Population

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Population: Human population control is the practice of artificially altering the rate of growth of a human population. Historically, human population control has been implemented by limiting the population's birth rate, usually by government mandate, and has been undertaken as a response to factors including high or increasing levels of poverty, environmental concerns, religious reasons, and overpopulation. While population control can involve measures that improve people's lives by giving them greater control of their reproduction, some programs have exposed them to exploitation.[1] Worldwide, the population control movement was active throughout the 1960s and 1970s, driving many reproductive health and family planning programs. In the 1980s, tension grew between population control advocates and women's health activists who advanced women's reproductive rights as part of a human rights-based approach.[2

Methods
Population control may use one or more of the following practices although there are other methods as well:
• • • • • • •

contraception abstinence medical abortion emigration decreasing immigration sterilization euthanasia

The method(s) chosen can be strongly influenced by the religious and cultural beliefs of community members. The failure of other methods of population control can lead to the use of abortion or infanticide as solutions[citation needed]. While a specific population control practice may be legal/mandated in one country, it may be illegal or restricted in another, indicative of the controversy surrounding this topic. [There is a] constant effort towards an increase in population [which tends to] subject the lower classes of society to distress and to prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition…The way in which these effects are produced seems to be this. We will suppose the means of subsistence in any country just equal to the easy support of its inhabitants. The constant effort towards population …increases the number of people before the means of subsistence are increased. The food, therefore which before supplied seven millions must now be divided among seven millions and half or eight millions. The poor consequently must live much worse, and many of them be reduced to severe distress.[13] Finally, Malthus advocated for the education of the lower class about the use of "moral restraint," or voluntary abstinence, which he believed would slow the growth rate.[14]
Opinions vary among economists about the effects of population change on a nation's economic health. Recent US scientific research concluded that the raising

of a child costs about $16,000 yearly ($291,570 total for raising him/her up to his/her 18th birthday).[20] In the USA, the multiplication of this number with the yearly population growth will yield the overall cost of the population growth. Costs for other developed countries are usually similar.

1.


Population growth is the rate of increase in the size of a given area, such as a city, country or continent. Population growth is closely linked to fertility, which is the rate at which women produce offspring. Due to the limited resources on earth and in various countries, rampant population growth can lead to inadequate food and other amenities, so in certain cases it can be beneficial to attempt to limit population growth.

Laws


One way for a country or other ruling authoritative body to control population growth is to institute laws that prohibit high fertility. China, for instance, is well known for instituting a "one child policy" which makes it illegal for urban couples to have more than one child. Using regulations to control population in this manner is often frowned upon, and requires a governing body with supreme authority over its people, but it can be very effective. Another important way to limit population growth is to increase the rate of contraception among the population. Contraception, while not infallible, drastically reduces fertility rates, often with minimal expense. While contraception and education about using contraception is widely available in rich countries, people in poor countries may not have access to simple contraceptive methods like condoms, or even know what they are. Not only can poor nations in areas like Africa and southeast Asia benefit from the fertility control aspect of contraception, but condoms can also help prevent the spread of STDs like AIDS, which is an epidemic in many poor nations.

Contraception


Economics


Economics plays a vital role in determining population growth. Countries that are well developed tend to have lower population growths and are more urbanized, with a higher cost of living, while poor countries are more rural with a lower cost of living. When the cost of having a child is extremely high, it deters parents from having more than a couple of kids. When the costs of raising children are low, such as they are in rural areas where they may contribute greatly to work on a farm, families have a much greater incentive to have babies. Encouraging economic development and urbanization in less developed countries may eventually lead to lower population growth. While not designed for population control, there are several other factors which tend to limit population growth. Wars are one factor which plays a large role in

Considerations


limiting population growth. Since soldiers are typically able bodied men, any combat deaths are likely to decrease population growth. Controlling population is a very controversial subject, and many consider education and making contraception available, but not forcing its use to be the only acceptable way to promote population control. Even if birth rates can be controlled to a mere replacement rate (every couple has two kids, replacing the mother and father) increasing sophistication of health care has lead to an increase in life expectancies, which has further increased the size of world populations. Read more: Ways to Control Population Growth | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_5481263_ways-control-population-growth.html#ixzz1Q7XtNa9F

Importance of the Internet
I think most probably that this [internet] technology will be helpful, to get information easily. In that way it will make clear what is truth, what is reality and what is false propaganda. I think that provided each individual uses their own intelligence or mind to investigate further, this technology should be very useful. — His Holiness the Dalai Lama (From a BBC forum held 23 feb 2000)
On this page: what is "the internet"? why is it important to you? why is it important to your organisation?

What is "the internet"?
Technically, the "internet" is all the computers in the world that are connected, including the technologies (routers, servers, etc (which are also computers actually) as well as the wires and antennas that keep all the computers talking to each other. So the "internet" is not just your web email. It is everything that goes over those wires from one computer to another: the email itself, web sites, messenger (such as Yahoo Messenger or MSN Messenger), phone calls on Skype, messages from an ATM to a bank, ... The words "Internet" and "Web" are often used interchangeably. Strictly speaking, the "Internet" would be everything that goes between computers, and the "Web" would be ... websites.

importance of the internet to you
Because of all these things, the "internet" is a gigantic library, as well as a world-wide message board, telephone network, and publishing medium. It is open 24 hours a day, and you can find anything you want there, and say anything you want.

As well as current events and blogs, information about almost any subject is available in depth and up to date. This is incredibly valuable for every subject you can imagine. Almost every college and government research organization is "on the web", along with libraries, educational institutions, associations, and many commercial directories and sites, If you appreciate the richness of the Web and the Internet, and get the benefits yourself, then you will be better able to provide services on them. You don't have to know how to do those technical things yourself — but if you know what is useful, then you will be able to direct your technical staff.

importance of the internet to your organisation
What does your organisation do?

Broadly, i think one could classify your organisation's jobs into something like this:
• "Communication" with other organisations, with your members, with your staff, with your supporters and donors. some great ways: letters, phone calls, faxes, meetings additional ways: email, messenger, web pages, mail lists, web site message boards • "Publishing" your message to the world. some great ways: books, journals, brochures, press releases, workshops, conferences, lectures. additional ways: website with conference proceedings, PDF files of your publications, blogs, newsfeeds • "Customer support" the people you are helping through your organisation. Nothing is better than people with people: interviews, workshops, conferences, classes. additional ways can help them when you aren't there: email, messenger, web pages, mail lists, web site message boards. With video-conferencing, podcasting and other great web tools, you can even have workshops and classes online. • "Research" on the news, issues, papers and literature relevant to your cause. some great ways: books, magazines, journals, papers additional ways: websites, search engines to find materials world-wide, mail lists

What's the advantage of these "additional internet ways"? They just look confusing so far.

Yes, they do look confusing, probably because they are new to you. Books and paper looked very confusing to you when you first started to read — you just don't remember because it was a loooong time ago!
• Increase credibility These days, if a company or an organisation doesn't have a website, it doesn't exist. The more information and services an organisation provides online, the more professional it appears to the public. • Increase exposure When journalists, researchers, etc want to find out about something these days, they don't write letters asking for brochures — they search on the web, and subscribe to newsfeeds. They can get information any time of day or night, and easily save it and sort through it. • Greater quantity and quality of inquiries Quantity: People can contact you easily and immediately, through your email address on your site, or even better, through a form on your site. Quality: When people contact you, they have already searched for your information at least once already. So they have already shown they are interested, and through your website they are already informed. • Increase donations and sales. Donating or ordering directly from a website can be as easy as typing in a card number and clicking a button. • Reduce cost per contact. The ultimate cost of doing "business" on the Internet is much lower than by print brochures and letters by post. • Increased access to your information. The information you supply is available to the world 24 hours a day, seven days a week. It is easily findable through internet search sites, unlike a brochure that can slip underneath a pile of other literature never to be seen again! With a website, you can easily keep your information always current and upto-date. • Gain full access to a seemingly infinite supply of current information. As well as current events and blogs, information about almost any subject is available in depth and up to date. This is incredibly valuable for every subject

you can imagine. Almost every college and government research organization is on the Internet, along with libraries, educational institutions, associations, and many commercial directories and sites, • Maintain information that's "up to the minute" accurate. With printed materials, the information you deliver can be out of date even before you get it back from the printer. Often, providing updated materials involves throwing out old materials that you had paid for. Materials on the internet however, can be brought up to date immediately at little cost. Also, because there is only one copy people are referring to, you can know that your readers are seeing current information — and not an out-dated brochure, that they forgot to replace with the new copy you mailed to them at your expense! • Save on printing costs. You can reduce your printed materials to shorter brochures and pamphlets, and in them refer the reader to the wealth of information available 24 hours a day on your site. • Reduce phone usage and staff load. By having information on your website, available to the entire world, 24 hours a day, you can greatly reduce the time your staff must spend on the phone or answering letters or emails, providing this same information. • Reduce postage, express mail and courier service, and phone costs. Using email and mail lists, you can send large amounts of information to many people, for little or no cost. • Increase your "green rating". By using electronic media instead of print whenever possible, you reduce the amount of paper, ink, and related materials you consume and discard — helping our poor over-worked planet (and ultimately ourselves, since that planet is where we have to live!).

And this list mostly concerns using websites and email. I haven't even started on the possiblities of online forums, blogs, wikis, video conferencing, ...
And they also look like more work! What do you need to do this?

I cannot tell a lie: They are more work. But they will reward you thousands of times over.
• You need to learn new skills, to understand how to use the internet so that you can use it effectively, and to be able to get your staff trained, and to hire new staff who can use it effectively. You need to have at least one technically-oriented person on your staff. For example: Websites don't make themselves, and once made, they don't update themselves. Unlike books, which once published are "done", most of the work



on a website is done after it goes live. That's where the benefit is — that it is always current — but that's where the work is too! If email isn't working right, or someone is having trouble transferring a file, it is much more efficent to have someone right in the office who knows how to help. I've seen problems with calling in outside people in two ways: One is, they often aren't actually very skilled. So it's a big waste of time, and still nothing gets solved. And two, even if skilled, they have to take time to figure out the particular details of the setup in your office. A staff person will already know, because they use the setup themselves. If your technical staff person has knowledge of networks, computer graphics, or web programming, then you have a great resource for making your website and internet tools even more useful and powerful.

Facts and Statistics Location: Southern Asia, bordering Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km Capital: Islamabad Population: 159,196,336 (July 2004 est.) Ethnic Make-up: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants) Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other (inc. Sikh) 3% Language in Pakistan Urdu is the only official language of Pakistan. Although English is generally used instead of Urdu in this regard. English is the lingua franca of the Pakistani elite and most of the government ministries. Urdu is closely related to Hindi but is written in an extended Arabic alphabet rather than in Devanagari. Urdu also has more loans from Arabic and Persian than Hindi has. Many other languages are spoken in Pakistan, including Punjabi, Siraiki, Sindhi, Pashtu, Balochi, Hindko, Brahui, Burushaski, Balti, Khawar, Gujrati and other languages with smaller numbers of speakers. Pakistani Society & Culture Islam . Islam is practised by the majority of Pakistanis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives. . Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. . Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed. . During the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing.

The Family . The extended family is the basis of the social structure and individual identity. . It includes the nuclear family, immediate relatives, distant relatives, tribe members, friends, and neighbours. . Loyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business. . Nepotism is viewed positively, since it guarantees hiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial in a country where working with people one knows and trusts is of primary importance. . The family is more private than in many other cultures. . Female relatives are protected from outside influences. It is considered inappropriate to ask questions about a Pakistani's wife or other female relatives. . Families are quite large by western standards, often having up to 6 children. Hierarchical Society . Pakistan is a hierarchical society. . People are respected because of their age and position. . Older people are viewed as wise and are granted respect. In a social situation, they are served first and their drinks may be poured for them. Elders are introduced first, are provided with the choicest cuts of meat, and in general are treated much like royalty. . Pakistanis expect the most senior person, by age or position, to make decisions that are in the best interest of the group. . Titles are very important and denote respect. It is expected that you will use a person's title and their surname until invited to use their first name.

Culture of Pakistan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 17th century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore

The society and culture of Pakistan (Urdu: ‫ )ثقافت پاکستان‬comprises numerous diverse cultures and ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch and Pashtun in the west; and the ancient Dardic, Wakhi and Burusho communities in the north. These Pakistani cultures have been greatly influenced by many of the surrounding

countries' cultures, such as the Turkic peoples, Persian, Afghan, and Indians of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. In ancient times, Pakistan was a major cultural hub. Many cultural practices and great monuments have been inherited from the time of the ancient rulers of the region. One of the greatest cultural influences was that of the Persian Empire, of which Pakistan was a part. In fact, the Pakistani satraps were at one time the richest and most productive of the massive Persian Empire. Other key influences include the Afghan Empire, Mughal Empire and later, the short lived but influential, the British Empire. Pakistan has a cultural and ethnic background going back to the Indus Valley Civilization, which existed from 2800–1800 B.C., and was remarkable for its ordered cities, advanced sanitation, excellent roads, and uniquely structured society. Pakistan has been invaded many times in the past, and has been occupied and settled by many different peoples, each of whom have left their imprint on the current inhabitants of the country. Some of the largest groups were the 'Aryans', Greeks, Scythians, Persians, White Huns, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, Afghans, Buddhists and other Eurasian groups, up to and including the British, who left in the late 1940s. The region has formed a distinct cultural unit within the main cultural complex of South Asia, the Middle East and Central Asia from the earliest times, and is analogous to Turkey's position in Eurasia.[1] There are differences in culture among the different ethnic groups in matters such as dress, food, and religion, especially where pre-Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. Their cultural origins also reveal influences from far afield, including Tibet, Nepal, India and eastern Afghanistan. All groups show varying degrees of influence from Persia, Turkestan and Hellenistic Greece. Pakistan was the first region of South Asia to receive the full impact of Islam and has developed a distinct Islamic identity, historically different from areas further west.[1]

Diwan-e-Khas: The hall of special audience with the emperor

Bahauddin Zakariya

Ancient sites in Pakistan include: Zorastrian Fire temples, Islamic centres,shia shrines/ Sufi Shrines, Buddhist temples, Sikh, Hindu and Pagan temples and shrines, gardens, tombs, palaces, monuments, and Mughal and Indo-Saracenic buildings. Sculpture is dominated by GrecoBuddhist friezes, and crafts by ceramics, jewellery, silk goods and engraved woodwork and metalwork. Pakistani society is largely multilingual, multi-ethnic and multicultural. Though cultures within the country differ to some extent, more similarities than differences can be found, as most Pakistanis are mainly of Aryan heritage or have coexisted side by side along the Indus River for several thousand years, or both. However, over 60 years of integration, a distinctive "Pakistani" culture has sprung up, especially in the urban areas where many of the diverse ethnic groups have coexisted and in many cases, intermarried. Education is highly regarded by members of every socio-economic stratum, with the country now having a literacy rate of 55%, up from 3% at the time of independence. Traditional family values are highly respected and considered sacred, although urban families increasingly form nuclear families, owing to socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional culture of the extended family. The past few decades have seen emergence of a middle class in cities such as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Quetta, Faisalabad, Sukkur, Peshawar, Sialkot, Abbottabad and Multan. Rural areas of Pakistan are regarded as more conservative, and are dominated by regional tribal customs dating back hundreds if not thousands of years. “Pakistan’s culture is again unique like the rest of the country. Pakistan’s geography is the meeting point of South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia/Gulf. Its culture could be termed as a combination of sub continental, Islamic, Regional, English and more recently global influences. Let us consider them piecemeal. The newly born Pakistan had to have a sub continental leaning, having been a part of for last 5000 years of its civilization. However, the Indus Valley, present day Pakistan, culture was different from the rest of North India or South India”. (Quoted Pakistan’s Identity, History and Culture, from the famous book Gwadar on the Global Chessboard by Nadir Mir).

POLLUTION
Pollutants are emitted in completely different ways, there are many different types of pollution, all pollutants harm living organisms! A) Air pollution: *)mainly emitted though the exhaust of motor vehicles *)the combustion of fossil fuels, the burning of coal and oil. *)producing electricity burning fossil fuels Most of Earth's pollution comes from the production of electricity. B)Fresh Water pollution is the result of industrial waste, environmental accidents and greed for money.

C)Ocean pollution D)Soil pollution E)Noise pollution F)Light pollution All societies know that pollution is harmful and a serious problem for Earth but generally people are self centered.

Pollution Facts
Pollution is a Global Killer Pollution likely affects over a billion people around the world, with millions poisoned and killed each year. The World Heath Organization estimates that 25 percent of all deaths in the developing world are directly attributable to environmental factor.1 Some researchers estimate that exposure to pollution causes 40 percent of deaths annually.2 Pollution is Regarded as a Major (and quickly emerging) Factor in Disease People affected by pollution problems are much more susceptible to contracting other diseases. Others have impaired neurological development, damaged immune systems, and long-term health problems. Women and Children are Especially at Risk, Children are Most Susceptible Children are physiologically different and more vulnerable than adults. In some cases they have higher exposures since they eat, drink and breathe more per kilogram of body weight than adults and tend to ingest a lot more dirt and house dust than adults from their crawling around and playing outside. While children only make up 10 percent of the world’s population, over 40 percent of the global burden of disease falls on them. Indeed, more than three million children under age five die annually from environmental factors. Death is Not the Only Toll of Exposure to Pollutants Pollution causes chronic illness, neurological damage and shortened lifespan. For instance, the presence of lead in children lowers I.Q. by an estimated 4-7 points for each increase of 10 μg/dL.3 Our database identifies populations around the globe with blood lead levels ranging from 50 -100 μg/dL, up to 10 times the WHO reference levels for protection against neurological damage. Pollution is Worst in the Developing World The world’s worst polluted places are in the developing world. Similar conditions no longer exist in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Japan and Australia today. In wealthier countries, there are sufficient legal, political, cultural and economic disincentives for polluters to allow their activities to affect human health on a massive scale. Unfortunately, many of these tactics do not work in developing countries that are trying to increase their industrialization and make themselves economically competitive for manufacturing and processing. Pollution Contributes to Global Warming

Toxic emission from industry and other sources may contain greenhouse gases. Therefore some sources of pollution contribute to global warming. Unlike global warming, where the negative effects are evolutionary and solutions elusive, the effects of pollution are immediate and deadly, and the solutions are well-known and available. Pollution: A Global Killer, a Solvable Problem The understanding and the technology for remediation of all types of pollution sites is well established in the industrialized world, where life-threatening toxic pollution has almost been eliminated. All that is needed to eliminate pollution worldwide is resources and commitment.

Career
A career is the sum total of paid and unpaid work, learning and life roles you undertake throughout your life. The term 'career' was traditionally associated with paid employment and referred to a single occupation. In today's world of work the term 'career' is seen as a continuous process of learning and development. Contributions to a career can include:
• • • • • • • • • • •

Work experience Community involvement Employment Life roles Enterprise activities Cultural activities Training Education Interests Sport Volunteer work.

As you gain more experience in the world of work and undertake a variety of life experiences, you are building your unique career path. All life experiences, including paid work, sporting interests and managing a household should be drawn upon as evidence to a potential employer that you are the person for the job.

Media
"Media is the most powerful tool of communication. It helps promoting the right things on right time. It gives a real exposure to the mass audience about what is right or wrong. Even though media is linked with spreading fake news like a fire, but on the safe side, it helps a lot to inform us about the realities as well. "The world is moving towards progress in every walk of life. But when we look towards societies, it feels as if some thing is still missing. Money, power, lust, etc., is the wish of every

human being to attain. But we can't deny this fact that we all are bounded with loads of social problems, which are hard nuts to crack. Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. Social issues include poverty, violence, corruption, bribery, suppression of human rights, discrimination, and crime, killing in the name of honor, etc. "Media has a constructive role to play for the society. Today News Channels and even some Newspapers are mouthpiece of some social issues, which helps us to estimate the realities of lives. Media has played an important role in order to focus on the social issues in almost every era. It is the fact that in most of the eras, media were not being given free and fair chances to explore the issues of society more openly than it is being given now; but we can't deny this fact that the issues were always raised in order to provide justice to the people. Pakistani Media has expanded it's chain during this era, and many cases and issues were brought under one umbrella, which showcase us that even today, we are bounded in the barriers of loads of problems and issues, which is to be sought out. Now, the time has arrived, when we need to re-think about our attitudes towards society. "I must say that there is an association between the development of mass media and social change and I must praise media for showcasing social issues." Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_importance_of_media#ixzz1Q7cPHtmA

Importance of Media (written by Danish Raja, Bahawalpur) All of us are now a days very well aware of the fact that what is media, What`s the function and for what purposes media have been developed. But, my friends, I want to discuss with u my views about the importance of media. No body can deny the importance of media. Because we developed a lot with the help of its guidelines. We know that newspapers , Radio, and then the most advance picture is television and internet etc. In human history man was nothing, no society, no social activities, no relationships among the people. They were just like the animals. Gradually at one part of the world people started to develop and educate but whole world had no idea about it. They were doing their own business. There were no intractions among different types at that time, then the part where education spread they became civilized they thought about the relationships they realized the importance of communication among themselves, because it was the need for the prosperity and even for the survival of life. Coming back to the point, newspaper started and by the pessage of time radio and television were invented. In early, newspapers played a very important role but when radio, television and then major invention of 21st century internet came into existence then every one was stunned to see the dramatic results of the media. It changed the minds of the people. The word GLOBAL VILLAGE is given to the world just because of media. In the history, we can see that a lot of impossible works have been done with the help of media because it has the ability or we should say power to

mould the minds of the people. It is also a negative points that at so many time in history media persons have played with the minds of the innocent people. But now a days, its very difficult to create a wrong idea/thoughts with the help of media because media itself has made man educated and trained with a lot of channels imparting knowledge and information to the general public and now its not easy to disturb the life because a lot of channels have provided the source to confirm it. Now persons first see the source whether it is acceptable or not and then they believe. So overall we can say that media is growing with better environment of competition. We know very well that if there is the atmosphere of good positive competition then the products automatically improve and gradually we are able to find the best product. Friends media is providing (if we talk about the television) a lot of channels for every field of life. Mostly we want to know what is going on around us and so we find a lot of channels which are specially made for this purpose. You not only watch your regional news but can also watch the international news and affairs because regional, national and international channels are covering all these aspects. Sports channels are there for the persons who have keen interest for sports. You can see live games which are being played in any part of the world. If you are very much tired and want to relax yourself you can play with remote and then find a lot of music channels and comedy programs. This activity will remove your tension and fatigue and you will feel quite easy and comfortable and then ready to go for another assignment. Now media is also acting as a good physician (doctor). You can solve a lot of medical problems by following the advice of your family doctor (media) in your vicinities through watching such programs. Religion is also very important in the life of people. Now channels are available which are providing totally religious programs and are fulfilling the demands of the people who prefer to watch religious programs. We can’t forget the economy and business sector. A lot of channels are there which are guiding us about the business trends and economy. Most important thing for a student is education. Now channels are available for this purpose. Different universities and educational sectors have launched their educational channels. So we can say that media overall is playing very active roll for educating, training, guiding and entertaining the people and providing awareness to the general public. we should seriously think about the revolutionary changes in the media and work for the improvement and better future of this sector.

NOISE

In common use, the word noise means any unwanted sound. In both analog and digital electronics, noise is an unwanted perturbation to a wanted signal; it is called noise as a generalisation of the audible noise heard when listening to a weak radio transmission. Signal noise is heard as acoustic noise if played through a loudspeaker; it manifests as 'snow' on a television or video image. Noise can block, distort, change or interfere with the meaning of a message in human, animal and electronic communication. In signal processing or computing it can be considered unwanted data without meaning; that is, data that is not being used to transmit a signal, but is simply produced as an unwanted by-product of other activities. "Signal-to-noise ratio" is sometimes used informally to refer to the ratio of useful information to false or irrelevant data in a conversation or exchange, such as off-topic posts and spam in online discussion forums and other online communities. In information theory, however, noise is still considered to be information.[citation needed] In a broader sense, film grain or even advertisements encountered while looking for something else can be considered noise. In biology, noise can describe the variability of a measurement around the mean, for example transcriptional noise describes the variability in gene activity between cells in a population. In many of these areas, the special case of thermal noise arises, which sets a fundamental lower limit to what can be measured or signaled and is related to basic physical processes at the molecular level described by well-established thermodynamics considerations, some of which are expressible by simple formulae.

Sport
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Sport (disambiguation).

Sport in childhood. Association football, shown above, is a team sport which also provides opportunities to nurture social interaction skills.

A sport is an organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful activity requiring commitment, strategy, and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means. Generally speaking, a sport is a game based in physical athleticism. Activities such as board games and card games are sometimes classified as "mind sports," but strictly speaking "sport" by itself refers to some physical activity. Non-competitive activities may also qualify, for example though jogging or

playing catch are usually classified as forms of recreation, they may also be informally called "sports" due to their similarity to competitive games. Sports are governed by a set of rules or customs. Physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first often define the result of a sport. However, the degree of skill and performance in some sports such as diving, dressage and figure skating is judged according to well-defined criteria. This is in contrast with other judged activities such as beauty pageants and body building, where skill does not have to be shown and the criteria are not as well defined. Records are kept and updated for most sports at the highest levels, while failures and accomplishments are widely announced in sport news. Sports are most often played just for fun or for the simple fact that people need exercise to stay in good physical condition. However, professional sport is a major source of entertainment. While practices may vary, sports participants are expected to display good sportsmanship, and observe standards of conduct such as being respectful of opponents and officials, and congratulating the winner when losing.

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