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GCSE Geography




Part One- Population
Key Terms:

Population distribution- describes how people are spread

out within a given area Population density- describes the number of people in a given area Birth rate- the number of births per thousand people per year Death rate- the number of deaths per thousand people per year Population explosion- the rapid growth in worl population since 1800

Population Distribution
 

The population of the world is spread out very unevenly Most people are living on a third of the Earth’s surface

Areas of high population:  Western Europe  India  China Areas of low population:  Canada  North Africa  Brazil  Australia

Dot maps are used to show population distribution

Population Density

Population density (people per km2)

= population area (km2)

 

Densely populated- means over 50 people per km2 Sparsely populated- means under 10 people per km2 Choropleths are used to show population density

A choropleth of the world

Factors affecting population distribution
These factors explain population distribution and density:

1. Relief 2. Climate 3. Vegetation 4. Soils

Flat land Moderate, warm, enough rain Open grassland Deep fertile soil

Mountainous terrain Extreme: very hot/ very cold/ very dry Dense Forest Thin infertile soil

5. Resources
6. Access 7. Economy

Coal, minerals, timber
Coastal areas Plenty of jobs and industry

Few natural resource
Inland areas Lack of industry and jobs

World Population Growth

World population growth is caused by birth rates being higher than death rates The global population is expected to stabilise at 10.4 billion in 2200 95% of world population growth is in LEDCs

Part Two- Population Change
Key terms  Demographic transition model- diagram that shows how change in birth rates and death rates has affected world population growth  Population structure- the make-up of a population in terms of age, gender and life expectancy  Life expectancy- how long a person is expected to live within a population  Population pyramid- graph that shows the population structure in terms of age, gender and the percent of the population in each group  Population control- the government schemes that either aim to reduce or increase birth rates within a region

Demographic Transition Model

There are 4 main stages but MEDCs are entering a fifth stage where population starts to decline

Stage One•Population growth is very slow

•Birth rates are high as there is no birth control and children are needed from labour
•Death rates are high due to poor hygiene and diseases

Stage FourStage two•Population growth is rapid •Birth rates are still high •Death rates fall due to improved healthcare, sanitation and diet Stage three•Population growth is slow •Birth rates fall due to increases birth control, increased wealth and improved women's rights •Death rates continue to fall slowly •Population is high and fluctuating •Birth rates are low due to contraception and low infant mortality rates •Death rates low due to high quality healthcare

•Population is low and fluctuating

Birth rates in LEDCs
People in LEDCs have large families because: 1. Labour- children are needed to work to provide income 2. Old age- people with no pensions rely on children to support them 3. Infant mortality- not all children survive to adulthood 4. Religion- Catholicism and Islam disapprove of birth control 5. Contraception- birth control methods may not be available

Methods of Population Control
Governments may try to reduce birth rates through: 1. Advertising- trying to change attitudes and culture 2. Financial- offering bonuses to smaller families 3. Education- teaching women about family planning 4. Healthcare- reducing the infant mortality rate and providing contraception 5. Law- rules limiting the number of children per family

Population Structure
    

Population structure is shown as a population pyramid Horizontal bars show the percentage of population in each age group Population is divided into age groups of 5 years Males are shown on the left, females on the right We can identify trends in birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate and life expectancy

Narrow peakLow life expectancy Males


Wide peakHigh life expectancy




Steep concave sidesHigh death rate High infant mortality rate Wide base-

Vertical sidesLow death rate Low infant mortality rate

Typical LEDC

Percent of total population

Percent of total population

Typical MEDC Stage 4 e.g. UK

Narrow base-

High birth rate

Stage 1 e.g. India

Low birth rate

Ageing Population
In MEDCs the birth rate can be so low that there is an ageing population Advantages There is more demand for chairlifts, holidays etc. so more businesses. This benefits society Disadvantages  Social - facilities for young people are replaced by facilities for old people -longer queues at the post office on pension day  Economic -Young people have to pay older people’s pensions -More care workers are needed to take care of older people  Political -local MPs lose their seats for ignoring the “grey vote” -Gordon Brown is preparing to raise National Insurance to pay for increased NHS spending
 1. 2. 3. 4.

Solutions Increase retirement age Reform the pension system Introduce pro-natalist policies (encouraging people to have children) Encourage immigration

Part Three- Migration
Key terms:  Migration- the movement of people from one place to another  Push factors- factors that make people want to leave a place  Pull factors- factors that attract people to move to a particular place  Refugees- people who are forced to move out of their country because of war, persecution or natural disasters  Urbanisation- rural to urban migration- the movement of people from the countryside to cities  Counter-urbanisation- urban to rural migration- the movement of people from the city to the countryside  Immigration- the movement of people into a country  Emigration- the movement of people out of a country

Types of migration
Immigration- into a country Internal- movement within a country Permanent- stay forever
Voluntary- the person’s own choice

Emigration- out of a country Internationalmovement between countries Temporary- return home later
Forced- no choice

Occurring mainly in LEDCs
Push factors (from countryside) 1. Few jobs 2. Poor wages 3. Poor healthcare 4. Few education opportunities Pull factors (to cities) 1. Formal and informal jobs 2. Higher wages 3. Clinics 4. More schools 5. Excitement of city life

Impacts on city 1. Tough life for migrants 2. Jobs are hard to find 3. Services become over-stretched 4. Migrants often live in squatter settlements Impacts on countryside 1. Countryside becomes depopulated 2. Fewer farmers 3. Decrease in food production 4. Population becomes unbalanced, mostly sick, children or elderly

Occurring mainly in MEDCs
Push factors (from city) 1. Lack of open space 2. Noise and air pollution 3. Traffic congestion 4. Fear of crime Pull factors (to countryside) 1. Attractive scenery 2. Safer for children 3. Larger houses 4. Improved transport allows commuting

Impacts on countryside 1. Under pressure for more housing 2. This leads to friction between newcomers and locals Impacts on city 1. City becomes depopulated 2. Vacant buildings, boarded up 3. Services decline

Part Four- Case studies

Population Control:
-China -Mauritius -Kerala

Migration -Mexico-USA

(international, economic migration)

-Indonesia (transmigration, for population control)

Background:  Country in Eastern Asia  Population: 1.3 billion  Aims to reduce birth rates Population Policies: 1. In 1979, the one child policy was announced limiting each family to one child 2. Permission is necessary to marry and have children 3. Women must be 25 to marry 4. Free health care and financial benefits for one-child families 5. Fines for having 2 children Impacts: 1. Birth rates have fallen and population growth has slowed 2. Boys are more valued than girls as they can work- girls have been abandoned 3. Population is becoming unbalanced, more boys than girls 4. Ageing population will cause dependency problems

Mexico to USA migration
Background:  2000km border between USA and Mexico  More than 1 million Mexicans migrate to USA each year  Illegal migration is a problem  US Border Patrol against illegal migrants
Push factors (from Mexico) 1. Low quality of life 2. Poor wages 3. Unemployment 4. Malnourishment 5. Lack of water Pull factors (to USA) 1. Seasonal workers needed form farms and food factories 2. Higher wages 3. Education is free for children of legal and illegal migrants 4. Higher quality of life 5. Malnourishment is not a problem

Impacts: 1. Mexican migrants benefit US economy by working for low wages 2. Mexican culture has enriched US border states- food, music, language 3. Illegal migrants cost USA billions of dollars on border control and prisons 4. Mexico has a shortage of economically active people

Push factors (from Java) Migrants are leaving Java because: Pull factors (to Kalimantan) Migrants are moving to islands like Kalimantan because:

1. There is little land for agriculture and it is expensive
2. There is overcrowding 3. There is unemployment

1. They will receive land from the government
2. They receive a small house from the government 3. They receive food from the government

The Mega Rice Project aims to produce enough rice to feed the country and provide homes and jobs for people. Problems 1. Land taken from locals in Kalimantan 2. Land provided is infertile- they have to use dangerous amounts of fertilisers 3. Rations from the government are often late Successes 1. Some have been given homes and land and food 2. There is less pressure in Java

4. Water is polluted by fertilisers
5. The soil is ruined 6. Rivers have dried up 7. Trees are cut down to provide land

Background: Rwanda is a small country in central Africa, where the population is divided into 2 groups- Hutu and Tutsi. In 1994 over 2 millions Hutus fled Rwanda and became refugees. Refugees: The Hutus massacred 800000 Tutsis, and when the Tutsis fought back they fled to safety in neighbouring countries Impacts: 1. Refugee camps in neighbouring countries 2. Lack of food and clean water meant 50000 Hutus died in one week 3. Overcrowding in camps led to crime and violence 4. Deforestation for firewood and shelter

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