Preparation of Standard Solutions

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Preparation of Standard Solutions by Rajarshi N Patel.
AcetaIdehyde Standard SoIution (100 ppm C
2
H
4
O): Dissolve 1.0 g of acetaldehyde in
sufficient 2-propanol to produce 100ml and dilute 5.0ml of the solution to 500.0 ml with 2-
propanol.
AIumInium Standard SoIution (2 ppm AI): Dilute 2 volumes of a 0.176 per cent w/v solution
of alumlnium potassium sulphate in 0.1 M sulphuric acid to 100 volumes with water.
AIumInium Standard SoIution (10 ppmAI): Dilute 1 volume of a 1.39 per cent w/v solution of
alumlnium nitrate to 100 volumes with water.
Ammonium Standard SoIution (1ppm NH
4
):Dilute 10.0ml of a 0.0741 % w/v solution of
ammonium chloride to 25.0 ml with ammonia-free water. Dilute 1 volume of the resulting
solution to 100 volumes with ammonia-free water immediately before use.
Arsenic Standard SoIution (1 ppm As): Dilute J volume of arsenic standard solution (10 ppm
As) to 10 volumes with water.
Arsenic Standard SoIution (10 ppm As): Dissolve 0.33 g of arsenic trioxide in 5 ml of 2M
sodium hydroxide and dilute to 250.0 ml with water. Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 100
volumes with water.
Barium Standard SoIution (10 ppm Ba): Dilute 1.0 ml of a 0.178 per cent w/v solution of
barium chloride to 100.0 ml with water.
CadmIum Standard SoIution (10 ppm Cd): Dilute 2.0 ml of a 0.228 per cent w/v solution of
cadmlum sulphate to 200.0 ml with water.
CaIcium Standard SoIution (10 ppm Ca): Dissolve 0.624 g of dried calcium carbonate in
distilled water containing 3 ml of 5 M acetic acid and dilute to 250.0 ml with distilled water.
Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 100 volumes with distilled water.
CaIcium Standard SoIution (100 ppm Ca), EthanoIic: Dissolve 2.50 g of dried calcium
carbonate in 12 ml of 5 M acetic acid and dilute to 1000.0 ml with distilled water. Dilute 1
volume of this solution to 10 volumes with ethanol (95 per cent).
ChIoride Standard SoIution (5 ppm CI): Dilute 1volume of a 0.0824 per cent w/v solution of
sodium chloride to 100 volumes with water.
ChIoride Standard SoIution (25 ppm CI): Dilute 5 volumes of a 0.0824 per cent w/v solution
of sodium chloride to 100 volumes with water.
Copper Standard SoIution: Dissolve 1.965 g of cupric sulphate, accurately weighed, in
sufficient 0.1 M hydrochloric acid to produce 1000.0 ml. Transfer 3.0 ml to a 1000 ml
volumetric flask and dilute to volume with 0.1 M hdyrochloric acid.
Copper Standard SoIution (10 ppm Cu): Dilute 1volume of a 0.393 per cent w/v solution of
cupric sulphate to 100 volumes with water.
Digitoxin Standard SoIution; Digitoxin Reagent: Dissolve 0.125 g of digitoxin RS in
sufficient glacial acetic acid to produce 100.0 ml. Dilute 4.0 ml of this solution to 100.0 ml with
glacial acetic acid. To 25.0 ml of the resulting solution add 3.0 ml of water and mlx well.
Digoxin Standard SoIution: Dissolve 0.125 g of digoxin RS in sufficient glacial acetic acid to
produce 100.0 ml. Dilute 4.0 ml of this solution to 100.0 ml with glacial acetic acid. To 25.0 ml
of the resulting solution add 3.0 ml of water and mlx well.
FormaIdehyde Standard SoIution (5 ppm CH
2
O): Dilute 1 volume of a solution containing
3.0 g of formaldehyde solution in 1000.0 ml to 200 volumes with water.
Iron Standard SoIution (2 ppm Fe): Dilute 1volume of iron standard solution (20 ppm Fe) to
10 volumes with water.
Iron Standard SoIution (8 ppm Fe): Dilute 4 volumes of iron standard solution (20 ppm Fe) to
100 volumes with water .
Iron Standard SoIution (10 ppm Fe): Dissolve 7.022 g offerrous ammonium sulphate in water
containing 25 ml of 1M sulphuric acid and add sufficient water to produce 1000.0 ml. Dilute 1
volume to 100 volumes with water. Contains iron in ferrous state.
Iron Standard SoIution (20 ppm Fe): Dilute 1 volume of a 0.1726 per cent w/v solution of
ferric ammonium sulphate in 0.05 M sulphuric acid to 10 volumes with water. Contains iron in
ferric state.
Lead Standard SoIution: On the day of use, dilute 10 ml of lead nitrate stock solution with
water to 100 ml. 1 ml of lead standard solution contains the equivalent of 10 !lg of lead. A
control comparison solution prepared with 2.0 ml of lead standard solution contains, when
compared to a solution representing 1.0 g of the substance under examlnation, the equivalent
of 20 ppm of lead.
Lead Standard SoIution (1 ppm Pb): Dilute 1volume of lead standard solution (10 ppm Pb) to
10 volumes with water.
Lead Standard SoIution (2 ppm Pb): Dilute Ì volume of lead standard solution (10 ppm Pb) to
5 volumes with water.
Lead Standard SoIution (10 ppm Pb): Dilute Ì volume of lead standard solution (100 ppm Pb)
to 10 volumes with water.
Lead Standard SoIution (20 ppm Pb): Dilute 1 volume of lead standard solution (100 ppm
Pb) to 5 volumes with water.
Lead Standard SoIution (100 ppm Pb): Dilute 1 volume of lead standard solution (0.1 per
cent Pb) to 10 volumes with water.
Lead Standard SoIution (0.1 per cent Pb): Dissolve 0.4 g of lead nitrate in water containing 2
ml of nitric acid and add sufficient water to produce 250.0 ml.
NickeI Standard SoIution (10 ppm Ni): Dilute Ì volume of a 0.478 per cent w/v solution of
nickel sulphate to 100 volumes with water.
Nitrate Standard SoIution (2 ppm N03): Dilute 1volume of nitrate standard solution (100 ppm
NOJ) to 50 volumes with water.
Nitrate Standard SoIution (100 ppm N03): Dilute 1volume of a 0.163 per cent w/v solution of
potassium nitrate to 10 volumes with water.
Phosphate Standard SoIution (5 ppm P04): Dilute 1volume of a 0.143 per cent w/v solution
of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to 200 volumes with water.
SiIver Standard SoIution (5 ppm Ag): Dilute 1volume of a 0.079 per cent w/v solution of
silver nitrate to 100 volumes with water.
SuIphate Standard SoIution (10 ppm S04): Dilute Ì volume of a 0.181 per cent w/v solution
of potassium sulphate in distilled water to 100 volumes with the same solvent.
.SuIphate Standard SoIution (10 ppm S04), EthanoIic: Dilute 1 volume of a 0.181 per cent
w/v solution of potassium sulphate in ethanol (30 per cent) to 100 volumes with ethanol (30 per
cent).
Tin Standard SoIution (5 ppm Sn): Dissolve 0.5 g of tin in a mlxture of 5 ml of water and 25
ml of hydrochloric acid and add sufficient water to produce 1000.0 ml. Dilute 1 volume of this
solution to 100 volumes with a 2.5 per cent v/v solution of hydrochloric acid.
Zinc Standard SoIution (10 ppm Zn): Dilute 1volume of zinc standard solution (100 ppm Zn)
to 10 volumes with water.
Zinc Standard SoIution (25 ppm Zn): Dilute 25 volumes of zinc standard solution (100 ppm
Zn) to 100 volumes with water.
Zinc Standard SoIution (100 ppm Zn): Dissolve 0.440 g of zinc sulphate in water containing
1 ml of 5M acetic acid and add sufficient water to produce 100.0 ml.
Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 10 volumes with water immediately before use.

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