Population

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DEFINITION AND NATURE OF POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHY
POPULATION is the number of persons occupying a certain geographic area.
The RATE OF POPULATION is computed as number of births minus the
number of deaths and is expressed in percentage.
DEMOGRAPHY is the study of size, distribution, composition, and change in
population.
The MAIN SOURCES OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA are:
a. Population census
b. Vital registration statistics
c. Sample or special surveys on households
d. Data gathered and processed by government agencies

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These data are important for the formulation, implementation and evaluation of
plans, policies, and programs.
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THEORIES OF POPULATION GROWTH AND DECLINE
MALTHUSIAN THEORY OF POPULATION
Thomas Robert Malthus was the first economist to propose a systematic
theory of population. Malthus argued that the population grows geometrically, which
add more people every year—while increase in food supply is arithmetic, whereby
the food supply is limited by available land, soil quality, and the level of technology.
Malthus presents two solutions:
Positive Checks to overpopulation by increasing the death rate;
which include war, famine, pestilence, and diseases
Preventive Checks to present overpopulation by limiting the number
of live births; abortion, infanticide, sexual abstinence, delayed
marriage, and contraceptives.

VARIABLES INVOLVED IN POPULATION CHANGE
FERTILITY/BIRTH RATE (along with mortality and migration rate) is used to
calculate population growth. The crude birth rate is the number of births per
1,000 people per year. Another term used interchangeably with birth
rate is NATALITY.
MORTALITY/DEATH RATE is the number of deaths per 1,000 of the
population.
MIGRATION is the spatial movements of from one place to another, commonly
for permanent residency.
a. Push factors are unfavorable or unattractive reasons for moving from a
place to another, while pull factors are otherwise.
b. Internal/international migration
c. Brain drain

AGE STRUCTURE refers to the proportion of people at different age levels.
SEX RATIO is determined by counting the male per 100 females.
LIFE EXPECTANCY refers to the average number of years a person can expect to live from
the time of his/her birth.

THE PHILIPPINE POPULATION
POPULATION
100,227,300 (as of 2014)
BIRTH RATE
24.62 births/ 1,000 population (2013)
DEATH RATE
4.95 deaths/ 1,000 population (2013)
GROWTH RATE
2.04% (2011)
LIFE EXPECTANCY (2011)
 MALE
68.72 years
 FEMALE
74.74 years
FERTILITY RATE
3.06 children born/ woman (2014)
INFANT MORTALITY RATE 19.34 deaths/ 1,000 live births

MARXIAN THEORY
Karl Marx opposed and criticized the Malthusian Theory of Population.
Population increase must be interpreted in the context of capitalist economic
system. Population growth, is therefore not related to the alleged ignorance of the
poor, but is a consequence of capitalist economic system.
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY
It was proposed by Frank Notestein and Warren Thompson, both are
American demographers. Demographic Transition Theory describes the transition
from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates that occurs as part of the
economic development of a country.
BOUSERUPIAN THEORY

0- 14 YEARS

AGE STRUCTURE (2011)
34.6% (17,999,279 male/ 17,285,040

female)
65 AND OVER

4.3% (1,876,805 male/ 2,471,644 female)

Rapid population growth contributed to the slow social and economic development.
Childbearing contributes most to rapid population growth.
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POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

CONSEQUENCES OF OVER POPULATION

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Climatological changes
Coastal flooding
Desertification
Alteration of the patterns of diseases
Water shortages
Consequential poverty and the lowering of standard of the quality of
life

CONSEQUENCES OF POPULATION GROWTH
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Inability to provide good health, education, and welfare programs
Process of industrialization is slowed down
Technology is costly and uncertain
Consumption patterns destroy the ecosystem
Social inequality
Reduces the country’s ability to solve problems peacefully

REASONS OF SLOW ECONOMIC GROWTH

Global competition Shortage in capital has three factors that effect in
our economy climate, biological stressor, diseases
Shortage of capital
Poor corporate planning
Exploitation by foreign investors
Internal conflict

REFERENCES
Panopio, I., & Raymundo, A. GENERAL SOCIOLOGY Focus on the Philippines. Quezon City:
KEN, 2004
San Juan, W. R., et Al. Sociology, Culture and Family Planning. Pasig City: Unlad Publishing
House, 2007
http//:en.wikipedia.org/DemographyofthePhilippines
http//:www.census.gov.ph

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