Pre Ph.D. Subjects in Mechanical Engg. PaperI PaperII
1. Advanced Mechanical Engineering Design 2. Experimental Stress Analysis 3. Fatigue, Creep & Fracture Mechanics 4. Advanced Optimization Techniques 5. Mechanical Vibrations 6. Theory of Metal Cutting 7. Special Manufacturing Systems 8. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly 9. Advanced Metal Forming 10. Materials Technology 11. Advanced Thermodynamics 12. Advanced heat Transfer 13. Advanced Fluid Mechanics 14. Advanced IC Engines 15. Non Conventional Energy Sources 16. Computational Methods in Engineering 17. Direct Energy Conversion 18. Optimization Techniques and Applications 19. Management Theory and Practice 20. Reliability Engineering and Maintenance Management 21. Supply Chain Management 22. Total Quality Management
1. Finite Element Analysis 2. Advanced Computer Aided Design 3. Industrial Robotics 4. Mechanics of Composite Materials 5. Theory of Plates and Shells 6. Intelligent Manufacturing Systems 7. Automation in Manufacturing 8. Precision Engineering 9. Product Data Management 10. Computer Aided Manufacturing 11. Turbo Machines 12. Equipment Design for Thermal Systems 13. Computational Fluid Dynamics 14. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 15. Solar Energy Technology 16. Fuels, combustion & Environment 17. Jet Propulsions & Rocketry 18. Production and Operations Management 19. Entrepreneur Resource Planning 20. Simulation Modeling of Manufacturing System 21. Quality Engineering in Manufacturing 22. Performance Modeling and Analysis of Manufacturing Systems
METERIALS TECHNOLOGY
UNIT I: Elasticity in metals and polymers, mechanism of plastic deformation, role of dislocations, yield stress, shear strength of perfect and real crystals, strengthening mechanism, work hardening, solid solution, grain boundary strengthening. Poly phase mixture, precipitation, particle, fiber and dispersion strengthening, effect of temperature, strain and strain rate on plastic behavior, super plasticity, deformation of non crystalline material UNIT II: Griffth’s Theory, stress intensity factor and fracture Toughness, Toughening Mechanisms, Ductile and Brittle transition in steel, High Temperature Fracture, Creep, Larson – Miller parameter, Deformation and Fracture mechanism maps. UNIT III: Fatigue, Low and High cycle fatigue test, Crack Initiation and Propagation mechanism and paris Law, Effect of surface and metallurgical parameters on Fatigue, Fracture of nonmetallic materials, fatigue analysis, Sources of failure, procedure of failure analysis. UNIT IV: Motivation for selection, cost basis and service requirements, Selection for Mechanical Properties, Strength, Toughness, Fatigue and Creep. Selection for Surface durability, Corrosion and Wear resistance, Relationship between Materials Selection and Processing, Case studies in Materials Selection with relevance to Aero, Auto , Marine, Machinery and Nuclear Applications. UNIT V: MODERN METALLIC MATERIALS: Dual Steels, Micro alloyed, High Strength Low alloy (HSLA) Steel, Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) Steel, Maraging Steel, Intermetallics, Ni and Ti Aluminides, Smart Materials, Shape Memory alloys, Metallic Glass Quasi Crystal and Nano Crystalline Materials. NONMETALLIC MATERIALS: Polymeric materials and their molecular structures, Production Techniques for Fibers, Foams, Adhesives and Coatings, structure, Properties and Applications of Engineering Polymers, Advanced Structural Ceramics WC, TiC, TaC, A12 O3, SiC, Si3 N4, CBN and Diamond – properties, Processing and applications. Text Books: 1. Mechanical Behavior of Materials/Thomas H. Courtney/ 2 nd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2000 2. Mechanical Metallurgy/George E. Dicter/McGraw Hill, 1998. REFERENCES: Selection and use of Engineering Materials 3e/Charles J.A/Butterworth Heiremann.
PRECISION ENGINEERING
UNIT I: CONCEPTS OF ACCURACY Introduction – Concept of Accuracy of Machine Tools – Spindle ad Displacement Accuracies – Accuracy of numerical Control Systems – Errors due to Numerical Interpolation Displacement Measurement System and Velocity lags. GEOMETIC DEIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING: Tolerance Zone Conversions – Surfaces, Features, Features of Size, Datum Features – Datum Oddly Configured and Curved Surfaces as Datum Features, Equalizing Datums – Datum Feature of Representation – Form controls, Orientation Controls – Logical Approach to Tolerancing. UNIT II: DATUM SYSTEMS Design of freedom, Grouped Datum Systems – different types, two and three mutually perpendicular grouped datum planes; Grouped datum system with spigot and recess, pin and hole; Grouped Datum system with spigot and recess pair and tongue – slot pair – Computation of Transnational and rotational accuracy, Geometric analysis and application. UNIT III: Tolerance Analysis Process Capability, Mean, Variance, Skewness, Kurtosis, Process Capability Metrics, Cp, Cpk, Cost aspects, Feature Tolerances, Geometric Tolerances. Surface finish, Review of relationship between attainable tolerance grades and different machining process, Cumulative effect of tolerances sure fit law, normal law and truncated normal law. UNIT IV: TOLERANCE CHARTING TECHNIQUES Operation Sequence for typical shaft type of components, Preparation of Process drawings for different operations, Tolerance worksheets and centrally analysis, Examples, Design features to facilitate machining; Datum Features – functional and manufacturing Components design – Machining Considerations, Redesign for manufactured, Examples. UNIT V: FOUNDAMENTALS OF NANOTECHNOLGY: Systems of nanometer accuracies – Mechanism of metal Processing – Nano physical processing of atomic bit units. Nanotechnology and Electrochemical atomic bit processing. MEASURING SYSTEMS PROCESSING: In processing or insitu measurement of position of processing pointPost process and onmachine measurement of dimensional features and surfacemechanical and optical measuring systems. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Precision Engineering in Manufacturing/Murthy R.L./New Age International (P) limited, 1996. 2. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing / James D. Meadows / Marcel Dekker inc. 1995. REFERENCES: 1. Nano Technology / Norio Taniguchi / Oxford University Press, 1996. 2. Engineering Design – A systematic Approach / Matousek / Blackie & Son Ltd., London.
DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY
UNIT I:
Introduction: Design philosophy steps in Design process General Design rules for manufacturability basic principles of design Ling for economical production creativity in design. Materials: Selection of Materials for design Developments in Material technology criteria for material selection Material selection interrelationship with process selection process selection charts.
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UNIT II:
MACHINING PROCESS: Overview of various machining processes general design rules for machining Dimensional tolerance and surface roughness Design for machining Ease Redesigning of components for machining ease with suitable examples. General design recommendations for machined parts. METAL CASTING: Appraisal of various casting processes, selection of casting process, general design considerations for casting casting tolerances use of solidification simulation in casting design product design rules for sand casting.
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UNIT III: METAL JOINING: Appraisal of various welding processes, Factors in design of weidments general design guidelines pre and post treatment of welds effects of thermal stresses in weld joints design of brazed joints. Forging Design factors for Forging Closed die forging design parting lines of die5 drop forging die design general design recommendations. Extrusion & Sheet Metal Work: Design guidelines for extruded sections design principles for Punching, Blanking, Bending, Deep Drawing Keeler Goodman Forming Line Diagram Component Design for Blanking.
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UNITIV ASSEMBLE ADVANTAGES: Development of the assemble process, choice of assemble method assemble advantages social effects of automation. AUTOMATIC ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEMS : Continuous transfer, intermittent transfer, indexing mechanisms, and operator  paced free – transfer machine. UNITV: DESIGN OF MANUAL ASSEMBLY: Design for assembly fits in the design process, general design guidelines for manual assembly, development of the systematic DFA methodology, assembly efficiency, classification system for manual handling, classification system for manual insertion and fastening, effect of part symmetry on handling time, effect of part thickness and size on handling time, effect of weight on handling time, parts requiring two hands for manipulation, effects of combinations of factors, effect of symmetry effect of chamfer design on insertion operations, estimation of insertion time.
TEXTBOOKS: 1. Geoffrey Boothroyd, "Assembly Automation and Product Design", Marcel Dekker Inc., NY, 1992. 2. Engineering Design – Material & Processing Approach – George E. Deiter, McGraw Hill Intl. 2nd Ed. 2000. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Geoffrey Boothroyd, "Hand Book of Product Design" Marcel and Dekken, N.Y. 1990. 2. A Delbainbre "Computer Aided Assembly London, 1992.
SPECIAL MANUFACTURING PROCESS
UNIT I:
Surface treatment: Scope, Cleaners, Methods of cleaning, Surface coating types, and ceramic and organic methods of coating, economics of coating. Electro forming, Chemical vapor deposition, thermal spraying, Ion implantation, diffusion coating, Diamond coating and cladding.
UNIT II:
Processing of ceramics: Applications, characteristics, classification .Processing of particulate ceramics, Powder preparations, consolidation, Drying, sintering, Hot compaction, Area of application, finishing of ceramics. Processing of Composites: Composite Layers, Particulate and fiber reinforced composites, Elastomers, Reinforced plastics, MMC, CMC, Polymer matrix composites. UNIT III: Fabrication of Microelectronic devices: Crystal growth and wafer preparation, Film Deposition oxidation, lithography, bonding and packaging, reliability and yield, Printed Circuit boards, computer aided design in micro electronics, surface mount technology, Integrated circuit economics. UNIT IV: EManufacturing, nanotechnology. and m icromach ining, High Speed Machining. UNIT V: Rapid Prototyping: Working Principles, Methods, Streo Lithography, Laser Smiting, Fused Deposition Method, Applications and Limitations
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology I Kalpakijian / Adisson Wesley, 1995. 2. Process and Materials of Manufacturing / R. A. Lindburg / 1th edition, PHI 1990. 3. Microelectronic packaging handbook / Rao. R. Thummala and Eugene, J. Rymaszewski / Van Nostrand Renihold, 4. MEMS & Micro Systems Design and manufacture / Tai Run Hsu / TMGH 5. Advanced Machining Processes / V.K.Jain / Allied Publications. 6. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes / John A Schey I Mc Graw Hill.
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PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION Need for IPPD – strategic importance of product development – integration of customer, designer, material supplier and process planner, Competitor and costumer – behavior analysis. Understanding customer – promoting customer understanding – involve customer in development and managing requirements – Organization – process management and improvement – Plan and establish product specification. UNIT II: CONCEPT GENERATION AND SELECTION Task – Structured approaches – Clarification – Search – Externally and internally – explore systematically – reflect on the solutions and process – concept selection – methodology – benefits. PRODUCT ARCHETECTURE: Implications – Product change – variety – component standardization – product performance – manufacturability. UNIT III: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Establishing the architecture – creation – clustering – geometric layout development – fundamental and incidental interactions – related system level design issues – secondary systems – architecture of the chunks – creating detailed interface specifications. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN: Integrate process design – Managing costs – Robust design – Integrating CAE, CAD, CAM tools – simulating product performance and manufacturing processing electronically – Need for industrial design – impact – design process. UNIT IV: Investigation of customer needs – conceptualization – refinement – management of the industrial design process – technology driven products – user – driven products – assessing the quality of industrial design. UNIT V: DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING AND PRODUCTY DEVELOPMENT Definition – Estimation of manufacturing cost – reducing the component costs and assembly costs – Minimize system complexity. Prototype basics – Principles of prototyping – planning for prototypes – Economics analysis – Understanding and representing tasks – baseline project planning – accelerating the project execution. Text Books: 1. Product Design and Development / Kari T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger / McGraw Hill International Edns. 1999. 2. Concurrent Engg/integrated Product development / Kemnneth Crow / DRM Associates, 26/3, Via Olivera, Palos Verdes, CA 90274(310)377569, Workshop Book. 3. Effective Product Design and Development / Stephen Rosenthal / Business One Orwin, Homewood, 1992, ISBN, 1556236034. 4. Tool Design – Integrated Methods for Successful Product Engineering / Staurt Pugh / Addsion Wesley Publishing, Neyourk, NY, 1991, ISBN 0202413695. WEB REFERENCES: http;// www.me.mit/2.7444 .
QUALITY ENGINEERING IN MANUFACTURING
UNIT I:
Quality Value and Engineering: An overall quality system, quality engineering in production design, quality engineering in design of production processes. Loss Function and Quality Level: Derivation and use of quadratile loss function, economic consequences of tightening tolerances as a means to improve quality, evaluations and types tolerances.(Ntype,Stype and Ltype) UNIT II: Tolerance Design and Tolerancing: Functional limits, tolerance design for Ntype. Ltype and Stype characteristics, tolerance allocation fbr multiple components. Parameter and Tolerance Design: Introduction to parameter design, signal to noise ratios, Parameter design strategy, some of the case studies on parameter and tolerance designs.
UNIT III: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): NOway ANOVA, Oneway ANOVA, Twoway ANOVA,
Critique of Ftest, ANOVA for four level factors, multiple level factors.
UNIT IV:
Orthogonal Arrays: Typical test strategies, better test strategies, efficient test strategies, steps in designing, conducting and analyzing an experiment. Interpolation of Experimental Results: Interpretation methods, percent contributor, estimating the mean.
UNIT V:
IS[)9000 Quality System, BDRE, 6.sigma, Bench making, Quality circles Brain Storming Fishbone diagram problem analysis.
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TEXT BOOKS:
1. Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering / Phillip J. Ross / McGraw Hill, Intl. II Edition, 1995.
REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Quality Engineering in Production systems I G. Taguchi, A. Elsayed et al / Mc.Graw Hill Intl. Edition, 1989. 2. Taguchi Methods explained: Practical steps to Robust Design / Papan P. Bagchi I Prentice Hall
md. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
ADVANCED COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN UNIT I: CAD TOOLS: Definition of CAD Tools, Types of system, CAD/CAM system evaluation criteria, brief treatment of input and output devices. Graphics standard, functional areas of CAD, Modeling and viewing, software documentation, efficient use of CAD software. GEOMETRICMODELLING: Types of mathematical representation of curves, wire frame models wire frame entities parametric representation of synthetic curves her mite cubic splines Bezier curves Bsplines rational curves UNIT II: SURFACE MODELING :Mathematical representation surfaces, Surface model, Surface entities surface representation, Parametric representation of surfaces, plane surface, rule surface, surface of revolution, Tabulated Cylinder. UNIT III: PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF SYNTHETIC SURFACES  Hermite Bicubic surface, Bezier surface, B Spline surface, COONs surface, Blending surface Sculptured surface, Surface manipulation — Displaying, Segmentation, Trimming, Intersection, Transformations (both 2D and 3D). UNIT IV: GEOMETRICMODELLING3D : Solid modeling, Solid Representation, Boundary Representation (13rep), Constructive So! id Geometry (CSG). CAD/CAM Exchange: Evaluation of data — exchange format, IGES data representations and structure, STEP Architecture, implementation, ACIS & DXF. Design Applications: Mechanical tolerances, Mass property calculations, Finite Element, Modeling and Analysis and Mechanical Assembly. Collaborative Engineering: Collaborative Design, Principles, Approaches, Tools, Design Systems. UNIT V: Students will be given Engineering Component and student has to design the components and produce its drawing and present it as assignment. TEXT BOOKS: 1. CAD/CAM Theory and Practice / lbrahim Zeid / Mc Graw Hill international. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Mastering CAD/CAM / Ibrhim Zeid / Mc Graw lull international. 2. CAD/CAM / P.N.Rao / TMH.
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
UNIT – I: Introduction: The concept of TQM, Quality and Business performance, attitude and involvement of top management, communication, culture and management systems. Management of Process Quality: Definition of quality, Quality Control, a brief history, Product Inspection vs, Process Control, Statistical Quality Control, Control Charts and Acceptance Sampling. UNIT – II: Customer Focus and Satisfaction: Process Vs. Customer, internal customer conflict, quality focus, Customer Satisfaction, role of Marketing and Sales, Buyer – Supplier relationships. Bench Marketing: Evolution of Bench Marketing, meaning of Bench marketing, benefits of bench marketing, the bench marketing process, pitfalls of bench marketing. UNIT – III: Organizing for TQM: The systems approach, Organizing for quality implementation, making the transition from a traditional to a TQM organizing, Quality Circles. Productivity, Quality and Reengineering: The leverage of Productivity and Quality, Management systems Vs. Technology, Measuring Productivity, Improving Productivity Reengineering. UNIT – IV: The Cost of Quality: Definition of the Cost of Quality, Quality Costs, Measuring Quality Costs, use of Quality Cost Information, Accounting Systems and Quality Management. UNIT – V: ISO9000: Universal Standards of Quality: ISO around the world, The ISO9000 ANSI/ASQCQ90. Series Standards, benefits of ISO9000 certification, the third party audit, Documentation ISO9000 and services, the cost of certification implementing the system. Reference Books: 1. “Total Quality Management” by Joel E.Ross. 2. “Beyond TQM” by Robert L.Flood. 3. “Statistical Quality Control” by E.L.Grant.
COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING UNIT I: ComputeAided Programming: General information, APT programming, Examples Apt programming probkms (2D machining only). NC programming on CAD/CAM systems, the design and implementation of post processors .Introduction to CAD/CAM software, Automatic Tool Path generation. UNIT II Tooling for CNC Machines: Interchangeable tooling system, preset and qualified toois, coolant fed tooling system, modular fixturing, quick change tooling system, automatic head changers. DNC Systems and Adaptive Control: Introduction, type of DNC systems, advantages arid disadvantages of DNC, adaptive control with optimization, Adaptive control with constrains, Adaptive control of machining processes like turning, grinding. UNIT III: Post Processors for CNC: Introduction to Post Processors: The necessity of a Post Processor, the general structure of a Post Processor, the functions of a Post Processor, DAPP based Post Processor: Communication channels and major variables in the DAPP based Post Processor, th creation of a DAPP Based Post Processor.
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UNIT IV:
Micro Controllers: Introduction, Hardware components, I/O pins, ports, external memory:, counters, timers and serial data I/O interrupts. Selection of Micro Controllers Embedded Controllers, Applications and Programming of Micro Controllers. Programming Logic Controllers (PLC’ s): Introduction, Hardware components of PLC, System, basic structure, principle of operations, Programming mnemonics timers, Internal relays and counters, Applications of PLC’s in CNC Machines.
UNIT V:
Computer Aided Process Planning, Hybrid CAAP System, Computer Aided Inspection and quality control, Coordinate Measuring Machine, Limitations of CMM, Computer Aided Testing, Optical Inspection Methods, Artificial Intelligence and expert system: Artificial Neural Networks, Artificial Intelligence in CAD, Experts systems and its structures.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Computer Control of Manufacturing Systems / Yoram Koren / Mc Graw Hill . 1983. 2. Computer Aided Design Manufacturing – K. Lalit Narayan, K. Mallikarjuna Rao and M.M.M. Sarcar, PHI, 2008.
INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS
UNIT: I
Introduction: Automation and Robotics, Robot anatomy, robot configuration, motions joint notation work volume, robot drive system, control system and dynamic performance, precision of movement. Control System And Components: basic concept and modais controllers control system analysis, robot activation and feedback components. Positions sensors, velocity sensors, actuators sensors, power transmission system. UNIT: II MOTION ANALYSIS ANI) CONTROL: Manipulator kinematics, position representation forward transformation, homogeneous transformation, manipulator path control, robot dynamics, configuration of robot controller, UNIT: III
END EFFECTORS: Gripperstypes, operation, mechanism, force analysis, tools as end effectors
consideration in gripper selection and design. SENSORS: Desirable features, tactile, proximity and range sensors, uses sensors in robotics. MACHINE VISION: Functions, Sensing and Digitizingimaging, Devices, Lighting techniques, Analog to digital single conversion, image storage, Image processing and Analysisimage data reduction, Segmentation feature extraction. Object recognition, training the vision system, Robotics application. UNIT: IV
ROBOT PROGRAMMING: Lead through programming, Robot programming as a path in space,
Motion interpolation, WAlT, SINONAL AND DELAY commands, Branching capabilities and Limitations. ROBOT LANGUAGES: Textual robot Janguages, Generation, Robot language structures, Elements in function. UNIT: V
ROBOT CELL DESGIN AND CONTROL: Robot cell layoutsRobot centered cell, Inline robot
cell, Considerations in work design, Work and control, Inter locks, Error detect ion, Work eel 1 controller. ROBOT APPLiCATION: Material transfer, Machine loading/unloading. Processing operation, Assembly and Inspection, Feature Application.
TEXT BOOKS:
PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT UNIT 1 Operation Management – Definition – Objectives – Types of production systems – historical development of operations management – Current issues in operation management. Product design – Requirements of good product design – product development – approaches – concepts in product development – standardization – simplification – Speed to market – Introduction to concurrent engineering. UNIT II Alue engineering – objective – types of values – function & cost – product life cycle steps in value engineering – methodology in value engineers – FAST Diagram – Matrix Method. Location – Facility location and layout – Factors considerations in Plant location Comparative Study of rural and urban sites – Methods of selection plant layout – objective of good layout – Principles – Types of layout – line balancing. UNIT III Aggregate Planning – definition – Different Strategies – Various models of Aggregate Planning – Transportation and graphical models. Advance inventory control systems push systems – Material Requirement – Terminology – types of demands – inputs to MRP techniques of MRP – Lot sizing methods – benefits and drawbacks of MRP – Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP –II), Pull systems – Vs Push system – Just in time (JIT) philosophy Kanban System – Calculation of number of Kanbans Requirements for implementation JIT – JIT Production process – benefits of JIT. UNIT IV Scheduling – Policies – Types of scheduling – Forward and Backward Scheduling – Grant Charts – Flow shop Scheduling – n jobs and 2 machines, n jobs and 3 machines – job shop Scheduling – 2 jobs and n machines – Line of Balance. UNIT V Project Management – Programming Evaluation Review Techniques (PERT) – three times estimation – critical path – probability of completion of project – critical path method – crashing of simple nature. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1 “Operations Management “ by E.S. Buffs 2 “Operations Management “Theory and Problems: by Joseph G. Monks. 3 “Production Systems Management “ by James I. Riggs. 4 “Production and Operations Management “ by Chary. 5 “Operations Management “ by Chase 6 “Production and Operation Management “ by Panner Selvam 7 “Production and Operation Analysis” by Nahima
PERFORMANCE MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
UNIT I: MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS & CONTROL Automated Manufacturing Systems – Modeling – Role of performance modeling – simulation modelsAnalytical models. Product cycle – Manufacturing automation – Economics of scale and scope – input/output model – plant configurations. Performance measures – Manufacturing lead time – Work in process – Machine utilization – Throughput – Capacity – Flexibility – Performability – Quality Control Systems – Control system architecture – Factory communications – Local area network interconnections – Manufacturing automation protocol – Database management system. UNIT II: MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Examples of stochastics processes – Poisson process Discrete time Markov chain models – Definition and notation – Sojourn times in states – Examples of DTMCs in manufacturing – Chapman – Kolmogorov equation – Steadystate analysis. Continuous Time Markov Chain Models – Definitions and notation – Sojourn times in states – examples of CTMCs in manufacturing – Equations for CTMC evolution – Markov model of a transfer line. Birth and Death Processes in Manufacturing – Steady state analysis of BD Processes – Typical BD processes in manufacturing. UNIT III: QUEUING MODEL Notation for queues – Examples of queues in manufacturing systems – Performance measures – Little’s result – Steady state analysis of M/M/m queue, queues with general distributions and queues with breakdowns – Analysis of a flexible machine center. UNIT IV: QUEUING NETWORKS Examples of QN models in manufacturing – Little’s law in queuing networks – Tandem queue – An open queuing network with feed back – An open central server model for FMS – Closed transfer line – Closed server model – Garden Newell networks. UNIT V: PETRINETS Classical Petri Nets – Definitions – Transition firing and reachability – Representational power – properties – Manufacturing models. Stochastic Petri Nets – Exponential timed Petri Nets – Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets – modeling of KANBAN systems – Manufacturing models. Text Books: 1. Viswanadham, N and Narahari, Y. “Performance Modelling of Automated Manufacturing Systems”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1994 REFERENCES: 1. Trivedi, K.S. “Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing and Computer Science Applications”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1982. 2. Gupta S.C. & Kapoor V.K. “Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics”, 3rd Edition, Delhi, 1988
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Unit—I Introduction: Finite difference method, finite volume method, finite element method,
governing equations and boundary conditions, Derivation of finite difference equations. Solution methods: Solution methods of elliptical equations finite difference formulations, interactive solution methods, direct method with Gaussian elimination. Parabolic equationsexplicit schemes and Von Neumann stability analysis, implicit schemes, alternating direction implicit schemes, approximate factorization, fractional step methods, direct method with tridiagonal matrix algorithm.
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Unit—II Hyperbolic equations: explicit schemes and Von Neumann stability analysis, implicit schemes, multi step methods, nonlinear problems, second order onedimensional wave equations. Burgers equations: Explicit and implicit schemes, RungeKutta method.
Unit III Formulations of incompressible viscous flows: Formulations of incompressible viscous flows by
finite difference methods, pressure correction methods, vortex methods. Treatment of compressible flows: potential equation, Eluer equations, Navierstokes system of equations, flowfielddependent variation methods, boundary conditions, example problems.
Unit—IV Finite volume method: Finite volume method via finite difference method, formulations for two
and threedimensional problems.
Unit V Standard variational methods 1: Linear fluid flow problems, steady state problems,
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Transient problems.
Text Book:
I. Computational fluid dynamics, T. J.C’hung, Cambridge University press,2002.
Reference: 1. Text book of fluid dynamics, Frank Choriton, CBS Publishers & distributors, 1985.
AUTOMATION IN MANUFACGTURING
UNIT I: Fundamentals of Manufacturing Automation: Basic Principles of automation, types cf
automated systems, degrees of automation, Automation reasons, Production operations and automation strategiesPlant Layout, production concepts and mathematical models design the parts for automation. Automatic loading systems.

UNIT II:
High Volume Production Systems: Automated flow lines. Methods of work flow transport transfer mechanism buffer storage Control functions Automation for machining operations Design and fabrication considerations.

UNIT III: Analysis of Automated Flow Lines: Analysis of transfer lines without storage partial automation automated flow lines with storage buffers implementing of automatic flow lines.
Line balancing problems, Considerations in assembly line design
UNIT IV: Assembly Systems and Line Balance; Manual assembly lines line balancing problem


methods of line balancing ways to improve line balancing flexible manual assembly lines automated assembly systems, Analysis of multi station assembly. Manufacturing Cells, Automated Cells, Analysis of single station cells

UNIT V: Automated Material Handling: Types of equipment and functions, design and analysis of material
handling system, conveyor system. Automated guided vehicle system, components operation, types, design of automated guided vehicles and applications. Automated storage and Retrieval systems types, basic components and applications. Transfer lines, Design for Automated Assembly, Partial Automation, Communication Systems in Manufacturing

References: (1) MikeJ P. Grower”Automation, Production Systems and CIM”, PHI Pvt, Ltd,, 1998 (2) P. Radha Krishnan & S. Subrahamanyarn and Raju’CAD/CAM/CIM”, New Age
International Publishers. 2003. (3) Singh,”Svstem Approach to Computer Integrated Design and Manufacturing John WHey, 1)96.
“.
OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION
UNIT I SINGLE VARIABLE NONLINEAR UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMITION: One dimensional Optimization methods: Unimodal function, elimination method, Fibonacci method, golden section method, interpolation methods quadratic & cubic interpolation methods. UNIT II Multi variable nonlinear unconstrained optimization: Direct search method – Univariant Method – pattern search methods – Powell’s – Hook – Jeeves, Rosenbrock search methods – gradient methods, gradient of function, steepest decent method, Fletcher reeves method. Variable metric method. UNIT III GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING: Polynomials – arithmetic – geometric inequality – unconstrained G.P – constrained G.P DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING: Multistage decision process, principles of optimality, examples, conversion of final problem to an initial value problem, application of dynamic programming, production inventory. Allocation, scheduling replacement. UNIT IV Linear programming – formulation – Sensivity analysis. Change in the constrints, cost coefficients , coefficients of the constraints, addition and deletion of variable, constraints. Simulation – Introduction – Types – Steps – application – inventory – queuing – thermal system. UNIT V Integer Programming – introduction – formulation – Gomory cutting plane algorithm – Zero or one algorithm, branch and bound method. STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING: Basic concepts of probability theory, random variables – distributions – mean, variance, Correlation, co variance, joint probability distribution – stochastic linear, dynamic programming. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Optimization theory & Applications/ S.S Rao/ New Age International 2. Introductory to operation research/Kasan & Kumar/Springar 3. Optimization Techniques theory and practice / M.C Joshi, K.M Moudgalya/ Narosa Publications. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.S.D Sharma/Operations Research 2.Operation Research/H.A. Taha/TMH 3.Optimization in operations research/R.L Rardin 4 Optimization Techniques/Benugundu & Chandraputla/Person Asia.
MANAGEMENT THEORY AND PRACTICE
UnitI: Introduction: Management – definitions, types of managers, managerial roles and functions, science or Arts? – Administration Vs Management, External environment – Managing people and organization in the context of New Era – Managing for competitive advantage – the challenges of management – corporate social responsibility – Managerial Ethics. UnitII: Perspectives on Management: Scientific Management (Fredick W.Taylor, Frank and Lillial Gilbreth) Human Relations (Elton Mayo, Douglas Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, William quchi’s Theory Z), the systems Approach, the contingency Approach, the Mckinsey 7S Framework. Planning: Nature of planning, steps in planning, types of planning, Levels of planning, The planning. Process – planning practice in USA, Japan and China. UnitIII Decision Making: Problems and Opportunity finding, the nature of managerial Decision Making, the Rational Model of Decision Making, Challenges to the Rational Model, Improving the Effectiveness of Decision Making Tools and Techniques, Roles of Board and Committees in Decision Making – Decision Making practices abroad. Organizing: Nature of organizing, organization levels and span of management – Factors determining Span – Organizational design and structure – department, line and staff concepts, staffing – delegation, decentralization and recentralization of authority – responsive organizations – Global organizing. UnitIV: Leading,: Leading Vs Mangaing – Trait approach and Contingency approaches to leadership – Dimensions of Leadership – Leadership Behavior and styles – developing leadership skills – transformational leaders – Leadersip in Cross cultureal environment – Evaluating Leader – Women and Corporate leadership – Motivational theories – Building Groups into teams inter group Behavior, conflict and negotiation – Global leading. Communication; Importance of Communication, Interpersonal communication Barrier of Effective communication, communication in organization, Using communication skills to manage conflicts, Communicating for understanding and results, creating productive interpersonal relationships, Guidelines to improve written and oral communication – communication practices in India and Abroad. UnitV: Controlling: Basic control process – control as a feedback system – Feedback Forward control – Requirements for effective control – control techniques – overall controls and preventive controls – Global controlling. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Bateman and Snell, Management: Competing in the New Era,5/e, TMH,2003. 2. Samuel C. Certo, Modern Management, 9/e, PHI, 2003. 3. Heinz Weihrich, Harold Koontz: Management A Global Perspective, 10/e, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2002. 4. Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, Jr. Management, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2002. 5. Koontz, Weihrich & Arysri, Principles of Management, TMH, New Delhi, 2004. 6. Daft, Management, Thompson, New Delhi, 2003. 7. Prem Vrat, K.K. Ahuja, P.K. Jain, Case studied in Management Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2002. 8. Peter G. Northouse, Leadership Theory & Practice, Response Books, New Delhi, 2003. 9. Mrityanjay Kumar Srivastava, Transformational Leadership, Macmillan India Ltd., 2003. 10. Robbins: Management 7/e, Pearson Education, 2003.
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
UNIT I Logistics and Competitive Strategy – Competitive – advantage – Gaining Competitive Advantage through logistic – The Mission of Logistics Management – Integrated supply chains – Supply Chain and Competitive performance – The changing logistics environment – Models in Logistics Management – Logistics to supply Chain Management – Focus areas in supply Chain Management – performance Measures for SCM. Customer Service Dimension – The marketing and logistics interface – Customer service and customer retention – Service  driven logistics systems – Basic service capability – Increasing customer expectations – Value added services – Customer satisfaction and success – Time based logistics – Case studies. UNIT II Logistics Systems Design: Logistics positioning = Logistics reengineering – reengineering procedure – logistics environmental assessment – time based logistics – alternative logistics strategies – strategic integration – logistics time based control techniques. Measuring Logistics Costs and Performance : The concept of Total Cost analysis – Principles of logistics costing – Logistics and the bottom line – Impact of Logistics on Sharcholder value –customer profitability analysis – direct product profitability – cost driver and activity – based costing. UNIT III Logistics and Supply chain relationship: Benchmarking the logistics process and SCM operation – Mapping the supply chain processes – Supplier and distributor benchmarking  setting benchmarking priorities – identifying logistics performance indicators – Channel structures – Economics of distribution – channel relationship – logistic service alliances. Sourcing transporting and pricing products: Sourcing decisions in supply chain – transportation in the supply chain – transportation infrastructure – supplier of transport services – basic transportation economics and pricing – transportation documentation – pricing and revenue management in the supply chain – Coordination in the supply chain – pricing and revenue management in supply chains. UNIT IV Coordination and Technology in Supply chain: Lack of coordination and Bullwhip Effect – Impact of lack of coordination – obstacle to coordination – managerial levers to achieve coordination – Building strategic partners and trust within a supply chain. Role of IT in the supply chain – Customer Relationship Management – Internal supply chain management – Supply chain IT in practice – Information technology and the supply chain – E – business and the supply chain – Ebusiness Framework – case studies. UNIT V Managing global logistics and global supply chains: Logistics in a global economy – views of global logistics – global operation levels – interlink global economy The global supply chains – Global supply chain business processes – Global strategy – Global purchasing – Global logistics – Channel in Global logistics – Global alliances – Issues and Challenges in Global supply chain Management – case studies. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1 Dnald J. Bowersox and David JCloss. Logistical Management ; The Integrated Supply Chain 2 Process, TMH 2003. 3 Martin Christopher Logistics Supply Chain Management , Pitman London 1993. 4 Sunil Chopra and Peter Meindl: supply Chain Management : Strategy, Planning and Operation 2/e Pearson Education New Delhi 2002. 5 B. S Sahay supply chain Management for Global competitiveness Macmillan New Delhi 2003. 6 Phillp B. Schary Tage Skhott – Larsen : Managing the Global Supply Chain Viva Mumbai 2000. 7 Arjun J Van Weele: Purchasing and Supply Chain Management – Analysis , Planning and Practice 2/e Thomson Learning 2000. 8 Ballou, Business Logistics / Supply chain management 5/e Pearson Education
RELIABILITY ENGINEERING AND MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
UNIT –I Reliability – Definition – Failure date analysis, Hazard Models System Reliability : Series and Parallel Systems, different methods of finding system reliability. UNIT – II Reliability improvement: Redundancy – active – standby – Unit – Component and mixed. Maintainability and Availability. UNIT – III Introduction to maintenance management : Objectives of Maintenance , policies of Maintenance, Maintenance Planning Scheduling, Monitoring and Controlling. UNIT IV Types of Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance system design Condition based Maintenance UNIT – V Design of Spare Parts System: Insurance spares, Standardization Computerization, quality and cost control in Maintenance, Cost models in Maintenance Mangement. Tools for Better Maintenance: MIS in Maintenance. REFERENCE BOOKS; 1. 2. 3. “ Concepts in Reliability” by L S. Srinath “ Reliability Engineering “ by E. Balaguruswamy. “ ISTE ‘ UPDATE’ notes on Maintenance Mangement”.
ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING
UNIT – I Introduction to ERP: Overview of ERP – Introduction and Evaluation of ERP Reason for the growth of the ERP – Market, Advantages and Disadvantages of ERP, Overview of Enterprise – Integrated Management Systems, Business Modeling Integrated Data Model. ERP and Related Technologies : Business Process Reengineering (BRP) – Best Practices in ERP, Reengineering OptionsClean state Reengineering, Technology Enabled Reengineering, Business Intelligence Systems – Data Mining, Data Warehousing Online Analysis Processing (OLAP), Supply Chain Management. UNIT  II Benefits of ERP: Reduction of Lead Time, OnTime Shipment, Reduction in Cycle Time, Improved Resource Utilization, Better customer Satisfaction, Improved Information Accuracy and Design Making Capabilities (Case Studies). UNIT  III ERP System Options and Selection Methods: Optimal Means of Developing an ERP Measurement of Project Impact, IT Selection and Project Approval, ERP proposal Evaluation, Project Evaluation Techniques, Testing. UNIT IV ERP Implementation and Maintenance: Implementation Strategy option, Features of Successful ERP Implementation and Strategy to Attain Success, User Training ERP Maintenance. ERP The Business Modules: Introduction: Finance, Manufacturing (Production) Human Resource, Plant Maintenance, Materials Management, quality Management Sails and Distribution. UNIT V ERP – The Market: Introduction to ERP Market – SAP AG People Soft, Baan Company Oracle Corporation, JD Edwards World Solution Company, QAID System Software Associates Inc (SSA) – case studies Future Directions in ERP: Introduction – New Markets New technologies, Faster Implementation , Methodologies, New Business Segments, Trends In Security. REFERENCE BOOKS” 1. Alexis Leon, Enterprise Resource Planning , 10/e, TMH. 2004. 2. Alexis Leon ERP (Demystified ) , 5/E TMH 2002 3. David L Olson, Managerial Issues of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems, McGraw Hill International Edition – 2004
INTELLIGENT MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
UNITI:
Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems Structure and functional areas of CIM system, CAD, CAPP, CAM, CAQC, ASRS. Advantages of CIM. Manufacturing Communication Systems MAP/TOP, OSI Model, Data Redundancy, Top down and Bottomup Approach, Volume of Information. Intelligent Manufacturing System Components, System Architecture and Data Flow, System Operation.
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UNIT II: Components of Knowledge Based Systems Basic Components of Knowledge Based Systems, Knowledge Representation, Comparison of Knowledge Representation Schemes, Interference Engine, Knowledge Acquisition
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UNIT III: Machine Learning Concept of Artificial Intelligence, Conceptual Learning, Artificial Neural Networks Biological Neuron, Artificial Neuron, Types of Neural Networks, Applications in Manufacturing.


UNIT IV: Automated Process Planning Variant Approach, Generative Approach, Expert Systems for Process Planning, Feature Recognition, Phases of Process planning. Knowledge Based System for Equipment Selection (KBSES) Manufacturing system design. Equipment Selection Problem, Modeling the Manufacturing Equipment Selection Problem, Problem Solving approach in KBSES, Structure of the KRSES.
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UNIT V:
Group Technology: Models and Algorithms Visual Method, Coding Method, Cluster Analysis Method, Matrix Formation Similarity Coefficient Method, Sortingbased Algorithms, Bond Energy Algorithm, Cost Based method, Cluster Identification Method, Extended CI Method. Knowledge Based Group Technology Group Technology in Automated Manufacturing System. Structure of Knowledge based system for group technology (KBSCIT) Data Base, Knowledge Base, Clustering Algorithm.
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Text Books:
I. Intelligent Manufacturing Systems by Andre Kusaic. 2. Artificial Neural Networks by Yagna Narayana 3. Automation, Production Systems and CIM by Groover M.P. 4. Neural Networks by Wassarman.
ADVANCED MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN Unit I Design philosophy: Design process, Problem formation, Introduction to product design, Various design modelsShigley model, Asimov model and Norton model, Need analysis, Strength considerations standardization. Creativity, Creative techniques, Material selections, Notches and stress concentration, design for safety and Reliability Unit II Product Design: Product strategies, Product value, Product planning, product specifications, concept generation, concept selection, concept testing. Design for manufacturing: Forging design, Casting design, Design process for non metallic parts, Plastics, Rubber, Ceramic, Wood, Glass parts. Material selection in machine design Unit III Failure theories: Static failure theories, Distortion energy theory, Maximum shear stress theory, CoulombMohr’s theory, Modified Mohr’s theory, Fracture mechanics theory., Fatigue mechanisms, Fatigue failure models, Design for fatigue strength and life, creep: Types of stress variation, design for fluctuating stresses, design for limited cycles, multiple stress cycles, Fatigue failure theories ,cumulative fatigue damage, thermal fatigue and shock, harmful and beneficial residual stresses, Yielding and transformation Unit IV Surface failures: Surface geometry, mating surfaces, oil film and their effects, design values and procedures, adhesive wear, abrasive wear, corrosion wear, surface fatigue, different contacts, dynamic contact stresses, surface fatigue failures, surface fatigue strength, Unit V Economic factors influencing design: Economic analysis, Breakeven analysis, Human engineering considerations, Ergonomics, Design of controls, Design of displays. Value engineering, Material and process selection in value engineering, Modern approaches in design. REFERENCES: 1. Machine Design An Integrated Approach by Robert L. Norton, PrenticeHall New Jersey, USA. 2. Mechanical Engineering Design by J.E. Shigley and L.D. Mitchell published by McGrawHill International Book Company, New Delhi. 3. Fundamentals of machine elements by Hamrock, Schmid and Jacobian, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill International edition. 4. Product design and development by Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger. 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill. 5. Product Design and Manufacturing by A.K. Chitale and R.C. Gupta, Prentice Hall
FATIGUE, CREEP AND FRACUTRE MECHANICS UnitI: Introduction: Fracture behaviour of metals and alloys. The ductile/brittle transition temperatures for noteched and unnotched components, Ductile rupture as a failure mechanism Fracture at elevated temperature. Definitions of types of fracture and failure, Introduction to stress intensity factor and strain energy release rate, Equivalence of energy approach and stress intensity approach. Basic stress analysis and mechanical properties: Elasticity, General 3D relations, Plane stress and plane strain, Mohr’s circleprincipal stresses, Yield in materials, Tresca and Von Mises criteria, Ideal and actual strength of materials. Typical stress/strain curves for different classes of materials. UnitII: Stress intensity factor and its use in fracture mechanics: Early concepts of stress concentrators and flaws, Ingles solution to stress round an elliptical holeimplications of results. Stress intensity factor for a crack. Westergaard’s solution for crack tip stresses. Stresses and displacement in Cartesian and polar coordinates, Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. Typical values of fracture toughness, Different modes of crack opening. Superposition of crack tip stress fields, Direction of crack growth under mixed mode loadings. Crack tip plasticity, Early estimates of plastics zone, Irwin plastic zone correction and Dugdale approach, Plastic zone shape in three dimensions and shape under plane stress and plane strain conditions, Allowable plasticity for LEFM to apply: the thickness criterion Experimental methods for measuring Kic. UnitIII: Elastic/plastic fracture mechanics: Elastic/plastic fracture mechanics: The crack opening displacement and Jintegral approaches, Rcurve analysis Testing procedures, Measurement of these parameters, RAD, Fail sage and safe life design approaches, Practical applications. Advanced topics in EOFM. UnitIV: Fatigue: Importance of fatigue in engineering, Low cycle fatigue, CoffinManson law, Cyclic work hardening and softening. Micro structural models of crack initiation. Stage I, II and III crack growth. Analysis of Fatigue: The empirical laws of fatigue failure. High cyclelow strain fatigue, Basquin’s law, Goodman, Soderberg and Gerber mean stress corrections, Miner’s law of damage summation. Low cycle fatigue, Crack growth and application of fracture mechanics to fatigue, ParisErgodan law, Threshold stress intensity range. Crack closure and its theories Cycle counting methods, Developments in using rainflow counting methods to recreate fatigue standard spectra. Standard spectra suitable for different applications. UnitV: Fatigue of welded structures: Factors affecting the fatigue lives of welded joints, the codes and standards available to the designer, the use of fracture mechanics to supplement design rules. Practical examples. Creep: Phenomenology, Creep curves, Creep properties, Multiaxial creep, Creepfatigue interaction, Creep integrals. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Fracture Mechanics: Fundamental and Applications by Anderson T.L & Boca Raton, CRC Press, Florida, 1998. 2. Mechanics of material II by Victor, E. Saouma. (This book can be downloaded from internet) 3. Plasticity for structural Engineers by W.F. Chen and D.J,. Han, Chapter 2 and chapter 3. 4. Engineering Fracture Mechanics in D.R.J. Owen and A.J. Fawkes, Pincridge press, Swansea, U.K. 5. Fracture and fatigue control in structures, S.T. Rolfe and J.M. Barsom, Printice Hall, Eglewood cliffs, N.J.. 6. Fracture of brittle solids, B.R. Lawn and T.R. Wilshaw, Cambridge university press. 7. Plastic deformation of Metals, R.W.K. Honeycombe, 2nd edition, Edward Arnold. Chapters 13, 14 and 15.
COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING UnitI: Introduction to numerical methods applied to engineering problems: Examples, solving sets of equation – Matrix notation – Determination and inversion – Iterative methods – Relaxation methods – System of nonlinear equations – computer programs. Numerical integration: NewtonCotes integration formulas – Simpson’s rules, Gaussian quadrature. Adaptive integration. UnitII: Optimization: One dimensional unconstrained optimization, multidimensional unconstrained optimization – direct methods and gradient search methods, constrained optimization. Boundary value problems and characteristic value problems: Shooting method – Solution through a set of equations – Derivative boundary conditions – Rayieigh  Ritz method – Characteristic value problems, UnitIII: Numerical solutions of partial differential equations: Laplace’s equations – Representation as a difference equation – Iterative methods for Laplace’s equations – poisson equation – Examples – Derivative boundary conditions – Irregular and nonrectangular grids – Matrix patterns, sparseness – ADI method – Finite element method. Parabolic partial differential equations: Explicit method – CrankNickelson method – Derivative boundary condition – Stability and convergence criteria – Finite element for heat flow – computer programs. UnitIV: Hyperbolic partial differential equations: Solving wave equation by finite differencesstability of numerical method – method of characteristics wave equation in two space dimensioncomputer programs. Curve fitting and approximation of functions: Least square approximation fitting of nonlinear curves by least squares – regression analysis – multiple linear regression, non linear regression – computer programs. TEXT BOOKS: 1 Steven C.Chapra, Raymond P.Canale “Numerical Methods for Engineers” Tata MaGraw Hill 2 Curtis F.Gerald, partick.O.Wheatly, “Applied numerical analysis” Addisonwesley,1989 3 Douglas J.Faires, Riched Burden “Numerical methods” Brooks/cole publishing company, 1998 Second edition. REFERENCES: 1 Ward cheney & David Kincaid “Numerical mathematics and computing” Brooks/cole publishing company 1999 fourth edition 2 Riley K.F.M.P.Hobson & Bence S.J. “mathematical methods for physics and engineering” Cambridge university press,1999.
MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS
UNITI Single Degree of freedom systems I: undamped and damped free vibrations, forced vibrations, coulomb damping, response to harmonic excitation, rotating unbalance and support excitation, vibration isolation and transmissibility, vibration measuring instruments, vibrometers, velocity meters & accelerometers. Single degree of freedom systems II: Response to Nonperiodic excitations, unit impulse, unit step and unit ramp functions, response to arbitrary excitations, the convolution integral, shock spectrum, system response by the laplace transformation method, the transfer function, general system response, response by the state transition matrix, discretetime systems, the convolution Sum, discrete – time response using the transition matrix. UNITII Two degree freedom systems: principal models, undamped and damped free and forced vibrations, undamped vibrations absorbers, response to nonperiodic excitations by the convolution sum. UNITIII Multi degree freedom systems: Matrix formulation, stiffness and flexibility influence coefficients, eigen value problem, normal modes and their properties, free and forced vibration by Modal analysis, method of matrix inversion, torsional vibrations of multi rotor systems and geared systems, discretetime systems. Numerical Methods: Rayliegh’s, stodola’s, matrix iteration, RayleighRitz Method and Holzer’s methods. UNITIV Continuous systems: Free vibration of string, longitudinal, oscillations of barstravers vibrations of beams, torsional vibrations of shafts. UNITV Critical speed of shifts: Critical speed without and with damping, secondary critical speed. Nonlinear vibrations: undamped free vibration with nonlinear spring forces, forced undamped vibration with nonlinear spring fforces, selfexcitated vibrations, stability. TEXT BOOKS 1. Elements of vibration Analysis by Meirovitcch. 2. Mechanical vibrations by G. K. Groover. REFERENCES: 1. vibrations by W.T. Thomson 2. Mechanical vibrations – Schaum Series. 3. Vibration problems in Engineering by S.P. Timoshenko
ADVANCED OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES UnitI Geometric programming (G.P): Solution of an unconstrained geometric programming, differential calculus method and arithmetic method. Primal dual relationship and sufficiency conditions. Solution of a constrained geometric programming problem (G.P.P), Complementary Geometric Programming (C.G.P) UnitII Dynamic programming(D.P): Multistage decision processes. Concepts of sub optimization and Principal of optimality, computational procedure in dynamic programming calculus method and tabular methods. Linear programming as a case of D.P. and continuous D.P. UnitIII Integer programming(I.P): Graphical representation. Gomory's cutting plane method. Bala's algorithm for zeroone programming problem. Branchandbound method, Sequential linear discrete Programming, Generalized penalty function method. Stochastic Programming (S.P.): Basic Concepts of Probability Theory, Stochastic Linear programming. UnitIV Nontraditional optimization techniques: Multiobjective optimization  Lexicographic method, Goal programming method, Genetic algorithms, Simulated annealing, Neural Networks based Optimization. UnitV Non Linear Programming: Unconstrained optimization Techniques, Direct search methods, Random search methods, Uninventive methods, pattern direction Hookers and Jeerers method, powalls method, indirect search methods: Steepset discreet method DF.P methods. REFERENCES: 1. Operations Research Principles and Practice by Ravindran, Phillips and Solberg, John Wiely 2. Introduction to Operations Research by Hiller and Lieberman, Mc Graw Hill 3. Engineering Optimization  Theory and Practice by Rao, S.S., New Age International (P) Ltd. Publishers. 4. Engineering Optimization By Kalyanmanai Deb, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi. 5. Genetic Algorithms  In Search, Optimization and Machine Learning by David E. Goldberg, AddisonWesley Longman (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd.
EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ANALYSIS
UNITI Introduction: Theory of Elasticity, Plane stress and plane strain conditions, compatibility conditions, problem using plane stress and plane strain conditions, threedimensional stress strain relations. Strain measurement methods: various types of strain gauges, electrical resistance strain gauges, semiconductor strain gauge circuits. UNITII Recording instruments: introduction, static recording and data logging, dynamic recording at very low frequencies, dynamic recording at intermediate frequencies, dynamic recording at high frequencies, dynamic recording at very high frequencies, telemetry systems. UNITIII Brittle coatings: Introduction, coating stresses, failure theories, brittle coating crack patterns, crack detection, ceramic based brittle coatings, resin based brittle coatings, test procedures for brittle coatings analysis, calibration procedures, analysis of brittle coating data. Moire Methods: Introduction, mechanism of formation of Moire fringes, the geometarical approach to moiréfringe analysis, the displacement field approach to Moirefringe analysis, out of plane displacement measurements, out of plane slope measurements, sharpening and multiplication of moiréfringes, experimental procedure and techniques. UNITIV Photo elasticity: Photo elasticity, polariscope, plane and circularly polarized light, bright and dark filed setup, photo elasticity materials,, Isochromatic fringes – Isoclinics. UNITV Three dimensional Photo elasticity: introduction, locking in model deformation, materials for three dimensional photo elasticity, machining cementing and slicing three dimensional models, slicing the model and interpretation of the resulting fringe patterns, effective stresses, the sheardifference method in three dimensions, applications of the Frozenstress method, the scatteredlight method Birefringent coating: Introduction, coating stress and stains, coating sensitivity, coating materials, application of coatings, effective of coating thickness, fringeorder determinations in coatings, stress separation methods. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Theory of elasticity by Timosheke and Goodier Jr. 2. Experimental Stress analysis by Dally and Riley, Mc GrawHill REFERENCES: 1. A treatise on Mathematical theory of elasticity by LOVE A.H. 2. Photo Elasticity by Frocht.
THEORY OF PLATES AND SHELLS Unit I Bending of long rectangular plates to a cylindrical surface: Differential equation for cylindrical bending of plates  Cylindrical bending of uniformly loaded rectangular plates with simply supported edges  Cylindrical bending of uniformly loaded rectangular plates with builtin edges Pure bending of plates: Slope and curvature of slightly bent plates  Relations between bending moments and curvature in pure bending of plates  Particular cases of pure bending  Strain energy in pure bending of plates. Unit II Symmetrical bending of circular plates: Differential equation for symmetrical bending of laterally loaded circular plates  Uniformly loaded circular plates  Circular plate with a circular hole at the center  Circular plate concentrically loaded  Circular plate loaded at the center. Small deflections of laterally loaded plates: The differential equation of the deflection surface  Boundary conditions  Alternate method of derivation of the boundary condition  Reduction of the problem of bending of a plate to that of deflection of a membrane Unit III Simply supported rectangular plates: Simply supported rectangular plates under sinusoidal load  Navier solution for simply supported rectangular plates. Rectangular plates with various edge conditions: Bending of rectangular plates by moments distributed along the edges  Rectangular plates with two opposite edges simply supported and the other two edges clamped. Unit IV Continuous rectangular plates: Simply supported continuous plates  Approximate design of continuous plates with equal spans  Bending symmetrical with respect to a center. Deformation of shells without bending: Definition and notation  Shells in the form of a surface of revolution and loaded symmetrically with respect to their axis  Particular cases of shells in the form of surfaces of revolution  Shells of constant strength. Unit V General theory of cylindrical shells: A circular cylindrical shell loaded symmetrically with respect to its axis  Particular cases of symmetrical deformation of circular cylindrical shells  Pressure vessels. REFERENCE: 1. Theory of Plates and Shells by Timoshenko, S. and WoinowskyKrieger, S.
MECHANICS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Unit – I Basic concepts and characteristics: Geometric and Physical definitions, natural and manmade composites, Aerospace and structural applications, types and classification of composites. Reinforcements: Fibers – Glass, Silica – Kevlar, carbon, boron, silicon carbide and born carbide fibers. Particulate composites, Polymer composites, Thermoplastics, Thermosetts, Metal matrix and ceramic composites. Unit – II Micromechanics: Unidirectional composites, constituent materials and properties, elastic properties of a lamina, properties of typical composite materials, laminate characteristics and configurations. Characterization of composite properties. Coordinate transformations: Hooke’s law for different types of materials, Hooke’s law for two dimensional unidirectional lamina. Transformation of stress and strain, Numerical examples of stress strain transformation, Interpretation of stress – strain relations, Off – axis, stiffness modulus, Off – axis compliance. Unit – III Elastic behavior of unidirectional composites: Elastic constants of lamina, relation ship between engineering constants and reduced stiffness and compliances, analysis of laminated composites, constitutive relations. Unit – IV Strength of unidirectional lamina: Micro mechanics of failure, Failure mechanisms, Strength of an orthotropic lamina, Strength of a lamina under tension and shear maximum stress and strain criteria, application to design. The failure envelope, first ply failure, frecedge effects. Unit – V Laminated composite beams and plates: Introduction thin plate theory, thin laminated beam theory, bending of specially orthotropic, cross and angle ply laminated plates. Finite Element Analysis: Finite element displacement analysis, Ritz method and Galarkin method, Bending, vibration and buckling analysis of laminated composite plates. TEXT BOOKS: 2 Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials by Isaac and M.Daniel, Oxford University Press, 1994. 3 B.D.Agarwal and L.J>Broutman, Analysis and performance of fiber Composites, WileyInerscience, New York, 1980. REFERENCES: 1 R.M.Jones, Mechanics of Composite Materials, McGraw Hill Company, New York, 1975. 2 L.R.Calcote, Analysis of Laminated Composite Structures, Van Nostrand Rainfold, New
York, 1969.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS UnitI: Introduction to FEM: basic concepts, historical back ground, application of FEM, general description, comparison of fem with other methods, variational approach, Glerkin Methods. Coordinates, basic element shapes, interpolation function, Virtual energy principle, Rayleigh – Ritz method, properties of stiffness matrix, treatment of boundary conditions, solution of system of equations, shape functions and characteristics, Basic equations of elasticity, strain displacement relations. UnitII: 1D structural problems axial bar element – stiffness matrix, load vector, temperature effects, Quadratic shape function. Analysis of Trusses – Plane Truss and Space Truss elements. Analysis of beams – Hermite shape functions – stiffness matrix – Load vector – Problems 2D problems – CST, LST, force terms, Stiffness matrix and load vector, boundary conditions. UnitIII: Isoparametric element – quadrilatcral element, shape functions – Numerical Integration – sub parametric and superparametric elements. 3D problems – Tetrahedran element – Jacobian matrix – Stiffness matrix. UnitVI: Scalar field problems – 1D Heat conduction – 1D fin element – 2D heat conduction problems – Introduction to Torsional problems. UnitV: Dynamic considerations, Dynamic equations – consistent mass matrix – Eigen Values, Eigen vector, natural frequencies – mode shapes – modal analysis. Non linearity, Introduction, Non linear problems, geometric non linear dynamic problems, analytical problems. Text Books: 1. Introduction to finite elements in engineering – Tirupathi K.Chandrupatla and Ashok D. Belagundu. 2. Concepts and applications of finite element analysis – Robert Cook 3. The finite element methods in Engineering – S.S. Rao – Pergamon, New York 4. An Introduction to Finite Element Methods – J.N. Reddy – Mc Graw Hill. 5. The Finite element method in engineering science – O.C. Zienkowitz, Mc Graw Hill. 6. Finite Element Procedures in Engineering analysis – K.J. Bathe
ADVANCED METAL FORMING
UNIT I: Fundamentals of Metal Forming: Classification of forming processes, mechanism of metal forming, temperature of metal working, hot working, cold working, friction and lubricants. Rolling of metals: Rolling processes, forces and geometrical relationship in rolling, simplified analysis, rolling load, rolling variables, theories of cold and hot rolling, problems and defects in rolling, torque and power calculations. UNIT II: Forging: Classification of forging processes, forging of plate, forging of circular discs, open die and closeddie forging, forging defects, and powder metallurgy forging. Extrusion: Classification, Hot Extrusion, Analysis of Extrusion process, defects in extrusion, extrusion of tubes, production of seamless pipes. UNIT III: Drawing: Drawing of tubes, rods, and wires: Wire drawing dies, tube drawing process, analysis of wire, deep drawing and tube drawing. Sheet Metal forming: Forming methods, Bending, stretch forming, spinning and Advanced techniques of Sheet Metal Forming, Forming limit criteria, defect in formed parts. . UNIT IV: Advanced Metal forming processes: HERF, Electromagnetic forming, residual stresses, inprocess heat treatment, computer applications in metal forming Press tool design: Design of various press tools and dies like piercing dies, blanking dies, compound dies and progressive blanking dies, design of bending, forming and drawing dies. UNIT V: Jigs and Fixture design: Principles of location, sixpoint location principle, clamping elements and methods. Text Books: 1. Mechanical Metallurgy / G.E. Dieter / Tata McGraw Hill, 1998. III Edition 2. Principles of Metal Working / Sunder Kumar References: 1. Principles of Metal Working processes / G.W. Rowe 2. ASM Metal Forming Hand book.
THEORY OF METAL CUTTING UNIT I: Mechanics of Metal Cutting: Geometry of Metal Cutting Process, Chip formation, Chip Thickness ratio, radius of chip curvature, cutting speed, feed and depth of cut  Types of Chips, Chip breakers. Orthogonal and Oblique cutting processesdefinition, Forces and energy calculations (Merchant’s Analysis). Power consumed – MRR – Effect of Cutting variables on Forces, Force measurement using Dynamometers. UNIT II: Single Point Cutting Tool: Various systems of specifications, single point cutting tool geometry and their interrelation. Theories of formation of builtup edge and their effect, design of single point contact tools throwaway inserts. UNIT III: Multipoint Cutting Tools: Drill geometry, design of drills, Rake & Relief angles of twist drill, speed, feed and depth of cut, machining time, forces, milling cutters, cutting speed & feed – machining time – design  from cutters. Grinding: Specifications of grinding of grinding wheel, mechanics of grinding, Effect of Grinding conditions on wheel wear and grinding ratio. Depth of cut, speed, machining time, temperature, power. UNIT IV: Tool Life and Tool Wear: Theories of tool wearadhesion, abrasive and diffusion wear mechanisms, forms of wear, Tool life criteria and machinability index. Types of sliding contact, real area of contact, laws of friction and nature of frictional force in metal cutting. Effect of Tool angle, Economics, cost analysis, mean coefficient of friction. UNIT V: Cutting Temperature: Sources of heat in metal cutting, influence of metal conditions. Temperature distribution, zones, experimental techniques, analytical approach. Use of toolwork thermocouple for determination of temperature. Temperature distribution in Metal Cutting. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Metal Cutting Principles / M C Shaw / Oxford and IBH Publications, New Delhi,1969 2. Fundamentals of Machining / Boothryd / Edward Amold publishers Ltd. 1975 REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Metal cutting theory and cutting tool design / V. Arshinov and G. Alekseev / Mir Publishers, Moscow 2. Fundamentals of Metal cutting and Machine tools / B.L.Juneja, G. S. Sekhom and Nitin Seth / New Age International publishers
SIMULATION MODELING OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEM UNIT I System ways to analyze the system – Model – types of models – Simulation – Definition – Types of simulation models – steps involved in simulation – Advantages & disadvantages. Parameter estimation – estimator – properties – estimate – point estimate – confidence interval estimates – independent – dependent – hypothesis – types of hypothesis – steps – type I &II errors – Framing – strong law of large numbers UNIT II Building of Simulation model – validation – verification – credibility – their timing – principles of valid simulation Modeling – Techniques for verification – statistical procedures for developing credible model. Modeling of stochastic input elements – importance – various procedures – theoretical distribution – continuous  discrete – their suitability in modeling. UNIT III Generation of random variates – factors for selection – methods – inverse transform – composition – convolution – acceptance – rejection – generation of random variables – exponential – uniform – welbull – normal Bernoulli – Binomial – uniform – Posison. UNIT IV Simulation languages – comparison of simulation languages with general purpose languages – Simulation languages vs Simulations – software features – statistical capabilities – GPSS – SIMAN – SIMSCRIPT – Simulation of M/.M/I queue – comparison of simulation languages. UNIT V Output data analysis – Types of Simulation w.r.t output data analysis – warm up period – Welch algorithm – Approaches for Steady – Stage Analysis – replication   Batch means methods – comparisons. Applications of Simulation – flow shop system – job shop system – M/M/I queues with infinite and finite capacities – Simple fixed period inventory system – New boy paper problem. TEXT BOOKS: 1 Simulation Modeling and Analysis , law A.M & Kelton McGraw Hill 2nd Edition. New York 1991. 2 Discrete Event System Simulation Banks J& Carson JS PH Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1984. 3 Simulation of Manufacturing Systems, by Carrie A Wiley NY 1990. 4 A Course in Simulation Ross SM Mc Millan NY 1990. 5 Simulation Modeling and SIMNET , Taha HA PH Englewood Cliffs NJ 1987.
ADVANCED THERMO DYNAMICS Unit  1: Review of Thermo dynamic Laws and Corollaries – Transient Flow Analysis – Second law of thermodynamics – Entropy  Availability and unavailability – Irreversibility – Thermo dynamic Potentials – Maxwell Relations – Specific Heat Relations – Mayer’s relation  Evaluation of Thermodynamic properties of working substance Unit  2: P.V.T. surface – Equations of state – Real Gas Behaviour – Vander Waal’s equation Generalised compressibility Factor – Energy properties of Real Gases – Vapour pressure – Clausius – Clapeyron Equation – Throttling – Joule – Thompson coefficient. Nonreactive Mixture of perfect Gases – Governing Laws – Evaluation of properties – Pychrometric Mixture properties and psychrometric chart – Air conditioning processes – Cooling Towers – Real Gas Mixture. Unit – 3 : Combustion – Combustion Reactions – Enthalpy of Formation – Entropy of Formation – Reference Levels for Tables – Energy of formation – Heat of Reaction – Aiabatic flame Temperature General product – Enthalpies – Equilibrium. Chemical Equilibrium of Ideal Gases – Effects of Nonreacting Gases Equilibrium in Multiple Reactions. The vant Hoff’s Equation. The chemical potential and phase Equilibrium – The Gibbs phase Rule. Unit  4: Power cycles, Review Binary vapour cycle, cogeneration and Combined cycles – Second law analysis of cycles – Refrigeration cycles. Thermo Dynamics off irreversible processes – Introduction – phenomenological laws – Onsagar Reciprocity Relation – Applicability of the phenomenological Relations – Heat Flux and Entropy Production – Thermo dynamic phenomena – Thermo electric circuits. Unit  5: Direct Energy Conversion Introduction – Fuel Cells  Thermo electric energy – Thermoionic power generation Thermodynamic devices Magneto Hydrodynamic Generations – Photo voltaic cells. REFERENCE BOOKS : 1) Basic and Applied Thermodynamics, P.K. Nag, TMH 2) Thermo dynamics / Holman, Mc Graw Hill 3) Thermo dynamics / Doolittle – Messe 4) Thermo dynamics / Sonnatag & Van Wylen 5) Irreversible Thermo Dynamics / HR De Groff. 6) Engg. Thermo dynamics /PL.Dhar
ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER UNIT 1: Brief Introduction to different modes of heat transfer; Conduction: General heat conduction equationInitial and Boundary conditions Steady State Heat Transfer: Simplified heat transfer in 1D and 2D – Fins Transient heat conduction; Lumped system analysis Heisler chartssemi infinite soliduse of shape factors in conduction  2D transient heat conduction – product solutions UNIT  2: Finite Difference methods for Conduction: 1D & 2D steady state and simple transient heat conduction problems – implicit and explicit methods. Forced Convection: Equations of Fluid Flow – Concepts of Continuity, momentum equations – Derivation of Energy equation  Methods to determine heat transfer coefficient: Analytical Methods  Dimensional Analysis and concept of exact solution. Approximate Method – Integral analysis UNIT  3: External flows: Flow over a flat plate: Integral method for laminar heat transfer coefficient for different velocity and temperature profiles. Application of empirical relations to variation geometrics for Laminar and Turbulent flows. Internal flows: Fully developed flow: Integral analysis for laminar heat transfer coefficient – Types of flow – Constant Wall Temperature and Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions Hydrodynamic & thermal entry lengths; use of empirical correlations. UNIT  4: Free convection: Approximate analysis on laminar free convective heat transfer – Boussinesque Approximation  Different geometries – combined free and forced convection Boiling and condensation: Boiling curve – Correlations Nusselt’s theory of film condensation on a vertical plate – Assumptions & correlations of film condensation for different geometrics. UNIT  5: Radiation Heat Transfer: Radiant heat exchange in grey, nongrey bodies, with transmitting, reflecting and absorbing media, specular surfaces, gas radiation – radiation from flames. Mass Transfer: Concepts of mass transfer – Diffusion & convective mass transfer Analogies – Significance of nondimensional numbers. TEXT BOOKS : 1. Heat Transfer – Necati Ozisik (TMH) 2. Heat and Mass Transfer – O P Single (Macmillan India Ltd) 3. Heat Transfer – P.S. Ghoshdastidar (Oxford Press) 4. Engg. Heat & Mass Transfer Sarit K. Das (Dhanpat Rai) REFERENCE BOOKS : 1. Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer – Incroera Dewitt (Jhon Wiley) 2. Heat Transfer : A basic approach – Yunus Cangel (MH) 3. Heat & Mass Transfer – D.S. Kumar 4. Heat Transfer – P.K. Nag(TMH) 5. Principle of Heat Transfer – Frank Kreith & Mark.Bohn. 6. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer / W.M.Kays & M.E.Crawford(TMH) 7. Radiation Heat Transfer –G.M.Sparrow& R.D.Cess 8. Thermal Radiation heat transfer – R.Siegel & J.R.Howell 9. Radiation Heat Transfer – H.G.Hottel & A.F.Sarofim
ADVANCED FLUID MECHANICS UNIT I: Non – viscous flow of incompressible Fluids: Lagrangian and Eulerain Descriptions of fluid motion Path lines, Stream lines, Streak lines, stream tubes – velocity of a fluid particle, types of flows, Equations of three dimensional continuity equation Stream and Velocity potential functions. Basic Laws of fluid Flow: Condition for irrotationality, circulation & vorticity Accelerations in Cartesystems normal and tangential accelerations, Euler’s, Bernouli equations in 3D– Continuity and Momentum Equations UNIT 2: Principles of Viscous Flow: Derivation of NavierStoke’s Equations for viscous compressible flow – Exact solutions to certain simple cases : Plain Poisoulle flow  Coutte flow with and without pressure gradient  Hagen Poisoulle flow  Blasius solution. UNIT 3: Boundary Layer Concepts : Prandtl’s contribution to real fluid flows – Prandtl’s boundary layer theory  Boundary layer thickness for flow over a flat plate – Approximate solutions – Creeping motion (Stokes) – Oseen’s approximation  VonKarman momentum integral equation for laminar boundary layer –– Expressions for local and mean drag coefficients for different velocity profiles. UNIT 4: UNIT I: Introduction to Turbulent Flow: Fundamental concept of turbulence – Time Averaged Equations – Boundary Layer Equations  Prandtl Mixing Length Model  Universal Velocity Distribution Law: Van Driest Model –Approximate solutions for drag coefficients – More Refined Turbulence Models – kepsilon model  boundary layer separation and form drag – Karman Vortex Trail, Boundary layer control, lift on circular cylinders Internal Flow: Smooth and rough boundaries – Equations for Velocity Distribution and frictional Resistance in smooth rough Pipes – Roughness of Commercial Pipes – Moody’s diagram. UNIT 5: Compressible Fluid Flow – I: Thermodynamic basics – Equations of continuity, Momentum and Energy  Acoustic Velocity Derivation of Equation for Mach Number – Flow Regimes – Mach Angle – Mach Cone – Stagnation State Compressible Fluid Flow – II: Area Variation, Property Relationships in terms of Mach number, Nozzles, Diffusers – Fanno and Releigh Lines, Property Relations – Isothermal Flow in Long Ducts – Normal Compressible Shock, Oblique Shock: Expansion and Compressible Shocks – Supersonic Wave Drag. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Schlichting H – Boundary Layer Theory (Springer Publications). 2. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer – Oosthigen, McGrawhill 3. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer – W.M. Kays, M.E. Crawford, McGrawhill REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Yuman S.W – Foundations of Fluid Mechanics. 2. An Introduction to Compressible Flow – Pai. 3. Dynamics & Theory and Dynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow – Shapiro. 4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery – D. Rama Durgaiah.(New Age Pub.) 5. Fluid Dynamics – William F. Hughes & John A. Brighton (Tata McGrawHill Pub.)
TURBO MACHINES Unit – 1: Fundamentals of Turbo machines: Classification, Applications Thermodynamic analysis; Isentropic flow, Energy transfer; Efficiencies; static and Stagnation conditions; continuity equation; Euler’s flow through variable cross sectional area; unsteady flow in turbo machines. Unit –2: Steam Nozzles: Convergent and Convergent – Divergent nozzles; Energy balance; effect of back – pressure on the analysis; Design of nozzles. Steam Turbines :Impulse Turbines: Compounding; work done and velocity triangles; Efficiencies; Constant Reaction Blading; Design of blade passages, angles and height; Secondary flow; leakage losses; Thermodynamic analysis of steam turbines. Unit – 3: Gas Dynamics: Fundamentals thermodynamic concepts; Isentropic conditions; Mach number and Area – Velocity relation; Dynamic pressure; normal shock relations for perfect gas; supersonic flow, oblique shock waves ; normal shock recovery ; detached shocks ; Aerofoil theory. Centrifugal Compressor: Types; Velocity triangles and efficiencies; Blade passage design; Diffuser and pressure recovery; slip factor; stanitz and stodolas formulae; Effect of inlet mach number; Prewirl; performance. Unit – 4: Axial Flow Compressors: Flow analysis, work and velocity triangles ; Efficiencies; Thermodynamic analysis; stage pressure rise ; Degree of reaction ; stage loading ; general design, effect of velocity incidence ; performance. Cascade Analysis: Geometry and Terminology; Blade forces, Efficiency; losses; free and forced vortex blades. Unit – 5: Axial Flow Gas Turbines: Work done; velocity triangles and efficiencies; thermodynamic flow analysis; degree of reaction; Zweifels relation; Design cascade analysis – Soderberg – Hawthrone – ainleycorrelations; secondary flow; Freevortex blades; Blade angles for variable degree of reaction; Actuator disc theory; stresses in blades; Blade assembling; materials and cooling of blades; performance; Matching of compressor and turbine; offdesign performance. REFERENCE BOOKS : 1) Fundamentals of Turbo machines – Shephard 2) Practise on Turbomachines – G. Gopalakrishnan & D. Prithviraj, SciTech Publishers, Chennai. 3) Theory and practice of steam turbines – Kearton 4) Gas Turbines – Theory and practice – Zucrow 5) Elements of Gas Dynamics – Liepman and Roshkow 6) Elements of Gas Dynamics – Yahya 7) Turbines, Pumps, Compressors – Yahya 8) Axial Flow Compressors – Horlock. 9) Gas Turbines Cohen, Roger & Sarvanamuttu
SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY Unit  1: Introduction – Solar energy option, specialty and potential – Sun – Earth – Solar radiation, beam and diffuse – measurement – estimation of average solar radiation on horizontal and tilted surfaces – problems – applications. Capturing solar radiation – physical principles of collection – types – liquid flat plate collectors – construction details – performance analysis – concentrating collection – flat plate collectors with plane reflectors – cylindrical parabolic collectors – Orientation and tracking – Performance Analysis. Unit  2: Design of solar water heating system and layout Power generation – solar central receiver system – Heliostats and Receiver – Heat transport system – solar distributed receiver system – Power cycles, working fluids and prime movers. Unit  3: Thermal energy storage – Introduction – Need for – Methods of sensible heat storage using solids and liquids – Packed bed storage – Latent heat storage – working principle – construction – application and limitations. Other solar devices – stills, air heaters, dryers, Solar Ponds & Solar Refrigeration. Unit  4: Direct energy conversion – solidstate principles – semiconductors – solar cells – performance – modular construction – applications. Unit  5: Economics – Principles of Economic Analysis – Discounted cash flow – Solar system – life cycle costs – cost benefit analysis and optimization – cost based analysis of water heating and photo voltaic applications. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Principles of solar engineering – Kreith and Kerider 2. Solar energy thermal processes – Duffie and Beckman 3. Solar energy – Sukhatme REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Solar energy – Garg 2. Solar energy – Magal 3. Soloar energy – Tiwari and Suneja 4. Power plant technology – El Wakil
ADVANCED I.C. ENGINES UNIT  1: Introduction – Historical Review – Engine Types – Design and operating Parameters. Cycle Analysis: Thermochemistry of Fuel – Air mixtures, properties – Ideal Models of Engine cycles – Real Engine cycles  differences and Factors responsible for – Computer Modeling. UNIT  2: Gas Exchange Processes: Volumetric Efficiency – Flow through ports – Supercharging and Turbo charging. Charge Motion: Mean velocity and Turbulent characteristics – Swirl, Squish – Prechamber Engine flows. UNIT  3: Engine Combustion in S.I engines: Combustion and Speed – Cyclic Variations – Ignition – Abnormal combustion Fuel factors, MPFI, SI engine testing. Combustion in CI engines: Essential Features – Types off Cycle. Pr. Data – Fuel Spray Behavior – Ignition Delay – Mixing Formation and control, Common rail fuel injection system UNIT  4: Pollutant Formation and Control: Nature and extent of problems – Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon monoxide, unburnt Hydrocarbon and particulate – Emissions – Measurement – Exhaust Gas Treatment, Catalytic converter, SCR, Particulate Traps, Lean, NOx, Catalysts. UNIT  5: Fuel supply systems for S.I. and C.I engines to use gaseous fuels like LPG, CNG and Hydrogen. Modern Trends in IC Engines  Lean Burning and Adiabatic concepts  Rotary Engines.  Modification in I.C engines to suit Bio  fuels.  HCCI and GDI concepts REFERENCES BOOKS: 1. I.C. Engines Fundamentals/Heywood/Mc Graw Hill 2. The I.C. Engine in theory and Practice Vol.I / Teylor / IT Prof. And Vol.II 3. I.C. Engines: Obert/Int – Text Book Co. 4. I.C. Engines: Maleev 5. Combustion Engine Processes: Lichty 6. I.C. Engines: Ferguson 7. Scavenging of Two – stroke Cycle Engines – Switzer. 8. I.C.Engines by V.Ganesan
NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES (ELECTIVE II) Unit – 1: Introduction – Energy Sinario  Survey of Energy Resources – Classification – Need for NonConventional Energy Resources. Solar Energy: The Sun – SunEarth Relationship – Basic matter to waste heat energy circuit – Solar radiation – Attention – Radiation measuring instruments. Solar Energy Applications: Solar water Heating, space heating – active and passive heating – energy storage – selective surface – solar stills and ponds – solar refrigeration – photovoltaic generation . Unit  2: Geothermal Energy: Structure of Earth – Geothermal Regions – Hot springs – Hot Rocks – Hot Aquifers – Analytical Methods to estimate Thermal Potential – Harnessing Techniques – Electricity Generating Systems. Unit  3: Direct Energy Conversion: Nuclear Fusion: Fusion – Fusion Reaction PP Cycle carbon Cycle, Deuterium cycle – condition for controlled Fusion. Fuel Cells and Photovoltaic –Thermionic and Thermoelectric Generation – MHD Generator. Hydrogen gas a Fuel – Production methods – Properties – I.C. Engines Applications – Utilization Strategy – Performances. Unit – 4: Bio – Energy: Biomass Energy Sources – Plant Productivity, Biomass Wastes – Aerobic and Anaerobic bioconversion processes – Raw Materials and properties of BiogasBiogas plant Technology and Status – The Energetics and Economics of Biomass Systems – Biomass gasification. Unit – 5: Wind Energy: Wind – Beaufort number – characteristics – wind energy conversion systems – types – Betz model – Interference Factor – Power Coefficient – Torque Coefficient and thrust coeff. Lift machines and drag machines – matching – electricity generation. Energy from Oceans: Tidal Energy; Tides – Diurnal and Semi – Diurnal Nature – Power from Tides. Wave Energy ; Waves – Theoretical Energy Available – Calculation of period and phase velocity of waves – wave power systems – submerged devices. Ocean Thermal Energy : principles – Heat Exchangers – Pumping requirements – Practical Considerations. TEXT BOOK: 1. Renewable Energy Resources – Basic Principles and Applications – G.N.Tiwari and M.K.Ghosal, Narosa Pub REERENCE BOOKS : 1. Renewable Energy Resources / John Twidell & Tony Weir 2. Biological Energy Resources / Malcolm Flescher & Chrris Lawis
FUELS, COMBUSTION AND ENVIRONMENT Unit – 1: Fuels – detailed classification – Conventional and Unconventional Solid, Liquid, gaseous fuels and nuclear fuels – Origin of Coal – Analysis of coal. Coal – Carborisation, Gasification and liquification – Lignite: petroleum based fuels – problems associated with very low calorific value gases: Coal Gas – Blast Furnace Gas Alcohols and Biogas. Unit – 2 : Principles of combustion – Chemical composition – Flue gas anlaysis – dew point of products – Combustion stoichiometry. Chemical kinetics – Rate of reaction – Reaction order – Molecularity – Zeroth, first, second and third order reactions  complex reactions – chain reactions. Theories of reaction Kinetics – General oxidation behavior of HC’s. Unit – 3: Thermodynamics of combustion – Enthalpy of formation – Heating value of fuel Adiabatic flame Temperature – Equilibrium composition of gaseous mixtures. Unit – 4 : Laminar and turbulent flames propagation and structure – Flame stability – Burning velocity of fuels – Measurement of burning velocity – factors affecting the burning velocity. Combustion of fuel, droplets and sprays – Combustion systems – Pulverised fuel furnaces – fixed, Entrained and Fluidised Bed Systems. Unit – 5 : Environmental considerations – Air pollution – Effects on Environment, Human Health etc. Principal pollutants – Legislative Measures – Methods of Emission control. TEXT BOOKS : 1. Combustion Fundamentals by Roger A strehlow – Mc Graw Hill 2. Fuels and combustion by Sharma and Chander Mohan – Tata Mc Graw Hill 3. Combustion Engineering and Fuel Technology by Shaha A.K. Oxford and IBH. 4. Principles of Combustion by Kanneth K.Kuo, Wiley and Sons. 5. Combustion by Sarkar – Mc. Graw Hill. 6. An Introduction to Combustion – Stephen R. Turns, Mc. Graw Hill International Edition. 7. Combustion Engineering – Gary L. Berman & Kenneth W. Ragland, Mc. Graw Hill International Edition. 8. Combustion I. Glassman
EQUIPMENT DESIGN FOR THERMAL SYSTEMS Unit  1: Classification of heat exchangers: Introduction, Recuperation & Regeneration – Tubular heat exchangers: double pipe, shell & tube heat exchanger, Plate heat exchangers, Gasketed plate heat exchanger, spiral plate heat exchanger, Lamella heat exchanger, extended surface heat exchanger, Plate fin, and Tubular fin. Basic Design Methods of Heat Exchanger: Introduction, Basic equations in design, Overall heat transfer coefficient – LMTD method for heat exchanger analysis – parallel flow, counter flow, multipass, cross flow heat exchanger design calculations. Unit  2: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger: Film Coefficient for fluids in annulus, fouling factors, calorific temperature, average fluid temperature, the calculation of double pipe exchanger, Double pipe exchangers in seriesparallel arrangements. Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers: Tube layouts for exchangers, baffle Heat exchangers, calculation of shell and tube heat exchangers – shell side film coefficients, Shell side equivalent diameter, the true temperature difference in a 12 heat exchanger, influence of approach temperature on correction factor, shell side pressure drop, tube side pressure drop, Analysis of performance of 12 heat exchanger, and design calculation of shell & tube heat exchangers. Flow arrangements for increased heat recovery, the calculations of 24 exchangers. Unit  3: Condensation of single vapors: Calculation of a horizontal condenser, vertical condenser, Desuper heater condenser, vertical condenser – subcooler, horizontal condenser – subcooler, vertical reflux type condenser, condensation of steam. Unit – 4: Vaporizers, Evaporators and Reboilers: Vaporizing processes, forced circulation vaporizing exchangers, natural circulation vaporizing exchangers, calculations of a reboiler. Extended Surfaces: Longitudinal fins, weighted fin efficiency curve, calculation of a double pipe fin efficiency curve, calculation of a double pipe finned exchanger, calculation of a longitudinal fin shell and tube exchanger. Unit  5: Direct Contact Heat Exchanger: Cooling towers, relation between wet bulb & dew point temperatures, the Lewis number, and classification of cooling towers, cooling tower internals and the roll of fill, Heat balance, heat transfer by simultaneous diffusion and convection. Analysis of cooling tower requirements, Design of cooling towers, Determination of the number of diffusion units, calculation of cooling tower performance. TEXT BOOKS : 1. Process Heat Transfer – D.Q. Kern, TMH. 2. Cooling Towers by J.D. Gurney 3. Heat Exchanger Design – A.P.Fraas and M.N. Ozisick. John Wiely & sons, New York.
REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING Unit – 1: Vapour Compression Refrigeration : Performance of Complete vapor compression system. Components of Vapor Compression System: The condensing unit – Evaporators – Expansion valve – Refrigerants – Properties – ODP & GWP  Load balancing of vapor compression Unit. Compound Compression : Flash intercooling – flash chamber – Multievaporator & Multistage systems. Unit – 2: Production of low temperature – Liquefaction system ;Cascade System – Applications.– Dry ice system. Vapor absorption system – Simple and modified aqua – ammonia system – Representation on Enthalpy –Concentration diagram. Lithium – Bromide system Three fluid system – HCOP. Unit – 3: Air Refrigeration : Applications – Air Craft Refrigeration Simple, Bootstrap, Regenerative and Reduced ambient systems – Problems based on different systems. Steam Jet refrigeration system :Representation on Ts and hs diagrams – limitations and applications. Unconventional Refrigeration system – Thermoelectric – Vortex tube & Pulse tube – working principles. Unit – 4: Air –conditioning: Psychrometric properties and processes – Construction of Psychrometric chart. Requirements of Comfort Air –conditioning – Thermodynamics of human body – Effective temperature and Comfort chart – Parameters influencing the Effective Temperature. Summer , Winter and year round air – conditioning systems. Cooling load Estimation: Occupants, equipments, infiltration, duet heat gain fan load, Fresh air load. Unit – 5: Air –conditioning Systems:All Fresh air , Recirculated air with and without bypass, with reheat systems – Calculation of Bypass Factor, ADP,RSHF, ESHF and GSHF for different systems. Components:Humidification and dehumidification equipment – Systems of Air cleaning – Grills and diffusers – Fans and blowers – Measurement and control of Temperature and Humidity. TEXT BOOKS : 1. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning – C.P. Arora(TMH) 2. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning – Arora & Domkundwar – Dhanpat Rai REFERENCE BOOKS : 1) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning :Manohar Prasad 2) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Stoecker – Mc Graw Hill 3) Principles of Refrigeration – Dossat (Pearson) 4) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Ananthanarayana (TMH) 5) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Jordan and – Prentice Hall, Preister 6) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Dossat – Mc Graw Hill 7) Thermal Environmental Engg. : Threlkeld – Van Nostrand 8) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Ballany – Khanna 9) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Arora – Tata Mc Graw Hill 10) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Domkundwar – Dhanpatrai 11) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : SC Jain S.Chand and Co. 12) Ashrae Hand Book : 2 Vols
JET PROPULSION AND ROCKETRY Unit  1: Turbo Jet Propulsion System: Gas turbine cycle analysis – layout of turbo jet engine. Turbo machinery compressors and turbines, combustor, blade aerodynamics, engine off design performance analysis. Flight Performance: Forces acting on vehicle – Basic relations of motion – multi stage vehicles. Unit  2: Principles of Jet Propulsion and Rocketry: Fundamentals of jet propulsion, Rockets and air breathing jet engines – Classification – turbo jet , turbo fan, turbo prop, rocket (Solid and Liquid propellant rockets) and Ramjet engines. Nozzle Theory and Characteristics Parameters: Theory of one dimensional convergent – divergent nozzles – aerodynamic choking of nozzles and mass flow through a nozzle – nozzle exhaust velocity – thrust, thrust coefficient, Ac / At of a nozzle, Supersonic nozzle shape, nonadapted nozzles, summer field criteria, departure from simple analysis – characteristic parameters – 1) characteristic velocity, 2) specific impulse 3) total impulse 4) relationship between the characteristic parameters 5) nozzle efficiency, combustion efficiency and overall efficiency. Unit  3: Aero Thermo Chemistry of The Combustion Products: Review of properties of mixture of gases – Gibbs – Dalton laws – Equivalent ratio, enthalpy changes in reactions, heat of reaction and heat of formation – calculation of adiabatic flame temperature and specific impulse – frozen and equilibrium flows. Solid Propulsion System: Solid propellants – classification, homogeneous and heterogeneous propellants, double base propellant compositions and manufacturing methods. Composite propellant oxidizers and binders. Effect of binder on propellant properties. Burning rate and burning rate laws, factors influencing the burning rate, methods of determining burning rates. Unit  4: Solid propellant rocket engine – internal ballistics, equilibrium motor operation and equilibrium pressure to various parameters. Transient and pseudo equilibrium operation, end burning and burning grains, grain design. Rocket motor hard ware design. Heat transfer considerations in solid rocket motor design. Ignition system, simple pyro devices. Liquid Rocket Propulsion System: Liquid propellants – classification, Mono and Bi propellants, Cryogenic and storage propellants, ignition delay of hypergolic propellants, physical and chemical characteristics of liquid propellant. Liquid propellant rocket engine – system layout, pump and pressure feed systems, feed system components. Design of combustion chamber, characteristic length, constructional features, and chamber wall stresses. Heat transfer and cooling aspects. Uncooled engines, injectors – various types, injection patterns, injector characteristics, and atomization and drop size distribution, propellant tank design. Unit  5: Ramjet and Integral Rocket Ramjet Propulsion System: Fuel rich solid propellants, gross thrust, gross thrust coefficient, combustion efficiency of ramjet engine, air intakes and their classification – critical, super critical and subcritical operation of air intakes, engine intake matching, classification and comparison of IIRR propulsion systems.
TEXT BOOKS: 1. Mechanics and Dynamics of Propulsion – Hill and Peterson 2. Rocket propulsion elements – Sutton REFERENCES BOOKS: 1. Gas Turbines – Ganesan (TMH) 2. Gas Turbines & Propulsive Systems – Khajuria & Dubey (Dhanpatrai) 3. Rocket propulsion – Bevere 4. Jet propulsion – Nicholas Cumpsty
DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION
1. Energy Balance of the earth – The Greenhouse effect – Physical Source of sunlight – Planck’s
blackbody radiation distribution from different black body temperatures – The earth and Solar Constant – Spectral distribution of extraterrestrial radiation – Basic earthsun angles – Solar time and equation of time – attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere – Direct and diffuse radiation at the ground – Empirical equations for predicting the availability of solar radiation – Computation of radiation on inclined surfaces  Angstrom’s turbidity, Solar charts – Measurement of diffuse, global and direct solar radiation – Calibration and standardization – Duration of Sun hours – Solar radiation data – Peak Sun hours – Standard terms and definitions.
2. Photovoltaics (PV): History, review of semiconductor physics and Operating principle – Silicon
as PV material  Direct and indirect bandgap material – Flow of Silicon material – Single crystal Silicon Solar cell – Structure – Important electrical parameters – Ideal and approximate equivalent circuits  Manufacturing processes (wafer and cell) of single crystal, multicrystalline and Edge Defined Film Fed Growth Silicon  Temperature and Irradiation effects – Energy Losses – Absorption coefficient and reflectance  Review of other PV technologies – Silicon film, Cadmium telluride (cdTe), Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide, amorphous silicon – Comparison of ‘Thin film’ and ‘Bulk crystal’ technology – manufacturing (module making) processes of amorphous silicon on glass, stainless steel and plastic substrates – Typical materials used Concentrator technology and the importance of tracking – Comparison of efficiencies of various technologies – Recent trends in technology and manufacturing.
3. PV modules and arrays – Design requirements of PV modules – Rating of PV modules –
Standard Test Conditions (STC), Normal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT) and Standard Operating Conditions (SOC) – Output curves ( ‘CurrentVoltage’ or ‘IV’ and ‘PowerVoltage’ or ‘PV’) under various irradiance and temperature conditions – Mounting structure for PV modules/arrays – Orientation and array layout – Effects of shading  Other balance of systems (BOS) and protective devices: blocking and bypass diodes, movistors – Roof mounted arrays – Building integrated PV (BIPV) – Typical faults and diagnosis – Hot Spot problem in a PV module and safe operating area  Performance measurement of typical parameters of cells/modules under natural and simulated light – Indoor sun simulators Outdoor PV array testers – ASTM and IEEE standards for Class A and Class B simulators – Pulsed, steady state and single flash types – Determination of temperature coefficients, series and shunt resistances, curve correction factor  Computation of efficiency and fill factor – Translation of parameters actually measured to STC – Reliability Testing: Qualification tests, IEC Standards 61215 & 61646 – Reliability test – Field stress testing.
4. PV Systems – Stand alone and grid connected – Load estimation – Daily load demand – Solar
radiation/irradiance table for a particular location  Sizing of the PV array, battery, inverter and other BOS – Maximizing efficiency of subsystems – Balance of systems – Single axis and two axis tracking at optimum inclination of the PV array – Power conditioning and control – Maximum Power Point Trackers, Charge controllers/regulators, DC/DC Converters, DC/AC inverters – Alarms, indicators and monitoring equipment – Energy Storage: Batteries, Deep cycle lead acid type, Battery Design and construction, Other types of batteries, Battery Selection criteria, Safety issues – Typical applications of PV – Hybrid systems: PVWind, PVDiesel engine, PVMains  System Sizing examples: Domestic loads, Water pumping, Lighting (using CFLs, White LEDs)  hybrid systems, village power packs – Installation practices – Trouble shooting – Economic analysis: Life Cycle Cost analysis – Environment impacts of PV – Green buildings – Potential for GHG emission reduction of installed PV systems.
5. The Hydrogen economy – Advantages of hydrogen as an energy carrier – Components of the
hydrogen economy  Generation of hydrogen  Transport and storage of hydrogen: physical and chemical  Fuel Cells – Classification of fuel cells based on (a) Type of electrolyte (b) Type of the fuel and oxidant (c) operating temperature (d) application and (e) chemical nature of electrolyte Reference Books: a. Solar Electricity /Edited by Tomas Markvart/John Wiley and Sons b. Solar Cells – Operating Principles, Technology and System Applications /Martin A. Green/Prentice Hall Inc c. Modelling Photovoltaic Systems using P Spice/Luis Castaner and Santiago Silvestre/John Wiley and Sons d. Solar Energy – Fundamentals and Applications/H.P. Garg and J. Prakash/Tata McGrawHill e. Generating Electricity from the Sun/Edited by Fred C. Treble/Pergamon Press f. Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells/K.Takahashi and M.Konagai/North Oxford Academic g. Photovoltaic Systems Engineering/Roger Messenger/CRC Press h. Fuel Cells/Livin Oniciu/Abacus Press 1976