Project Management

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Project management
Project management is the discipline of initiating, plan- to systematically apply project management tools and
ning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a techniques to complex engineering projects.* [8]
team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success
criteria. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to
produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and
often constrained by funding or deliverables) undertaken
to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring
about beneficial change or added value.* [1]* [2] The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business
as usual (or operations),* [3] which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management
of these two systems is often quite different, and as such
requires the development of distinct technical skills and
management strategies.* [4]
The primary challenge of project management is to
achieve all of the project goals and constraints.* [5] This
information is usually described in a user or project manual, which is created at the beginning of the development. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality
and budget.* [6] The secondary ̶and more ambitious ̶
challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs
and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.


Henry Gantt (1861–1919), the father of planning and control


As a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction, engineering, and heavy defense activity.* [9] Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the
father of planning and control techniques,* [10] who is famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool (alternatively Harmonogram first proposed by
Karol Adamiecki* [11]); and Henri Fayol for his creation
of the five management functions that form the foundation of the body of knowledge associated with project
and program management.* [12] Both Gantt and Fayol
were students of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of
scientific management. His work is the forerunner to
modern project management tools including work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation.

Roman soldiers building a fortress, Trajan's Column 113 AD

The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project
management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model.* [13] In the
United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed
on an ad-hoc basis, using mostly Gantt charts and infor-

Until 1900, civil engineering projects were generally
managed by creative architects, engineers, and master
builders themselves, for example Vitruvius (first century
BC), Christopher Wren (1632–1723), Thomas Telford
(1757–1834) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–
1859).* [7] It was in the 1950s that organizations started

mal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical
project-scheduling models were developed. The "Critical
Path Method" (CPM) was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand
Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects.
And the "Program Evaluation and Review Technique" or
PERT, was developed by the United States Navy in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation and Booz Allen
Hamilton as part of the Polaris missile submarine program.* [14]
PERT and CPM are very similar in their approach but still
present some differences. CPM is used for projects that
assume deterministic activity times; the times at which
each activity will be carried out are known. PERT, on
the other hand, allows for stochastic activity times; the
times at which each activity will be carried out are uncertain or varied. Because of this core difference, CPM and
PERT are used in different contexts. These mathematical
techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.

formed in the USA.* [17] PMI publishes A Guide to
the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK
Guide), which describes project management practices
that are common to “most projects, most of the time.”
PMI also offers multiple certifications.

2 Approaches
There are a number of approaches for managing project
activities including lean, iterative, incremental, and
phased approaches.
Regardless of the methodology employed, careful consideration must be given to the overall project objectives,
timeline, and cost, as well as the roles and responsibilities
of all participants and stakeholders.

2.1 The traditional approach
A traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of
steps to be completed. In the “traditional approach”
,* [18] five developmental components of a project can be
distinguished (four stages plus control):

PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones

Typical development phases of an engineering project

At the same time, as project-scheduling models were be1. initiation
ing developed, technology for project cost estimating,
cost management, and engineering economics was evolv2. planning and design
ing, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In
1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers (now
3. execution and construction
AACE International; the Association for the Advance4. monitoring and controlling systems
ment of Cost Engineering) was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated spe5. completion and finish point
cialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, and
cost/schedule control (project control). AACE continued
its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first inte- Many industries use variations of these project stages.
grated process for portfolio, program and project man- For example, when working on a brick-and-mortar design
and construction, projects will typically progress through
agement (Total Cost Management Framework).
stages like pre-planning, conceptual design, schematic
The International Project Management Association design, design development, construction drawings (or
(IPMA) was founded in Europe in 1967,* [15] as a fed- contract documents), and construction administration. In
eration of several national project management associa- software development, this approach is often known as
tions. IPMA maintains its federal structure today and the waterfall model,* [19] i.e., one series of tasks after annow includes member associations on every continent ex- other in linear sequence. In software development many
cept Antarctica. IPMA offers a Four Level Certifica- organizations have adapted the Rational Unified Process
tion program based on the IPMA Competence Baseline (RUP) to fit this methodology, although RUP does not re(ICB).* [16] The ICB covers technical, contextual, and quire or explicitly recommend this practice. Waterfall debehavioral competencies.
velopment works well for small, well defined projects, but
In 1969, the Project Management Institute (PMI) was often fails in larger projects of undefined and ambiguous


Critical chain project management

nature. The Cone of Uncertainty explains some of this
as the planning made on the initial phase of the project
suffers from a high degree of uncertainty. This becomes
especially true as software development is often the realization of a new or novel product. In projects where
requirements have not been finalized and can change,
requirements management is used to develop an accurate and complete definition of the behavior of software
that can serve as the basis for software development.* [20]
While the terms may differ from industry to industry, the
actual stages typically follow common steps to problem
solving̶"defining the problem, weighing options, choosing a path, implementation and evaluation.”



PRINCE2 provides a common language for all participants in the project. The governance framework of
PRINCE2 – its roles and responsibilities – are fully described and require tailoring to suit the complexity of the
project and skills of the organisation.* [22]

2.3 Critical chain project management
Main article: Critical chain project management
Critical chain project management (CCPM) is a method
of planning and managing project execution designed to
deal with uncertainties inherent in managing projects,
while taking into consideration limited availability of
resources (physical, human skills, as well as management
& support capacity) needed to execute projects.

Main article: PRINCE2
CCPM is an application of the theory of constraints
PRINCE2 is a structured approach to project man(TOC) to projects. The goal is to increase the flow of
projects in an organization (throughput). Applying the
first three of the five focusing steps of TOC, the system
constraint for all projects is identified as are the resources.
To exploit the constraint, tasks on the critical chain are
given priority over all other activities. Finally, projects
are planned and managed to ensure that the resources are
ready when the critical chain tasks must start, subordinating all other resources to the critical chain.

The PRINCE2 process model

agement released in 1996 as a generic project management method.* [21] It combines the original PROMPT
methodology (which evolved into the PRINCE methodology) with IBM's MITP (managing the implementation
of the total project) methodology. PRINCE2 provides
a method for managing projects within a clearly defined
PRINCE2 focuses on the definition and delivery of products, in particular their quality requirements. As such, it
defines a successful project as being output-oriented (not
activity- or task-oriented) through creating an agreed set
of products* [22] that define the scope of the project and
provides the basis for planning and control, that is, how
then to coordinate people and activities, how to design
and supervise product delivery, and what to do if products
and therefore the scope of the project has to be adjusted
if it does not develop as planned.
In the method, each process is specified with its key inputs
and outputs and with specific goals and activities to be
carried out to deliver a project's outcomes as defined by
its Business Case. This allows for continuous assessment
and adjustment when deviation from the Business Case is

The project plan should typically undergo resource leveling, and the longest sequence of resource-constrained
tasks should be identified as the critical chain. In some
cases, such as managing contracted sub-projects, it is advisable to use a simplified approach without resource leveling.
In multi-project environments, resource leveling should
be performed across projects. However, it is often enough
to identify (or simply select) a single“drum”. The drum
can be a resource that acts as a constraint across projects,
which are staggered based on the availability of that single
One can also use a“virtual drum”by selecting a task or
group of tasks (typically integration points) and limiting
the number of projects in execution at that stage.

2.4 Process-based management
Main article: Process-based management
The incorporation of process-based management has
been driven by the use of Maturity models such as
the OPM3 and the CMMI (capability maturity model
integration; see this example of a predecessor) and
ISO/IEC15504 (SPICE – software process improvement
and capability estimation). Unlike SEI's CMM, the
OPM3 maturity model describes how to make project
management processes capable of performing success-



fully, consistently, and predictably in order to enact the
strategies of an organization .


Agile project management

Main article: Agile Project Management
Agile project management encompasses several itera-

to develop that provides real value by implementing
tight feedback loops at all levels of the development
process and using them to steer development. XP
popularized Test Driven Development (TDD) and
Pair Programming.
• eXtreme Manufacturing (XM) - An agile methodology based on Scrum, Kanban and Kaizen that facilitates rapid engineering and prototyping.
• Crystal Clear - An agile or lightweight methodology
that focuses on colocation and osmotic communication.
• Kanban (看板) - A lean framework for process improvement that is frequently used to manage work
in progress (WIP) within agile projects. Kanban has
been specifically applied in software development.

• It is the only technique in which the client will be
actively involved in the project development.

Lean project management uses the principles from lean
manufacturing to focus on delivering value with less waste
and reduced time.

2.7 Extreme project management
Main article: Extreme project management
In critical studies of project management it has been







• The only disadvantage with this technique is that it
should be used only if the client has enough time to
be actively involved in the project.

Acceptance Test

















it T





Agile is an umbrella term for multiple project management methodologies, including:


• It is the most consistent project management technique since it involves frequent testing of the project
under development.

Main article: Lean project management


Advocates of this technique claim that:

2.6 Lean project management


tive approaches based on the principles of human interaction management and founded on a process view of human collaboration. Agile-based methodologies are“most
typically”employed in software development as well as
the“website, technology, creative, and marketing industries.”* [23] This sharply contrasts with traditional approaches such as the Waterfall method. In agile software
development or flexible product development, the project
is seen as a series of relatively small tasks conceived and
executed to conclusion as the situation demands in an
adaptive manner, rather than as a completely pre-planned


The iteration cycle in agile project management

• Scrum ban a mixed scrum and kanban approach to
project management. It focuses on taking the flexibility of kanban and adding the structure of scrum
to create a new way to manage projects.

• Scrum - A holistic approach to development that focuses on iterative goals set by the Product Owner
through a backlog, which is developed by the De- Planning and feedback loops in Extreme programming (XP) with
livery Team through the facilitation of the Scrum the time frames of the multiple loops.
noted that several PERT based models are not well suited
• Extreme Programming (XP) - A set of practices for the multi-project company environment of today.
based on a set of principles and values, with a goal Most of them are aimed at very large-scale, one-time,




non-routine projects, and currently all kinds of management are expressed in terms of projects.
Using complex models for“projects”(or rather“tasks”)
spanning a few weeks has been proven to cause unnecessary costs and low maneuverability in several cases. The
generalization of Extreme Programming to other kinds
of projects is extreme project management, which may be
used in combination with the process modeling and management principles of human interaction management.


Benefits realization management

Main article: Benefits realisation management
Benefits realization management (BRM) enhances normal project management techniques through a focus on
outcomes (the benefits) of a project rather than products
or outputs, and then measuring the degree to which that
is happening to keep a project on track. This can help to
reduce the risk of a completed project being a failure by
delivering agreed upon requirements/outputs but failing
to deliver the benefits of those requirements.

The project development stages* [25]

be supplemented with decision points (go/no go decisions) at which the project's continuation is debated and
decided. An example is the Phase–gate model.

In addition, BRM practices aim to ensure the alignment
between project outcomes and business strategies. The
effectiveness of these practices is supported by recent research evidencing BRM practices influencing project success from a strategic perspective across different countries and industries.* [24]


An example of delivering a project to requirements might
be agreeing to deliver a computer system that will process
staff data and manage payroll, holiday and staff personnel
records. Under BRM the agreement might be to achieve a
Initiating process group processes* [25]
specified reduction in staff hours required to process and
maintain staff data.
The initiating processes determine the nature and scope
of the project.* [26] If this stage is not performed well, it is
unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the
3 Processes
businessʼneeds. The key project controls needed here are
an understanding of the business environment and makTraditionally, project management includes a number ing sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into
of elements: four to five project management process the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a
groups, and a control system. Regardless of the method- recommendation should be made to fix them.
ology or terminology used, the same basic project man- The initiating stage should include a plan that encomagement processes will be used. Major process groups passes the following areas:
generally include:* [6]
• Initiation

• analyzing the business needs/requirements in measurable goals

• Planning

• reviewing of the current operations

• Production or execution

• financial analysis of the costs and benefits including
a budget

• Monitoring and controlling
• Closing
In project environments with a significant exploratory element (e.g., research and development), these stages may

• stakeholder analysis, including users, and support
personnel for the project
• project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables,
and schedules






After the initiation stage, the project is planned to
an appropriate level of detail (see example of a flowchart).* [25] The main purpose is to plan time, cost and
resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to
effectively manage risk during project execution. As with
the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan
greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals.
Project planning generally consists of* [27]
Executing process group processes* [25]

• determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or
Rolling Wave planning);
• developing the scope statement;
• selecting the planning team;
• identifying deliverables and creating the work
breakdown structure;
• identifying the activities needed to complete those
deliverables and networking the activities in their Monitoring and controlling process group processes* [25]
logical sequence;
• estimating the resource requirements for the activi- 3.4 Monitoring and controlling
Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes
• estimating time and cost for activities;
performed to observe project execution so that potential
problems can be identified in a timely manner and correc• developing the schedule;
tive action can be taken, when necessary, to control the
execution of the project. The key benefit is that project
• developing the budget;
performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.
• risk planning;
• gaining formal approval to begin work.
Additional processes, such as planning for communications and for scope management, identifying roles and
responsibilities, determining what to purchase for the
project and holding a kick-off meeting are also generally
For new product development projects, conceptual design
of the operation of the final product may be performed
concurrent with the project planning activities, and may
help to inform the planning team when identifying deliverables and planning activities.



Monitoring and controlling includes:* [28]
• Measuring the ongoing project activities ('where we
• Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope,
etc.) against the project management plan and the
project performance baseline (where we should be);
• Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks
properly (How can we get on track again);
• Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are
In multi-phase projects, the monitoring and control process also provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring
the project into compliance with the project management

The execution/implementation phase ensures that the
project management planʼs deliverables are executed
accordingly. This phase involves proper allocation, coordination and management of human resources and any
other resources such as material and budgets. The output Project maintenance is an ongoing process, and it inof this phase is the project deliverables.
cludes:* [6]



• Continuing support of end-users


3.5 Closing

• Correction of errors
• Updates to the product over time

Closing process group processes.* [25]

Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and
the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the
archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.
This phase consists of:* [6]
• Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items)
and close each contract applicable to the project or
project phase.
Monitoring and controlling cycle

In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved.
Over the course of any construction project, the work
scope may change. Change is a normal and expected part
of the construction process. Changes can be the result of
necessary design modifications, differing site conditions,
material availability, contractor-requested changes, value
engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a
few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change
normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. This is referred to as change management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to
show all changes or, more specifically, any change that
modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The
record is made on the contract documents – usually, but
not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end
product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built
drawings, or more simply, “as built.”The requirement
for providing them is a norm in construction contracts.
Construction document management is a highly important task undertaken with the aid an online or desktop
software system, or maintained through physical documentation. The increasing legality pertaining to the construction industries maintenance of correct documentation has caused the increase in the need for document
management systems.
When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. It is important
not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the
projects. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted
result may not justify the original proposed investment
in the project. Successful project management identifies
these components, and tracks and monitors progress so
as to stay within time and budget frames already outlined
at the commencement of the project.

• Project close: Finalize all activities across all of
the process groups to formally close the project or
a project phase
Also included in this phase is the Post Implementation
Review. This is a vital phase of the project for the
project team to learn from experiences and apply to future projects. Normally a Post Implementation Review
consists of looking at things that went well and analysing
things that went badly on the project to come up with
lessons learned.

3.6 Project controlling and project control
Project controlling should be established as an independent function in project management. It implements verification and controlling function during the processing of
a project in order to reinforce the defined performance
and formal goals.* [29] The tasks of project controlling
are also:
• the creation of infrastructure for the supply of the
right information and its update
• the establishment of a way to communicate disparities of project parameters
• the development of project information technology
based on an intranet or the determination of a project
key performance indicator system (KPI)
• divergence analyses and generation of proposals for
potential project regulations* [30]
• the establishment of methods to accomplish an appropriate project structure, project workflow organization, project control and governance



• creation of transparency among the project parame- successfully. A formal process is more effective in creatters* [31]
ing strong controls, and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and is followed in
Fulfillment and implementation of these tasks can be practice. A good formal systems development plan outachieved by applying specific methods and instruments lines:
of project controlling. The following methods of project
• A strategy to align development with the organizacontrolling can be applied:
tionʼs broader objectives
• investment analysis

• Standards for new systems

• cost–benefit analysis

• Project management policies for timing and

• value benefit analysis

• Procedures describing the process

• expert surveys

• Evaluation of quality of change

• simulation calculations
• risk-profile analysis

4 Topics

• surcharge calculations

4.1 Project managers

• milestone trend analysis
• cost trend analysis

A project manager is a professional in the field of project
management. Project managers can have the responsibil• target/actual-comparison [32]
ity of the planning, execution, and closing of any project,
typically relating to construction industry, engineering,
Project control is that element of a project that keeps it architecture, computing, and telecommunications. Many
on-track, on-time and within budget.* [28] Project con- other fields in production engineering, design engineertrol begins early in the project with planning and ends ing, and heavy industrial have project managers.
late in the project with post-implementation review, having a thorough involvement of each step in the pro- A project manager is the person accountable for accomcess. Projects may be audited or reviewed while the plishing the stated project objectives. Key project manproject is in progress. Formal audits are generally risk or agement responsibilities include creating clear and attaincompliance-based and management will direct the objec- able project objectives, building the project requirements,
tives of the audit. An examination may include a compar- and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is
ison of approved project management processes with how cost, time, and scope.
the project is actually being managed.* [33] Each project A project manager is often a client representative and
should be assessed for the appropriate level of control has to determine and implement the exact needs of the
needed: too much control is too time consuming, too little client, based on knowledge of the firm they are reprecontrol is very risky. If project control is not implemented senting. The ability to adapt to the various internal procorrectly, the cost to the business should be clarified in cedures of the contracting party, and to form close links
terms of errors and fixes.
with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensurControl systems are needed for cost, risk, quality, com- ing that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all,
munication, time, change, procurement, and human re- client satisfaction, can be realized.

sources. In addition, auditors should consider how important the projects are to the financial statements, how reliant the stakeholders are on controls, and how many controls exist. Auditors should review the development process and procedures for how they are implemented. The
process of development and the quality of the final product may also be assessed if needed or requested. A business may want the auditing firm to be involved throughout
the process to catch problems earlier on so that they can
be fixed more easily. An auditor can serve as a controls
consultant as part of the development team or as an independent auditor as part of an audit.

4.2 Project management types

Project management can apply to any project, but it is
often tailored to accommodate the specific needs of different and highly specialized industries. For example,
the construction industry, which focuses on the delivery of things like buildings, roads, and bridges, has developed its own specialized form of project management
that it refers to as Construction project management and
for which project managers can become trained and certified in.* [34] The Information technology industry has
Businesses sometimes use formal systems development also evolved to develop its own form of Project manageprocesses. These help assure that systems are developed ment that is referred to as IT Project management and


Project portfolio management

which specializes in the delivery of technical assets and
services that are required to pass through various lifecycle phases such as planning, design, development, testing, and deployment. Biotechnology project management
focuses on the intricacies of biotechnology research and
development.* [35]
For each type of project management, project managers
develop and utilize repeatable templates that are specific
to the industry they're dealing with. This allows project
plans to become very thorough and highly repeatable,
with the specific intent to increase quality, lower delivery costs, and lower time to deliver project results.


Work breakdown structure

Main article: Work breakdown structure
The work breakdown structure (WBS) is a tree structure that shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve
an objective̶for example a program, project, and contract. The WBS may be hardware-, product-, service-, or
process-oriented (see an example in a NASA reporting
structure (2001)).* [36]
A WBS can be developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable
components in terms of size, duration, and responsibility
(e.g., systems, subsystems, components, tasks, sub-tasks,
and work packages), which include all steps necessary to
achieve the objective.* [20]
The work breakdown structure provides a common
framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis
for dividing work into definable increments from which
the statement of work can be developed and technical,
schedule, cost, and labor hour reporting can be established.* [36] The work breakdown structure can be displayed in two forms one in form of a table with subdivision of tasks two in form of an organisational chart.

• Capability Maturity Model from the Software Engineering Institute.
• GAPPS, Global Alliance for Project Performance
Standards – an open source standard describing
COMPETENCIES for project and program managers.
• A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge from the Project Management Institute
• HERMES method, Swiss general project management method, selected for use in Luxembourg and
international organizations.
• The ISO standards ISO 9000, a family of standards for quality management systems, and the ISO
10006:2003, for Quality management systems and
guidelines for quality management in projects.
• PRINCE2, Projects IN Controlled Environments.
• Association for Project Management Body of
Knowledge* [38]
• Team Software Process (TSP) from the Software
Engineering Institute.
• Total Cost Management Framework, AACE International's Methodology for Integrated Portfolio,
Program and Project Management.
• V-Model, an original systems development method.
• The Logical framework approach, which is popular
in international development organizations.
• [Australian Institute of Project Management] AIPM
has 4 levels of certification; CPPP, CPPM, CPPD
& CPPE for Certified Practicing Project ... Partner,
Manager, Director and Executive.

4.5 Project portfolio management

International standards

Main article: Project portfolio management

There have been several attempts to develop project management standards, such as:
An increasing number of organizations are using, what
is referred to as, project portfolio management (PPM)
projects and then using
• ISO 21500: 2012 - Guidance on project manage- as a means of selecting the right
as the means for deproject
ment. This is the first project management ISO.
livering the outcomes in the form of benefits to the per• ISO 31000: 2009 - Risk management. Risk man- forming private or not-for-profit organization.
agement is 1 of the 10 knowledge areas of either
ISO 21500 or PMBoK5 concept of project manage4.6 Project management software
• ISO/IEC/IEEE 16326-2009 - Systems and Software Main articles: Project management software and Project
Engineering̶Life Cycle Processes̶Project Man- management information system
agement * [37]




Project management software is software used to help [10] Martin Stevens (2002). Project Management Pathways.
Association for Project Management. APM Publishing
plan, organize, and manage resource pools, develop reLimited, 2002 ISBN 1-903494-01-X p.xxii
source estimates and implement plans. Depending on the
sophistication of the software, functionality may include [11] Edward R. Marsh (1975). “The Harmonogram of Karol
estimation and planning, scheduling, cost control and
Adamiecki”. In: The Academy of Management Journal.
budget management, resource allocation, collaboration
Vol. 18, No. 2 (Jun., 1975), p. 358. (online)
software, communication, decision-making, workflow,
quality management, documentation and/or administra- [12] Morgen Witzel (2003). Fifty key figures in management.
Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-36977-0. p. 96-101.
tion systems.* [40]* [41]


Virtual project management

Main article: Virtual team

[13] David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (2006). Global Project
Management Handbook.
McGraw-Hill Professional,
2006. ISBN 0-07-146045-4. p.1-4 states: "It was in the
1950s when project management was formally recognized
as a distinct contribution arising from the management discipline."

Virtual program management (VPM) is management of a [14] B. Ralph Stauber, H. M. Douty, Willard Fazar, Richard H.
project done by a virtual team, though it rarely may refer
Jordan, William Weinfeld and Allen D. Manvel. Federal
to a project implementing a virtual environment* [42] It
Statistical Activities. The American Statistician 13(2): 912 (Apr., 1959) , pp. 9-12
is noted that managing a virtual project is fundamentally
different from managing traditional projects,* [43] com[15] Bjarne Kousholt (2007). Project Management –. Theory
bining concerns of telecommuting and global collaboraand practice.. Nyt Teknisk Forlag. ISBN 87-571-2603-8.
tion (culture, timezones, language). [44]


See also




• The Definitive Guide to Project Management. Nokes,
Sebastian. 2nd Ed.n. London (Financial Times /
Prentice Hall): 2007. ISBN 978-0-273-71097-4

[2] “What is Project Management? | Project Management
Institute”. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
[3] Paul C. Dinsmore et al (2005) The right projects done right!
John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35
and further.
[4] Cattani, G., Ferriani, S., Frederiksen, L. and Florian, T.
(2011) Project-Based Organizing and Strategic Management, Advances in Strategic Management, Vol 28, Emerald, ISBN 1780521936.
[5] Joseph Phillips (2003). PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003.
ISBN 0-07-223062-2 p.354.
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External links
• Guidelines for Managing Projects from the UK Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory
Reform (BERR)




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