Pregnancy and Lactation

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Chapter 14 :PREGNANCY AND LACTATION NUTRITION PRIOR TO PREGNANCY y

y

y y

y

y

           

Achieve and maintain healthy body weight Choose an adequate balance diet Be

physically active

Receive regular medical care Manage

chronic conditions(e.g..diabetes, HIV)

Avoid harmful influences ( cigarettes, alcohol, drugs)

Growth and development during pregnancy y

  Placental development Develops in the uterus o  Form 2 associated structure ( amniotic sac, umbilical cord) o  Placenta uses energy and nutrients to support its work o  Produce hormones that maintain pregnancy and prepare the mothers breast for o  making milk

y

 

Fetal

growth and development

  The zygote   The embryo o  The fetus

o

o

y

  Critical periods Times of intense development and rapid cell and division are called critical periods o  Neural tube development o    Beginning structure of the brain and spinal cord   Any failure will lead to dysfunction   Neural tube defect   A personal or family history   Maternal diabetes   Maternal use of certain antiseizure 





y

y

y y

y

y

 

Folate

   

Mutations

in folate related enzymes Maternal obesity

supplement

  Taken one month before conception 0.4 miligrams of folate daily o  Prevent neural tube defect o 

o

y

y

  Chronic diseases Malnutrition o  Hypertension o    Fetal programming Genetic research can may help to explain phenomenal of substances that influencing o  the development of diseases later in adulthood

 

o

May

influence succeeding generations

 

MATERNAL

WEIGHT

Weight prior to conception y

y

y

  Underweight High risk of low birthweight infant o  Rates of preterm births and infant death is higher o    Overweight and obesity High risk of medical complications(hypertension, diabetes ,infections o  o  Infants are more likely to be born post term and weigh more than 9 pounds o  Difficult labor and delivery, birth trauma, caesarean section   Recommended weight gains Gain 25 to 35 pounds o  For underweight 28 to 40pounds o  For overweight 15 to 20 pounds o  Select food with high nutrients o 

Exercise during pregnancy y

y y

  Improve fitness   Manage gestational diabetes   Reduce stress

NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY y

y

y y

y

y

y

             

Energy Carbohydrate Protein Essential fatty acids Nutrients for blood production and cell growth (zinc, iron, vitamin b12, folate) Nutrients for bone development ( vitamin d, calcium) Nutrients supplement

COMMON NUTRITION RELATED CONCERNS OF PREGNANCY y

y

y

y y

         

Nausea Constipation Constipat ion and haemorrhoids haemorrhoids Heartburn Food

cravings and aversion

Non-food craving

MALNUTRITION

y

y y

AND PREGNANCY

  Fertility   Early pregnancy   Fetal development

 

MATERNAL

y

y

y y

y

         

HEALTH

Preexisting diabetes Gestational diabetes(glucose intolerance with onset) Chronic hypertension Gestational hypertension Preeclampsia( a condition characterized by hypertension and protein in the urine)

PRACTICES INCOMPATIBLE WITH PREGNANCY AND LACTATION y y

y

y y

y

y y

y

y y

                     

Alcohol Medicinal

drugs

Herbal supplements Illicit drugs Smoking

Environmental contaminant Foodborne

illness

Vitamin or mineral overdoses Caffeine Weight loss dieting Sugar

substitutes

Nutrition during lactation y

y y

y

y

y

           

Energy intake and exercise Energy nutrients Vitamins and minerals Water Nutrients supplement Food

assistance program

 

Chapter 16 :NUTRITION DURING INFANCY y

y

y y

       

Energy intake and activity Energy nutrients Vitamins and minerals Water

B

reast milk y

y y

y

y y

y

             

Frequency

and duration of breastfeeding

Energy nutrients Vitamins Minerals Supplements

Immunological protection Allergy and disease protection

Nutrition during childhood y

y y y

y

  Carbohydrate and fiber   Fat and fatty acids   Protein   Vitamins and minerals   Supplements

The malnutrition lead connection y y

Food

y

y y

  Hyperactivity   Misbehaving allergy intolerance

  Detecting food allergies and symptoms   Anaphylactic shock   Food labelling

Childhood obesity y

y y

y

y

y

           

Genetic environmental factors growth physical health Psychological development Diet Physical activity

 

Adolescence energy and nutrient needs y

y

y y

       

Energy intake and activity Vitamins Iron Calcium

F

ood choices and health habits y

y y

y

y y

y

y

               

Snacks

(combination of food from different groups to create healthy snacks)

Beverages

Eating away from home Peer influences Drug abuse Alcohol abuse Smoking Smokeless

tobacco

 

Chapter 17 : ADULTHOOD AND LATER YEARS   Nutrition and longevity y

y

  Healthy habits Eating well balanced diet o  Engaging physical activity o  o  Not using alcohol Maintaining healthy body weight o  Sleeping adequately o    The aging process o  Changes   Body weight   Body composition   Immunity and inflammation   Tooth loss   Sensory losses   Physical problem   Nutrients needed Protein o  Carbohydrate and fiber o  Fat o  o  Vitamin b12 Vitamin D o  Folate o  Calcium o  Iron o  Zinc o  











y

NUTRITION RELATED CONCERN OF OLDER ADULTS  y

  VISION    Cataracts Macular degeneration

o

o y

y

  Arthritis Oseoarthritis o  Rheumatoid arthritis o  Gout o    The aging brain o  Nutrient deficiencies o  Alzheimer

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