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Population The Demographic Transition Model: demographers believe that fetility rate and mortality rate are linked to the level of economic development of an area. The DTM describes the balance between ferlitiy and mortality changes over time. Stage 1: • High birth rate • High death rate • No family planning • Religious beliefs • Children die at young age • Disease • Famine • Poor medical knowledge Stage 2: • High birth rate • Falls rapidly death rate • Improvements in medical care • Water supply and sanitation increases • Children are needed for farming Stage 3: • Falling birth rate • Falls more slowly death rate • Imporved medical care and diet • Fewer children needed • Improvements in medical care Stage 4: • Low birth rate • Low death rate • Family planning • Good health • Later marriages • Good health care • Reliable food supply Population density: number of people living in a certain area Demography: the statistical study of populations Population distribution: the way people are spread along an area Population: all of people inhabiting a specified area Census: a periodic population count (every 10 years) including info on age, sex, occupation, family & religion. Natural change or increase: difference between birth rate & death rate Migration: movement of people from one place to another Migrational change: difference between the numbers of people moving in and out of an area Natural decrease: more people are dying that are being born Net migration: more people are moving into an area than moving out Crude birth rate: number of people born (per 1000 population per year) Crude death rate: number of people dying (per 1000 population per year) Fertility rate: number of baby a mother had Mortality: death Reproductive age: those people in the child bearing age group usually defined as those aged between 15-65. Men can be older.

Dependent population: those people who do not work and relay on others to look after them those under 15 or above 65. Infant mortality rate: number of babies dying before their second birthday Maternal mortality rate: number of mothers who die in child birth Life expectancy: average age of death From the year 1800: the population increased rapidly due to a decrease in the death rate and a removal of ilnesses. Water is one of the fundamental resurcoes for the human beings survival. As population increase there is an increase in demand for water. Mexico City is a good example, to potrtay the water shortage. Natural Growth rate (%): (total births – total deaths) (Total population) Growth rate (%): (Birth rate + inmigration) – (death rate + emigration) * 100 (Birth rate – death rate) + - migration Total population * 100 Factors affecting fertility: • Maternal health • Cost of having children • Status of women • Level of education • Employment opportunities for women • Type of residence • Religion of parents • Level of available health care • Machismo • Pressure from the government Case Study: fertility LEDC: Tanzania Infant mortality is high, no contraceptive methods, no pensions, no family planning, children are needed to work, 10/15 baby per women, life expectancy is 52 LEDC: India Infant mortality is low; life expectancy is increasing, high status of women, very expensive to have a child, fertility rate: 1.7% MEDC: UK 2/3 baby per women, decrease birth rate, low infant mortality, women literacy 90%, government policies offered free health, education, conception, sterilization, both parents worked. Fertility rates worlwide: Demographic: • High infant mortality families tend to have a lot of children. Economic: • Children are seen as an economic income. Social and Cultural: • Female’s literacy represents a high birth rate. • Religious beliefs encourage to have a big family. Worldwide trend: • LEDC: high total fertility rate due to lack of education on contraceptive methods, women literacy, religious beliefs and the children are seen as an econmic income. • MEDC: low total fertility rate due to the high cost of mantaining a child.

“South Africa deaths rise sharply” Death rate tripled between 1997 and 2004. Reasons: AIDS, nutritional deficiencies and diseases such as malaria & tuberculosis & homicide. OPEN SYSTEM: migration CLOSED SYSTEM: no migration Factors affecting mortality: • Disease & Suicide & homicide & Poverty & Life style & Job & occupation & Political factors & Medial care & Natural hazards & Maternal health & Risk of car accident & Bad nutrition & hunger Dependency ratio: (% under 14) + (% over 65) % between 15 – 65 Child dependency ratio: number of people aged 0-14 *100 Number of people aged 15 – 64 Aged dependency ratio: number of people aged 65 and over Number of people aged 15-65 Population policies: Pro-natalist policies: countries which want to increase their number of babies so they are encourage people to have babies. • Free health for families • Payments to people who have children • Free children and nursery • Provide longer paid maternity and paternity leave Singapore: home affairs. Young couples who where choosing their careers, leisure and personal interests above marriage and parenthood. Increase Singapore’s fertility rate to 2.1 targets intellectually talented people. Increase in the fertility rate. Russia: prize to couples who babies in 9 months. Creation of “sex day”. UK: “three child policy”. Anti-natalist policies: countries who want to lower their birth rates, so they stop encouraging people to have babies. • Child health care programs such as free vaccination • Education of family planning • Free birth controls • Advertising to encourage small families India: forcing people to restrict the size of their families. Nigeria: limiting each woman to have 4 children. France: calibrate income with tax rate which means that more children you have the less you pay. China: reduce the birth rate to only “one child policy”. Couples were fined if they had more than one child. People were encouraged to sterilize. Family planning. *100

MIGRATION Definition: population moves from one administrative are to another & it involves a permanent change of addresses. Classification: Migration: • International o Voluntary o Forced o LEDC to MEDC • National o Voluntary o Forced o Rural to Urban Circulation: • Daily • Weekly • Monthly • Seasonal • Long-term Immigration: movement of people into a place (immigrants) Emigrants: movement of people out of a place (emigrants) Push factors: are the things which encourage a person to leave an area. • Political persecution • Heavy taxes • Unemployment • Poverty • Declining neighbourhood • Harsh climate& Natural disaster • Ethnic cleansing Pull factors: are thins which attract a person to move into an area. • Political asylum • Government propaganda • Promotion at work • Low population densities • Cheap land • Divorce • Family • Ethnicities • High living standards • Freedom of speech • Personal safety Lee Model (1966) This model shows a migration model, at first it’s the initial place an area with positive and negative factors. Therefore the immigrant wants

to move to another location, a place with more positive factors. Between the two places there are obstacles, such as fence, family and economic problem. In this way the immigrant translates to and intervening place, until is able to raise enough money to the desired location.

Case Study: Forced Migration – Rwanda 1944, Rwanda, rivalry between Hutu and Tutsi. Causes: Massacre, civil war, Tutsi were considered superior of Hutus, hatred between Tutsi and Hutus, genocide 6th of April. Effects: the refugees 300,000 to Burundi 700,000 to Tanzania 1,200,000 to Congo 800,000 were killed at the genocide Problems: Malnutrition, rape, abuse, disease and coercion, live under branch and huts, dysentery cholera, black fever. Poverty, discrimination. Solutions: Millions of refugees build new villages in order to unite al Rwandans. Intentions to rebuild economy community. Case Study: Internal or National Voluntary Migration: Brazil, 20th century, rural to urban. Causes: Push: • Lack of jobs opportunities / education • Bad living conditions • No running water • No medical care & hygiene • Drought land • High suicide • 57% literacy Pull: • Job opportunities • Better health care • Improved education • Desire to improve life quality • Hope • Perceived factors Effects: Number of Migrants: 14.5% of migrants. Effects on Source Area: • Under population • Ageing population • Economic decline • No life quality improvement Effects of Destination Area: • Overpopulation • No enough resources • Creation of favelas

• • • • •

Crime & drug-dealers Violence Creation of tribes Contamination More young people to work Gender Inequalities

Kandahar, Afghanistan. People don’t want women to be educated. Iranian Women: Leila’s Story. Leila’s childhood: age of 9 was first sold for sex until the age of 18 where she was sold as a temporarily wife, where the money was used for drugs and household she was the source of income to all the family. Female children in Iranian society: seen as object and are sold as sexual figures. “Temporary marriage” means a way to have sex with women. “Hijab”: loose clothing to cover all parts of the body except for the face, feet and hands when being in public. “Chador”: black full-length fabric that is over the head and held closed at the front. “Burqua”: is a cloak which covers the women, including the eyes and face. Female literacy rates: Africa: 80% America: 85% - 100% MEDCS: the literacy rate is high because women are obliged to go to school. LEDCS: low literacy rate as based on religion and a little amount of girls are able to go to school due to war, inequality and work. Gender Development Index: composite measure that quantities the extent of all the disadvantages faced by females. It is calculated by averaging the three important measures; longevity (life expectancy), knowledge (literacy rate) & income (earned income) Composite indicator as GDI more useful? Because GDI takes into consideration several factors such as education, political involvement,. Arab countries such as Palestine, Libya, Saudi Arabia have a negative difference between HDI & GDI. Australia, Russia and Sweden have a greater GDI than HDI. Gender Empowerment Index is the measure of the extent to which females participate in the decision making process of a country. The three component to calculate the index are; political participation (% of seats), economic participation (% of women as managers, etc) & power over economic resources (income earned by females) Limitations: many LEDC countries do not collect the data required to calculate their GEM. Case Study: Rwanda a revolution in rights for women Laws: Women have the right to own land. Inheritance laws have changed so the women which inherit its men property are equally divided among the complete family. Children are able to play the drums on opening ceremonies. In marriage the women can decide to keep or share her assets. Many women are part of the army and the police force. Domestic violence nevertheless is slower to change as women who actively participate in politics usually do not get married. Women occupy a 56% of the parliamentary seats. Development

Definition: is a combination of economic growth along with demographic improvements and an increase in social equality. Should also be accompanied by political stability and environmental sustainability. • Quality of life • Economic growth • Social justice • Education • Satisfaction Development Pathway: ladder which leads to development. Name Full Name Description Examples LLEDC Least less Countries Nepal & economic lagging behind Ethiopia & Irak development the main LEDC countries cluster LEDC Less economic Mainly Bangladesh & development agricultural Morocco & countries employment Bolivia RIC Recently Manufacturing Chile & developed based. Started Thailand countries their industrialization 1980 to 1990. OPEC Oil and Oil producers Saudi Arabia & petroleum Venezuela exporting country NIC Newly Manufacturing South Korea & industrialized based. Started Portugal countries their industrialization in the 1960 MEDC More economic Highest France & developed standards of Germany & Uk country living. & USA Problem: not all countries have a specific term or apply to the description. Indicators: Quantitative indicators: use statistics • Gross Domestic Policy (GDC) • Gross National Income (GNI) Qualitative indicators: describe a country development in terms of factors that influence people quality of life. Attempts to describe development. • Freedom from want • Welfare • Security • Survival Composite indicators: mixture of both previous; focuses on the quality of life (qualitative indicator) and also is precise at the results (quantitative indicators). • HDI (Human development Index) • HPI (Human Poverty Index) • GDI (Gender elated development index)

GEM (Gender empowerment measure)

Human Development Index: is a composite index that takes into consideration the factors as literacy rate, life expectancy, GDP per capita & the % schools enrolement. In order to have a balance between the social and the economic measures. Ranked in three categories; high, medium and low human development. High development: USA (0.959), UK (0.947), Mexico (0.854) Medium development: Paraguay (0.761), Bangladesh (0.543) Low development: Ethiopia (0.414), Malawi (0.493) Happy Planet Index (HPI) • Life expectancy • Life satisfaction • Ecological footprint International Poverty Line: income level established by the World Bank to determinate which are poor. Line set at $1 a day per person. A person is considered poor if he or she lives in a household below $1 per day. Distribution: In rich countries this distribution is not applicable. In general, South America around a 5% - 20% live under 1 dollar per day. Africa has a high poverty line around 60% - 80%. While Europe and China both have a low poverty line from 2% - 20%. Reasons: The countries with a high poverty line are usually the less developed countries, they have a low economic income, and bad infrastructure, bad health centre therefore the people are poor and live in terrible conditions. Soviet Union, for example, has a low poverty line because during communism there was a low unemployment. Depending on the development of the country affected by the economic factor. Case Study: Inequality in Kenya Poorest area: Periphere – North East (70%) and the coast (60%) • Droughts • Infertile soil • Hot weather • Dry weather • Best precipitations Housing = a very small place, 2 small rooms, roof leakers when rains. Sleep on mats on the floor, open fire. Family Size = hard to get food for all the 8 members of the families. Overpopulation. Agricultural & Food production= substituent farmers. Sold tea leaves and consumed the produced. Infertile soil – desertification. Dependance of agricultural production. Employment = $6 in a month. Debts with the fertilizers. Tax of transportation. Education = primary school is free. Half of the income must be used to pay the uniform and couldn’t go to school without the uniform. Health care & Disease prevention = no free medical care, high infant morality (malaria, prevented by covering the bed with an expensive net). No running water. No electricity. Reduction in social service provision. Richest area: Core - Nairobi (10%) • Wet • Fertile soil • Good weather • Central areas • Medium precipitations

Trade and Development Export Processing Zones: areas with speical regulations designed to encourage foreign investment in industries. Tariffs: a tax set of imported goods. Non tarrif barriers: a restriction on imported goods which are not taxes. Subsidies: a form of financial assitance given to farmers or buisnesses. Quotas: set a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time. Import Subsitution: the ability to replace imports with goods manfucatured in the country. Endowment of Resources: the amount of land, labour, technology and capital that a country possesses. Trans National Corporation (TNC): a firm which has the power to co-ordinate and control operations in more than one country. Example: Mc Dondalds, Nike Advantages: • Work • Labour • Improve level of education • Increase gross national product • Widens economic base of country. Disadvantages: • Local labour forces usually poorly paid and have to work for long hours. • Increase in child labour • Profits go overseas • Increase corruption • Insufficent attention to safty and health factors and the protection of the enviroment. The UN Millenium Development Goals Why? Widening disparities between rich and poor areas When? Decided in 2000 with a lap of 15 years Targets: 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. a. Full and productive employment and decent work 2. Achieve universal primary education. a. By 2015, all girls and boys will complete the full course of primary schooling. 3. Promote gender equalty and empowerment. a. Elimante gender disparity in schools 4. Reduce child mortality. a. Reduce by 2/3 the under five mortality rate 5. Improve maternal health. a. Reduce by ¾ the maternal mortality ratio b. By 2015 achieve access to reproductive health 6. Combat HIV Aids, malaria and other diseases. a. By 2015 reverse the spread of HIV Aids 7. Ensure enviromental sustainablity. a. Integrate principles of sutstainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of enviromental resources. b. Reduce biodiversity loss. c. By 2015, people withouth sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. 8. Global partenership for development.

a. Address the special needs of the least developed countries b. Deal with the developing countries debt c. Develop an open, rule-based, predictable, non-dsicriminatory trading and financial support. China: country has the most success in reducing poverty. Reduced from 685 million to 213 milion. Also the percent of people living in poverty also declined from 60% to 16%.

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