Polish Language Courses 6

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Polish language courses - 12 lessons and index, 13 files




6. Lekcja szósta

szeÊç six. szósty -a -e sixth rak crab, Cancer

Konwersacje: 6.A. Ogród, dzia∏ka Our neighbor's an avid gardener. 6.B. Na emeryturze My former boss. Being in retirement. 6.C. Przed bramà Going to a concert. Where to wait for one's ride? 6.D. Tu˝ przed moim domem Commuting to work. 6.E. Samochodem, pociàgiem Different ways of travel.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA ogród garden, w ogrodzie. ogród dzia∏kowy (or "dzia∏ka") parcel garden

na dzia∏ce on the garden-plot. Many Poles are passionate gardeners and rent or own garden plots either inside or on the edge of the city where they spend much of their free time. Most parcel gardens have small cottages with modest sleeping and cooking facilities.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.A. Ogród, dzia∏ka Who's that person working in the garden? Our neighbor, Mr. Kwiatkowski. Version a (male): Pan X: Kim jest ten pan, <który Who is that man, <who is working pracuje tam w ogrodzie>? there in the garden>? Pani Y: To nasz sàsiad, pan That's our neighbor, Mr. Kwiatkowski. On jest adwokatem. Kwiatkowski He's a lawyer. Pan X: Widz´, ˝e jest te˝ zapalonym I see he is also an avid gardener. ogrodnikiem. <To sà najpi´kniejsze <Those are the most beautiful roses ró˝e, jakie kiedykolwiek widzia∏em I've ever seen. (widzia∏am)>. Yes. He spends all his free time in Pani Y: Tak. Sp´dza w ogrodzie ca∏y swój wolny czas. <Ciàgle zajmuje the garden. <He's always looking si´ swoimi kwiatami.> after his flowers.>

Version b (female): Pan X: Kim jest ta pani, <która pracuje Who is that woman, <who is tam na dzia∏ce>? working there in the gardenPani Y: To nasza sàsiadka, pani plot>? Kwiatkowska. Ona jest That's our neighbor, Ms. adwokatkà.. Kwiatkowska. She's a lawyer. Pan X: Widz´, ˝e jest te˝ wspania∏à I see she is also an excellent ogrodniczkà. gardener. Pani Y: Tak. Sp´dza na dzia∏ce ca∏y Yes. She spends all her free time on swój wolny czas. her garden-plot.

For active learning and dictation practice: Kim jest ta pani? Kim jest ten pan? Kto pracuje tam w ogrodzie? Kto pracuje tam na dzia∏ce? On jest adwokatem. On sp´dza ca∏y swój czas w ogrodzie. Ona jest adwokatkà. Ona jest wspania∏à ogrodniczkà. Ona zajmuje si´ kwiatami. Czy znasz tego pana, który pracuje tam w ogrodzie? Czy znasz t´ panià, która pracuje tam na dzia∏ce? To nasz sàsiad. To nasza sàsiadka. Widz´, ˝e on jest te˝ ogrodnikiem.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Pytania 1. Jak si´ nazywa ten pan (ta pani)? Co wiemy o nim (o niej)? Kim on(a) jest? Co on(a) robi? 2. Gdzie i jak on(a) sp´dza wolny czas? Czym on(a) si´ zajmuje? 3. Czy jest dobrym ogrodnikiem (dobrà ogrodniczkà)? 4. Czy masz ogród? Czy lubisz pracowaç w ogrodzie? Czy jesteÊ dobrym ogrodnikiem (dobrà ogrodniczkà)? Co uprawiasz? 5. Czy dobrze znasz swojego sàsiada (swojà sàsiadk´)? Jaki on (Jaka ona) jest? Czy wiesz, co on(a) robi, jakie ma zainteresowania? Uwagi dzia∏ka -∏ek f garden-plot. na dzia∏ce on/in the garden-plot kim jest ten pan? who is that man? kim: Instrumental of kto (this lesson. o nim (o niej) about him (here) ogród garden. w ogrodzie in the garden on jest adwokatem (ona jest adwokatkà). he (she) is a lawyer. sp´dzaç -am -asz impf spend swój, swoja, swoje one's own (reflexive possessive pronoun uprawiaç -am -asz impf cultivate, raise widzieç -dz´ -dzisz impf see zajàç si´ -jm´ -jmiesz pf, zajmowaç si´ -muj´ -mujesz impf +I be busy with, occupy oneself with

In order, left to right, top to bottom: je˝yna blackberry, borówka bilberry, poziomka field strawberry, borówka czarna black bilberry, malina raspberry, Êliwka plum


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA GRAMATYKA 6.A. NASAL VOWELS BEFORE CONSONANTS. In its 'pure' state, nasal à represents a nasal diphthong "ow" (i.e., not "aw ", as the letter implies), and nasal ´ represents a nasal diphthong "ew ". These sounds occur mainly before continuant consonants (s, z, Ê, ê, sz, rz, ˝, ch). Practice: mà˝ husband, sàsiad neighbor, g´Ê goose, m´˝czyzna man. Nasal à also occurs in final position; by contrast, nasal ´ occurs in final position only when emphasized, or in hyper-correct speech. Practice: sà they are, bramà gate-Isg., troch´ a little, naprawd´ really. In the last two words, the letter may be pronounced as either "ew" or "e". The consistent nasal pronunciation of word-final ´ sounds artificial and pedantic. Before stops (b, d, g, p, t, k) and affricates (c, dz, cz, d˝, ç, dê), the nasal vowels à and ´ become decomposed into "o" or "e", respectively, plus a following "n", "m", "ƒ", or "h " (the sound of "ng" in song). By and large, this decomposition occurs naturally, according to the nature of the following consonant: Before labial stops (b, p) ´: em à: om Before dental stops (d, t) and hard affricates (d, dz, cz, dz) ´: en à: on Before palatal dental affricates ´: eƒ (ç, dê): à: oƒ Before velar stops (g, k): ´: eh à: o h ´: eh ' à: o h ' t´py "tempy" dull g∏´bia "g∏embja" depth dàb "domp" oak kr´ty "krenty" twisted r´ce "rence" hands kàt "kont" corner pàczek "ponczek" bud ch´ç "cheƒç" desire bàdê "boƒç" be (imper.) r´ka "reh ka" hand bàk "boh k" gadfly r´ki "reh 'k'i" hand-Gsg. bàki "boh 'k'i" gadflies

Before palato-velar stops (g', k')

INSTRUMENTAL CASE: MAIN USES. The most easily formed of the Polish cases is the Instrumental. Here are the main uses of the Instrumental case: 1. The Instrumental case takes its name from its use in phrases of INSTRUMENT, MEANS, AND PATH: Do ¸odzi mo˝na jechaç pociàgiem. One can go to Lodz by train. Mo˝na pisaç albo o∏ówkiem, albo d∏ugopisem. One may write either with a pencil or a ball-point. Autobusy nie je˝d˝à tà ulicà. Buses don't go along this street.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Instrumental of means of transportation

autobus bus I autobusem, ci´˝arówka truck I ci´˝arówkà, furmanka wagon I furmankà, koƒ horse I koniem (but na koniu on a horse), ∏ódê boat I ∏odzià, narty skis I nartami (but na nartach on skis), pociàg train I pociàgiem, rower bicycle I rowerem (or na rowerze), samochód automobile I samochodem, samolot airplane I samolotem, statek ship I statkiem, tramwaj trolley, streetcar I tramwajem.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 2. The Instrumental case is used in PREDICATE NOUN PHRASES, i.e. noun phrases connected to the subject of the sentence with the verb 'be': Nasz sàsiad jest lekarzem. Our neighbor is a doctor. Marta jest dobrà studentkà. Marta is a good student. In most instances, 'be' in this construction has the meaning ''belongs to the class or set of'. The Nominative case in the above sentences would be incorrect. For further discussion of this construction, see below (6.B) under Inclusive vs. Equational 'be' Sentences. The Instrumental case has uses after prepositions, after certain verbs, and in idiomatic expressions, as will be discussed later in this chapter. Kim jesteÊ? Who are you? Poster advertising a self-realization seminar.

INSTRUMENTAL CASE: FORMATION. The Instrumental sg. has one set of endings for masculine/neuter nouns and adjectives, and another set for feminine nouns and adjectives. Here are the singular endings: masc./neut. feminine adjective ending -ym (-im) -à noun ending -em (-iem) -à

Nominative dobry student good student zwyk∏e biuro ordinary office mi∏a osoba nice person

Instrumental dobrym studentem zwyk∏ym biurem mi∏à osobà


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA The masc./neut. adjective ending -ym is respelled -im after k and g. The masc./neut. noun ending -em following k or g requires the insertion of an i: jaki cz∏owiek what man-Nom. jakim cz∏owiekiem what manInst. The letter j is dropped after a vowel before i, so that the masc./neut. Instrumental forms of mój, twój, swój are spelled moim, twoim, swoim: mój pies my dog-Nom. moim psem my dog-Inst. In the plural, nouns of all genders have the same Instrumental endings: all genders adjective ending -ymi (-imi) noun ending -ami

Examples of plural Instrumentals: Nominative g∏ówny port main port szeroka ulica wide street du˝e miasto large town drogi hotel expensive hotel mój student my student

Instrumental plural g∏ównymi portami szerokimi ulicami du˝ymi miastami drogimi hotelami moimi studentami

NOTES ON INSTRUMENTAL FORMATION: a. Feminine nouns ending in a consonant (i.e., in -0 ) take the regular feminine Instrumental ending -à: d∏uga noc long night d∏ugà nocà b. Masculine nouns ending in -a take feminine-like endings, but they take masculine adjective agreement: dobry kolega good colleague dobrym kolegà c. Nouns having the form of adjectives are declined accordingly, e.g. dobry znajomy good acquaintance (m.) dobrym znajomym dobra znajoma good acquaintance (f.) dobrà znajomà Ona jest mojà bardzo dobrà znajomà. She is my very good acquaintance. JesteÊmy bardzo bliskimi krewnymi. We are very close relatives. d. Some nouns have an irregular short Instrumental plural in -mi. Most of these nouns have irregular plural declensions in general: noun Nominative plural Irregular Instrumental plural cz∏owiek man ludzie people ludêmi brat brother bracia brothers braçmi koƒ horse konie horses koƒmi przyjaciel friend przyjaciele friends przyjació∏mi dziecko child dzieci children dzieçmi


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA e. The word rodzice parents is rarely used except in the plural. Its Instrumental plural is regular: moi rodzice my parent, Ipl moimi rodzicami On jeszcze mieszka ze swoimi rodzicami. he still lives with his parents. 5. LAST NAMES. Polish last names are of either adjectival or nominal form. Adjectival surnames typically end in -ski, -cki, or -dzki, and take gender and case endings like any adjective, hence Nominative pan Zawadzki pani Zawadzka Accusative pana Zawadzkiego panià Zawadzkà Instrumental panem Zawadzkim panià Zawadzkà

Nominal last names in consonants like, say, Kruk (literally, 'raven') are used in the same form by both men and women, with the difference that the name is declined with men, but not with women: pan Kruk pani Kruk pana Kruka panià Kruk panem Krukiem panià Kruk

åWICZENIA 6.A 6.1. 'Who was that man?'In c., make up an answer. m´˝czyzna: a. Kim jest ten m´˝czyzna? Who is that man? b. Kim by∏ ten m´˝czyzna? Who was that man? c. Ten m´˝czyzna to mój szef. That man I my boss. pani, cz∏owiek, osoba, dziewczyna, pan, kobieta, ch∏opiec. 6.1. 6.2. 'What kind of lawyer is he?' For professions, see Lesson 3. lawyer: a. Jakim on jest adwokatem? What kind of lawyer is he? b. Jakà ona jest adwokatkà? What kind of lawyer is she? actor, dentist, clerk, waiter, student, teacher, hairdresser. 6.2.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.3. Professions: ogrodnik: a. On jest doskona∏ym ogrodnikiem. He's an excellent gardener. b. Ona jest doskona∏à ogrodniczkà. She's an excellent gardener. adwokat, lekarz, specjalista, dziennikarz, nauczyciel, student, szef. 6.3. 6.4. Predicate adjectives and nouns: drogi dentysta: a. Ten dentysta jest drogi. That dentist is expensive. b. On jest drogim dentystà. He is an expensive dentist. dobra studentka, wymagajàcy szef, stary profesor, nowa sekretarka, mi∏a kobieta, grzeczny kelner, zdolna-talented nauczycielka, pi´kna-beautiful aktorka, zdolny adwokat, przystojny aktor. 6.4. 6.5. Instrumental of means. samochód, autobus : Czy wolisz tam jechaç samochodem czy taksówkà? Do you prefer to go there by car or by bus? tramwaj, taksówka; rower, motocykl; pociàg, ci´˝arówka. 6.5. 6.6. Writing implements. d∏ugopis: Mo˝na pisaç d∏ugopisem. One may write with a ball-point. o∏ówek, kreda, pióro, mazak-marker, atrament-ink. 6.6.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA jarzyny vegetables, owoce fruits

Number the squares and match the items to the numbers. burak beet, cebula onion, czereÊnia sweet cherry, dynia pumpkin, fasola bean (not pictured), groszek peas, gruszka pear, jab∏ko apple, kapusta cabbage, kartofel (or ziemniak) potato, malina raspberry, marchewka carrot, ogórek cucumber, Êliwka plum, truskawka strawberry, wiÊnia sour cherry.


Co za szcz´Êcie what luck.

pod pretekstem under the pretext. The name of this establishment plays on the custom of naming such places after an obect featured on a sign: pod krokodylem under the (sign of the) crocodile, pod baranami under (the sign of the) rams, and so forth. 6.B.1. Na emeryturze Who is that man? My former boss. Teresa: Kim jest ten m´˝czyzna, <z którym rozmawia∏eÊ przed chwilà>? Tomek: To mój dawny szef. Teraz jest ju˝ na emeryturze. Teresa: Co za szcz´Êcie byç na emeryturze! Tomek: Tak sàdzisz? On nie wie, co ze sobà zrobiç. Who is that man <with whom you were talking a moment ago>? That is my former boss. He is retired now. What luck to be retired! You think so? He doesn't know what to do with himself.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Jestem Europejczykiem. I am a European

A poster featuring race-car driver Krzysztof Wo∏owczyc, urging voters to vote for Polish entry into the European Union. 6.B.2. Na emeryturze Who is that woman? My former boss. Teresa: Kim jest ta kobieta, <z którà rozmawia∏eÊ (rozmawia∏aÊ) przed chwilà>? Tomek: To moja dawna szefowa. Teraz jest ju˝ na emeryturze. Teresa: Co za szcz´Êcie byç na emeryturze! Tomek: Tak sàdzisz? Ona nie wie, co zrobiç z wolnym czasem. Who is that woman <with whom you were talking a moment ago>? That is my former boss (f.). She is retired now. What luck to be retired! You think so? She doesn't know what to do with her free time.

For active learning and dictation practice: Co za szcz´Êcie! Co za szcz´Êcie byç na emeryturze. Kim jest ten m´˝czyzna? Kim jest ta kobieta? On nie wie, co ze sobà zrobiç. Ona nie wie, co zrobiç z wolnym czasem. Tak sàdzisz? Teraz on(a) jest ju˝ na emeryturze. To mój dawny szef. To moja dawna szefowa. Z kim rozmawia∏aÊ przed chwilà?


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Pytania 1. Kim jest ten m´˝czyzna (ta kobieta)? 2. Co on(a) teraz robi? Czym on(a) si´ teraz zajmuje? 3. Czy on(a) jest zadowolony (zadowolona), ˝e jest na emeryturze? Dlaczego? 4. Jak myÊlisz, co b´dziesz robiç na emeryturze? Czy zaczniesz nowà prac´? 5. Czy zgadzasz si´ z opinià, ˝e to szcz´Êcie byç na emeryturze? pracowaç? byç gospodynià domowà? Uwagi co za +N what a. co za szcz´Êcie what good luck. co zrobiç ze sobà what to do with himself. sobà: Inst. of siebie emerytura retirement. na emeryturze in retirement gospodyni domowa housewife przed chwilà a moment ago rozmawiaç -am -asz impf z+I converse with, talk with sàdziç -dz´ -dzisz impf judge, think so szefowa f boss. The word is declined like an adjective zaczàç -n´ -niesz pf begin z którà, z którym with whom: Instrumental case forms of który after the preposition z with z wolnym czasem with one's free time. The Instrumental case after the preposition z+I with

A cartoon responding to the above ad campaign, based on a pun, suggesting that upon entry into the EU, Poland will be flogged by the power of the euro. pejczyk little whip


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA GRAMATYKA 6.B. USES OF THE INSTRUMENTAL (CONTINUED FROM 6.A). 3. The Instrumental case is required after the following prepositions. Such uses have little if anything to do with the basic meaning of the Instrumental case. Most share the sense of 'in the vicinity of'. as in: mi´dzy between, among mi´dzy nami among, between us nad over, above, on top of nad domem above the house pod below, underneath, beneath pod drzewem beneath the tree poza beside, beyond poza tym besides that przed before, in front of przed biurem in front of the office z (together, along) with z Agatà with Agata. za behind, in back of za kratami behind bars. a. Above prepositions ending in a consonant (nad, pod, przed, z) take a following -e before the Instrumental form of ja I, mnà; hence przede mnà in front of me, ze mnà with me, and so on. The preposition z also appears as ze before words beginning in s, as in ze swoim psem with one's dog, ze sobà with one another. b. One-syllable personal pronouns shift stress onto a preceding preposition; hence ZA mnà behind me, ZE mnà with me, na-DE mnà above me, prze-DE mnà in front of me, and so on. c. The preposition mi´dzy between usually occurs with the conjunction a: mi´dzy pierwszà a trzecià between 1:00 and 3:00. d. It is useful to practice the Instrumental prepositions in conjunction with a review of verbs of 'sitting', 'standing', 'lying', hanging': le˝eç -˝´ -˝ysz lie, be lying staç stoj´ stoisz stoi stand, be standing wisieç -sz´ -sisz hang, be hanging siedzieç dz´ -dzisz sit, be sitting All of these verbs belong to the -´ -y/isz -y/i conjugation (Conjugation 2). Here are some examples: Ksià˝ka le˝y pod p∏aszczem. The book is lying under the coat. Lampa wisi nad sto∏em. The lamp is hanging over the table. Zosia siedzi pod drzewem. Zosia is sitting beneath a tree. Zenon stoi za samochodem. Zenon is standing behind the car. Observe the difference in meaning between Drzewo roÊnie za domem. The tree is growíƒg behind the house. Za domem roÊnie drzewo. A tree is growing behind the house. The first sentence answers where the tree is growing; the second sentence answers what is growing behind the house.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Dama z gronostajem. Lady with ermine

gronostaj ermine. This picture, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, hangs in the Czartoryski Muzuem in Kraków. The exact species of the animal has always been a mystery. 4. The Instrumental case is required in the complement position after some verbs: interesowaç si´ -suj´ -sujesz +I be interested in zajmowaç si´ -muj´ -mujesz +I be busy with, look after, study Examples: Mój szef interesuje si´ tylko swojà pracà. My boss is interested only in his work. Moja matka zajmuje si´ domem. My mother looks after the house. The following verbs naming reciprocal actions are followed by the preposition z plus the Instrumental: k∏óciç si´-c´ -cisz impf z+I quarrel with rozmawiaç -am -asz impf z+I converse with spotykaç si´ -am -asz impf z+I meet with zgadzaç si´ -am -asz impf z+I agree with Examples: Ciàgle si´ k∏ócimy ze sobà. We're continually quarreling with one another. Musisz z nim cz´Êciej rozmawiaç. You have to converse with him more often. Nie zgadzam si´ z tobà. I don't agree with you.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Spotykam si´ z kimÊ dziÊ po po∏udniu. I'm meeting with someone this afternoon. The verb rozmawiaç 'converse' has a corresponding noun rozmowa 'conversation'. The noun corresponding to spotykaç si´ 'meet' is spotkanie 'meeting', and the noun corresponding to k∏óciç si´ is k∏ótnia 'quarrel'. One may say, then, such things as Mam dziÊ spotkanie ze swoim adwokatem. I have a meeting toda˘ with my lawyer. Mia∏em ciekawà rozmow´ z twoim ojcem. I had an interesting conversation with your father, and so on.

5. A number of useful expressions are based on words or phrases in the Instrumental case: czasami sometimes przede wszystkim above all, innym razem some other time especially jednym s∏owem in a word, briefly przypadkiem by chance mi´dzy innymi among other razem together things tam i z powrotem there and back moim zdaniem in my opinion tymczasem in the meantime poza tym besides that tym razem this time 6. These time-of-year expressions also make use of the Instrumental case: jesienià in the fall wiosnà in the spring latem in the summer zimà in the winter Similarly: nocà at night 7. Many useful adverbial expressions Instrumental: z ∏atwoÊcià with ease, easily z ch´cià gladly, willingly z radoÊcià gladly wieczorem in the evening are formed with z plus the z przyjemnoÊcià with pleasure z trudem with difficulty and numerous others.

EQUATIONAL VS. INCLUSIONAL 'BE' SENTENCES. A 'predicate noun' sentence is a sentence where the noun in the subject position of the sentence is linked to a noun in the predicate position, usually with the verb 'be'. Polish has two different predicate noun constructions, which correspond to a single English construction. These are (a) the equational or identity 'be' sentence and (b) the inclusional or descriptive 'be' sentence.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 1. EQUATIONAL OR IDENTITY 'BE' SENTENCES use to (jest) plus the Nominative case. The item to is obligatory, while jest is often omitted. This construction resolves the identity of or classifies the subject noun, equating it with the noun in the predicate: Gdaƒsk to (jest) g∏ówny port. Gdansk is the main port. This sentence equates Gdansk with the "main port". It assumes that one already knows that there is a main port, but does not yet know that Gdansk is it. The equational construction is ideally used to join two separate but already known things; only their relationship of identity with one another is not known. The plural of equational sentences is expressed by replacing to (jest) with to (sà): Warszawa i ¸ódê to (sà) najwi´ksze polskie miasta Warsaw and Lodz are the largest Polish cities. 2. INCLUSIONAL OR DESCRIPTIVE 'BE' SENTENCES. The more frequent predicate-noun construction is termed 'inclusional' or 'descriptive'. It uses forms of the verb byç 'be' and requires that the noun following the verb (the 'predicate noun') appear in the Instrumental case. This construction says something descriptive, qualifying or, especially, set-inclusive about the subject: Gdaƒsk jest wa˝nym portem. Gdansk is an important port. This sentence says something descriptive of Gdaƒsk, that it is an important port, that it belongs to the set of things that may be called 'important ports'. One often first identifies something with an equational construction, and then says something about it with an inclusional sentence; see Ten pan to mój sàsiad. On jest lekarzem. That man is my neighbor. He's a doctor. The difference between the two kinds of predicate noun sentences can be subtle. In many instances either construction is correct. Because the Instrumental jest construction is more frequent than the Equational to jest construction, and broader in application, it is the safest to use in instances of indecision. THE CASE FORM OF PREDICATE ADJECTIVES. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number, and case. For this reason, predicate adjectives occur in the Nominative case: Ten egzamin by∏ trudny. That exam was hard. Ta praca jest interesujàca. The work is interesting. ˚ycie nie jest ∏atwe. Life is not easy. An adjective modifying a predicate noun in the Instrumental case will occur in the Instrumental case, in agreement with the noun: Pan Kwiatkowski jest wspania∏ym ogrodnikiem. Mr. Kwiatkowski is an excellent gardener. Pani Kwiatkowska jest wspania∏à ogrodniczkà. Ms. Kwiatkowski is an excellent gardener.



Nasza si∏a to jakoÊç i Êwie˝oÊç. Our strength is quality and freshness.

A to jest identity-sentence in a Warsaw hypermarket. Hyper-markets are enormous stores offering food, clothing, household goods, and almost everything else, most of them owned by foreign corporations, which have sprouted up in larger Polish cities.

åWICZENIA 6.B. 6.6. Compose at least five questions of the following sort, referring to well-known people. Answer th´ questions that you form. a. Kim jest G.W. Bush? b. Kto jest amerykaƒskim prezydentem? c. Jakim G.W. Bushjest (by∏) prezydentem? 6.7. Supply a person with whom you usually do something in b: uczyç si´: a. Z kim zwykle si´ uczysz? With whom do you usually study? b. Zwykle ucz´ si´ z mojà kole˝ankà. I usually study with my (f.) colleague. k∏óciç si´, pracowaç, chodziç na filmy, oglàdaç telewizj´, zgadzaç si´, rozmawiaç, jeêdziç na uniwersytet, spotykaç si´. 6.7.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.8. 'She takes care of ...' dom: Ona zajmuje si´ swoim domem. She takes care of her house. mieszkanie, samochód, dziecko, mà˝, rodzina, rodzice (pl.), syn, praca, ogród, kwiaty (pl.), dzieci (pl.) 6.8. 6.9. 'He's intererested in ...' film: On interesuje si´ kinem. He's interested in the cinema. muzyka, sport, historia, kwiaty (pl.), literatura, malarstwo painting, ró˝e (pl.), nauka science, learning, film. 6.9. 6.10. spotykaç +A meet vs. spotykaç si´ z +I meet with Marta: a. Spotykam Mart´ codziennie. I meet Marta every day. b. Spotykam si´ z Martà dzisiaj. I'm meeting with Marta today. Józef, Ewa, Paw(e)∏, Julia, Marcin, Jola, ¸ukasz, pan Klimczak, pani Klimczak, pan Kwiatkowski, pani Kwiatkowska. 6.10. 6.11. Instrumental singular and plural (with irregular Instrumental plurals). twoja kole˝anka: a. Gdzie idziesz z twojà kole˝ankà? Where are you going withyour f. colleague? b. Gdzie idziesz z twoimi kole˝ankami? Where are you going with your f. colleagues? ta dziewczyna, ten ch∏opiec, ten m´˝czyzna, ta kobieta, ten cz∏owiek, to dziecko, twój przyjaciel, twój kolega, ten koƒ. 6.11. 6.12. Instrumental singular and plural: but: a. Co robisz z tym butem? What are you doing with that shoe? b. Co robisz z tymi butami? What are you doing with those shoes? parasol, skarpetka, koszula, krawat, r´kawiczka, kwiat. 6.12.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.13. 'converse with'. Contrast of Accusative and Instrumental. sàsiad: a. Znam twojego sàsiada. I know your neighbor. b. Rozmawiam z twoim sàsiadem. I'm conversing with your neighbor. sàsiadka, adwokat, siostra, syn, kolega, znajoma, kole˝anka, znajomy, dziecko, córka, ojciec. 6.13. le˝eç -˝´ -˝ysz lie siedzieç -dz´ -dzisz sit Verbs of physical position: staç stoj´ stoisz stand wisieç -sz´ -sisz hang

6.14. Make a logical sentence using the two nouns, a verb of 'sitting', 'standing', 'lying', 'hanging', and an Instrumenta preposition. Use 'sit' only with people. Ksia˝ka le˝y pod p∏aszczem. The book is lying beneath the coat. portfel, ∏ó˝ko; zegar, szafa; Marta, drzewo; Zygmunt, biblioteka; lampa, stó∏; obraz, biurko; ksià˝ka, zeszyt; Leon, portret. ksià˝ka, p∏aszcz: 6.15. mi´dzy between dom, uniwersytet: mi´dzy domem a uniwersytetem between home and the univserity szko∏a, dom; biblioteka, muzeum; biuro, teatr; Warszawa, Kraków. 6.16. What to eat cornflakes with. The follow serving suggestions were printed on a bag of Polish cornflakes. Put the ingredient in the Instrumental after z 'with': CORN FLAKES (P¸ATKI KUKURYDZIANE) MO˚NA PODAWAå Z: One may serve cornflakes with: mleko: z mlekiem with milk. d˝em jam, piwo beer, jogurt yoghurt, kefir kefir, kompot stewed fruit, sok owocowy fruit juice, konfitury (pl) preserves, majonez mayonnaise, miód miodu honey, Êmietana sweet cream, twaróg twarogu cottage cheese. Any other suggestions? (z surowym jajkiem with a raw egg, etc.).


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA brama entry-gate, przed bramà in front of the entry-gate.

This showy entryway (brama), in the so-called Neo-Baroque or Eclectic style, ornaments the entrance to a building on Piotrkowska Street in ¸ódê, a city famous for manneristic end-of-the-19th-century architecture.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.C. Przed bramà One person invites another to a concert. When is it, and where should one wait? Mariusz: Pójdziesz ze mnà dziÊ wieczorem na koncert <skrzypcowy>? Monika: Bardzo ch´tnie. O której? Mariusz: <Koncert zaczyna si´ o ósmej, wi´c> Przyjad´ po ciebie o siódmej. Monika: Bardzo dobrze. Gdzie mam na ciebie czekaç? Mariusz: Czekaj na mnie przed bramà <wyjÊciem <domem, drzwiami>. Monika: Dobrze. B´d´ tam czeka∏a. Will you go with me this evening to a <violin> concert? Very gladly. At what time? <The concert begins at eight, so> I'll come for you at seven. Very good. Where should I wait for you? Wait for me in front of the entry-gate <entrance, house, door>. Good. I'll be waiting there.

For active learning and dictation practice: B´d´ tam czeka∏(a). Koncert zaczyna si´ o ósmej. Bardzo ch´tnie pójd´ z tobà. O której zaczyna si´ koncert? Czekaj na mnie przed bramà. Pójdziesz ze mnà dziÊ wieczorem Czy pójdziesz ze mnà? na koncert? Gdzie mam na ciebie czekaç? Przyjad´ po ciebie o siódmej.

Pytania: 1. Na co Mariusz zaprasza Monik´? Czy ona akceptuje jego zaproszenie? Jak myÊlisz, dlaczego Mariusz zaprasza Monik´ tak póêno? 2. O której b´dzie ten koncert? O której Mariusz przyjedzie po Monik´? 3. Gdzie Monika ma czekaç na Mariusza? 4. Lubisz chodziç na koncerty? Na oper´? Do teatru? Do kina? 5. Czy koncert skrzypcowy jest dla ciebie interesujàcy? Jaki koncert b´dzie dla ciebie bardziej interesujàcy: skrzypcowy, jazzowy czy inny?

Uwagi brama entry-gate. Older apartment po prep+A for (in the sense 'to get') houses are built around a courtyard przed+I before, in front of with entry through a single gate. przyjechaç -jad´ -jedziesz pf, impf czekaj wait! Imperative of czekaç przyje˝d˝aç come, arrive. dla ciebie for you przyjechaç po+A come by for drzwi (plural form) door. przed zaczynaç si´ -a impf intrans begin drzwiami in front of the door.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA GRAMATYKA 6.C. INSTRUMENTAL FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS (SINGULAR). The Instrumental forms of the singular personal pronouns are as follows: Nominative Instrumental Nominative Instrumental co what czym (reflexive) sobà kto who kim pan you (male panem formal) nic nothing niczym pani you panià (fem. formal) nikt no one nikim on he nim ja I mnà ono it nim ty you sg. tobà ona she nià FOR PASSIVE LEARNING The Instrumental forms of the plural personal pronouns my, wy, oni, one are as follows: Nominative Instrumental Nominative Instrumental my we nami oni they-mp. nimi wy you-pl. wami one they-f./n. nimi THE REFLEXIVE PERSONAL PRONOUN 'SELF'. The reflexive personal pronoun siebie, meaning 'oneself' or 'each other', does not have a Nominative form and is usually listed under the Genitive/Accusative form siebie. Its Instrumental form is sobà. Oni rozmawiajà ze sobà. They are talking with each other. Ona nie wie, co zrobiç ze sobà. She doesn't know what to do with herself. EXPRESSING 'AGO' WITH przed +INSTRUMENTAL. One may express the English idea of 'ago' with temu, as in rok temu a year ago, miesiàc temu a month ago, godzin´ temu (note the Accusative), and so on. More frequent, however, is the use of the preposition przed+I before plus the noun referring to the unit of time, as in przed godzinà an hour ago. These expressions are coordinated with expressions in za+A in, after a period of time: za+A przed+I za chwil´ in a moment przed chwilà a moment ago za godzin´ in an hour przed godzinà an hour ago za miesiàc in a month przed miesiàcem a month ago za minut´ in a minute przed minutà a minute ago za rok in a year przed rokiem a year ago za tydzieƒ in a week przed tygodniem a week ago


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA With dzieƒ (G dnia) day, instead of za dzieƒ or przed dniem one usually simply says wczoraj yesterday or jutro tomorrow. See these examples with wróciç wróc´ wrócisz pf return: Wróc´ za godzin´. I'll return in an hour. Wróci∏em (wróci∏am) przed godzinà. I returned an hour ago. INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS: jaki vs. który. These are both question-words and relative pronouns. Although jaki, jaka, jakie is sometimes used instead of który, która, które in colloquial speech, the word jaki means 'what kind or sort of', while który means 'which specific one (out of a set of examples)'. Jaki telewizor b´dzie dobry? What sort of TV set will be good? Jaka to jest szko∏a? What kind of school is that? Contrast with: Który telewizor b´dzie dobry? Which television set would be good? Który autobus jest nasz? Whichbus is ours? Który is also used to ask about the time, in the expression która godzina: Która jest godzina? What time is it? The word jaki is also used to ask questions of the sort Jakie jest najwi´ksze polskie miasto? What is the largest Polish city? and it is used in exclamations of the type Jaki pi´kny widok! What a pretty sight! As a relative pronoun, jaki translates English that, and który translates which or who(m). Both words change according to the gender of the noun referred to, and have the case required by the syntax of the clause in which they appear. A comma precedes the relative phrase. To jest najlepsza pralka, jakà mamy. That's the best washing machine thatAccusative we have. On jest najlepszym aktorem, jakiego znam He's the best actor thatAccusative I know. Kim by∏ ten cz∏owiek, z którym rozmawia∏eÊ? Who was that man with whom-Instrumental you were talking? Czy znasz t´ osob´, na którà czekam? Do you know the person for whomAccusative I am waiting? The Polish expressions often correspond to the English device of placing the preposition at the end of a sentence. In Polish it is not correct to leave out a relative pronoun, as one may often do in English, and it is entirely incorrect to put a preposition at the end of a sentence (as in English Who was that man you were talking with?). It is also usually incorrect to use kto who or co that as relative pronouns unless they are coordinated with another pronoun, as in Ten, kto chce, mo˝e iÊç. He who wants can go. To jest wszystko, co wiem. That's all that I know.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA åWICZENIA 6.C. 6.15. 'agree with'. Instrumental of pronouns. Turn sentences with 2nd-person subjects into yes-no questions. ja, ty: a. Nie zgadzam si´ z tobà. I don't agree with you. b. Nie chc´ k∏óciç si´ z tobà. I don't want to quarrel with you. on, pani; pan, ona; ty, ja; ona, pani; on, pan. 6.16. 6.16. w+L vs. przed+I Contrast of Locative and Instrumental cases. dom: a. Czekaj na mnie w domu. Wait for me at home. b. Czekaj na mnie przed domem. Wait for me in front of the house. biblioteka, wyjÊcie, szko∏a, hotel, brama, uniwersytet, kino, teatr, budynek. 6.16. 6.17. Contrast of Accusative and Instrumental cases. twój ojciec: a. Znam twojego ojca. I know your father. b. Rozmawiam z twoim ojcem. I'm talking with your father. twoja siostra, twój kolega, twój szef, twoja sàsiadka, twoja narzeczona, twój znajomy, twój sàsiad. 6.18. mi´dzy between dom, szko∏a: mi´dzy domem a szko∏à between home and school teatr, biblioteka; hotel, uniwersytet; kino, apteka. 6.18. 6.19. jaki vs. który; poleciç pf vs. polecaç impf recommend ksià˝ka: a. Jakà ksià˝k´ polecasz? What sort of book do you recommend? b. Którà ksià˝k´ mo˝esz mi poleciç? Which book can you recommend? film, opera, powieÊç, opowiadanie, gazeta, lekarz, koncert, dentysta, artyku∏, restauracja. 6.19.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.20. The use of który which, who in relative clauses. m´˝czyzna: a. Kim by∏ ten m´˝czyzna, z którym rozmawia∏eÊ (rozmawia∏aÊ)? Who was that man with whom you were talking? b. Kim by∏ ten m´˝czyzna, na którego czeka∏eÊ (czeka∏aÊ)? Who was that man for whom you were waiting? pan, pani, ch∏opiec, dziewczyna, cz∏owiek, kobieta. 6.20.a 6.20.b 6.21. 'larger' and 'smaller'. Warszawa, Kraków: a. Warszawa jest wi´ksza ni˝ Kraków. Warsaw is larger than Kraków. b. Kraków jest mniejszy ni˝ Warszawa. Kraków is smaller than Warsaw. ¸ódê (f.), Toruƒ; Poznaƒ, Bydgoszcz (f.); Wroc∏aw, Bia∏ystok. 6.21. 6.22. 'the best I've ever seen'. Supply a logical verb. dobry film: To by∏ najlepszy film, jaki kiedykolwiek widzia∏em (widzia∏am). That was the best movie I've ever seen. dobra ksià˝ka, inteligentny pies, dobry przyjaciel, pi´kny obraz, ∏adne dziecko, z∏y koncert, tani bilet. 6.22. 6.23. 'ago' godzina: a. Wróc´ za godzin´. I'll return in an hour. b. Wróci∏em (wróci∏am) przed godzinà. I returned an hour ago.

chwila, miesiàc, rok, minuta, tydzieƒ. 6.23.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA riksza rickshaw

The main shopping thorofare of ¸ódê, Piotrkowska Street, is served by bicycle rickshaws, which charge less than a dollar (2-3 zlotys) for transportation from one end of the two-mile street to the other. 6.D. Tu˝ przed moim domem Getting to work. Ryszard: Czym zwykle jeêdzisz na uniwersytet? Renata: Zwykle nie je˝d˝´, chodz´ pieszo. Tak jest przyjemniej. Ryszard: Nawet kiedy jest brzydka pogoda? Renata: Nie, wtedy je˝d˝´ autobusem <tramwajem>. Przystanek jest tu˝ przed moim domem. How (by what means) do you usually ride to the university? I usually don't ride, I go on foot. It's more pleasant that way. Even when the weather is ugly? No, then I ride the bus. The stop is right in front of my house.

For active learnings and dictation practice: Czym zwykle jeêdzisz na uniwersytet? Kiedy jest brzydka pogoda, jad´ tramwajem. Przystanek jest tu˝ przed moim domem. Tak jest przyjemniej. Wtedy je˝d˝´ autobusem. Zwykle nie je˝d˝´, chodz´ pieszo.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Pytania 1. Czy Renata zwykle jeêdzi na uniwersytet, czy chodzi pieszo? 2. Co ona robi, kiedy jest brzydka pogoda? 3. Czy jej przystanek jest blisko, czy daleko? Gdzie on jest? 4. Czym zwykle jeêdzisz do pracy (na uniwersytet)? Z kim zwykle jeêdzisz? Z czym zwykle jeêdzisz? 5. Czy czasami chodzisz pieszo? Czy wolisz chodziç pieszo? Nawet wtedy, kiedy jest brzydka pogoda? Czy czasami jeêdzisz do pracy (na uniwersytet) rowerem? 6. Gdzie masz najbli˝szy przystanek autobusowy? Postój taksówek?

Uwagi autobusem by bus motion, paired with jechaç jad´, bliski aj near, close. av blisko. comp av jedziesz. See the grammar to this bli˝ej. sup aj najbli˝szy section. czasami sometimes postój taksówek taxi-stand jeêdziç je˝d˝´, jeêdzisz drive, ride rower mi bicycle. rowerem by bike (often). A verb of indeterminate GRAMATYKA 6.D. DETERMINATE AND INDETERMINATE VERBS OF MOTION (INTRODUCTION). With verbs indicating motion, whether on foot or by vehicle, the English difference between, say, 'I'm going now' (i.e., action located at a specific point in time) and 'I often go' (i.e., action in general, not located at a specific point in time) is expressed with different verbs. a. The DETERMINATE verbs iÊç, id´, idziesz go on foot and jechaç, jad´, jedziesz go by vehicle refer to motion at a specific time-point. They usually occur with specific-time adverbs like teraz now, wtedy then, at that time, and they often correspond to English verbs in -ing: Gdzie teraz idziesz? Where are you going now? Jedziesz zbyt szybko. You are driving too fast. Determinate verbs are also used in the sense of future action flowing out of present plans: Id´ dziÊ wieczorem na nowy polski film. I'm going tonight to a new Polish film = I plan to go to a new Polish film tonight. Jad´ jutro do ¸odzi. I'm travelling tomorrow to ¸odz = I'm planning to travel to ¸odz tomorrow. b. The INDETERMINATE verbs chodziç, chodz´, chodzisz go often on foot and jeêdziç, je˝d˝´, jeêdzisz go often by vehicle are used to express


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA repeated or habitual motion. They typically occur with adverbs like czasami sometimes, cz´sto often, nigdy never, rzadko rarely, zawsze always, zwykle usually, and so on: Cz´sto chodz´ do teatru. I go to the theater often. Zwykle je˝d˝´ na uniwersytet autobusem. I usually ride to the university by bus. c. The respective Perfective verbs corresponding to iÊç/chodziç and jechaç/jeêdziç are pójÊç and pojechaç . See Lesson 7. motion on foot: Determinate (specific): iÊç, id´, idziesz 'now', 'at that time' szed∏, sz∏a Indeterminate (general- chodziç, chodz´, habitual): 'often' chodzisz Perfective: 'right away' pójÊç, pójd´, pójdziesz or 'a moment ago' poszed∏, posz∏a motion by vehicle: jechaç, jad´, jedziesz jeêdziç, je˝d˝´, jeêdzisz pojechaç, pojad´, pojedziesz

The present-tense form of a Perfective verb has future meaning (Lesson 7). Zaraz tam pójd´. I'll go there right away. Pojad´ tam jutro. I'll drive there tomorrow.

åWICZENIA 6.D. 6.24. In b, use the plural of the noun (as given in parentheses). ona, koncert: a. Ona teraz idzie na koncert. She's going to a concert now. (pl. koncerty) b. Ona cz´sto chodzi na koncerty. She often goes to concerts. ja, film (pl filmy); ty, zabawa (pl zabawy); on, przedstawienie (pl przedstawienia); pan, zebranie (pl zebrania); ona, wystawa (pl wystawy). 6.24. MEANS OF SURFACE TRANSPORTATION autobus bus pociàg train deskorolka skateboard riksza rickshaw furmanka horsecart hulajnoga foot scooter rower bicycle motocykl motorcycle samochód -chodu automobile motorower moped, motor bike taksówka taxi skuter motor scooter tramwaj trolley


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Determinate and indeterminate verbs of locomotion. 6.25. 'by train, etc.' ja, pociàg: a. Jad´ pociàgiem. I'm going by train. b. Zwykle je˝d˝´ pociàgiem. I usually go by train. ja, autobus; on, rower; ona, samochód; ja, tramwaj; ty, motocykl; ona, taksówka, ja, skuter. 6.25. 6.26. jechaç and jeêdziç conrasted. ja, pociàg: a. Chc´ tam pojechaç pociàgiem. I want to go there by train. b. Lubi´ tam jeêdziç pociàgiem. I like to go there by train. ja, taksówka; ty, samochód; on, rower; ona, autobus; ja, motocykl. 6.26. 6.27. Determinate, indeterminate, and perfective contrasted. ja, iÊç: a. Teraz tam id´. I'm going there now. b. Cz´sto tam chodz´. I often go there. c. Zaraz tam pójd´. I'll go there right away. ty, jechaç; on, iÊç; pan, jechaç; ty, iÊç; ja, jechaç; pani, iÊç. 6.26. 6.28. iÊç and chodziç. Instrumental of personal pronouns after z 'with'. koncert, ojciec: a. Id´ na koncert z ojcem. I'm going to the concert with Father. pl koncerty b. Zwykle chodz´ z nim na koncerty. I usually go to concerts with him. przyj´cie (pl przyj´cia), kole˝anka; film (pl filmy), znajomy; przedstawienie (pl przedstawienia), kolega; kawa, przyjació∏ka. 6.28. 6.29. Give A question or questions to which the statement could be an answer. To nasz sàsiad: Kto to jest? Who is that? 5. To by∏ mój dawny szef. 1. On jest adwokatem. 6. On jest teraz na emeryturze. 2. On jest wspania∏ym adwokatem. 7. Ona nie wie, co zrobiç z wolnym 3. Sp´dza w ogrodzie ca∏y swój wolny czasem. czas. 8. Tak, pójd´ dziÊ wieczorem z 4. Ona jest wspania∏à ogrodniczkà. tobà na koncert.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 9. Id´ dziÊ wieczorem na koncert skrzypcowy. 10. Przyjad´ po ciebie o siódmej. 11. B´d´ czekaç na ciebie przed bramà. 12. Zwykle je˝d˝´ do pracy autobusem. 13. Przystanek jest przed moim domem. 14. Id´ dziÊ wieczorem na koncert z moim przyjacielem.

Zwykle je˝d˝´ do pracy tramwajem.

Typical city trolley.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Musisz pojechaç pociàgiem. You've got to go by train.

Pociàgi zabytkowe i wspó∏czesne. Historical and contemporary trains. The contemporary Polish train system links the entire country and is widely used for inter-city travel. It operates for the most part on electricity, not so much on diesel fuel. Coal has all but disappeared as a fuel for trains.



Niestety, mój samochód jest teraz zepsuty. The Polish automobile Fiat 126p, or "Ma∏y fiat", or, more affectionately, "maluch" (tiny), manufactured from the 1970s through the 1990s, was instrumental in getting much of Poland "on four wheels". There are still many on the road (but possibly not this one). 6.E. Samochodem, pociàgiem How can I get to Lodz? Why would you want to? Kinga: Jak mog´ dostaç si´ do ¸odzi? Kazik: Po co chcesz tam jechaç? Kinga: Mam tam jakàÊ spraw´. <jakieÊ interesy, wa˝ne spotkanie>. Kazik: Najszybciej dojedziesz tam w∏asnym samochodem. Kinga: Niestety, mój samochód jest teraz zepsuty. Kazik: Wi´c musisz pojechaç pociàgiem. <Autobusy je˝d˝à cz´Êciej, ale pociàgiem jest szybciej i znacznie wygodniej. Jest te˝ troch´ taniej.> Kinga: Chcesz tam pojechaç ze mnà? Kazik: Tak, ch´tnie. <Nie, niestety, nie mog´.> How can I get to Lodz? What do you want to go there for? I have some business there <some dealings, an important meeting>. You'll get there quickest in your own car. Unfortunately my car is broken at present. Then you have to go by train. <Buses go more frequently, but by train it's faster and much more comfortable. It's also a bit cheaper.> Do you want to go there with me? Yes, gladly. <No, unfortunately, I can't.>


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Match the word or expression with its English counterpart: Autobusem jest troch´ taniej. Autobusy je˝d˝à cz´Êciej. Jak mog´ dostaç si´ do ¸odzi? Mam tam jakàÊ spraw´. Mój samochód jest teraz zepsuty. Najszybciej dojedziesz samochodem. Po co chcesz tam jechaç? Pociàgiem jest szybciej. Musisz pojechaç pociàgiem.

Pytania 1. Kto tu z kim rozmawia? O co pyta Kinga? Gdzie ona chce pojechaç? Po co? Co ona tam b´dzie robi∏a? 2. Dlaczego Kinga nie mo˝e tam pojechaç w∏asnym samochodem? 3. Czym mo˝na dostaç si´ do ¸odzi? Jak, wed∏ug Kazika, mo˝na najszybciej, najwygodniej i najtaniej dostaç si´ do ¸odzi? 4. Masz w∏asny samochód? Czy cz´sto jest zepsuty? Czy jest wi´kszy czy mniejszy ni˝ samochód na zdj´ciu powy˝ej? 5. Cz´sto jeêdzisz pociàgiem? autobusem? Cz´sto latasz samolotem? Czym najcz´Êciej podró˝ujesz? 6. Jak najproÊciej pojechaç stàd do Nowego Jorku? do Waszyngtonu? do Los Angeles? 7. Jak najtaniej, najwygodniej i najszybciej dostaç si´ do Europy?

Uwagi do ¸odzi to Lodz. (do+G) dostaç si´ dostan´ si´ dostaniesz si´ pf (do+G) get (to a place). Kazik diminutive or familiar form of Kazimierz lecieç -c´ -cisz impf det, indet lataç --am -asz, pf polecieç fly pociàg train. pociàgiem by train podró˝owaç -˝uj´ -˝ujesz impf travel powy˝ej av just above samochodem by car szybki aj fast, quick. av szybko quickly. comp av szybciej. sup av najszybciej tani aj cheap. comp av taniej. sup av najtaniej wed∏ug prep+G according to wed∏ug mnie in my opinion wygodny aj comfortable. sup av najwygodniej wy˝ej above. Comparative adverb of wysoki high, tall znacznie av significantly


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA GRAMATYKA 6.E. SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT INSTRUMENTAL QUESTION TYPES. Here are common question-types using pronouns and pronominal adjectives in the Instrumental case, both with and without prepositions. Observe how the case of the answer is contained in the case of the question-word: Question: Answer: Kim on jest? Who is he? On jest moim sàsiadem. He is my neighbor. Z kim rozmawiasz? Who are you Rozmawiam z mojà siostrà. I'm talking with? talking with my sister. Czym si´ zajmujesz? What are you Zajmuj´ si´ matematykà. I work in busy with (=what is your business)? mathematics. Z czym zwykle pijesz kaw´? What do Zwykle pij´ kaw´ z mlekiem i you usually drink coffee with? cukrem. I usually drink coffee with milk and sugar. Czym mo˝na jechaç do ¸odzi? Mo˝na jechaç albo pociàgiem, albo How can one go to Lodz? autobusem. One can go by train or bus. Jakim on jest adwokatem? What kind On jest doskona∏ym adwokatem. of lawyer is he? He is an excellent lawyer. SOME ADVERBS THAT CAN BE USED PREDICATIVELY. By 'predicative adverb' is meant an adverb that is used as if an adjective when referring to one's surroundings or to things in general, as in Taniej jest jechaç pociàgiem. It's cheaper to go by train. The following adverbs can be used predicatively in this way, and can be combined with verbs of vehicular motion, especially in the comparative and superlative forms: adjective drogi expensive ∏atwy easy prosty simple przyjemny pleasant szybki quick, fast tani cheap trudny hard, difficult wolny slow wygodny comfortable zdrowy healthy adverb comparative adv. drogo dro˝ej ∏atwo ∏atwiej prosto proÊciej przyjemnie przyjemniej szybko szybciej tanio taniej trudno trudniej wolno wolniej wygodnie wygodniej zdrowo zdrowiej superlative adverb najdro˝ej naj∏atwiej najproÊciej najprzyjemniej najszybciej najtaniej najtrudniej najwolniej najwygodniej najzdrowiej

Here are some irregular comparative adverbial forms: du˝y large du˝o wi´cej najwi´cej ma∏y small ma∏o mniej najmniej dobry good dobrze lepiej najlepiej z∏y bad êle gorzej najgorzej wysoki tall, high wysoko wy˝ej najwy˝ej


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Examples of predicatively used comparative and superlative adverbs: ¸atwiej jest jechaç autobusem. It's simpler to go by bus. Szybciej jest jechaç samochodem. It's quicker to go by car. Najtaniej jest jechaç rowerem. It's cheapest to go by bike. Naj∏atwiej b´dzie jechaç taksówkà. It'll be easiest to go by taxi. Lepiej i taniej better and cheaper

Banners in a Warsaw hipermarket hypermarket, illustrating the comparative adverb. FOR PASSIVE LEARNING: THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. It is easy to recognize when a familiar adjective is being used comparatively or superlatively. The comparative is formed with the suffix -(ej)szy, while the superlative is formed by prefixing naj- to the comparative. Shorter adjectives tend to form the comparative in -szy, sometimes preceded by a consonant-change: positive ciekawy curious d∏ugi long m∏ody young stary old comparative ciekawszy more curious d∏u˝szy longer m∏odszy youngest starszy older superlative najciekawszy most curious najd∏u˝szy longest najm∏odszy youngest najstarszy oldest

Adjectives with stems ending in two consonants, especially consonant+n, tend to form form the comparative in -ejszy: ∏atwy easy ∏atwiejszy easier naj∏atwiejszy easiest nudny boring nudniejszy more boring najnudniejszy most boring trudny difficult trudniejszy more difficult najtrudniejszy most difficult


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA åWICZENIA 6.E. 6.30. Comparative form of the adverb. tanio, autobus: Taniej b´dzie pojechaç autobusem. It'll be cheaper to go by bus. wygodnie, taksówka; ∏atwo, rower; drogo, pociàg; szybko, samochód; przyjemnie, tramwaj. 6.29. 6.31. Comparative and superlative of the adverb. prosty, pociàg: a. ProÊciej jest jechaç pociàgiem. It's simpler to go by train. b. NajproÊciej b´dzie tam pojechaç pociàgiem. It'll be simplest to go there by train. ∏atwy, samochód; wygodny, taksówka; tani, rower; szybki, motocykl; trudny, autobus. 6.30. 6.32. Give a question that the statement could reasonably answer. To nasz sàsiad, pan Kwiatkowski: Kto to jest? 1. On pracuje w ogrodzie. 2. Ona jest dentystkà. 3. On jest teraz w ogrodzie. 4. To by∏ mój dawny szef. 5. On jest na emeryturze. 6. Film zaczyna si´ o ósmej. 7. Przyjad´ po ciebie o siódmej. 8. Czekaj na mnie przed domem. 9. Jad´ jutro do ¸odzi. 10. Czekam na mojego syna. 11. Widz´ mojego sàsiada. 12. Mój samochód jest zepsuty. 13. Pisz´ o∏ówkiem. 14. Interesuj´ si´ muzykà. 15. Ona zajmuje si´ domem i dzieçmi. 16. Rozmawia∏em z moim sàsiadem. 17. Stolicà Polski jest Warszawa. 18. Tak, ten stó∏ jest wolny. 19. Zwykle je˝d˝´ samochodem. 20. Czekam na mojego koleg´. 21. Id´ na koncert z moim kolegà. 22. Jest godzina ósma. 23. Marta jest teraz w koÊciele. 24. Wróc´ za godzin´. 25. To by∏ wspania∏y film. 26. ProÊciej jest jechaç do ¸odzi pociàgiem. 27. Spotykam si´ dziÊ z Monikà. 28. Zgadzam si´ z Jurkiem. 29. Jad´ do domu tramwajem. 30. Id´ na koncert z Paw∏em.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.33. Sentence Pairs. Translate: 1. Who is that man? That's my neighbor. 2. What does your neighbor do? He is a doctor. 3. What does your neighbor-f. do? She's a dentist. 4. I see that your neighbor-m. is an excellent gardener. Yes, he spends a lot of time there. 5. Who is that woman in front of the house? That's our neighbor. 6. What are you interested in? I'm interested in flowers and vegetables. 7. Who was that man? That was my boss. 8. Who was that woman? That was my former boss. 9. With whom were you talking a moment ago? With my former neighbor. 10. What luck to be in retirement. I don't think so. 11. What's he interested in? He is interested in his work. 12. What is she interested in? She is interested in flowers and vegetables. 13. Do you want to go with me to a movie? Very gladly. To what one? 14. What is your boss doing in retirement? He simply doesn't know what to do with himself. 15. What time does the film begin? At seven o'clock. 16. I'll come by for you at 6:00. Fine. I'll be waiting in front of the gate. 17. Where should I wait for you? Wait for me in front of the hotel. 18. How can I get to Lodz? It's always easiest to go by car. 19. My car is broken. Then you'll have to go by taxi. 20. What are you going to Lodz for? I have some business there. 21. When are you going to Lodz? Tomorrow at seven o'clock in the morning. 22. How do you usually go to Lodz? I don't usually go to Lodz. 23. Unfortunately my car is broken. In that case I recommend a taxi. 24. Where will your friend be waiting for you? In front of the entrance. 25. Do you go to work by bus? Yes, either by bus or by trolley. 26. Do you usually go to the university by bus? Yes, there's a bus-stop right in front of my house.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 6.34. Fill in the blank. 1. Autobusem jest ---. cheaper 2. Autobusy je˝d˝à ---. more quickly 3. Autobusy nie je˝d˝à ---. on that street 4. B´d´ tam ---. wait for you 5. Co za szcz´Êcie ---. to be a teacher 6. Czekaj na mnie ---. in front of the library 7. Czekaj na mnie przed ---. university 8. Gdzie mam czekaç ---? for her 9. Najszybciej jest ---. go by train 10. Oni ciàgle si´ k∏ócà ---. with each other 11. Czy znasz t´ osob´, ---? who is standing there 12. DziÊ wieczorem --- do teatru. I am going 13. Do Poznania mo˝na jechaç ---. either by train or by bus 14. Film jest ---. at eight-thirty o'clock 15. Gdzie zawsze --- o tej porze? are you going 16. Id´ dziÊ wieczorem ---. to an exhibition., 17. (Ja) zwykle --- do ¸odzi samochodem. drive 18. Jak mog´ --- do ¸odzi? get the most quickly 19. --- najwi´ksze polskie miasto? What is 20. Zawsze --- zbyt szybko. (you) drive 21. JesteÊmy bardzo ---. close friends 22. --- ten m´˝czyzna? who was 23. --- ta kobieta? who was

24. --- to jest ju˝ taksówka? which 25. --- telewizor b´dzie dobry? what 26. Mam tam ---. important meeting 27. Mam tam ---. some business 28. Marta jest ---. my best student 29. Mój samochód obecnie ---. is broken 30. Mój szef interesuje si´ tylko ---. his work 31. Moja matka ---. takes care of the children 32. Mo˝na pisaç ---. Either with a pencil or a pen 33. Musisz z nim --- rozmawiaç. sometime 34. Najtaniej jest ---. go on foot 35. --- jechaç taksówkà. it will be most expensive 36. Nasz sàsiad ---. is a lawyer 37. Nie zgadzam si´ ---. with them 38. --- b´dzie koncert? At what time 39. On jest ---. a a professor at the university 40. Ona jest ---. the best Polish actress 41. Ona jest ---. an avid gardener 42. On sp´dza --- w ogrodzie. every day 43. On jest ---. my dentist 44. Ona jest mojà bardzo ---. good friend 45. Ona mówi, ˝e chce ---. to occupy herself with something 46. Ona nie wie, ---. what to do with her free time


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA 47. Ona zajmuje si´ ---. her vegetables and flowers 48. Pociàgiem jest ---. both quicker and easier 49. Pójdziesz --- na film? with her 50. --- jeêdziç autobusem. it's less expensive 51. Przyjad´ po ciebie ---. before five o'clock 52. Spotykam si´ ---. with my good acquaintance (m.) 53. Stolicà Polski ---. is Warsaw 54. To by∏ ---. my former neighbor (m./f.) 55. To jest najlepsze radio, --mamy. that 56. To jest wszystko, ---. that I understand 57. --- pociàgiem. You will have to go 58. Ona zwykle --- na uniwersytet rowerem. goes 59. Jest przystanek ---. In front of my house 60. Czym ty zwykle --- na uniwersytet? ride 61. Zwykle --- do pracy pieszo. go 62. Lubi´ ---. this kind of weather. brakujàce wyrazy Bo˝e Narodzenie Christmas

kol´dnicy carolers, Pasterka midnight Christmas mass, stajenka manger, Wigilia Christmas Eve.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA VOCABULARY TO LESSON 6 adwokat mp adwokatka f lawyer autobus mi bus a˝ part. nie a˝ tak not all that. nie a˝ tak dobry not all that good brat mp brother; pl bracia I braçmi brzydki aj ugly ca∏y aj whole, entire, all chodziç see iÊç chwila f moment co za. co za szcz´Êcie what good luck. co to za hotel? what sort of hotel is that? czas mi time. wolny czas free time cz´sty aj frequent. av cz´sto frequently.comp av cz´Êciej more frequently cz∏owiek mp man. pl ludzie people. I ludêmi dawny aj former, long-ago dentysta mp, dentystka f dentist doskona∏y aj excellent. av doskonale dzia∏ka -∏ek f garden plot. na dzia∏ce dziecko n NGApl dzieci , Ipl dzieçmi child (pl. children) ekspedient mp ekspedientka f salesperson emerytura f retirement. na emeryturze in retirement, retired g∏ówny aj chief, main grzeczny aj polite iÊç id´, idziesz, szed∏, sz∏a, szli det, indet chodziç -dz´ -dzisz go on foot interesowaç si´ -suj´ -sujesz impf +I be interested in jarzyna f vegetable jechaç jad´ jedziesz det drive, ride. see jeêdziç jednym s∏owem av phr in a word, in brief jeêdziç je˝d˝´, jeêdzisz indet drive, ride (often). see jechaç k∏óciç si´ -c´ -cisz impf quarrel który indicative and relative pronoun which, who kwiat mi flower. pl kwiaty lecieç -c´ -cisz impf det, indet lataç --am asz, pf polecieç fly lekarz mp lekarka f doctor ∏atwy aj easy. av ∏atwo easily. comp av ∏atwiej more easily ∏ódka -dek f small boat ∏ódê ∏odzi f boat. ¸ódê ¸odzi Lodz (city) minuta f minute mi´dzy innymi av phr among other things mo˝na modal one may, one can na szcz´Êcie av phr fortunately nad(e) prep +I above, over naprawd´ av really nawet av even niestety av unfortunately obecny aj present. av obecnie presently ogrodnik mp ogrodniczka f gardener ogród ogrodu mi garden. w ogrodzie owoc mi fruit pieszo av on foot po co inter av what for?, how come? po prep +A (in this lesson) for, to get. Przyjad´ po ciebie I'll come by for you. pociàg mi train pod(e) prep +I under, beneath pogoda f weather polecaç -am -asz impf recommend powrót powrotu return. tam i z powrotem av phr there and back poza prep +I besides. poza tym besides that prawie av almost prosty aj simple. adv prosto, comp av proÊciej. po prostu simply przed(e) prep +I before. przed chwilà a moment ago. przede wszystkim above all, primarily, especially przyjaciel mp friend. Ipl przyjació∏mi przyjació∏ka -∏ek f friend przyjÊç -jd´ -jdziesz pf arrive, come on foot przyjechaç -jad´ -jedziesz pf arrive, come by vehicle


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA przyk∏ad mi example. na przyk∏ad for example przystanek -nku mi (bus) stop raz mi and av once. tym razem this time. w takim razie in that case razem av together rok mi Npl lata Ipl laty year rozmawiaç -am -asz z +I converse with s∏owo n word. jednym s∏owem in a word, briefly s∏yszeç -sz´ -szysz impf, pf us∏yszeç hear sprawa f matter, concern sp´dzaç -am -asz impf spend (money, time) stolica f capital (city) swój, swoja, swoje pron aj one's own szcz´Êcie n happiness, good luck. na szcz´Êcie fortunately szef mp szefowa f boss szeÊç num six. szósty num aj sixth szybki aj quick. adv szybko comp av szybciej Êwietny aj excellent, great. av Êwietnie tu˝ av right (next to) tymczasem av in the meantime ulica f street. na ulicy warzywo n us pl: warzywa vegetable widok mi sight. Jaki pi´kny widok! What a pretty sight! widzieç -dz´ -dzisz impf see wtedy aj then, at that time wygodny aj comfortable. av wygodnie comfortably z(e) prep +I with, together with za +I after, behind, beyond za godzin´ av phr in an hour zaczynaç si´ zaczyna si´ us 3p intr begin, start zajmowaç si´ -muj´ -mujesz +I be busy with, be engaged with za∏atwiç -wi´ -wisz pf, za∏atwiaç -am impf take care of, expedite zdanie n opinion. moim zdaniem in my opinion zdolny aj talented, skilled zgadzaç si´ -am -asz z +I agree with znaczny aj significant. av znacznie. znacznie wygodniej much more comfortably s∏owniczek

SUPPLEMENTARY CONVERSATIONS A. Sztuczna choinka - Czy twoja rodzina obchodzi tradycyjne polskie Bo˝e Narodzenie? - Cz´Êciowo tak. Jemy tradycyjnà kolacj´ wigilijnà i Êpiewamy kol´dy. - Macie choink´ z prezentami? - Tak, oczywiÊcie, z tym, ˝e choinka jest sztuczna. Bo˝e Narodzenie Chrstmas. Literally, God's birth choinka -nek f Christmas tree kol´da f carol obchodziç -dz´ -dzisz impf (here:) observe (a holiday, etc.) Does your family observe a traditional Polish Christmas? Partially yes. We eat a traditional Christmas Eve supper and sing carols. Do you have a Christmas tree? Yes, of course, except that the Christmas tree is artificial. sztuczny aj artificial tradycyjny aj traditional Wigilia f Christmas Eve. aj wigilijny z tym, ˝e conj except that



B. Przed bibliotekà -Jak wyglàda twoja narzeczona (twój naczeczony)? -Ona (on) ma jasne w∏osy i ciemne oczy, tak jak ja. -Czy ona (on) te˝ nosi okulary? -Nie, ona (on) ma jeszcze gorszy wzrok ni˝ ja, ale nosi soczewki. -MyÊl´, ˝e widzia∏em (widzia∏am) ci´ z nià (nim) wczoraj przed bibliotekà. -To bardzo mo˝liwe. Cz´sto tam chodzimy. Uczymy si´ tam razem. bywaç -am -asz be frequently ciemny aj dark jasny aj light-colored, bright mo˝liwy aj possible nosiç nosz´ nosisz impf indet carry oko n eye, oczy eyes okulary pl form eyeglasses What does your fiancee (fiance) look like? She (he) has light hair and dark eyes, like me. Does she (he) also wear glasses? No, she (he) has even worse sight than I do, but wears contacts. I think I saw you with her (him) yesterday in front of the library. That's quite possible. We often go there. We study there together. soczewki pl form contact lenses w∏osy pl-form hair wyglàdaç -am -asz impf look, appear. dobrze wyglàdasz you look good wzrok mi sight

C. Z napisami -Czy mo˝esz mi poleciç dobry film? -Tak. Widzia∏em (widzia∏am) ostatnio doskona∏y film pod tytu∏em "˚ycie jest pi´kne". -Czy ten film jest pokazany po angielsku? -Nie, jest po w∏osku z angielskimi napisami. -No wiesz, nie chodz´ na filmy po to, ˝eby czytaç napisy. film z napisami film with subtitles po to, ˝eby conj +infin so as to, in order to napis mi subtitle. napisy subtitles. pokazany aj shown Can you recommend a good movie to me? Yes. I recently saw an excellent movie called "Life is Beautiful." Is the movie shown in English? No, it's in Italian with English subtitles. Well, you know, I don't go to the movies in order to read subtitles. tytu∏ mi title. pod tytu∏em entitled "˚ycie jest pi´kne" Life is Beautiful" w∏oski aj Italian. av po w∏osku in Italian.


6. LEKCJA SZÓSTA Przygody biura podró˝y "Zefir" Rozdzia∏ szósty: Pani Jolanta Szymanowska Pani Jolanta Szymanowska jest mi∏à i inteligentnà dziewczynà. Ma interesujàcà twarz i bardzo dobrà opini´ o sobie. Jest zawsze starannie i modnie ubrana. Dba te˝ o figur´. Cz´sto chodzi na si∏owni´ i na spacery ze swoim ogromnym owczarkiem niemieckim, który nazywa si´ Wilk. Kiedy ma czas, studiuje j´zyki obce. Dobrze zna j´zyk angielski, troch´ gorzej francuski i w∏oski. Pani Jolanta mieszka sama. Jej mieszkanie jest ma∏e, ale gustownie urzàdzone. Jest tam jeden pokój, kuchnia i ∏azienka. W pokoju jest tapczan, stolik, par´ krzese∏, telewizor i biurko z komputerem. W kàcie roÊnie du˝y fikus. Jolanta cz´sto siedzi przed komputerem i "rozmawia" ze swoim wirtualnym przyjacielem, Donaldem, który mieszka w Anglii. Czasami ona rozmawia te˝ ze swoim fikusem. Jolanta prowadzi komputerowe rozmowy z Donaldem ju˝ dwa lata. Du˝o o nim wie: ˝e ma w∏asny dom z ogródkiem, ˝e lubi zwierz´ta, ˝e kolekcjonuje stare samochody i gra na akordeonie. Nawet wie, jak on wyglàda, bo ca∏y czas widzi jego zdj´cie na ekranie. Donald ju˝ od dawna zaprasza Jol´ do Anglii. Ona chcia∏aby zwiedziç Angli´, ale troch´ si´ boi tam pojechaç. Przecie˝ nie zawsze mo˝na wierzyç w to, co ludzie piszà w internecie. O ile ona wie, Donald pisze jej z wi´zienia. baç si´ boj´, boisz +G be afraid dbaç dbam, dbasz o+A care about, look out for ekran mi screen (movie, computer) fikus mi rubber plant gorzej comp av of êle worse gustownie av tastefully kàt mi corner. w kàcie komputerowy aj computer o ile as far as o sobie about herself obcy aj foreign od dawna (already) for a long time ogródek –dku mi garden ogromny aj huge owczarek –rka ma shepherd (dog) par´ krzese∏ a couple of chairs prowadziç -dz´ -dzisz carry on, conduct, lead, drive przez prep+A through rosnàç -sn´ -Êniesz impf grow si∏ownia f exercise room, fitness center starannie av carefully, fastidiously stolik mi –a small table tapczan mi –a day-bed ubrany aj dressed urzàdzony aj arranged wierzyç –rz´ -rzysz w+A believe in wi´zienie n prison, jail. z wi´zienia from prison wilk ma wolf wyglàdaç –am –asz +av look (like), appear zwiedziç –dz´ -dzisz pf visit (a person) zwierz´ta pl of zwierz´ animals

Rozdzia∏ szósty


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