This document provides guidelines for MBA project work. The purpose of this document is to help student choose appropriate sector, organization and create a career. It is not to create a set of inflexible rules. Please post your questions and feedback.
SRM University, SRM School of Management, Kattankulathur
Dr.K.Prabahakar SRM University 1/26/2013
Introduction The objective of project work is to experience the way in which organizations function in a given environment. The keyword is experience. Experience has two dimensions, understanding and application. 1. Understanding i. Understand the global and local economic scenario and the sector in which the selected organization operate. ii. The business model of the organization. iii. Understand how each of the functional areas are designed and performed in an organization. iv. How the organization is similar to other organizations in the same sector as well as how it is different from other organizations. v. Business proposition offered by the organization, SWOT Analysis, financial for the past five years, the strategy of the organization. The understanding expected out of you may appear to be obvious. However, in practice it is different. You are encouraged to go through the web link http://www.businessmodelgeneration.com/canvas , and understand how the nine fundamental building blocks of business are built. You will realize that the business models of organizations are complex and need analysis and study. Please do jot down all the points in a sheet and share it with your cohorts, juniors, and teachers and with organization employees.
The next step is if you planning to study the strategy of the organization please use the following one page document. http://www.gazelles.com/strategy-onepage-strategic-plan.html#opsp. It is in word format and you can fill as many details as possible. If you are not able to complete it, there is no need to worry. Take some more time to complete your task, but start. You will find the site (https://www.gazelles.com ) provides you comprehensive tools for analysis of different dimensions of organization. 2. Application i. Apply knowledge of research methodology to analyze the problems or issues faced by organizations. ii. Understand how various principles you have learned during course work is applied in the real time business world. iii. Learn the changes that are taking place in the business world. If certain guidelines are followed, experiences indicate that project work will be fulfilling experience and paves way for final placement. Certain assumptions are made before starting the dialogue. It is assumed that you have successfully completed your summer project work. The guidelines may not be different but are applied with fewer rigors. You have also selected your specialization with due diligence and passionate about perusing your career in the given specialization. Phases in Project Work The project work you will be doing may be divided into three phases i. Pre-project preparation ii. Interface during the project iii. Interface after the project. If you request for a project work from any organization, you will be raising certain expectations. You may send a resume to the organization you have chosen. About how to design of your resume with the appropriate statement of purpose is given the web link http://www.vpul.upenn.edu/careerservices/undergrad/resumes.html#overview . I have not written specifically to Indian conditions. If you need help please do contact the author and his team. An ideal resume should not exceed more than two pages1. The expectations are generally based on 1. The institute you come from. 2. Your competencies. 3. References given by you. 4. Personal interview attended by you. However, the first step is to select the sector which will provide you career. Selection of Sector Let us examine an episode happened at a campus. Students are offered placement in a multinational bank business process outsourcing organization with a good starting salary. Large number of students applied for the same and a significant number of them did get selected. After some time other organizations came in and students who are selected in the bank bpo are not nominated. Some of the students who got the jobs are disappointed as they thought they will be suitable for other sectors. The disappointment could have been avoided if the students studied different sectors and zeroed on the organizations that they are planning to work.
Thus the first step is to start with sector. However the question is why starting with sector? The answer is you need to focus. If you try for any job, you may not have a career. Please do differentiate between career and job. You need to have a career that will help you to earn as well as feel happy about it. If you get a job that you do not like or not suitable for your personality and skill set, you may find yourself in a difficult situation. Please take the advice of Steve Jobs2. For this purpose, you should know different sectors and the characteristics of each of these sectors. If you do a careful analysis of what is happening in the environment you will be in a position to identify sectors that are growing and provide opportunities. Please remember that all industries were growth industries when they started3. If you need further information please do go through the Indian Brand Equity Foundation (http://www.ibef.org/). IBEF is a website that provides information on Indian economy and on the performance of different sectors. Let us consider an example. If you decided to do project work in a biotechnology organization, after carefully considering your skill set, and wanted to know the overall performance of the biotechnology sector, you may go through the web link (http://www.ibef.org/download/Biotechnology-Sector-04jan.pdf ). Then go through different press reports, financial data for five to ten years from the links (www.moneycontrol.com, http://economictimes.indiatimes.com) of different organizations operating in that sector. These sites suggested are only to start initial analysis. You may choose your own search strategy. If you are interested in quoting macroeconomic data, please do visit the site (http://mospi.nic.in/).Once you have studied the sectors, you need to match them with likely employment scenarios in that particular sector. For this purpose, please go through the report given by Ma Foi Randstad (Employment Trends Survey; http://www.ceotalentsearch.com/wpcontent/uploads/attachments/newsBrochures/445/Employment%20Trends%20Survey1335361201.pdf). The suggested report is based on the Indian economic environment and
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1R-jKKp3NA (listen to his lecture) The article written by Theodore Levitt is one of the finest articles on Marketing Myopia suffered by organizations .The article is written in the year 1960 and many of the ideas are still relevant. http://www.commerce.uct.ac.za/managementstudies/Courses/bus2010s/2007/Nicole%20Frey/Readings/Journal%20 Articles/Classics/Marketing%20Myopia.pdf
provides input from the perspective of jobs created and likely growth in jobs.
The other sites which may help you are: http://www.teamlease.com , http://www.aon.com After carefully going through prospects of different sectors, skill sets needed by each of the sectors prepare a report. They may not specify the skill set. You need to infer from the reports and discussion. Please go through the article written by Robert Shindell4. It provides ten universal skills that are needed by any employer. Share the report with your cohorts, teachers or with key managers in organizations. Organizations do encourage such queries as part of employment brand equity creation. Once you have completed research on the one or two sectors that fascinates you, please select at least five organizations. Collect all possible information about the organization. For example it may appear obvious that Infosys is a software company. After, an analysis, you will find lots more information about Infosys. One such insight is how it used cave technology to design its buildings in Hyderabad that consumed lesser energy and likely to be patented by Infosys. Meet people in the organization, interview them. If you find that you can make a good career please start your process. You are encouraged to go to (http://www.glassdoor.com) to know about jobs, interviews, tests, internships. Other website www.twenty19.com is one such website that will help you find organizations. It has been observed by researchers that it is not the best people who get the jobs. It is the people who decide to get those jobs get the jobs. Please do visit http://www.jobhuntersbible.com/ to get a good understanding on what is job hunting and how to do it. Please do read the book What Color is Your Parachute? For a career in public sector units please do go through the following websites. 1. http://www.india.gov.in/spotlight/public-sector-undertakings-india 2. http://www.psuindia.in/psu-jobs 3.http://freshersplane.com/news/reasons-why-public-sector-companies-hiring-candidates-throughgate-2013-public-sector-jobs-through-gate-2013 Fresher plane provides information about job opportunities for fresh graduates.
Please do take your GATE examination if you are keen on going for some of the best psus.However GATE is for engineering graduates. http://privatejobshub.blogspot.in/2012/10/public-sectorcompanies-recruiting.html Jagranjosh is another site that provides information on jobs in public sector organizations. http://www.jagranjosh.com/articles-jobs-in-psus-1305796596-1 The author requests the readers to use due diligence while going through the information and suggestion of these sites in no way is an endorsement of authenticity of information. It is strongly suggested to go through the websites of the organizations and find your suitability. For public sector banks, please do go through the following write up; http://www.employmentnews.gov.in/CAREER_IN_PUBLIC_SECTOR_BANKS.asp Large number of banks, especially public sector banks is recruiting banking correspondents. Some thoughts for your analysis. 1. Please examine your specialization in undergraduate course. Please find what fascinated you; it need not be just your specialization. Introspect. Find a different project that you have done in an undergraduate course. Your projects in MBA course. Your presentations at events in different colleges. Examine all that you can. This is not to make you inflexible but to have focus. 2. Your personality. To know about your personality traits and relationship to likely career you are going to choose, please do take the test on personality at http://www.humanmetrics.com. This website will provide excellent guidance for your career. Once you take the test, personality is analyzed and career is suggested. An example output is provided here to help you. Introvert (22%) intuitive (62%) intuitive Feeling (38%) Perceiving (56) % You have a slight preference for Introversion over Extraversion (22%) You have a distinctive preference of Intuition over Sensing (62%) You have a moderate preference of Feeling over thinking (38%) You have a moderate preference of Perceiving over Judging (56%) Overall, INFPs are effective in occupations involving a lot of intellectual work that is focused on humanities and social science, spirit and soul, inspirational activities, and requiring creativity. Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counselors, mental and community care staff, children's education, teaching, and also creative script writing are just some of the examples of suitable occupations for INFPs. They also succeed at academia thanks to their intellectual strength.
The person who underwent the test was in marketing before realizing that he was in the wrong career. It took fourteen long years to start a career that fascinated him. Therefore, please do spend time, if you are struck in a wrong job, it takes long time to get rid of the job and take the path of your career. However, the suggestions are not by any stretch of imagination are exhaustive. The other types of organizations are in the social sector. Micro finance and nongovernmental organizations do offer excellent opportunities for research and fulfillment5. The next step is identifying a set of organizations that may help you to realize your career goals. You may call them as dream companies. Please do pick up your letters from the Dean’s office and submit them to organizations which you have chosen. Inform your guide about your contacts. There are two types of organizations. The first type is those who have a specific policy of recruitment of interns or project trainees. They have a plan and they have already specifications for trainees. They generally call for an interview and you may have to undergo all the requirements. Such organizations may not promise a job, but will provide the first opportunity for their own trainees. The second type of organizations is more flexible. They may not have a policy, but are willing to consider. The first type of organizations has specific time limits. You need to approach them with a clear statement of purpose. Designing Resume and Statement of Purpose Please do write to the author if you need help in this regard. Questions about dilemma of Project work in organizations Some students come up with questions such as, should we choose private sector organizations, public sector organizations, non-governmental organizations or startups? While trying to have a career in each type of the organizations, you need to find suitability. Some of the public sector units do function more professionally than private, your discretion is requested. Some of the public sector organizations may require you to submit the report to their functional heads and you may be constrained to get the questionnaire administered and submitting the report. I presume that you have obtained letters of confirmation from the organization and you are ready for the next phase. Phase II 1. Find out the name & the contact number of the person to whom you have to report. 2. Inform in advance if possible of your arrival. Dress code of plain shirt with shoe, tie and clean shave has to be adhered. Your first interface should project the following traits. 1. Show patience, organizations have to cater to all stakeholders and yours will be lost as the purpose of the organization is value added. This does not mean that you are unimportant; your work comes last in the important things to be done. 2. The project work is an additional responsibility undertaken by the organization; therefore don’t expect organizations or the person in charge to respond to you immediately. Sometime you may have to wait more than 3 hours or even 1 day. This doesn’t mean that organization is not in need of you. It only indicates that they have different priorities. However you will be observed during the entire phase of waiting.
Things to do Sit in the reception and go through a book on Research Methodology, Hindu Industrial Survey and printout of the website relating to organization. If you find a newspaper in reception of organization, you can read it. But read them with all pages intact. While sitting, don’t sit cross legs, crouching position, anxiety, intolerance for delay, constantly going out and talk with your friends through cell phone or talking to the other stranger in the reception or talking with your other friends in low or high voices. All these activities indicate you are not yet become professional. Do not disturb the receptionist by frequently asking questions. However, do not disappear and come after two to three hours. When the manager wants to meet you, you may not be there. You lost a chance to impress people about your character. Please do not fake any attitude, be genuine. Phase III In phase III you will be working towards meeting expectations of organizations. The general question is “What is the Topic?” for project work. Two kinds of situation you will face. Organizations give you a Topic or they will ask you to choose the topic in both the cases please prepare a list of topics which you will think of completing. If it is marketing have a list of not less than 15 to 20 different topics. Similarly in HR. For HR topics please refer to Training Instruments in HRD and OD by Udai Pareek (2005). Please do not use your own questionnaires for your research. You need to use valid and reliable questionnaires. If you design questionnaire you need to prove the validity and reliability. Another question you will face is “What are all the statistical tools you will be using to analyze the data. Please inform them that you will be using parametric, non parametric tests and multivariate analysis. You will also be using multidimensional scaling techniques wherever appropriate. When a topic is given to you, it will be in business terms for example of an organization like Pepsi they may like to know various local brands sold in Erode District. You have converted this into “Purposive investigation”. In order to convert the business problems into researchable topics you have to go for further analysis. First you should know the different local brands which are competing with Pepsi; eliminate brand that are not direct competition with Pepsi (is Paneer Soda a competitor for Pepsi?) Once you identify various brands through a quick survey of retailers then decide a rough title. This title may undergo change once you decide on the objectives and scope of objectives. You have to think for some time and write down all your ideas in a book that you are carrying remember you are a professional. Write, Correct, Iterate, Incubate, Create this is how you have to go throughout the process. Once a business problem is identified the topic reflecting your research and addressing organizations’ need. Go to the next Phase of the research. What approach do you think that you are adopting. We are adopting a funnel approach. Start with broad ideas and then focusing on two specific and business problems and issues.
The project report writing to a large extend should reflect your thinking process. The following format is suggested for you (Read various data, understand and then write. Don’t reproduce given in the book or in the text.) Title: ______________________________________________ The first title you arrive may not be the final title. You can change as you progress during the project. I think it is appropriate for me to introduce some good examples. If you visit the website http://tejas-iimb.org , you will see a set of articles written by faculty and students. Lit us consider an article on Women Horlicks. (http://tejas-iimb.org/articles/29.php). The product has all the characteristics that is needed for Indian market. However, it failed to meet expectations of the organization. Now with this brief, how you will write the abstract? Women's Horlicks is India's first health drink designed specifically for women's nutritional needs. It targets a hitherto untapped segment as identified by GSKCH (GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare), namely, health conscious urban working women, in metros and minimetros, leading hectic lives balancing career and family. Women's Horlicks seemed to have all the elements necessary for success. And yet, at present, sales appear to be flagging, a seeming contradiction that presents an intriguing case for analysis. I have just reposted the contents as given in the website. Please go through the article. You need to submit a proposal for the first review. Types of Projects 1. Case study 2. Inter-organizational study 3. Empirical study In this document I have not considered case studies or inter-organizational studies. If you planning for such a study please do contact the author. Setting This document describes how to organize project work, which is one of the most important components is your MBA course work. There are different expectations for Master's project work and for Doctoral theses. Make no mistake; the difference is not in format but in the significance and level of impact it creates on the present knowledge levels and contributions; a Doctoral thesis necessarily requires a more difficult problem to be solved, and consequently more substantial contributions. Generally the MBA project report is more focused to satisfy needs of an organization or addressing an area that require an application. There are two issues. The first one is doability meaning the project work should be completed within four months and final report has to be submitted within the time window. The second aspect is its ability to satisfy an organizational need or the conceptual curiosity that you have developed. This answers the question, Should I always do a project in an organization? Not necessarily. However, it is always better to get a project work from an organization as it may lead to your final placement or in future interviews you may use it as a guiding tool for your future employers. It has been observed that some of the HR interviews start with the summer or final project work done by 9
you. However, you may do a concept paper or addressing specific problems, about which there is a discussion later. The project is a formal document whose sole purpose is to prove that you have made a contribution to knowledge or solved an organization’s problem. Your project must have two things.
You have identified a problem or question from the organization. You have solved the problem or answered the question.
Your contribution is documented in your project work. How you are evaluated? Following are the key areas examiners or interviewers look for in your project work. What is the research question addressed? How well the question is articulated? (Has it been answered before? You can use literature review to talk about how it is answered. If it is answered how you are going to find a novel or different answer or confirm what others have found. Above all is it useful) • Did the student provide convincing arguments to support his view? A very clear statement of the question is essential. Thus, please prepare your abstract in an appropriate manner. Your abstract will give you clear direction for you in more specific terms what you are going to do in your project. Ideally the abstract should be submitted during the first review. A good review of the literature is expected from you by perusing at least ten research articles from library online resources. Please do use SRM University website and log on to http://www.srmuniv.ac.in/aboutus/online-resources.
Then, by making direct reference to your literature review, you must demonstrate that your question (a) has not been previously answered, and (b) is worth having a relook. If your project work does not provide answers to the questions given, you may find it difficult to do meaningful work. The project structure with no specific specialization in view is given here. 1. Introduction Introduction -- it is not a description of the contents of each section. You are expected provide brief summary of sector in which the organization operates, organization profile, need for study, objectives of study, significance of study. Summarize the question you are planning to answer, your arguments, reasons why it is a question that requires attention. 2. Background Information A brief section giving background information may be necessary, especially if the work is on subjects like behavioral finance, performance management, supply chain management, where more than one functional area is addressed. 3. Review of Literature Please do go through the research papers in the topic you are working. 4. Research Question or Problem Statement
While Engineering and science projects tend to refer to a "problem" to be solved where as in management, we talk in terms of a "question" to be answered. The following points will be of use to write your project. 1. A precise statement of the question. 2. Justification, by reference to literature review, that your question is previously unanswered or answered or requiring further exploration. 3. Discussion of why it is necessary to answer this question in the organizational context. If you are doing a project in employee engagement, then the question is out of all the Human Resources Issues why you have chosen employee engagement? 5. Describing How You Solved the Problem or Answered the Question This part of the thesis is much more free-form. It may have one or several sections and subsections. But it all has only one purpose: to convince the examiners that you answered the question or solved the problem that you set for yourself. So show what you did that is relevant to answering the question or solving the problem: if there were blind alleys and dead ends, do not include these, unless specifically relevant to the demonstration that you answered the thesis question. You will be addressing the hypotheses. 6. Conclusions 1.Summary of Contributions 3. Future Research Conclusions are not summary of the project work. They are short, concise statements of the inferences that you have made because of your work. It helps to organize these as short numbered paragraphs, ordered from most to least important. All conclusions should be directly related to the research question. 7. References You are requested to follow APA Style while providing citation. 8. Appendices Appendix contains material which helps your argument but may not justify being given in the report. It is material that provides details. Contents and guidelines for writing 1. Industry Profile Please go through Hindu Industrial Survey 2012 and other websites such as www.ibef.org pertaining to the Industry or to the sector, in which the business organization operates. You have to use your discretion carefully; if you are working in automobiles spare parts organizations do touch up on automobile Industry, However as a rule of thumb 75 to 80 of your industrial profile should be automobile spare parts industry. Be comprehensive while talking about industry Please find at least ten major companies in your industry and in the international market. Write a brief write up on what happened in the past three years and what is in store for three years from now for the sector. Identify at least three; Indian CEOs and three international CEO’ and find their views on the industry. Please remember it should be the summary of what analysis you have done prior to starting the project. 2. Organizations Profile Please go through past balance sheets, organization’s website, press reports and all other data pertaining to the organization. Use Mckinsey 7s framework to understand the organization and prepare the brief report. Please use the analysis given in
www.businessmodelgeneration.com structure for the analysis of business proposition and business model offered by the organization. You are encouraged to use the one page strategy (http://www.gazelles.com/strategy-onepage-strategic-plan.html#opsp) by Verne Harnish, CEO of Gazelles. It appears difficult but not impossible if you start your action from day one. You may not get all information available, but try to get as much as possible. This part will help you to understand your organization in the context of the present business situation. (Do not use this as filler. That is trying to fill up pages before the deadline for the project work). Keep a log of whatever you are doing every day. It will help you where you are and what you are likely to achieve. 3. Need for Study You have to explain what “Value added” you will be doing for the organization. You are working 35 clear working days for project work. Your effort, understanding and value addition to the organization by answering specific questions will provide a better experience for you. 4. Literature Review This part is mandatory. However it will be a good idea includes information on the project work. However don’t exceed five pages. If you are doing research on motivation you may include latest research on motivation as literature survey. 5. Objectives of study You have to be precise while writing your objectives and should reflect the research you are going to undertake. Restrict yourself not more than 3 objectives, however two will be ideal. 6. Scope of objectives In the process of achieving your objectives you will also be undertaking certain other tasks which are important. You may include them under the scope of objectives. 7. Research Methodology Research Objectives Type of Research Design Data (primary and secondary) Research Instrument (if it is a questionnaire, you have to write what type of questionnaire. However, do not assume always that you need to have questionnaire to start the research. One of the greatest sins you will commit is to think designing a questionnaire to start your research will convent your research putting the cart before the horse.) Always remember that you need not have questionnaire to do research. You have different methods and use them to enrich your thought process. • Research Plan 8. Sample Design • Sample Unit • Sample frame • Time and Place • Type of sampling
Sample Size. Determine using methods thought of you in Research Methodology. 9. Analysis 10. Findings 11. Suggestions & Recommendations 12. Appendices 13. Bibliography Remarks Do not write the history of statistical tools; what you have to write is what appropriate tools you have used and reason for using these tools. Please cross tabulate your data in order to further understanding. From the synopsis of your final report constantly fine tune your project report. It will be a rich experience for you to cherish. Some observations • Be enthusiastic to listen, to learn, to talk • Be curious • Be honest • Show your integrity • Cultivate your body language • Make a statement WHAT YOU SHOULD NOT DO • Trying to take breaks while doing a project ( you cannot have holidays during your project work) • Trying to miscommunicate with organizations by telling that institute wants a review. We are sending your schedule of project report to all the organizations. You do not have any reviews in between. • While talking to the organization personnel do not degrade your institute or teachers by making statements that are likely to impinge on the image. • Talking negatively and trying to be certain about everything. No organization or person likes negative talk and people who ask too may question to be certain of everything. Let me give some examples 1) I want marketing project, I am in a financial organization. Do not ask the manager this question. You are going to an organization to know its business and business do not have functional silos. However, ask questions relating to your project, show enthusiasm. Smile, enjoy hard work. 2) If some urgent work is to be done by the organization, do it willingly. For example the office has no power and your manager finds that the electricity bill is not paid, volunteer to do the task. MBA is not managed by arrogance. Never show that this is not my work. You will be surprised to know that there is no work as not your work. The organizations are boundary less organizations. 3) Does not take campus culture to organize. Leave letters, excuses, concessions etc. Inculcate an organization's culture and come to institute with all ideas to change the way in which you work in an institute. Share experience with your classmates and teachers. It is an opportunity to professionalize with you.
4) Wear your tie and go to the organization. Some organizations have informal environment. They may not insist on your attire. That does not mean that you go with casuals. 5) Never attempt to buy projects from bazaar and submit. All the project reports will be tested for plagiarism. FAQs 1. Should I do project in an area of my specialization? Though it is not mandatory, it is desirable. It provides you focus. 2. Is it possible to go home during project work? It is the last thing you will do, it will mar you your prospect of your best career. 3. What type of tools I have used in HR Project? Please go through “Training Instruments in HRD and OD, Second Edition by Udai Pareek”. 4. Please carry the following when you go to the organization. • Your recent Photographs • Your CV • Your ID • A pad / notebook / pen 4. Is the format suggested for all types of projects? Yes, to a large extend. What these guidelines give you? The guidelines given above talks about the content of your project report. 6. If I get another project, Can I change the project? No, it is not right 7. Take note of your guide’s email. Do not disturb him or her on the cell phone. He may not know the context of your problem. Give a detailed account of your problem and ask for the correct questions. 8) When you are staying outside Chennai, keep in touch with your other colleagues, exchange thoughts.
TEMPLATES FOR YOUR PROJECT REPORT Please do print the words as given in the format and provide in your report.
CERTIFICATE OF THE GUIDE
This is to certify that the Project Work titled “____________________________________________________________________________” is a
bonafide work of Mr. /Ms………………………….. Enrollment No:…………….. Carried out in partial fulfilment for the award of degree of Master of Business Administration of SRM University under my guidance. This project work is original and not submitted earlier for the award of any degree / diploma or associateship of any other University / Institution.
Signature of the Guide
Signature of Student
Table of Contents: Table of contents gives an index of major chapters of the project work; the introduction, different chapters with sub sections, bibliography and appendices along with their page numbers in the report. The titles of the chapters generally should provide a sequence of logical order of presentation made. While first two of chapters provide the setting of the problem, the later chapters concentrate on the analysis carried out based on the objectives of the study. The initial pages such as certificates, acknowledgements, list of tables, list of Figures, bibliography and Appendices are numbered in lower case Roman letters and the Page numbers of all Chapters are given in regular numbers. It is customary to specify the Chapter numbers with Roman Capitals. The total project report ideally should not cross more than 70-80 pages, not including initial pages, bibliography and appendix. One of the issues is trying to have graph for every table. Students are requested to avoid this way of filling pages. Please does not show graph for simple yes or no answers or if the table is self explanatory. Use single table for all your demographic data. Let us consider an example. Here is an article written according to the IEEE format for a conference at IIT(Madras). Abstract Background: Business Process Outsourcing Sector (BPO) sector is one of the fastest growing industrial segments in India. However, the industry is plagued by high attrition rates. Different surveys do indicate musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and stress related problems by prolonged night shifts and stressful working conditions. To address these issues, there is paucity of information regarding ergonomic design of work place, working conditions, stress and MSD for Indian night shift employees of BPO sector. Secondary data relating the psycho physiological aspects relating to the work is examined to build context for the present study. Research address the issues of impact of violation of circadian rhythm, stressful and anxious work environment, availability of ergonomic work environment design and low job satisfaction of night shift BPO employees. Methods: Survey data collected in 2011 among the workforce of ten organizations in Chennai is used for this study. The sample study covered 106 employees.
Results: The output of research emphasis need for multi disciplinary approach consisting of ergonomics, occupational therapy and psychology to improve physical and psychological well being of employees to address issues of attrition in BPO industry. Based on the objectives the following demographic data is collected and tabulated. As you may observe all the needed data is given in one single table.
TABLE 1. DEMOGRAPHIC AND WORK RELATED PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NIGHT SHIFT BPO EMPLOYEES Sample statistic Sex Men Women Marital status Married Unmarried Age Mean Median Standard deviation Skewness Q1 Q2 Q3 Education BSC BA/BCOM/BBA BE/BTECH MCA Others 61.3% 38.7% 28.3% 77.7% 25.57 years 25.00 years 3.49 years .978 23 25 27.5 21.7% 17% 39.6% 12.3% 9.4%
No of working hours Mean Median Skewness No of hours of travel and working Mean Median Standard deviation Skewness Q1 Q2 Q3 No of hours of sleep during day time Mean Median Standard deviation Skewness Work anxiousness Yes No Awareness of health problems of employees to the management Yes No Number of years of experience Mean Median Standard deviation Skewness
There is no need for providing graphical explanation for each of the sections. You need to write only one set of inferences.
Please see the inference given by the author. Inference Majority of the respondents are men (61.3%) with marital status of unmarried (77.7%). The mean age of the respondents is 25.57 years and with median age of 25 years indicating that fifty percent of the workforce is younger than twenty five years. It may be discerned that the work force is young populated with graduates from non engineering streams (60.4%). The mean working hours spent by the employees is 9.17 hours with median value of 9 hours, indicating that night shift employees of BPO work 1.17 hours more than the employees of other sectors. Since travel is an integral part of the working and mostly provided by the BPO organization of the employee, the mean travel and work is computed which amounted to 11.14 hours, with a median value of 11 hours. Therefore, the respondent travels two hours to commute his or her work place indicating long hours spent on travel. Majority of the employees (61.3%) experience work anxiousness, indicating work place eco system not being likely to be congenial. The most important observation is the day time sleep of the respondent. He or she sleeps for an average period of 6.67 hours, with a median value of 6 hours and standard deviation of 1.24 hours. The recommended number of hours of sleep is eight hours and the respondents loose 1.37 hours of sleep every day, violating the circadian rhythm. This may lead to the psycho physiological issues as established by research, which need to be confirmed from the perception of respondents with respect to work environment. Statistical Tools Hypotheses and testing of hypotheses using statistical tools is a must. No report will be accepted without statistical tools. In the case of finance and system projects, you are expected to use appropriate models. For example please use Altman Z score Model for predicting bankruptcy. Your guide will be able to help you to identify appropriate model. How each of the chapters is to be organized? Introductory Chapters: These chapter provide the context of the problem of study consisting of industry analysis, organizational profile and other information such as review of different studies, objectives and methodology adopted, sample methodology, data sources, tools of analysis, hypothesis formulated for testing and broad limitations of the study. The third and fourth chapters These chapters focus on data analysis, interpretation of results, discussion based on observations made, results of hypothesis tested. The fifth chapter A brief summary of discussion on the basis of results and major implications to be listed out. Then the report will spell out for making suggestions for any improvement required in the policies and procedures followed by the enterprise under study. Bibliography: The Bibliography refers to the reference material consulted by the student in connection with the Project Work. Published studies conducted by different authors, Text books dealing with the subject of study, Industry Reports, Business Magazines, Government Reports and Websites generally constitute the reference material. Students are expected to give the details of all sources referred for conducting the present study. The presentation of such reference material often referred as Bibliography. It should follow a logical arrangement in alphabetical order. Each reference should give the details regarding the author(s), the title of paper / book, details regarding its year of publication, place of publication, name of the publishers / name of the Journal in case of a research article, etc. The students are expected to follow APA style formatting while documenting bibliography. APPENDICES: Appendices refer to the annexure enclosed to the report. These enclosures help the reader of the report to refer in case of any clarity required on the type of instrument used by student in eliciting the information from the respondents. Generally, the appendices contain a copy of the questionnaire administered in the study, published raw data collected and used in the study, etc. If some other
studies which are relevant but may hinder continuity to the study are given in the appendix. Appendices should be numbered using Arabic numerals, e.g. Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc. Appendices, Tables and references appearing in appendices should be numbered and referred to at appropriate places just as in the case of chapters. Appendices shall carry the title of the work reported and the same title shall be made in the contents page also. List of Figures - The list should use exactly the same captions as they appear below the figures in the text. One and a half spacing should be adopted for typing the matter under this head. A sample of table of contents is given for reference. The number of pages given is an indication of what is expected of you convey.
Table of Contents Page Certificate of guide Letter from Organization Acknowledgements Executive Summary List of Tables List of Figures CHAPTER 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Industry (Sector) Profile 1.2 Economic Growth during Liberalization Measures 1.3 Growth of ________ Industry during recent decade 1.4 Organizational Profile 1.5 Need for Study 1.6 Literature Review and Gap 1.6 Objectives of the Study 1.7 Limitations of Study Chapter 2 2.1Methodology 2.2 Sample Design 2.3 Tools of Analysis 2.4 Scope and Significance of Study Chapter 3 3.1 Data Analysis 3.2 Hypothesis tested 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1Comparison of Results with Other studies 4.2Suggestions and Recommendations 4.3Significance of Observations or discussions 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Directions for future research BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES Appendix A: Questionnaire Appendix B: Details of Secondary Data 56 58 61 63 65 i ii iii iv v 1 3 7 8 9 14 15 23 23 24 27 29 32 33 54
PAGE DIMENSIONS AND MARGIN: The dimensions of the final bound copies of the project report should be 290mm x 205mm. Standard A4 size (297mm x 210mm) paper may be used for preparing the copies. The final 2 copies of the project report (at the time of submission) should have the following Page margins: Top edge: 2.54 cm Bottom edge: 2.54 cm Left side: 2.54 cm Right side: 2.54 cm These specifications relate to the margins-normal given in the MS word document. Please submit one copy by way of soft form in a compact disc (rewritable).
Tables and Figures - By the word Table, are meant tabulated numerical data in the body of the project report as well as in the appendices. All other non-verbal material used in the body of the project report and appendices such as charts, graphs, maps, photographs and diagrams may be designated as figures. A table or figure including caption should be accommodated within the prescribed margin limits and appear on the page following the page where their first reference is made. Tables and figures on half page or less in length may appear on the same page along with the text. However, they should be separated from the text both above and below by triple spacing. All tables and figures should be prepared on the same paper or material used for the preparation of the rest of the project report. For preparing captions, numerals, symbols or characters in the case of tables or figures, the Computer should be enclosed. Two or more small tables or figures may be grouped if necessary in a single page. The impressions on the copies should be black in color. A sub-heading at the bottom of a page must have at least two full lines below it or else it should be carried over to the next page. The last word of any page should not be split using a hyphen. One and a half spacing should be used for typing the general text. The general text shall be typed in Font Style Times New Roman and Font Size 12. Single spacing should be used for typing: (i) Long Tables (ii) Long quotations (iii) Foot notes (iv) Multilane captions (v) References Chapters The format for typing Chapter headings, Divisions headings and Sub-division headings are explained through the following illustrative examples. Chapter heading: CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION Division heading: 1.1 Economic Scenario Sub-division heading: 1.1.2 Automobile Sector The word CHAPTER without punctuation should be centered 50mm down from the top of the page. Two spaces below, the title of the chapter should be typed centrally in capital letters. The text should commence 4 spaces below this title, the first letter of the text starting 20mm, inside from the left hand margin. The division and sub-division captions along with their numberings should be left-justified. The typed material directly below division or sub-division heading should commence 2 spaces below it and should be offset 20mm from the left hand margin. Within a division or sub-division paragraphs are permitted. Even paragraph should commence 3
spaces below the last line of the preceding paragraph, the first letter in the paragraph being offset from the left hand margin by 20 mm. Numbering of Chapters, Divisions and Sub-Divisions The numbering of chapters, divisions and sub-divisions should be done using Arabic Numerals only and further decimal notation should be used for numbering the divisions and subdivisions within a chapter. For example sub-division 4 under division 3 belonging to chapter 2 should be numbered as 2.3.4. The caption for the sub-division should immediately follow the number assigned to it. Every chapter beginning with the first chapter should be serially numbered using Arabic numerals. Appendices included should also be numbered in an identical manner starting with Appendix 1. Numbering of Tables and Figures Tables and Figures appearing anywhere in the thesis should bear appropriate numbers. The rule for assigning such numbers is illustrated through an example. Thus, if a figure in Chapter 3 happens to be the fourth then assign 3.4 to that figure. Identical rules apply for tables except that the word Figure is replaced by the word Table. If figures (or tables) appear in appendices then figure 3 in Appendix 2 will be designated as Figure a 2.3. If a table to be continued into the next page this may be done, but no line should be drawn underneath an unfinished table. The top line of the table continued into the next page should, for example read Table 2.1 (continued) placed centrally and underlined. Please submit in white color page. Do not use different colors. Use logo of University, by downloading it from the site.
The drivers and purposes of performance measurement in the public Sector Banks
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<Font Size 12> Under the guidance of Faculty Guide name
A PROJECT REPORT
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In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of
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MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
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SRM University, School of Management
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