d. lizArr Arraga aga He Herma rmanOl nOlll   t. Yap Yap Ti Tico co (1 (191 913) 3) 24 Ph Phil il.. 504, 504, 51 513, 3, fol follo lowe weq q in Lamb Lambert ert   t. Fox. (19 (1914 14)) *   liz 26 Phi Phil. l. 588 and and in Yange angeo o   t.   Cr Croa oasfi sfield eld (1 (19 915 15)) 13   O.   G. 191. In accord U. S.   t.   Fisher Fisher (1 (180 804) 4) 2 Cra Crane neh h 358, 2 L. Ed. 304. Sec.. 28 288. 8. t Sec nited d Stat States es   t. To Torib ribio io (1 (19 910 10)) 15 Ph Phil il.. 85 85,, 90 90;; als also o Uy Chac Chaco o So Sons ns   t.   Col Collect lector or of C Custo ustoms ms t   Unite (1 (191 913) 3) 24 Ph Phil. il. 548 an and d othe otherr eas eases. es. , Unite nited d Stat States es   t,   Ambata ata (1 (19 904) 3 Ph Phil il.. 327. But co com mpar are e wit ith h U. S.   t. Go Chi Chico co (1 (19Q 9Q9) 9) 14 Ph Phil. il. 12 128 8 and La Lamb mb   t. Ph Phip ipps ps (1 (191 912 2) 22 Ph Phil. il. 456 56,, 493. 493. Bew w   t.   U. S. (1 (18 892) 144 U. S. 4 47 7, 59, 36 L. Ed. Ed. 340; fo foll llow owed ed in La Lamb mb   t. Phipps * *   Lau   Ow   Be (J (J9 912) 22 Phil Phil.. 456, 493. To sa same me effe effect ct,, U. S.   t. Kirb irby y (18 (1869) 69) 7 W Wall all.. 482, 82, 19 L. Ed. Ed. 278 78,, fo follo llowe wed  d  in   In ra Allen Allen (1 (19 903 03)) 2 Ph Phil. il. 63 630 0.


In the in inte terp rpre reta tati tion on

of th thee Co Code de of Civi Civill Pr Proc oced edur uree

sect sectio ion n 1 ar aree to ha have ve the the mean eaning ing the herrein ein prov ovid ided ed ano anoth ther er

se sen nse w was as iin nte ten nde ded d."

fu futu ture re te tens nse, e,an and d

Moreo oreove verr,


in th thee ma masc scul ulin inee ge gend nder er incl includ udee th thee fe femi mini nine ne an and d ne neut uter er ge gend nder erss-;;

But this this enu enumerat eratio ion n

gen ener eral al words. ds. unde un ders rsto tood od

"un unle lesss th thee con conte tex xt sho shows th that at

"w "wo ords in th thee pr pres eseent te ten nse in incl clu ude th thee

and and wor ord ds in tth he plur lural incl inclu ude th thee singu ingula larr, num nu mbe ber. r.""

ce cert rtai ain n wor ords ds ·n ·nam amed ed in iita ta

and and in th thee sin ing gula larr in incl clu ude th thee pl plU Url rllJ lJ

doe oess. not req requi uire re a st stri ricct

"If in th thee la law ws mo mon nths ths,

cons constr tru uct ctio ion n

day ays, s, or ni nigh ghts ts ar aree re reffer errred to to,, it sh shal all· l·b be

th that at th thee mo mont nths hs are are of thir thirty ty da days ys,, th thee da days ys of tw twen enty ty-f -fou ourr

nights from the setting

to the rising of tth he sun.

their names, they shall be computed

of ot oth her 

If th thee months

by their actUAl number

ho hour urs, s, an and d th thee

are indicated of





"u "unl nles esss othe otherw rwis isee sp spec ecia iall lly y prov provid ided ed,, th thee time time wi with thin in wh whic ich h an act is re requ quir ired ed by law to be be do don ne shal shalll be co com mputed uted by ex excl clu uding ing th thee fi firs rstt if th thee la last st be Su Sun nda day y or a le leg gal holid oliday ay 8.   stat statut utee

it sha hall ll be excl exclu uded." ed."  

wh whic ich h ha hass a sset ettl tled ed I\Il I\Ild d we well ll-k -kno no~ ~

sion, is presumed to be be u ussed in tth hat

day an and d in incl clu udin ing g the las ast; t; an and  d 

me mean anin ing, g,


  Langu Languag agee

us used ed in

sa sanc ncti tion oned ed by ju judi dill llia iall de deci ci--

sense b by y the legislative body.'

A word used 

in a ssta tattut utee

in a g giv iven en sens sensee is p prresu esume med d

to be use sed d in th thee sam amee se sen nse th thro rou ugh ghou outt

~hee law. ~h law. --

.Ta .Tari riff ff laws laws ar aree to b bee co cons nstr true ued d ac acco cord rdin ing g to th thee comm commer erci cial al un unde ders rsta tand nd--

ing ing of the the te term rmss us used ed;; an and d such such te term rmss are are to b bee take taken n in tt.h .h;e ;eiro irord rdin inar ary y and and co comp mpre rehe hennsi sive ve me mean anin ing g un unle less ss it ca can n be sh show own n th that at they they ha have ve'' ac acqu quir ired ed a sp spec ecia iall or rres estr tric icte ted  d  meaning.   -t   Ou Ourr Su Supr prem emee Co Cour urtt ha hass been been ca call lled ed up upon on to co cons nstr true ue sp spec ecif ific ic wo word rdss in a nu numb mber er of othe otherr ca case ses. s.   -t   It rig right htly ly ho hold ldss to tthe he vie view w th that at "w "whe here re la lang ngua uage ge is pl plai ain, n, sub ubtl tlee refin efinem emen ents ts whi hich ch ti ting ngee words rds so as to giv ivee th them em th thee colo colorr of a par arttic icul ular  ar   judicial theory are not only unnecessary Mars Ma rsha hall ll,,

in t.h t.hee h his isto tol' l'ic ic ca case se of Gib Gibbo bons ns

requ requir iree no ccon once ceal alme ment nt,,

but decidedly   t'. t'.   Og Ogde den, n,


Chief Justice

sa said id:: ".As ".As me men n wh whos osee in inte tent ntio ions ns

gene genera rall lly y em empl ploy oy th thee wo word rdss whi hich ch mo most st di dire rect ctly ly an and d ap aptl tly y

ex expr pres esss t. t.he he id idt' t'.a .ass th they ey in inte tend nd to co conv nvey ey,, th thee en enli ligh ghte tene ned d Cons Co nsti titu tuti tion on,,


patr patrio iots ts

and and th thee pe peop ople le who ad adop opte ted d it, it, mu must st be un unde ders rsto tood od

wh who o fr fram amed ed ou our  r  to h hav avee em empl ploy oyed  ed 

word wo rdss in thei theirr na natu tura rall sens sense, e, and to h hav avee inte intend nded ed wha hatt th they ey ha have ve sa said id." ." •• 'The Civ Civil Cod odee provi vid des: es: "Law "Lawss are are repea epeale led d onl nly y by oth ther er subs subseq eque uen nt la law ws, an and d disu disuse se or an any y cu cust stom om or prac practi tice ce to th thee co cont ntra rary ry sh shal alll no nott pr prev evai aill ag agai aili list st t. t.he heir  ir  observ&llce."   --t   Ex Expr pres esss repC repC<. <.'\ '\ls lsare are to be eenc ncou oura rage ged. d. impl im plie ied d re re»E »E>. >.a. ls---ar aree no nott favo favore red. d.

If th thee stat statut utes es

Re Repe peal alss by im impl plic icat atio ionn-

ca can n st stan and d t. t.og oget ethe herr co cons nsis iste tent ntly ly,,

The e word wordss   80   inter interpre preted ted.. are   " "pe pers rson on," ," "writiIlR:,"   "oath,"   "of    umlou umlound nd mind mind," ,"   tlbond," *   Th Hand,"   "o "or," r," "wr "writ," it," "p "pro roces cess," s," "a "acti ction/ on/'' "p "plea leadin dings, gs," " "doll "dollars ars," ,"   "P(~8,"   "territory   of   the the United United States." t Civil Code, art. art. 7.

: Cod Code of C Civ ivil il Pro roc cedure, re, Sec. 4. 4. See U. U. S.   v.   Tiqu Tiquii (19 (1902) 02) 1 Phil. Phil. :1 :106 06.. §   Kepner    v.   U. U. S. (19 (190 04) 195 U. S. 100 100. 11 P Phi hil. l. 669 . • - Fr Froe oehli hlich ch   &  Kuttner    v.  Colle Collecto ctorr of Cust Custom omss (191 (1911) 1) 18 Phil. Phil. 461 61,4 ,48 80. -t  Calder    &  Co.   v.   U. U. S. (1 (19 907) 8 P Phi hil. l. 334. foll follow owin ing g El Elli liot ot   v.   Swar Swartw twou outt 9 L. Ed. Ed. 373, and and Art rthu hur  r    v.   :Mor :Morriso rison n (18 (1877 77)) 96 U. S. 10 108 8. 24 L. Ed. Ed. 70 704. 4. [I [II TOGuarit -: 8fiel Eield . dG. (1 L915) am amb Ph Phip ipps (19 (19and 12d)22 )2Op 2 s.Ph Phil . . 45G 6en . 4 2;    t. ritla la v.  Cr Cr08 088f (191 5)b  1v. 3  O. G . 19 191. 1. an Ops. Ail. tty. tty en. . 9P. inde index x ua "w "wor ord. d.

-. YaD aDlle lleo o   v.   Cr088field,   id id.. - •• (18 (1824) 9 W Whe heat at.. 1. 18 187-18 -189, 6   J•.   Ed. Ed. 23. **t   Art. 5. ,


(18 (1830) 10 Pet. Pet. 137.

(19 (1 9d13ph ) r24 Phil Ph•• il.. 37; Yan ange geo o an and phr •••• ••e•.•• e•.

the the la late terr statu statute te shou should ld not not be cons consid ider ered  ed   88 repe repeal alin ing g the the earl earlie ierr one ne.. "I "Itt is a most  _ant  _a nt vi viol olat atio ion n of the rule ruless of statu statuto tory ry cons constru truct ctio ion n to give give to a statu statute te a meani eaning ng which, ich, in ef effe fect ct ·and ·and i~ real realit ity y, rep repeals eals it alto altoge geth ther er,, where here any any oth other re reas ason onaB aBle le .,on&truction  i8  pOSllible."*   "B "Bef efo ore a stat statut ute e can can be hel held d to hav have e re repe peal aled ed a prior  rior  stat statut ute e by imp impli lica cati tio on, it must must appe appear ar,, firs first, t, that that the the two two statu statute tess tou touch the the sam same and, and, seco secon nd, that that the the later later st stat atu ute is re rep pugti ugtian antt to the the ea earl rlie ier. r." " t

aub au bje ject ctm matte atter, r,

As an an exam exampl ple. e. of a repe repeal. al. by implic implicat atio ion, n, where here a later later statu statute te

prov provid ides esI' I'

mltnt ml tnt in a differ differen entt degr degree ee from from the puni8 puni8hm hmen entt provid provided ed in an earlie earlierr statute statute

puni punish sh-fo forr the

doing do ing or omittin omitting g to do a certain certain ac act, t, the legiS legiSlato latorr thereb thereby y clearl clearly y manife anifests sts hiSintenhiSintentio tion th that at at le leas ast, t,   80 far far as the the late laterr statu statute te is inco incons nsiS iSte tent nt with the the fo form rmer er statu statute te,, it sh shal alll be dee deem med to repe repeal al such such for~ for~rr statu statute te by impl implic icat atio ion. n.   t The Th e Civi Civill Code Code in artic article le 3 prov provid ides es-" -"La Law ws unle un less ss oth other erw wis ise e presc rescri rib bed ther therei ein n."

sh shal alll not not have have a retro retroac activ tive e ef effe fect ct

Our Su Supr prem eme e Cour urtt say sayss-"A "All ll

stat statut utes es ar are e

to be conStr conStrue ued d as havin having g only only a prosp prospect ective ive opera operatio tion n unles unlesss the purpo purpose se and and intenintention tio n of the the Legi Legisla slatu ture re to give give t.hem t.hem a retro retrosp spec ectiv tive e ef effe fect ct is expr expres essly sly decl declar ared ed or is nece ne cess ssar aril ily y imp impli lied ed fro from the the lan languag guage e used sed .. In ever every y case case of dou doubt, bt, the the doubt oubt must mu st be solv solved ed aga agains instt the retrosp retrospec ective tive effec effect." t."   §   Howev owever er,, curat curativ ive e .law .la wfu fully lly be enac enacted ted..

statu statutes tes can can

A rll;t rll;tifi ifica catio tion n by the the Legi Legisla slatu ture re is equ equiv ival alen entt to a mand mandat ate e

to perfo erform rm an ac actt in the the firs firstt inst instan ance ce,, and and will ill be so con consi side dere red d by the the cou courts. rts.   ** A defe defect ct in auth author ority ity may be cured cured by the the subse subsequ quen entt adop adoptio tion n of the the Act Act..   *t   When .s cu cura rativ tive e stat statut ute e is ena enact cted ed,, a case case mus mustt be dete determ rmin ined ed on the the law law as it stand standss when hen  judg  ju dgm ment ent is rend render ered ed..   *t Wheth hether er t.her e shal shalll be a stric strictt or libe libera rall cons constru truct ctio ion n de depe pend ndss upon upon the natu nature re of the the Act ct.. .. The The prov provisi ision onss of the the Code Code of Civ Civil il Proc Proced edur ure, e, and and in fact fact all all re rem media ediall law laws, are are t,o be liber liberal ally ly cons constru trued ed..   *§   Laws Laws regula regulatin ting g

citize citizens nship hip should should receiv receive e

a bbera berall cons constr tru uctio ction n in favor favor of of the clai claim mant ant of it.   *** ***   As a gene genera rall rule rule,, in the the inte interp rpre reta tati tio on

an and d con constru struct ctio ion n of publ public ic grant rants, s, such such as of titl titles es and and fr fran anch chis ises es,,

*·Marin •. Nac *·Marin Nacii ••nceno nceno (1 (191 911) 1) 19 Phil. Phil. 23 238. 8. t Caid Caider er6 6n •. D Dom omin inic ican anss (19 (1914) 12 O. G G,, 1698. tolDss (191 tolD (1913) 3) 24 Phil Phil.. 54 548. 8. t  Uni nited ted Sta States tes •. Rey Reyes es (1 (190 908) 8) 10 Ph Phil. il. 42 423. 3.

Se See e ••Iso Iso U Uy y Cha Chaco co So Sons ns •. Co Coll llec ecto torr of Cu Cu..-

1 Monti ontill lla a •. A Agu gust stin inia ian n Corp Corpor orat atio ion n (19 (1913) 24 Ph Phil il.. 220, cit citin ing g U. S.• S.•.. Ame meri rica can n Su Suga garr Co. Co. (11106) (1110 6)20 202 2 U. S. 563 563;; 50 L. Ed Ed.. 11 1149 49 an and d oth other er c•.•• es. "T "The he court courtss unifo uniform rmly ly ref refus use e to giv give e to to sta statu tutes tes a retro retrosp spec ective tive oper operatio ation, whe here reby by rig rights hts pr prev eviou iously ve veste sted d are are inju injurio rious usly ly aff affec ected ted, unles less s com pelled  pell ed to do so by lang languag uage e so clea clearr and pos positiv itive e •.• •.••to •to leave leave no room to dou doubt bt that suc such h was the .nte .ntent ntio ion n of th the e le legi gisl slat atur ure. e. In U. S.• S.•.. Het eth, h, 3 Cran Cranch ch 413, 2 L. L. E Ed. d. 479, thi thiss co cour urtt sa said id th that at 'wor 'words ds in ina a .•tat .•tatll llte te ough oughtt not not to have have a re retr tros ospe pect ctiv ive e oper operat atio ion n un unle less ss the they y are are so c cle lear ar,, stro strong ng,, an and d im impe pe-ra rati tive ve that that no oth other er me mean anin ing g can can be an anne nexe xed d to th them em,, or unl unles esss the the inte intent ntio ion n of the the lcgi lcgisl slat atur ure e ca cann nnot ot be oth other erw wis ise e sa sati tisf sfie ied; d;'' and and such such is th the e sett settle led d do doct ctri rine ne of this this cour court. t. Mur urra ray y •. G Gib ibso son, n, 15 How. How. 423, 423,14 14 L. E Ed. d. 755 55;; McEwe cEwen n •. D Den en,, 24 How. How. 24 244, 4, 16 L. E Ed. d. 672 72;; Harv Harvey ey •. T Tyl yler, er, 2 W Wall all.. 347, 17 L. E Ed. d. 871; So Sohn hn •. W Wat ater erso son, n, 17 Wal all. l. 599, 21 L. L. Ed Ed.. 737; Tw Twen enty ty Pe Perr Cent Cent.. Case Casess (18 (1814) 20 wan. wan. 18 187 7,22 ,22 L. Ed Ed.. 33 339. 9."-H "-Harl arlan, an,   J.,   in Che Chew w Heo eong ng •. U. S. (11 (1184) 112 U. S. 5 53 36, 559, 28 L. Ed Ed.. 770. Se See e Inha Inhabi bita tant ntss of Gos oshe hen n •. In Inha habi bita tant ntss of St Ston onin ingt gton on (18 (1822) 4 Conn Conn.. 209, 10 Am. Am. Dec. 12 121. 1. ** Gov over ernm nmen entt Court Cou rt dec decisio isions. ns.

of the the P. I. •. Stan Standa dard rd

Oil C Co. o. (1 (19 911) 20 Ph Phil il..

30, fo foll llo owi wing ng U. S. S Sup upre remp mp

*t Chuo Chuoco co Tiaco Tiaco •. For Forbes bes (1 (191 913) 3) 22 228 8 U. S. 54 549, 9, 57 L L.. Ed. 96 960. 0. S. S.•. •. Hei eins ns.e .en n (1 (19 907) 206 U U.. S. 3 37 70, 51 L L.. Ed. Ed. 1098. *1 C Cod ode e of Civ Civil il Pro Proeed eedure ure,, sec sec.. 2; Za Zamo mora ra •. C Cit) it),, of M Man anila ila (1 (19 907 07)) 7 Ph Phil. il. 58 584. 4. *** **R Roa •. Co Colle llecto ctorr of Cu Custo stoms ms (1 (191 912) 2) 23 Phil. Phil. 315 15,3 ,338 38;; Bo Boyd yd •. Th Thay ayer er (1 (189 892) 2) 14 143 3 U. U. S. 13 135, 5, 36 L. Ed Ed.. 103.

*t   U U..



1'IIJLl 1'I IJLlIIl IIlIII IIIIl Il.'.'WW WW 'I 'Il" l" •• tW   COD8tnlction   Ilhou   IlhouWbe Wbe •••• •••••••. •••.•••• ••••••. ••.

lt ltbii bii .. ..,. ,... ..-tth -tthe e

eIaimaI   the   IOYerIlDleIlt

te•••• ••• .Ju .J• u c ItI e   8CIary ayll: "nis a  lflDeral   rule .rath .ra ther er th than an of th thee iiDd Ddiv ivid idua uaI. I...   b

in the int interp erpret retati ation on of all   8tatUteI   ~t


or d_iee upo upon aubjeete or eit•• t•••• ,

thei their  r    J )I 'O "r iIi o n a   by iIIlpliat-iolt

nott t.o no t.o eext xteend 1anKtl 1an Ktl8lP 8lP!!use used,o d,orr



elear import .of th thee

t.o enl enlarg argee the their ir ope operat ratioD ioD   80 88 to emb embra race ce ma matt tter erss no nott sp spec ecif ifie ieaU aUy y

 pointed out, althOUgh standing on a eloee analogy,

  Inevery   e.-,   there therefor fore, e,

su such ch st stat atut utel elll ll are ccon onst stru rued ed mo most st st stro rong ngly ly ag agai ains nstt th thee go gove vern rnme ment nt,, subjects

or citizens, because burdens

imp mpos oseed,

beyon eyond d

what hat

the st stat at.u .ute tess

an and d in fa favo vorr of the the

are not to be imposed, nor presumed exp xpre ress sslly .a .and nd cl clea earl rly y

im impo port rt." ."

must ust adm dmin inis istter

to Ix>

  t   I.ikewiae

 penailltatutes and statutes in derogation of general rights or uuthorizing  proceedings are generally strictly construed.   t "Cou "C ourt rtss

of d doub oubt., t.,


th thee la law w," sai aid d Mr. Just. ust.iice L Lad add d iua iuan t'M t'Mly op opiinio nion,

"not "not as they hey thin hink it ou ough ghtt to be b but ut as tthe hey y (w (wee) find find it aand nd withou thoutt re rega garrd to con con-. -. sequ sequeenc ncees." util utilit ity y

Where here a sta tatu tutte

is pl plaain an4 un unaambi mbigu guO OIis Iis,

ca can n n not ot be cons consid ider ered ed.' .'

"T "The he wi wisd sdom om or ad advi visa sabi bili lity ty

is n not ot a qu ques esttion ion for for th thee cou ourt rt.s .s to de detter erm min inee-tthat hat to determine."

So "courts

opin op inio ion n of th thee le legi gisl slat ativ ivee

are not justified

de depa part rtme ment nt

in me measuring

~f th thee go gove vern rnme ment nt,,

th thou ough gh thes thesee are are the the ge gene nera rall ru rule les, s, neve nevert rthe hele less ss,,

Argu Ar gume ment ntss

stat statut utee

their opinion with the 1\ 1\8 8 ex expr pret et\l \llC lC'( '(iin iin sst: t:J. J.tu tut~ t~,, It\w. It\w.•• •• ••


the the co cour urtt ma may y co cons nsid ider er (' ('ff ffre rets ts lm lmd  d  wh whic ich h wi will llpr prod odu( u('1 '1''

t.he t.he mO mOtl tltt

The Code of Civil Procedure recoguiZl',s thill fact by providing

"when a statute

in favo favorr of n naatura turall

of a part partic icul ular ar

of   II.   par arttic icu ula larr

co cons nseq eque uenc nces es in p pro rope perr ca case sess and and adop adoptt a co cons nstr truc ucti tion on that

or pr praactie ctie.a .a.l .l

is a q que uesstio tion fo forr the the lrg lrgisla islatu ture re

upon up on qu ques esti tion onss of th thee wi wisd sdom om,, ju just stic ice. e. or aadv dvis isab abil ilit ity y

 beneficial results.·t

I'x 'xp ped ediien enccy


is equally Ilusr.eptiblc of ttw wo in inttt'rpret.t\tions,

ri rig ght and the oth theer aga again insst it, it, the the fo form rmeer ill to lX lX'' lulo lulopt ptff ffi. i.""

of ccon onve veni nieenc ncee of ofte ten n addr addreess th theemse selv lvees

stro trong ngly ly to th th,· ,· co cour urt. t.·§ ·§


  ·t Thl' hl'

 physical condition of the country which must of necessity l\ffect the !?pl'mtion of   1\ stat statut utee

ca can n be ccon onsi side dere red d by a cour court. t. •• ••••

will wi ll no nott be co coun unte tena nanc nced ed.. woul wo uld d thw thwart

An aatt ttem empt pt

to en enfo forc rcl' l' I\ I\n n im impo poll llSi Sibl bll' l'!! l\Il l\Iltt

An And, d, fi fina nall lly, y, wh wher eree a 1 1(1 (1)1 )1'1 '11. 1.1 in inte 1terp rpre reta tati tion on

the pu purp rpo ose of th thee le legi gisslat atu ure

of a stah stahlt lt.! .!''

or le lead ad to lIob lIobssur urrl rl con onsseq equ ul'nc l'ncees,

the the

cour courtt is ju just stif ifie ied d in lloo ooki king ng th thro roug ugh h th thee form form to the 1I 1I11 11bs bst. t.u. nr.e .e; in; lIl lIlIch Ich cascs cascs the spi spirit rit . (1913)) 25  25   Phil.   7. 22.   T~pic • U.   s. -•.  Aitken   (1913 ~pical al inst instan ance ce.. Iliv Ilivcn cn iin n Hall' all'ss C•• C••••" ". •. nn Cnn. Cnn.titu titu-(1837) 7) 11   P"t.   420, 420, 9   I•. tio tional Law aw,, p.   833,   note. te. See C Ch harle rles Rive iver Brid ridgc •. W Wa arr rrc cn Bridg idge   (183 Ed. Ed. 773. t U. Wigglesworth,   2  Story,   369,   follo followe wed d in Fr Froe oehli hlich ch   &   Kuttn uttner er •. C Col olle lect ctor or of C Cus usto toms ms (1911 (19 11)) 18 Phil. 18 Phil.   461, 481 481..   T08a (1912) 21 Phil. 21 Phil.   300; T08ame me eff effect ect are C•••t C•••tle le B Br0 r08 8., Wolf  Wolf   & Son8 •. McCoy   (1912) Part Partin ing gton ton •. Att ttor orne ney y-G -Gen ener eral al,, L. R.   4   H. H. L.   100;   and and many any Amer eric ican an e•• e••••es. • t Teno enori rio o •. Manil anila a Railr ailro oad Co. (19 (1912) 22 P Ph hil. il. 411; Top"" ""io io •. Pa Pare red des (19 (1912) 23 P Ph hil. il. 238.   But not alw~, (1909) 14 Phil. 14 Phil.   128 128   quot U. S S..•. Go C Ch hico ico   (1909) quotin ing g fr from om U.   A. e. Wiltberl!"r,   (1820) 5  Wheat.   76 76,, 5   L. Ed. 37. Ed.   37. (1903) 3) 1  Phil.   720 720 . , Vel •• •••• •• co •. Lo Lope pez z   (190 •• U. S.• S.•. Ten Yu (19 (1912) 24 P Ph hil. il. I, 10. See a alo loo o Shar Sharp pie ••   e.   Ml\yo l\yorr of P Phi hila lade delp lphi hia a (18, (18,;;l) ;;l) 21  21   Pa. 759; 6.  6.   R. Pa.   147,59   Am. Dec.   759; R. C. L .• pp.   104-111. .t Black lack on In Inte terp rpre reta tati tion on of Law awo, o, p pp. p.   100 ./ •• q.   "I "In n obsc obscur uri. i. insp inspie ieii 80lere lere 'Iuod 'Iuod ve verio rioim imiili liuo uo est, est, au autt quo quod pleru lerum mque que fier fierii o ool olet et." ." Dig. ig. 50, 17, 11 114 4. ·t Code ode of C Civ ivil il Pro roce cedu dure re,, oee. ee.   294. (1912)) 22 Phil. 22  Phil.   340,   follo • , U. S. S.••. Yap Kin Co.   (1912 follow winll inll :\f: :\f:lr. lr.hl hllll lll,, C .. J.,  J. ,   in 11. H. ".  Fisher    (1804)


2 C~anch   386,   2 L. Ed: Ed:   304 304 . •• •••• Gom omez ez •. Hip ip6 6lito lito (1 (190 903 3) 2 Phil. Phil. 7: 7:l2 l2..


9rrea rreall ll() ()n n of tthe he la law w sh sho oul uld d

prev prevai aill ov ove er th the e lett letter er..   *   '''F '''Fo or the the lett lette er kill, ill,th th but

th the e sp spiri iritt give giveth th lif life. e." "   t   This mu must st be ta tak ken to b be e th the e

autho thori rita tati tiv ve

view iew o off the the

supr su prem eme e co cour urtt of th the e Ph Phili ilipp ppin ines es,, fo forr in the ca case se of   in in re   Allen, not.w not.withsta ithstandin nding g the I!trict I!tr icter er doc doctrin trine e to be fou found nd in som some e othe otherr ca cases ses,, Mr. Justic Justice e McD cDon onou ough gh,, speli spelikin king g fo forr the the co cour urt, t, he held ld th that at whe here re a liter literal al in int.e t.erp rpre reta tatio tion n of an any y pa part rt of a sta statu tut. t.e e wou ould  ld  oper op erat ate e un unju justl stly y, or le lead ad to ab absu surd rd re resil sillts lts,, or is inco incous usist isten entt with the the mea eani ning ng of an Act as a w who hole, le, it shou should ld be rreje ejecte cted. d.

In such cas cases, es, he sai said, d, it must be pre presum sumed ed tha thatt

the legisla legislatur ture e int inten ende ded d ex exce cepti ption onss to it itss lan langu guag age e whic hich h wo would uld av avoid oid such res result ults. s.   t Agai ain n in th the e Flag lag Law Ca Case se,, Mr. Ju Just stic ice e Mor orel elan and d said said that that lite litera rall lly y hu hund ndre red ds of  case ca sess might ight be ci cite ted d to su susta stain in th this is pro propo posit sitio ion: n: "L "Lan angu guag age e is rrar arel ely y so fre free e fr from om am am- bigu  bi guity ity as to be inca incapa pabl ble e of be bein ing g us used ed in mor ore e t~ t~n n  pret  pr etat atio ion n of a sta statu tute te may le lead ad to ,a ,an n ab absu surd rdity ity,, inte in tent nt of the the legi legisl slat atu ure re..

one one sens sense, e, an and d the the liter literal al inte interr-

or ev evid iden ently tly fa fail il to give give the the re real al

When th this is is tth he ca case se;; re reso sort rt is had to th the e pr prin inci cip ple that that the the

spir sp irit it of a law c con ontr trol olss th the e le lett tter er,, so th that at a th thin ing g which ich is w wit ith hin the the inte inten ntion tion of a statu sta tute te is as m muc uch h with ithin in th the e sta statu tute te as iiff iitt wer ere e wi with thin in the the lette letter, r, an and d a thi thing ng which hich is wit with hin the the lett lette er of th the e st sta atute tute is n no ot wit ith hin the the sta statute tute unless less it be with ithin the the inte in tent ntio ion n of th the e mak aker ers, s, an and d th the e st sta atu tute te sh sho ould uld be so c con onst stru rued ed as to ad adva van nce the the rem remed edy y an and d su supp ppre ress ss th the e misc ischi hief ef co cont ntem empl plat ated ed

by the the fra fram mer ers. s." " §

So a als lso o "cle "cleri rica call er erro rors rs or mis ispr prin ints ts,, which ich, if unc uncor orre rect cte ed, wou ould ld re ren nde derr the the statu sta tute te un unm mea eani ning ng or no nons nsen ensic sical al or wo woul uld d de defe feat at or im impa pair ir its inte intend nded ed op oper erat atio ion n *



  will be co corre rrect cted ed by the co cour urtt an and d the the sta statu tute te re read ad as a am men ende ded, d, pr prov ovid ided  ed 

the the tru true e mea eani ning ng is ob obvi viou ous, s, and and th the e re real al m mea eani ning ng of the the legi legisla slatu ture re is ap appa pare rent nt on the the face face of the the who hole le enac enactm tmen ent." t."  


The Th e En Engli glish sh tex textt of A Acts cts of th the e Ph Philip ilippin pine e Co Com mmi missio ssion n and Le Legis gislat lature ure go gove verns rns "except

tha that

in obviou ious cases ses of am amb bigu iguity ity,

omissi issio on, or mis ista tak ke the the Spanish ish

textt ma tex may y be co consu nsulte lted d to expl explain ain the Eng English lish tex text." t."   *t   Jud Judici icial al no notic tice e wi will ll be tak taken en of th the e orig rigin, in, histo istory ry,, and operati ratio on of st sta atute tutes. s.

For sta statute tutess borr rro owed fr fro om or 

mod odell elled ed up upon on Ang nglolo-A Ameri erica can n pre prece cede dents nts,, a revie review w of th their eir leg legisla islativ tive e his histor tory y an and  d   judi  ju dici cial al inte interp rpre reta tatio tion n

is pro prope per. r.   *t   Sta Statute. tute.'lof 'lof Ame merican rican orig origin in sh shoul ould d be.constru nstrued  ed 

acco ac cord rdin ing g to the the ju juris rispr prud uden ence ce of th the e Uni nite ted d Stat States es..   *§   Cou ourts rts will gi give ve w wei eigh ghtt to

* Rec Rector tor of Ho Holy ly Trin rinity Churc rch h •. U. S. (1892) 92) 143 143 U. ·S. ·S. 45 457, 7, 36 L L.. Ed. 226. 226. t 2 Corin rinthia thian ns ~, 6, qu quo ote ted d in C Ca arle rles •. S Sta tate te (190 909 9) 3 Okl Okla a. Cri rim m. Rep. 73, 86, 86, 10 104 4 P Pa ac. 49 493, 3, a deci decisio sion of th the e Supr prem eme Court   0   Okla Oklaho hom ma con confessi fessin ng "to want of res respe pect ct for for pre prece cede den nts whi hich ch wer ere e found in th the e ru rubb bbish of No Noah ah's 's Ark, rk, and which ich ha have ve outlived tlived the their usefu sefuln lne ess, ss, if th they ey ever had any," and declining to hold th the e omissi issio on of. the the word "the the" before fore the the words rds "Sta tate te of  Oklahoma"   In   the the captio tion n of th the e inform format atio ion n, fata fatal. l. See 5 Op. Atty tty.. Gen. P. I. 609 609.. tIn   Te   Alle llen (190 903 3) 2 P Ph hil. il. 63 630, 0, fo foll llo owing U. S. S.• •. Kir irb by (1869 69)) 7 Wall. ll. 482, 19 L L.. Ed. 278, and Heydenfelt felt •. Daney Gold Mining Co. (1877) 93 U. S. 63 634, 4, 23 L. Ed. 995 95.. Compare with ith Vela lasc sco o •. Lopes (1903 1903)) 1 Phil. 720 720 and U. S.• S.•. Ambata (1904 1904)) 3 Phil. 32 327. 7.

§ U. S.•. S.•. Go Chic ico o (1909 1909)) 14 Phil. 128 128, 139, 139, quoting fro from 26 Am.   & Eng. See also also Uy Ch Chac aco o Sons •. Col olle lect cto or of Custom stoms (1 (191 913) 3) 24 Phi hil. l. 548. 548.

Encyc. of Law, 60 602. 2.

** Lamb •. Phip ipp ps (1912 1912)) 22 P Ph hil. 456, 456, 49 493. 3. *t Act 1788 1788; Zamora •. City of Ma Man nila (1907 1907)) 7 P Ph hil. 584 584 and othe ther Phili ilip ppine cas ase es. Similsr  ilsr  re reg gula latio tion n and ru rule le in L Lo ouisio ision na as to Englis lish h and Fren rench. See Vite Viterb rbo o •. Free reedla lan nder    (188'0 120 120 U. U. B. 70 707, 7, 30 L L.. Ed Ed.. 77 776 6 and Louisia isian na ca case ses. s. *tU tU.. B.•. De G Gu usman (191 915) 5) 13 O. G.. G.. 117 173 3. Bee also lso sec... , .upra. *iT *iThe rule rule fo for r th the e Philip ilippines, U. S.• S.•. De Gusman,   id.;   an and for for Porto rto Rico ico, Dias ias •. Porto rto Ric ico o Railw ailway ay Co. (1 (191 914) 4) 21 Por orto to Ric ico o 73.


the contem contemporan poraneous eous   C O OD D St St .'r u C t_ t_

, .. ,.

u p o Il Il   a stat statut ute e

by the the exec execut utiv ive e offic fficer erss

whoB oBe e du duty ty it is t. t.o o etlf etlfor orce ce it,_  it,_   in inter terpr preta etatio tion n

ill cle clearl arly y erro errone neou ous, s,

will o ord rdina inaril rily y be co cont ntrol rolled led there thereby by.· .·   It   is   & role role wel elll est estab abli lish shed ed in tth he inte interr pret  pr etat atio ion n of cu cust stom om la law ws that that,, whe here retb tbcr cre e ba bass be been en   & 10nI  acqu  acquiesc iescenc ence e in a regu regulatio lation n

 by   whi which ch t. t.he he rig right hta a of pa part rtie iess fO fOl" l"y yea ears rs ha have ve   been   det detrr rrm min incd cd an and d adju adjust sted ed,, such such in inte teqx qx-e -eta tati tion on lftUIOIUI   to

sh shou ould ld be fo follo llow wed in the ab abse senc nce e of the mos ostt <'.o <'.o,; ,;cn cnt. t.a and nd pcn pcnluas luasivc ivc

t.he c con ontrary trary,,


Oft ften en it is iim mperati rativ ve

to de dec cide ide if   1\   lIta lItatu tuh' h' ill ill man anda dato tory ry

or di dire rect ct.o .ory ry..   t   l\. l\ .

st stat atu ute is sa said id to be man and dato atory when it re requ quir ires es th that at ('(' ('('rt rtai ain n ac acti tion on sh shal alll be ta tak ken

. by   thos those e to who hom m th the e stat statut ute e is a add ddrt rt-J -JlS lSed ed,, witho ithout ut.. I('av I('avin inp; p;th them em an any y ch choi oice ce or di dill ll-cret cret.i .ion on in th the e matte atter, r, or whe hen, n, in re resp spec ectt to af af'ti 'tion on tn tnk( k('n 'n un unde derr t he stat statut ute, e, th ther ere e mlp lplt lt  be ex exac actt an and d li lite tera rall co com mplia plianc nce e with ith itl itlll term terms, s, or c1ll c1llc cth th(~a (~act ct done done will ill be ab!l ab!lO Olu lute tely ly void id..

A st sta atute tute whic ich h dir irec ects ts th the e manner in wh whic ich h certa rtain act ctio ion n shall be ta tak ken

or certa certain in of offi fici cial al du dutie tiess pe perf rfor orm med is ssai aid d to be di dire rect ctor ory y whe hen n its its na natu ture re an and d te term rmss ate such such th that at disre disrega gard rd or it, or w wan antt of litera literafco fcom mpl plian ianc(' c('

wi with th it, tho thoug ugh h conll conlllitu litutin ting g

a D   irre irregu gula lari rity ty,, will n not ot ab ab!l !lO Olut. lut.el elyv yvit itia iate te the the pr prO O(x (x~ ~tin tings gs ta take ken n unde underr it. it.   §

Suc uch h a con const stru ruct ctio ion n ill, ill, if p pos ossi sibl ble, e, to be ad adop opte ted  d   

Its   will will

give ('lfect ('lfect.. to 1\1 \1I1 I1)rov )rovii-

in pari pari mnle mnlerU rUL L   ar Biomof iomof a statu tatute te.· .··· Statu tatut. es   in ar(' (' to be co cons nstr trul ul'fl 'flto toge geth th('l ('l'. '. "( "(nt nt(~ (~rr ptetar  ptet are e at co conc ncor orda dare re lege legess legi legibu buss est est op optim timus us in inte terJ rJ)f( )f(·t ·tan andi di mO(lus (lus;" ;" th that at ill, ill, to

inte interp rpre rett and (t (t.odo .odo it in ssu uch a way   a.~)to ha harm rmon oniz ize e law lawss w with ith ItL ItLW Wtl, is an nn nndc dcllt llt maxim of the the ·l ·la aw.   *t ejusde sdem m gen generi eriss   when By the the rule of   eju when a stnt stntuh uh~ ~ d( d('sc 'scri ribe bell ll thill thill~ ~

of a 11lL!· lL!·ti til,u l,ula lar  r 

clas classs or ki kind nd ac acco com mpa pani nied ed by wor ordl dlll of a ge gene neri ric c (~ (~ha hal'l l'lL Lct ctcl cl'  pr  prec ' eced eded ed hy th the e wonl onl "oth "o ther er," ," th the e gen generic eric wor ord d wi will ll us usu ually ally be Ii Iim mitl' itl'fl flto to th thin in~ ~ tb tbo8 o8e e pa part rtic icul ular arly ly en enum umer erat ated ed,,

of a kind indred red nat atuw uw with ith

un unle leS Sl!th l! ther ere e be so som met ethi hing ng in the f'o f'ont ntex ext. t. or or hi hist stO Ol'y

of the st stat atu ute to repe repell su such ch infe infere ren nce ce..   *t   But th this is ru rule le mus ust. t. gi give ve way if I, I,on ontm tmry ry to the the inte intent nt ap app pea eari rin ng fr fro om other ther par arts ts of tth he luw luw.   *§ Punc Pu nctu tuat atio ion n

ca can n be re re!l !lO Orted rted to. to.

"T "The he co conK nKtru truc. c.tio tion n fina finall lly y n ndo dopt pted ed sh shou oulr lr1 1 hf hf''

 base  ba sed d up upon on !l !lO Omethi ething ng mor ore e su subs bsta tant ntia iall

than than th the e mer ere e pu pune netu tuat atio ion n

foun found d in th the e

 prin  pr inte ted d Act. ct.   If   the pu punc nctua tuatio tion n of the the sta statut tut~ ~ gi give vess it a meanin meanin~ ~ wh which ich iKrel relL. L.~n ~nah ahlc lc and an d in app appar aren entt

ac acco cord rd with ith th the e leg legi> i>ll llat ativ ive e will, ill, it may be used sed a. a..~ .~an luld luldit it iOIl iOIllL lLII

arguD argu Dl('nt for adop adopting ting the litera literall mean eaning ing of t.h t.he e wo worelM relMof the statu statute te tu tuat ated ed..

But an ar arg gumen entt ba base sed d up upo on pu pun nctua ctuati tion on

  UIl   thus thus


al alo one ill ill not co conl nl'l 'lu ulliv llive, e, und the the

*   In  re Alle llen n   (190 (1903) 3) 2  Phil.   630,   follow following ing l',m l',mnd ndyc ycrr •. McC cC<H <HlIla lIlauK uKhL hLy y   (lK!")   140 140 C.   H.  :11;:1. 33 L. Ed. Ed. 363. t Kuenzle   &   Stre Streif ifff •. Colle Collect ctor or of of'' Cust Custom omss   (l901'1)   12 Phil. 117 citinl citinll; l; Ilo Ilott •• ••..rt.o" rt.o"   r.   I>owni!,lI:. (1888 (18 88)) 127 127   U 607, 32   L. U.. S.   60 L. Ed Ed..   269;   U. U. S.•. S.•. Hea eale ley y   (11111;')HiO HiO 1" 1"..   H.  1:11i; 411   I..   (0 ;,1 .   :\fl!l: ~lerM ~lerMLt Lt (1890) 0) 127 127   U 542.. 34   J•. Ed.   772. •. Cameron Cameron   (189 U.. S.   542 (1914)) 26   Phil.   );21. ~ Bee G Gar ardi dine nerr •. R{,m {,mul ulo o   (1914

, Black  lack    O n   Jnte Jnterp rpre reta tati tio on

**   Code ode

of J. J.a aws, Ch.


287 . of Civil ivil Pr"" Pr""ed edur ure, e, see. see.   287 •t See See B Bla lack ck on IInt nter erpr pret etat atio ion n of Law aws, s, pp.   341-:14!J. *t   Murp, urp,hy, hy, Morris   &   Co .•• .•• Colle ollect ctor or of Cust Custom omss   (l!lUll)   It Phil.   4r>li,   co"sL co"sLruin ruinK K 2U:l-2I!J U:l-2I!J.. ~f ~fac acbi bille llery ry;; ,   36   Cyc.   1119;   Bla lack ck on In Inte terp rpre reta tati tion on of Laws, aws, pp. pp.   2 • , l'. l'. 8. •. Sa Santo Nil illo lo (19 (1909) 1:1Ph :1Phil il..   HI.

"Other  "Other 


cour co urts ts will ill no nott he hesi sita tate te to ch chan ange ge the the pu punc nctu tuat atio ion n whe hen n ne nece cess ssar ary y, to gi give ve th the e Act the eff effec ectt inte intende nded d by the Le Legis gislatu lature, re, dis disreg regard arding ing sup superf erfluo luous us or in incor correc rect. t. pun punct~ ct~aation tio n marks arks,, an and d inse inserti rting ng othe others rs whe hen n ne nece cess ssar ary. y." "  * The Th e wi will ll of th the e Le Legis gislatu lature re can be edu educed ced by nec necess essary ary inf infere erenc nce e for it is iim mpra praccti tic. c.ab able le tto o gi give ve dir direc ectio tions ns fo forr ev ever ery y de deta tail il of ·app ·appli lica cati tion on..

"T "Tha hatt whi hich ch is im impl plie ied  d 

in a st sta atute tute is as mu muc ch a pa parrt of it   So'!   what what is expresse expressed." d."   t   Vari arious ous oth other er intr intrins insic ic and an d ex extr trin insi sic c aids aids to inte interp rpre reta tati tion on

will ill be a ado dopt pted ed by the co cour urts ts if ne nece cess ssar ary y.  t

likew lik ewis ise, e, pr pres esum umpt ptio ions ns in ai aid d of co cons nstr truc ucti tion on ca can n be indu indulg lged ed in by the the co cour urts ts..  § Tha hatt the the rule ruless of int inter erpr pret etat atio ion n

un unde derr the the civi civill law law a are re ssur urpr pris isin ingl gly y sim similar ilar to

th thos ose e of the the Ang nglo lo-A -Am mer eric ican an,, of whi hich ch the the pr prev evio ious us di disc scus ussi sion on is mainl ainly y a co com m pend  pe ndiu ium m, is sho show wn by a qu quota otatio tion n fr from om Man anre resa sa:: "The fo "The foll llo owin ing g ru rule leli li of inte interp rprreta etatio tion are are gene nera rall lly y ac acce cept pte ed. Thl;!p Th l;!prov rovisio isions ns of tthe he Co Code de or of a any ny oth other er law sh shou ould ld no nott be inte interpr rprete eted  d  se sepa para rate tely ly.. Con onse sequ quen entl tly y, the the ru rule less es esta tabl blis ishe hed d for for the the inte interp rpre reta tati tion on of co cont ntra racts cts may w well ell be ap appl plied ied in tthe he inte interp rpre reta tatio tion n of the the law laws. s. If th the e term termss of a llaw aw are cle clear ar an and d lea leave ve no dQ dQub ubtt as to the inten intentio tion n of th the e leg legisislatu lature re the the lite litera rall se sens nse e of iits ts pro provi visi sion onss sh shal alll be o obs bser erve ved. d. If the the wor ords ds shou sh ould ld ap appe pear ar co cont ntra rary ry to the the ev evid iden entt inte intent ntio ion n of tthe he legi legisl slat atur ure, e, the the inte intent ntio ion n sh shal alll pr prev evai ail. l. In or orde derr to ju judg dge e as tto o the the inte intent ntio ion n of the the legi legisslato lator, r, atte attent ntio ion n mus ust· t· p pri rinc ncip ipal ally ly be pa paid id to the the co cont ntem empo pora rane neou ouss an and  d  sub ubse seq que uen nt la law ws. Howev ever er gen ener eral al th the e term termss of a law law m may ay be be,, the there shou sh ould ld no nott be un unde ders rstoo tood d as inc inclu lude ded d the there rein in thi thin~ n~ss 'an 'and d ca case sess diff differ eren entt from from thos those e with ith re rega gard rd to whi hich ch the the law law-m -mak aker erss inte intend nded ed to legi legisl slat ate. e. If any any prov provisi ision on sh shou ould ld ad adm mit of diff differ eren entt mea eani ning ngs, s, it sh shou ould ld be und under er-sto too od in th the e se sen nse m mo ost suita uitabl ble e to giv ive e it effe ffect. ct. The prov provis isio ions ns.. of a law law sh shal alll be int inter erpr pret eted ed in re rela lati tion on to on one e an anot othe her, r, gi givi ving ng to thos those e that that are are do doub ubtfu tfull the mea eani ning ng whic hich h may ap appe pear ar from from th the e co cons nsid ider erati ation on of a all ll of the them m toge togeth ther er.. Wor ords ds whi hich ch may ha have ve di diff ffer eren entt mea eani ning ngss sh shal alll be unders und erstoo tood d in tha thatt wh which ich m may ay be in acc accord ordanc ance e wi with th the obj object ect of the law. The Th e usa usages ges and cus custom tomss of the cou countr ntry y sha shall ll als also o be ta taken ken into con consid sidera era-ratio ation. n. As ha hass be been en said aid in ou ourr com omm ment on th the e pre rece cedi din ng artic rticle le,, in no case case sh shou ould ld an inte interp rpre reta tati tion on whi hich ch is con contr trar ary y to the law law  b e   given. So th the e prin princ cip iple le whic ich h sa say ys th tha at where th the e sam same re reas aso on ex exis ists ts,, ther there e mus ustt be an iden identic tical al prov provisi ision on of th the e law law,, ca can n no nott be suc succe cess ssfu fully lly set up whe hen n the there re is a leg legal al pr prin inci ci:-:--'~ '~ap appl plica icabl ble e to the ca case se.. Whe here re the the law do does es nott di no dist stin ingu guis ish h we sh shou ould ld no nott also also dis disti ting ngui uish sh.. In c cas ases es no nott ex exce cept pted ed,, the ex exce cept ption ion co conf nfir irm ms the the rule rule.. In the law lawss w whe here re the there re are are exc excep eptio tions ns,, in inte terp rpre reta tati tion on by an ana alo log gy can no nott be ap appl plie ied d. Where ere th the e law law gr gran ants ts the the gr gre. ates est, t, it shou should ld be un unde ders rsto tood od as allo allow wing ing or gr gran anti ting ng the the less less;;  butt if it proh  bu prohibi ibits ts the les less; s; it mus ustt als also o be un unde ders rsto tood od as proh prohib ibitin iting g the the gr gre eatest test.. In pen ena al la law ws or in fr fran anch chis ise es lib libera rall in inte terp rpre reta tati tio on can no nott  be all allow owed ed,, bu butt it may be ap appl plied ied to tho those se law laws whic hich h are are favo favora rable ble." ."   **

*  u.   S.•. S.•. Hart Hart (1913 (1913)) 26 Phil. Phil. 149, 149, 152. 152.

Hanch nchett ett •. Weber, Weber, 17Ill. App. App. 114 114.. Just as with with a constitu constitution tion-:\lc -:\lcCul Culloug lough h t Ha (1 (181 819) 9) 4 Wheat. Wheat. 316, 316, 4 L. Ed. Ed. 579. 579. t   S e e   Black Black on Interp Interpret retati ation on of Laws Laws,, Chs. Chs. VI, VII. VII. See Se e Black  lack   id.,   Ch. IV. IV. I * *   Manresa,   Come Coment ntar ario. io. al C6di C6di(J (Jo o Civi Civil, l,   Vol. I, p. 74 74.

•. :\bryland  :\bryland 

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