Population

Published on June 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 50 | Comments: 0 | Views: 404
of 14
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

Population growth and growth of problems in society. As the population grows and along with it poverty and unemployment grows the problems of society also grow.

A large number of problems are seen because of this phenomenon. E.g. the growth of slums with unhygienic and unsanitary conditions.

The increase in population results in economic problems for the people. There are more people in a family to share the meager income of sometimes a single breadwinner.

In an economically backward family there are many children. There is either nil or negligible family planning. Either they are not aware of family planning or unable to use it or unable to afford it.

More children meant more working hands to earn income even from a small age. Some persons suffering from poverty are forced to make their children work to get some money for their daily needs.

With the introduction of laws against child labor these people are facing problems, as their children below a particular age cannot do any work. Still some people continue to employ children either due to ignorance or due to necessity. Still some poor people send their children to work for the same reasons.

More children in poor families means lack of everything e.g. money, food, space, clothes, education, things, sanitation, hygiene, peace.

In such families and localities there is quite often anger, fights, beating, shouting, quarrels, crying, breaking of things and sometimes more serious crimes like kidnapping, rape, murder, burning etc.

The police are frequently seen visiting these places and taking away someone or the other in connection with some information or some complaint or crime.

People of such families in need of money and food and things etc. are also exploited by those who use children for anti social activities like forced begging, forced labor, prostitution, committing variety of crimes.

Children and youth from such families, localities in cities and villages are also used for help in various nefarious activities like smuggling, settling personal feuds or in creating trouble during elections.

The society is now having many such social bombs, which can explode when given the impetus and signals by those who have them in their control and sphere of influence. They have hardly any stakes. Their families are poor and in constant want. They have trouble at home, in the slums, various localities of cities and villages. They have led a life of want, misery, lack of material things, lack of peace, lack of education, lack of jobs or other employment, lack of hygiene, sanitation medicines and health care, lack of transport and other modern day gadgets. They have a frustration and anger in them and they vent it out whenever there is an occasion for it. There anger gets covered up in the mob mentality and they damage and burn the public and private property.

They have lost faith in the system and they keep on reading of one scam or the other in the papers and keep seeing news exposes in the television channels day in and day out about some Minister, MP, MLA, corporator, Sarpanch, Police officer and others from a large number of government offices and agencies in villages, blocks, municipalities, Municipal Corporations, Zilla Parishads, District Collectors and Magistrates, improvement trusts and innumerable offices of various governmental schemes actually meant for the benefit of the people.

They do not know that these acts are in fact hurting them because the government is suffering losses and thus the money they could have put in providing more facilities for the increasing population will have instead be used for replacing the lost property at increased cost as prices have a tendency to increase with time. And even if they know they are not bothered they just do not care.

To meet the losses the governments will try to collect more taxes so as to meet the loss and to provide more money to the various departments and agencies concerned with administration, transportation, maintaining law and order. Thus more burden falls on the existing taxpayers and the governments try to rope in more tax payers and tax evaders and try to recover more arrears form those who have paid either nil tax when it was due or not paid the full tax due to be paid and allowed it to go in arrears. Thus tax collection targets go up every year and the drives make the tax Collectors and Commissioners and their staff the target of the taxpayers, evaders and those in arrears.

The agencies for administration and law and order keep on getting in the limelight all the time, often in a bad light, because of increased social problems, which are not only socio- economic problems but a multitude of problems, which are linked with the uncontrolled population growth problem.

The population problem in India

opulation is a subject of which the perception varies with the viewpoint of the observer. To the demographer it is an exercise in statistics, to the politician a matter of votes, to the economist it is dissipation of wealth, to the bureaucrat a problem of feeding, clothing, educating and housing the masses and to the industrialist a source of labour. For the affluent countries and the small affluent class in the poor countries it poses a threat to the existing order on which they thrive. A variety of quick fix Western ‘scientific’ techno-managerial solutions have been devised to control the fertility of the proliferating masses of the world. This highly coercive strategy is being operated through the health departments of the developing countries against the ‘eligible’ female. This is strongly promoted by international agencies with massive funding for such programmes through the national governments. This has nevertheless failed to achieve the targets. In the absence of a concomitant desire to promote the social and economic development and welfare, the poor realise that it is children who provide them the only source of love and economic security in an increasingly hostile world. The increasing population, despite such single-minded coercive programmes for control of their fertility shows how a programme designed by the ‘haves’ to serve their own interests cannot inveigle the poor who devise their own methods for evading what they know goes against their overall welfare. Forceful implementation, especially against the male during the emergency, even led to the overthrowing of a government. This has resulted in more benign sounding strategies and programmes like IUD, immunization, MTP, Maternal and Child Health, laparoscopic tubectomy, ‘non-scalpel’ vasectomy, Norplant injectable contraceptives and vaccines, combined with crude incentives and disincentives for their acceptance. The change of name of these basically medical solutions for what is essentially a social problem into heavily externally funded ‘Family Planning’ and ‘Family Welfare’ programmes has not only failed

to entice the poor to control their fertility but has also affected the Primary Health Care programme through which it is carried out. In the process it has also disrupted the medical and health services which serve the felt needs of the poor. No amount of mere changing of the names of the programmes or of the projects/activities can convince them that there is a change of heart. This can be achieved only by visible improvement in fields like education, health and rural development. The close association between poverty, family size and population is observed not only in sub-Saharan countries, as at present, but was also observed in countries like the UK during the early days of the industrial revolution. Over production is nature’s method for ensuring survival of the species. This is also demonstrated in our northern BIMARU states as compared to those of the South. It is also seen within each state between the reproduction rate of the rich and poor, which is concealed by aggregate statistics. And yet it is our own state of Kerala which most vividly demonstrates that it is not necessary to await affluence as in countries like Germany to achieve a NRI (Net Reproductive Index) of 1, and even below the replacement level, since Kerala has already achieved this with an annual per capita expenditure on health equivalent to US$ 15 as compared with US$ 3000 of Germany. The intimate connection between education of the female and family size can be achieved at an economic level, which is within the reach of most countries of the world. Education of the female is desirable not only for population control but even more so for its own sake as it initiates a cascade of other social and economic changes. The care of much of the health and medical functions including family size lies within her capacity and can be achieved more cost effectively in an accessible and humane manner. The depletion and pollution of the natural resources of our planet is far more the result of wasteful utilisation by an affluent few rather than that of the marginalized masses. Health and medical care can serve only as a vehicle for reaching technology to those who desire to voluntarily limit the size of their family. The regulation of family size cannot be imposed as a national programme by

political fiat. Their role is to create the climate and opportunity for demand and utilization of reproductive technology. Overall, social and economic development is the prerequisite for the control of population. This is feasible well within our existing resources if these are distributed in a reasonably equitable manner. The prime requirement for this is the political will, which is unfortunately dominated by a select few.

POPULATION GROWTH
Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using "per unit time" for measurement. In biology, the term population growthis likely to refer to any known organism, but this article deals mostly with the application of the term to humanpopulations in demography. In demography, population growth is used informally for the more specific term population growth rate (see below), and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human population of the world. Simple models of population growth include the Malthusian Growth Model and the logistic model. Population growth 1800-2011: from 1 billion to 7 billion estimated in 31.10.2011. During the year 2011 according to estimates:

  

135 million people will be born 57 million people will die and 78 million people will increase the world population.

POPULATION PRIMER
Population increase or decrease worldwide is a function of two factors: Births and deaths. If births exceed deaths, population increases. Population increase or decrease within a political unit such as a nation, a state, or a county is a function of four factors: Births and immigration minus deaths and emigration. If in Country X each birth is matched by one death and each immigrant (a person entering Country X) is matched by one emigrant (a person leaving Country X), the population of Country X will be stable!

However, if the population of Country Y is increasing, births are exceeding deaths and/or immigrants are outnumbering emigrants. Facts about population growth in the world are not difficult to understand: If births exceed deaths, population grows. Facts about population growth in America are not difficult to understand: If births exceed deaths and/or if immigration exceeds emigration, population grows. Population in the world is growing at an unsustainable rate. Population in the U.S. is growing at an undesirable rate.

POPULATION & EDUCATION
“Education researchers say that ideal enrollments are no more than 300 students for an elementary school, no more than 500 for a middle school, and 600 to 900 for a high school,” Valerie Strauss, “A Case For Smaller Schools,” Washington Post, 8/8/00. “Yet 71% of all U.S. high school students go to schools larger than 1,000 students.” High schools with 3,000 or more students are now common in large cities such as Los Angeles and New York. Some schools have as many as 5,000 students. “Smaller schools have higher attendance and graduation rates, lower dropout rates, less violence, and higher grades and test scores,” according to Michael Klonsky, “Small Schools: The Numbers Tell a Story,” Small School Workshop; Keith Sharon, “Behind the Curve,” Orange County Register, 5/21/01. As in cities, excessive population density creates problems in schools. “The number of school-age children is expected to increase steadily for the next nine decades. Total enrollment in grades 9-12 is projected to reach 55 million by 2020 and 60 million by 2030, according to the U.S. Department of Education. By 2100, the nation‟s schools will have to find room for 94 million students--almost double the number of school-age children the nation has now. “Where is the growth in the school-age population coming from? Immigration has been responsible for almost 70% of population growth in the last decade; immigrants arriving since 1994 and their descendants will account for two-thirds of future (schoolage) population growth,” according to the National Projections Program, Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau.

POPULATION & ENVIRONMENT
Environmental activists believe it will be impossible to reduce environmental degradation unless human population is stabilized. Fortunately, four American environmental organizations have adopted policies indicating the extent to which they have made the population-environment connection.

“The League urges all levels of government to address major growth issues and to participate in development of a U.S. national growth policy that would: Promote productive equilibrium between people and our environment by bringing population and consumption into balance with the resource base . . . The League urges governments and private agencies . . . (to) bring about the stabilization of human population.” --Izaak Walton League of America “For over 100 years, Audubon has worked to preserve wildlife habitat. We know that no environmental victory is permanent so long as population growth remains unchecked.” --National Audubon Society “Why does an organization with the middle name „Wildlife‟ talk about population? Simply put, more people, taking up more space, needing to use more natural resources, and engaging in ever-growing material consumption, create profound challenges for our ability to protect the resources on which all life depends. NWF is working to achieve a sustainable balance among the world's population, environmental quality, wildlife and wildlife habitat, and our finite natural resources.” -National Wildlife Federation “The Sierra Club‟s Global Population and Environment Program seeks to protect the global environment and preserve natural resources for future generations by slowing population growth and reducing wasteful consumption.” --Sierra Club

POPULATION & POVERTY
Among households in the U.S. in which the head of household is U.S. born, approximately 15% use one or more basic welfare programs, i. e., Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), food stamps, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and/or Medicaid. However, among households in the U.S. in which the head of household is not U.S. born, approximately 23% use one or more basic welfare programs. (Source: Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) analysis of March, 2002 Current Population Survey data collected by the Census Bureau.) Why should this be the case? As Dr. Steven A. Camarota of CIS wrote in a March, 2003 report, “The high rate of welfare use associated with immigrants is not explained by unwillingness to work. In 2001, almost 80% of immigrant households using welfare had at least one person working. One of the main reasons for the heavy reliance of immigrants on welfare programs is that a very large share have little education. The American economy offers very limited opportunities to such workers, and as a result, many immigrants who work are still eligible for welfare because of their low incomes.” Even the wages, benefits, and working conditions of jobs legal immigrants do find are often pegged at low levels, because of employers‟ ability to replace legal immigrants with illegal aliens. Thus, employers who hire immigrant workers at low wages let taxpayers pay for services such workers can‟t afford.

There are many different ways to define and to measure poverty. However, if we assume welfare use suggests family income provides an unsatisfactory standard of living, one might conclude the U.S. is importing poverty . . . along with higher tax bills.

POPULATION & WASTE
According to Californians Against Waste, “Recycling has come almost full-circle in the last 60 years. In 1942 everyone in America reduced wasteful consumption, reused all sorts of items, and saved their "scrap" for the war effort. Whether it was metal for planes, rubber for tires, or even leftover cooking fat for lubricants--Americans reduced, reused, and recycled it all! “Just 10 years after the war these efforts were forgotten and Americans relearned how to waste. For nearly four decades we threw it all away, becoming the „Disposable Society.‟” “Then starting in the late 1970's and continuing right up to today, Americans realize we are choking on our own waste and depriving future generations of the resources they will need.” And yet . . . even as government, industry, and the public move toward a “Recycling Society,” population growth is overwhelming that progress and overwhelming our capacity to handle our waste. For example, in 1991, California dumps accepted approximately 75 million pounds of trash. Yet ten years later, despite the fact that recycling, diverting, and composting had increased significantly, trash delivered to dumps increased! Dramatic early drops in annual landfill tonnage were overtaken by millions of new residents. While there may always be more we can do to reduce per capita waste, so long as we have a rampant increase in the number of “capitas” (people), waste will continue to increase and to become an increasing problem.

POPULATION & WATER
According to an article in The Hartford Courant by Steve Grant, availability of water was once largely a problem for western states. It is now becoming a problem--and source of friction--for eastern states whose population growth is straining water supplies as well as water storage, purification, and transportation infrastructure. Grant quotes aquatic ecologist Margaret A. Palmer, who believes battles over available water will increase in this century. She says water shortages are now affecting parts

of America unaccustomed to such shortages and that eventually, “. . . water will be what oil is . . .”--a factor that limits what humanity can and cannot do. As the number of urban dwellers climbs, farmers will have to compete even more aggressively with cities and industry for shrinking resources. In many states--from coast to coast--there are areas where groundwater is being pumped to the surface and used faster than rainfall can replenish it. In some of those places, the ground is sinking as a result. In all of these places, the cost of water increases as it must be pumped from deeper and deeper wells. At what point will the quantity of available water affect our quality of life? While water availability--quantity--will remain America‟s primary concern through this century, increasingly, water quality is becoming a problem. As water is used by farmers and by cities, then reused by both, and eventually returned to rivers and lakes via groundwater and wastewater discharges, its quality changes. At what point will the quality of available water affect our quality of life? America‟s addiction to population growth is affecting both the quantity and the quality of our water.

India's Population 2011

Current Population of India in 2011 Total Male Population in India Total Female Population in India Sex Ratio Age structure 0 to 25 years

1,210,193,422 (1.21 billion) 623,700,000 (623.7 million) 586,500,000 (586.5 million) 940 females per 1,000 males 50% of India's current population 1.02 billion 350 million

Currently, there are about 51 births in India in a minute. India's Population in 2001 Population of India in 1947

Current Population of India - India, with 1,210,193,422 (1.21 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world, while China is on the top with over 1,350,044,605 (1.35 billion) people. The figures show that India represents almost 17.31% of the world's population, which means one out of six people on this planet live in India. Although, the crown of the world's most populous country is on China's head for decades, India is all set to take the numero uno position by 2030. With the population growth rate at 1.58%, India is predicted to have more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030. More than 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35. About 72.2% of the population lives in some 638,000 villages and the rest 27.8% in about 5,480 towns and urban agglomerations. The birth rate (child births per 1,000 people per year) is 22.22 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) while death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals per year) is 6.4 deaths/1,000 population. Fertility rate is 2.72 children born/woman (NFHS-3, 2008) and Infant mortality rate is 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 estimated). India has the largest illiterate population in the world. The literacy rate of India as per 2001 Population Census is 65.38%, with male literacy rate at 75.96% and female at 54.28%. Kerala has the highest literacy rate at 90.86%, Mizoram (88.80%) is on the second position and Lakshadweep (86.66%) is on third. Every year, India adds more people than any other nation in the world, and in fact the individual population of some of its states is equal to the total population of many countries. For example, Population of Uttar Pradesh (state in India) almost equals to the population of Brazil. It, as per 2001 Population Census of India, has 190 million people and the growth rate is 16.16%. The population of the second most populous state Maharashtra, which has a growth rate of 9.42%, is equal to that of Mexico's population. Bihar, with 8.07%, is the third most populous state in India and its population is more than Germany's. West Bengal with 7.79% growth rate, Andhra Pradesh (7.41%) and Tamil Nadu (6.07%) are at fourth, fifth and sixth positions

respectively. The sex ratio of India stands at 933. Kerala with 1058 females per 1000 males is the state with the highest female sex ratio. Pondicherry (1001) is second, while Chhatisgarh (990) and Tamil Nadu (986) are at third and fourth places respectively. Haryana with 861 has the lowest female sex ratio. Some of the reasons for India's rapidly growing population are poverty, illiteracy, high fertility rate, rapid decline in death rates or mortality rates and immigration from Bangladesh and Nepal. Alarmed by its swelling population, India started taking measures to stem the growth rate quite early. In fact India by launching the National Family Planning programme in 1952 became the first country in the world to have a population policy. The family planning programme yielded some noticeable results, bringing down significantly the country's fertility rate. In 1965-2009, the contraceptive usage more than tripled and the fertility rate more than halved. The efforts did produce positive results, however, failed to achieve the ultimate goal and the population of India since getting independence from Britain in 1947 increased almost three times. Whereas India has missed almost all its targets to bring the rate of population growth under control, China's 'One Child Policy' in 1978, has brought tremendous results for the latter. The policy claims to have prevented between 250 and 300 million births from 1978 to 2000 and 400 million births from 1979 to 2010.

The Population of India The population of India is as diverse as they come but while India encompasses just 2.4 percent of the world’s land area, it holds more than 15 percent of the global population. Only China supports a bigger population. Nearly 40 percent of Indians are below the age of 15 years old. Approximately 70 percent of the people reside in over 550,000 villages, and what’s left in over 200 towns and cities.

Throughout the 20th century, India has been in the center of a demographic shift. At the start of the century, famine, periodic epidemics and endemic disease held the death rate high enough to stabilize the high birth rate. Amid 1911 through to 1920, the birth and death rates were basically the same: around 48 births and 48 deaths per 1,000 population. The mounting effect of remedial and preventative medicine resulted in the gradual drop in the death rate. By the mid '90s, the approximate birth rate had declined to 28 per 1,000, and the approximated death rate had declined to 10 per 1,000. The rise in the Indian population in the years amid 1950 and 1970 was focused on new irrigation projects, areas dependent on refugee resettlement, and locations of urban development. Early on in the 1990s, the rise in population was the most remarkable in the cities of central and southern India. The Future It is predicted that the population of India will surpass the population in China by 2025. In the past numerous years, fertility control policies in India have been unsuccessful in endorsing a sustainable answer to the issue of overpopulation. So what has happened here? Presently the sex ratio is 960 females for every 1,000 men. This is a marker that the UN states reveals the lower status of women in India, who are more likely to be disadvantaged when it comes to education, food and health services. The standing of female sterilization shows another problem in the Indian population control schemes. By aiming at women rather than men, the government unintentionally decides on the more risky ways of birth control. The population of India in itself is not the issue. Rather, it is the inadequacies in basic education and deprived economic conditions that are the root problem. Population has stayed an issue because education carries on to be a problem in the country.

Population of India rate increase India Population rate of increase Per Year Per Month Per Day Per Hour Per Minute 15,531,000 1,273,033 42,434 1,768 29

World Population in 2011 World's Population till 2011 Estimated 6,852,531,712 Population continent vise Asia the most highly populated continent in the world and reached up to 4,088,652,971 Africa; Second largest populated continent contribute 990,189,841population to the world Europe is the third largest continent by population and the population of Europe is 728,255,421 North America have 534,052,102 population Australia and Oceania population is 34,686,535 South America have up to 392,367,225 population Countries with highly population density in the World China have highest population in the world, 1,361,754,367 India; the second largest populated country and have 1,199,495,542 population United States have 308,342,275 population Indonesia is also one of the most high density areas in the world 245,358,271 Brazil contribute with 199,271,170 population to the world Pakistan have 181,291,652 population Bangladesh is also known for the high population 157,121,446

Nigeria have 155,129,541 Russia 143,142,325 Japan 127,522,478

Population control - India will beat China by 2025
Information collected from research articles and newspapers. "Census of India-2001 Report: The total population of India as at 0:00 hours on 1st March 2001 stood at 1,027,015,247 persons. With this, India became only the second country in the world after China to cross the one billion mark. The population of the country rose by 21.34 % between 1991 - 2001. The sex ratio (i.e., number of females per thousand males) of population was 933, rising from 927 as at the 1991 Census. Total literacy rate was returned as 65.38%." "At district level the North East district in Union territory Delhi has the highest population density in the country with 29395 persons per square kilometer." "The population clock in the Union Health Ministry, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi, now ticks at the rate of 31 persons per minute. The clock shows that about 44,640 babies are born in India everyday. " "In the last several decades, fertility control policies in India have failed to promote a sustainable solution to the problem of overpopulation. What factors have caused these efforts to fall short? " "Currently the sex ratio is 960 women for every 1,000 men - a statistic that the UN says reflects the lower status of women in India, who are more likely to be deprived of food, education and health services. " "The prominence of female sterilization indicates another flaw in the India population control strategies. By targeting women instead of men, the government inadvertently opts for the more hazardous means of birth control. " "Population in itself is NOT the problem. Lack of basic education and poor economic conditions are. You cannot solve the population problem by clinics. Your assumption that people have no access to family planning methods is only partly true and in any case is not the root of the problem. Population has remained a problem because EDUCATION continues to be a problem. " "The fast rate of growth of population has affected the quality of life of the people. The time has come when future citizens while in educational institutions should understand various issues related to the population problem." "In some places there is no drinking water. People started migrating to cities where they can get some water and work. People will start fighting for food, water and place to live." "The birth rate in India (31 per thousand people) is greater than that of China (20 per thousand people). If this trend continues, India will beat up China by 2025.A.D."

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close