• The term “population” refers to the inhabitants of a designated territory • In sociology and biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular species.
• the science of population study • Concentrate on three aspects of population: numbers, characteristics, and distribution of persons within the territory they inhabit
The World Populatio n Crisis
What is Overpopu lation?
• a term that refers to a condition by which the population density enlarges to a limit that provokes the environmental deterioration, a remarkable decline in the quality of life, or a population collapse.
• As of July 1, 2008, the world’s population is believed to be 6,707,035,007 • 9 billion by the year 2042
EFFECTS OF OVERPOPULA TION
Each day 40,000 children die from malnutrition and its related diseases. 150 million children in the world suffer from poor health due to food shortages.
– The large migration to cities that is characteristics of many of the developing countries makes it more difficult to provide the clean water. – Water necessities will increase to 20% by 2025. – Approximately, one half of wetlands around the world have been lost since 1900.
• Is an environmental problem whose magnitude is increased by overpopulation • Pollution is magnified in in developing nations
One example of this is described in the recent study by Ohio State University showing that children whose family sizes were larger did worse in school.
The Traffic Problems
• The traffic problems we face daily are another result of over population. • These motors add to the pollution problem
For example, multiple pregnancies take a considerable toll on the mother’s body, in general the more children women bear the greater the danger to both.
WHY POPULATION GROW?
• The population grows in size if the number of birth exceeds the number of deaths. • A population also grows if immigration to the territory exceeds out-migration from it. • The net balance between birth and deaths is called “reproductive change,” or “natural increase.” The difference between in-migration and out-migration is called “net migration.” The total population any time interval is the sum of reproductive change and net migration.
Rapid Decline of Mortality
• Food becomes plentiful and varied • Knowledge of the causes of infectious diseases and the steps necessary to prevent infection • Public health organizations are established • New drugs
• Is the practice of limiting population increase • This is generally conducted to improve quality of life for a society or as a solution to overpopulation
Attitudes Toward Birth Control
– United Nations-sponsored World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania, in 1947 – World Population Plan of Action – Family-planning services should be available to everyone.
– The persistent of traditional attitudes toward children and birth control helps to account for the fact that the declines in birthrates lag behind those in death rates. – In some areas, having many children is part of the “macho” image of males. – 1980’s about 25% of newborn children were unwanted – Family-planning programs provide modern methods of birth control so that people can avoid unwanted children. – Some programs provide contraceptives
Here are some contraceptives:
• Condom • Pill • Vasectomy • IUD
• Withdrawal • Tubal ligation • The Calendar Method
– Is the removal or expulsion of an embryo of fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death – The approximate number of induced abortions performed worldwide in 2003 was 42 million – Abortion has been induced by various traditional medicine methods – The moral and legal aspects of abortion are subject to intense social debate in many parts of the world
The Catholic Church
• Represents major religious opposition to controlled population • God should plan families • Catholics obeying John Paul II’s Human Vitae
Population 2008 Country Ranks
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. China India European Union United States Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Bangladesh Russia Nigeria 1,321,851,888 1,129,866,154 490,426,060 301,139,947 234,693,997 190,010,647 164,741,924 150,448,339 141,337,752 135,031,164