Psychiatric Malpractice

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Alan I. Leshner, psychiatrist and former head of the National Institute of Drug Abuse once stated: “My belief is that [the physician] should be put in jail if you refuse to prescribe S.S.R.I.s [the new types of antidepressants] for depression. I also believe that five years from now, you should be put in jail if you don’t give crack addicts the medications we’re working on now.”In the many years of working on mental health reform, I have spoken to hundreds of physicians and thousands of patients, while helping to expose numerous psychiatric violations of human rights. However, until recently, the thought had never occurred to me that physicians’ rights might also be under assault. Why should a physician be jailed for refusing to prescribe an antidepressant for depression?



Skyrocketing Drug Sales & Use
The U.S. consumes 85% of the international production of methylphenidate (Ritalin) but in 2002, the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly found high rates of methylphenidate consumption in Belgium, Germany, Iceland, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Statistics show the extreme escalation rate in drug use: increased 151% for 7 to 12 year olds and 580% for children under 6. Children as young as 5 years old committed suicide while taking prescription SSRI antidepressants. In Britain, the number of prescriptions for antidepressants has also more than doubled in 10 years.31 In 2003, the British medicines regulatory body warned doctors not to prescribe SSRI antidepressants to under 18 year olds, citing suicide risks. On March 22, 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory to doctors, stating: “Anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia (severe restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with [SSRI] antidepressants…both psychiatric and non-psychiatric.” 32 After hearings held in September 2004 the FDA ordered in October that a prominent “black box” warning about potential suicide risk be placed on SSRI bottles. British, Japanese, Canadian and European regulatory agencies have also warned of antidepressants causing suicide. Robert Whitaker, science writer and author of Mad in America, says, “What we have after years of soaring use of psychotropic drugs is a crisis in mental health, an epidemic of mental illness among children. Instead of seeing better mental health with ever more medicating, we see a worsening of mental health.”33 “One of the very hard things for me to deal with,” Lawrence Smith says, “is the fact that Matthew never wanted his medication. How many more 14-year-old Matthew Smiths will have to die before someone puts a stop to this biggest health care fraud ever?” It was a psychiatrist who prescribed Matthew’s lethal drugs, not “health care.” However, by accepting psychiatry’s system of diagnosis and treatment, general medicine itself may face risk and controversy as the failures of that system become more obvious. There is yet another significant professional risk. By acceding to, or even merging with, psychiatric thinking, general medical practice and other medical specialties could be associated in the public’s mind with not only the mental health industry’s poor reputation, but also much of psychiatry’s unsavory history. It is a history worth examining.

France: U.K.:
24,900% increase in stimulant drug prescription for children between 1992 and 2003 Between 1989 and 2002, an increase of 600% was reported in the number of children labeled “hyperactive”





Between 1995 and 1999, antidepressant use increased 151% for 7 to 12 year olds and a staggering 580% for children 6 and under

Sales of methylphenidate in Mexico increased 800% between 1993 and 2001

7-12 years old

6 and under





Colon Trouble Diagnosed as ADHD
Austin Harris was hailed as “the poster child for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” He was the child no one wanted to be around and was kicked out of eleven preschools in three years for doing everything from shouting obscenities and hitting other children, to poking a teacher in the eye with a pencil. He was prescribed stimulants. But something unexpected happened after Austin went to the hospital to have a blockage removed from his colon. The child no one wanted to be around was no longer terrorizing his teachers and classmates. Instead Austin, who is now 10, was able to sit quietly and was a joy to be around. He gave up the medication. According to leading pediatric gastroenterologists, the connection between behavior and chronic constipation in children is not uncommon. “The bad behaviors disappear as soon as the impaction is removed,” said Dr. Paul Hyman, chief of pediatric gastroenterology at the University of Kansas Medical Center in Kansas City. Hyman said that the negative behavior can be caused by fear and pain the child may not even be aware of.34

Early Brutal Methods
Since its earliest days, psychiatry’s methods have been brutally invasive, using different applications of force to physically and mentally overwhelm already disturbed individuals. As far back as the 1700s, those in charge of asylums insisted that their practices were the only “workable methods.” However, these methods never cured, they merely restrained and subdued. 1) Historically, psychiatric treatment has included flogging, chaining patients to the wall or restraining them in a wall camisole or straitjacket (right).
from the face of the earth one of the most devastating of pestilences.” In other words, psychiatry’s pioneers believed they could eradicate insanity.42 Reil was the first to label the “psychic method of treatment” as part of medical and surgical methods. However, his “psychic treatments” meant massage, whipping, flogging and opium. John G. Howells, M.D., in World History of Psychiatry, says that Reil’s recommendation of these “methods of cure for mental disease” made a “significant contribution towards the establishing of psychiatry as a medical specialty.”43 In the 1840s, Dr. Thomas S. Kirkbrade, superintendent of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane announced that “recent cases of insanity are commonly very curable.”44 Such “cures” included the “so-called Darwin chair” in which “the insane were rotated until blood oozed from their mouths, ears and noses. Castration and starvation cures were also employed.”45 In 1918, psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin defined a psychiatrist as “An absolute ruler who, guided by our knowledge of today, would be able to intervene ruthlessly in the living conditions of people and would certainly within a few decades achieve a corresponding decrease of insanity.”46 World War I was raging when Kraepelin established a psychiatric research center in Germany “for the purpose of determining the nature of mental diseases and of discovering techniques for effecting their prevention, alleviation, and cure.” Ground had been taken already, he said, “that will enable us to win a victory over the direst afflictions that can beset man.”47 Nearly a century later, American scientist Shepherd Ivory Franz wrote, “We have no facts which at present enable us to locate the mental processes in the brain any better than they were located 50 years ago.”48 After 100 years, and in spite of its confident boasts, psychiatry had come no closer to

2) Other methods included surprising patients with a sudden drop into cold water, detaining them there for some time while pouring water frequently on the head to produce fear and a “refrigerant” effect (left).

3) The ovary compressor used to subdue hysterical women (right) or 4) locking people up in various devices like this cage-like bed (below) also resulted in the person being cowed and tamed.



Today, through heavy understanding or curof mental disorders, ing insanity or any making patients less of marketing of its diagnoses and mental problem. a “problem” for those drugs, psychiatry no longer fights responsible for their care. The 1930s and 1940s saw a shift to Simultaneously, psychiato emulate and gain acceptance wards physical “treattry introduced a system from medicine; it has become an ments.” Elliot S. Valenfor mental disorder diagintegral part of it. stein, Ph.D. observed, nosis. Professor Shorter “Physical treatments called this era the “secalso helped psychiaond biological psychiatrists gain respectry.” It held that “genetics tability within the and brain development” field of medicine and were causes of mental illenabled them to comness and that psychoacpete more successfully tive drugs and inforwith neurologists, who mal psy chotherapy often treated patients were its remedies. with so-called ‘nervous During the next disorders.’”49 30 years, psychoactive In the decade drugs rapidly became between 1928 and the mainstay of psychi1938, psychiatry introatric therapy, and the duced such horrors as psychiatric industry— Metrazol shock, insufully armed with its lin shock, electroshock own drugs and diagand psychosurgery. Despite these “breakthroughs,” nostic system —was ready to expand. In 1989, an however, most other physicians continued to American Psychiatric Association (APA) “Campaign Kit” told APA members, “An increase hold psychiatrists in particularly low esteem.50 In the 1950s and 1960s, psychotropic drugs of psychiatry’s profile among non-psychiatric were designed to alleviate some of the symptoms physicians can do nothing but good. And for

The latest psychiatric drugs are marketed as a panacea for all sorts of mental disorders for young and old, although they have been linked to the development of akathisia, seizures, sexual dysfunction, stuttering, tics, hearing loss, manic episodes, paranoid reactions, and intense suicidal ideation, according to the Annals of

those who are bottomline oriented, the efforts you spend on building BUILDING THE BUSINESS this profile have the potential to yield diviIn 1998, psychiatry penetrated the dends through increased physician’s domain with the release of the referrals.”51 World Health Organization’s “Guide In the 1990s, psychito Mental Health in Primary Care” kit, atrists made a concertdesigned to facilitate and promote a ed effort—primarily medical doctor’s use of psychiatric through the Collegium behavioral checklists for diagnosing Internationale Neuromental disorders. Psychiatry’s lack psychopharmacologiof scientific merit was compensated cum (CINP), the for by invasive and “hard sell” marketing. Natio nal Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and the World Psychia tric Association (WPA)—to garner support from physicians. The World Health Organization (WHO) produced a “Mental Disorders in Primary Care” kit that was distributed internationally, to make it easier for primary care physicians to diagnose mental illness.52 Based on the DSMThe pre-packaged IV and ICD-10, the kit list of symptoms enables was primarily designed diagnosis by checklist, with a to increase business for pre-determined treatment the mental health system. plan and referral of patients What psychiatry lacked in to psychiatrists. science was compensated for with marketing. That marketing includes an unholy alliance with the pharmaceutical industry. Pat Bracken and Phil Thomas, consultant With the selling of mental illness to pripsychiatrists and senior research fellows with the mary care physicians well in hand, the selling University of Bradford in the United Kingdom, of psychiatric drugs followed. Harvard psychiastate, “Psychiatry is a major growth area for trist, Joseph Glenmullen writes, “As they gain the pharmaceutical industry. By influencing the momentum, use of the drugs spread beyond the way in which psychiatrists frame mental health confines of psychiatry and they are prescribed by problems, the industry has developed new (and general practitioners for everyday maladies.”55 lucrative) markets for its products.”53 Today, through heavy marketing of its Says Carl Elliott, a bioethicist at the University diagnoses and drugs, psychiatry no longer of Minnesota, “The way to sell drugs is to sell fights to emulate and gain acceptance from psychiatric illness.”54 medicine; it has become an integral part of it.

Medicine and Science
hile the appearance of of Psychological Medicine, the final result, the Virchow’s Cellular Pathology DSM-III, was a “revolution by committee.”57 as Based upon Physiological Politically voted in was a system of and Pathological Histology in classification that was drastically different from, 1858 firmly established medi- and foreign to, anything medicine had seen cine’s scientific credentials, psychiatry was still before. Most notably, the new DSM was devotfumbling around with brutal treatments and the ed to the diagnosis or categorization of symplack of any systematic approach to mental health toms only, not disease. None of the diagnoses until the 1950s. The absence of an equivalent were supported by objective scientific evidence. Psychiatrist David Kaiser states, “Symptoms system of diagnosis for mental problems by definition are the contributed greatly to psychiatry’s poor repsurface presentation utation, both among of a deeper process. “The ‘bitter medicine’ medical professionals This is self-evident. is that DSM has ‘unsuccessfully’ and the population However, there has attempted to medicalize as a whole. been a vast and large60 The development ly unacknowledged too many human troubles.” of the sixth edition of effort on the part of WHO’s International modern (i.e., biologic) — Professors Herb Kutchins and psychiatry to equate Classification of Stuart A. Kirk, Making Us Crazy symptoms with menDiseases (ICD) in tal illness.” He says he 1948, which incorporated psychiatric disorders for the first time, would be a “poor psychiatrist” if the only tool and the publication of Diagnostic and Statistical he had for treatment was a prescription pad for Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in the United medications which may “lessen symptoms,” but States in 1952, were the first attempts to create a which “do not treat mental illness per se.” He is left, “still sitting across from a suffering patient semblance of systematic diagnosis. Later, with criticism running high due to who wants to talk about his unhappiness.”58 ambiguities and inaccuracies in DSM-II, psyIn their book Making Us Crazy, Professors chiatry sought to create a “new and improved” Herb Kutchins and Stuart A. Kirk state that the diagnostic system, one that would provide an transformation of psychiatry’s diagnostic manual international foundation of agreement for the is a “story of the struggles of the American entire profession. Psychiatric Association to gain respectability According to David Healy, psychiatrist within medicine and maintain dominance among and director of the North Wales Department the many mental health professionals.”59


CHAPTER THREE A Parody of Medicine and Science

Selling Psychiatric “Illness”
From the first Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) which

named 112 mental disorders, to the latest edition that now includes 374 such disorders, the criteria used for psychiatric diagnoses are a parody of science-based illnesses. Used by psychiatrists to bilk hospitals, governments and insurance, they give medicine a bad name. The billable list includes:

Caffeine-Related Disorder DSM Page 212

Conduct Disorder DSM Page 85

Expressive Language Disorder DSM Page 55

Psychiatrist Stefan Kruszewski from the Pennsylvania Medical Society, “We can manufacture enough diagnostic labels of normal variability of mood and thought that we can continually supply medication to you... But when it comes to manufacturing disease, nobody does it like psychiatry.” New York Psychiatrist Ron Leifer says that the way in which psychiatrists diagnose is “arrogant fraud” and to claim that DSM is a scientific statement is “damaging to the culture.” Psychiatrist Matthew Dumont adds that psychiatrists say: “...while this manual provides a classification of mental disorder... no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept...” [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 1987]...They go on to say: "there is no assumption that each mental disorder is a discrete entity with sharp boundaries between it and other mental disorders or between it and no mental disorder. [APA, 1987].”61 Shorter puts it this way: “What is the cause of something like erotomania, the delusional belief that someone else is in love with you? Nobody knows. … These considerations suggest that in classification it is very easy for psychiatry to lose its way.”62 The Myths of Biopsychiatry Soliciting government research funds through testimony before a U.S. House of Representatives Committee, Steven Miran, Medical Director of the APA, stated that, “Scientific research over the last two decades has shown that severe mental illness and addictive disorders are … diseases of the brain with a strong genetic and biological basis.”63 In contrast, Dr. Healy reports, “There are increasing concerns among the clinical community that not only do neuroscientific developments not reveal anything about the nature of psychiatric disorders but in fact they distract

Mathematics Disorder DSM Page 50

Disorder of Written Expression DSM Page 51

from clinical research. … There has been astonishing progress in the neurosciences but little or no progPsychiatrists’ ress in understanding techniques are no depression.”64 more scientific today Harvard’s Glenthan 200 years ago mullen says that when they used despite “absence of any bumps on the verifiable diseases,” skull to decide a psychopharmacology person’s character. “has not hesitated to construct ‘disease models’ for psychiatric diagnoses. These models are hypothetical suggestions of what might be the underlying physiology—for example, a serotonin imbalance.”65 Pushing the Psychiatric Envelope In June 2000, the Toronto Globe and Mail ran an article headlined, “The Gap Is Closing Between Psychiatry and Family Medicine,”: “Psychiatrists are wary of the unfamiliarity family doctors often show with mental health problems.” The article quoted Glenn Thompson, the executive director of the Ontario division of

the Canadian Mental Health Association, saying that there’s nothing wrong with the primary care physician being “the likely first port of call,” provided the physician is working with a psychiatrist. The “mental health problems” to which the article refers are those outlined in the DSM. This contrived system of diagnosis and the inevitable assignment of a psychoactive drug prescription is the singular “expertise” that psychiatry has to offer. Non-psychiatric medical acceptance of psychiatric thinking and practice may come at a steep price. Say J. Allan Hobson and Jonathan A. Leonard, authors of Out of Its Mind, Psychiatry in Crisis, A Call for Reform, “… DSM-IV’s authoritative status and detailed nature tends to promote the idea that rote diagnosis and pill-pushing are acceptable.”66

Perhaps psychiatry’s most lucrative achievement is their Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM),

Number of DSM Mental Disorders

DSM Sales for the APA* (in millions)

published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). By inventing more and more mental illnesses for inclusion in the DSM and initiating expansion campaigns to increase market penetration, psychiatry has garnered millions in book sales alone and far more in government appropriations — with no commensurate benefit to society.

253 224 $40 163 112 $22







DSM 1993

DSM IV 1994

DSM V 2010

*APA: American Psychiatric Association, publisher of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

CHAPTER THREE A Parody of Medicine and Science

Diagnosis By Design
By Professor Thomas Szasz
disorders and that such disorders are, therefore, medical diseases. Thus, pathological gambling enjoys the same status as myocardial infarction (blood clot in heart artery). In effect, the APA maintains that betting is something the patient cannot control; and that, generally, all psychiatric “symptoms” or “disorders” are outsing a poll side the patient’s consurveying the trol. I reject that claim as nation’s health, patently false. Parade magazine conThe ostensible cluded that depression is validity of the DSM is “the third most common reinforced by psychia‘disease.’” Yet when the try’s claim that mental respondents were asked, illnesses are brain dis“What is your greatest eases—a claim suppospersonal health concern edly based on recent for the future?” they did discoveries in neuroscinot even mention depresence, made possible by sion. They were conimaging techniques for cerned about cancer and diagnosis and pharmaheart disease. cological agents for treatEven though people ment. This is not true. There have accepted the catare no objective diagnosegorization of depression tic tests to confirm or dis“There is no blood or as a disease, they are not confirm the diagnosis of other biological test to ascertain the afraid of getting depresdepression; the diagnosis sion because they intui- presence or absence of a mental illness, can and must be made tively recognize that it is solely on the basis of the as there is for most bodily diseases. If a personal problem, not patient’s appearance and such a test were developed, then the a disease. They are afraid behavior. condition would cease to be a mental of getting cancer and There is no blood illness and would be classified as heart disease because or other biological test to a symptom of a bodily disease.” they know these are ascertain the presence or — Dr. Thomas Szasz, M.D. diseases—true mediabsence of a mental illProfessor of psychiatry emeritus cal problems—not just ness, as there is for most names. bodily diseases. If such Allen J. Frances, Professor of Psychiatry at Duke a test were developed, then the condition would University Medical Center and Chair of the DSM-IV cease to be a mental illness and would be classified Task Force, writes: “DSM-IV is a manual of mental dis- as a symptom of a bodily disease. If schizophrenia, for example, turns out to have orders, but it is by no means clear just what is a mental disorder … There could arguably not be a worse a biochemical cause and cure, schizophrenia would term than mental disorder to describe the condi- no longer be one of the diseases for which a person tions classified in DSM-IV.” Why, then, does the APA would be involuntarily committed. In fact, it would then be treated by neurologists, and psychiatrists continue to use this term? The primary function and goal of the DSM then have no more to do with it than they do with is to lend credibility to the claim that certain be- Glioblastoma [malignant tumor], Parkinsonism, and haviors, or more correctly, misbehaviors, are mental other diseases of the brain.

Dr. Thomas Szasz is a professor of psychiatry emeritus at the State University of New York Health Science Center and author of more than 30 books.


The Chemical Imbalance Fraud
“The advent of the psychotropic drugs has also given rise to a new biological language in psychiatry. The extent to which this has come to be part of popular culture is in many ways astonishing….This triumph, however, is not without its ambiguities. It can reasonably be asked whether biological language offers more in the line of marketing copy than it offers in terms of clinical meaning.”67
— Dr. David Healy, The Anti-Depressant Era

he cornerstone of psychiatry’s disease model today, is the concept that a brainbased, chemical imbalance underlies mental disease. Researchers have thoroughly discredited this theory. Jonathon Leo, associate professor of anatomy at Western University of Health Sciences says, "If a psychia“[T]here are no tests available trist says you have a shortfor assessing the chemical age of a chemical, ask for a status of a living person’s brain.” blood test and watch the psychiatrist's reaction. The — Elliot S. Valenstein, Ph.D. number of people who believe that scientists have diagnosis of these psychiproven that depressed people have low serotonin is a atric ‘diseases.’ Whereas glorious testament to the power of marketing." Elliot Valenstein, Ph.D. is unequivocal: “[T]here if you have a heart attack, you can find the lesion; if are no tests available for assessing the chemical status you have diabetes, your of a living person’s brain.”68 A study published in PLoS blood sugar is very high; Medicine said neuroscientific research had failed to conif you have arthritis, it firm any chemical abnormality in the brain.69 A 2004 article on brain scans in the U.S. newspaper will show on the X-ray. In The Mercury News, states, “Many doctors warn about psychiatry, it’s just crystalballing, fortune-telling; using the SPECT (single photon emission computed Elliot S. Valenstein it’s totally unscientific.” tomography) brain imaging as a diagnostic tool, saying it Dr. Darshak Sanghavi, clinical fellow at Harvard is unethical—and potentially dangerous—for doctors to use SPECT to identify emotional, behavioral and psychiat- Medical School, wrote: "[D]espite pseudoscientific terms ric problems in a patient. The $2,500 evaluation offers no like 'chemical imbalance,' nobody really knows what causes mental illness. There's no blood test or brain useful or accurate information, they say.”70 Dr. Julian Whitaker, author of the respected Health scan for major depression. No geneticist can diagnose & Healing newsletter says: “When psychiatrists label a Schizophrenia.”71 child or adult, they’re labeling people because of sympAccording to Valenstein, “The theories are held toms. They do not have any pathological diagnosis; on to not only because there is nothing else to they do not have any laboratory diagnosis; they can- take their place, but also because they are useful in


not show any differentiation that would back up the

promoting drug treatment.”72

CHAPTER THREE A Parody of Medicine and Science

The neuroleptics or antipsychotics prescribed for the condition were first developed by the French to “numb the nervous system during surgery.” Psychiatrists learned very early on that neuroleptics cause Parkinsonian and encephalitis lethargica symptoms.77 Tardive dyskinesia (tardive “late” and dyskinesia, impairment of voluntary movement of the lips, tongue, jaw, fingers, toes, and other body parts) appeared in 5% of patients within one year of neuroleptic treatment.78 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially fatal toxic reaction where patients break into fevers and become confused, agitated, and extremely rigid, was also a known outcome risk. An estimated 100,000 Americans have died from it.79 To counter negative publicity, articles placed in medical journals regularly exaggerated the benefits of the drugs and obscured their risks. Whitaker says that what physicians and the general public learned about new drugs was tailored: “This molding of opinion, of course, played a critical role in the recasting of neuroleptics as safe, antischizophrenic drugs for the mentally ill.” However, independent research outcomes were worrisome. In an eight-year-study, the WHO found that severely mentally disturbed patients in three economically disadvantaged countries whose treatment plans did not include a heavy reliance on drugs—India, Nigeria and Colombia—did dramatically better than their counterparts in the United States and four other developed countries. Indeed, after five years, “64% of the patients in the poor countries were asymptomatic and functioning well.” In contrast, only 18% of the patients in the prosperous countries were doing well.80 A second follow-up study using the same diagnostic criteria reached the same conclusion.81 Neuroleptics were clearly implicated in the significantly inferior western result. While Nobel Prize winner John Nash is depicted in the Hollywood film “A Beautiful Mind” as recovering from “schizophrenia” using the latest psychiatric drugs, Nash refutes this fiction. In fact, he had not taken psychiatric medications for 24 years and recovered naturally from his disturbed state.

“The idea was that ‘schizophrenia’ could often be overcome with the help of meaningful relationships, rather than with drugs, and that such treatment would eventually lead to unquestionably healthier lives.”
— Dr. Loren Mosher, former chief of the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health’s Center for Studies of Schizophrenia

Not until 1985 did the APA issue a warning letter to its members about the potentially lethal effects of the drugs, and then only after several highly publicized lawsuits that “found psychiatrists and their institutions negligent for failing to warn patients of this risk, with damages in one case topping $3 million.” New “atypical” [not usual] drugs for schizophrenia were introduced in the 1990s, promising fewer side effects.82 However, we know from the numerous FDA and drug regulatory agency warnings that they can cause life-threatening diabetes which has been the subject of thousands of suits. The manufacturer of Zyprexa, for example, paid out $690 million (e550 million) to 10,500 plaintiffs. Antipsychotics place the elderly at increased risk of strokes and death and have a "boxed warning" to emphasize the risk. 83 They also cause agitation, aggressive reaction, akathisia, blood clots, and agranulocytosis, a potentially fatal depletion of white blood cells, in up to 2% of patients.84 In the film “A Beautiful Mind,” Nobel Prize winner John Nash is depicted as relying on psychiatry’s latest breakthrough drugs to prevent a relapse of his “schizophrenia.” This is Hollywood fiction, however, as Nash himself disputes the film’s portrayal of him taking “newer medications” at the time of his Nobel Prize award. Nash had not taken any psychiatric drugs for 24 years and had recovered naturally from his disturbed state. Although omitted from psychiatric history books, it is vital to know that numerous compassionate and

workable medical programs for severely disturbed individuals have not relied on heavy drugging.

Workable Treatments
The late Dr. Loren Mosher was the chief of the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health’s Center for Studies of Schizophrenia, and later clinical professor of psychiatry at the School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego and director of Soteria Associates in San Diego, California. He opened Soteria House in the 1970s as a place where young persons diagnosed as having “schizophrenia” lived medication-free with a nonprofessional staff trained to listen, to understand them and provide support, safety and validation of their experience. “The idea was that ‘schizophrenia’ could often be overcome with the help of meaningful relationships, rather than with drugs, and that such treatment would eventually lead to unquestionably healthier lives,” he said. Further “The experiment worked better than expected. At six weeks post-admission both groups had improved significantly and comparably despite Soteria clients having not usually received antipsychotic drugs! At two years post-admission, Soteria-treated subjects were working at significantly higher occupational levels, were significantly more often living independently or with peers, and had fewer readmissions. Interestingly, clients treated at Soteria who received no neuroleptic medication over the entire two years or were thought to be destined to have the worst outcomes, actually did

CHAPTER FOUR Harming the Vulnerable

Dr. Giorgio Antonucci, second from the right, and the patients he salvaged with communication and compassion.

the best as compared to hospital and drug-treated control subjects.” In the Institute of Osservanza (Observance) in Imola, Italy, Dr. Giorgio Antonucci treated dozens of so-called violent schizophrenic women, most of whom had been continuously strapped to their beds (some up to 20 years). Straitjackets had been used, as well as plastic masks to keep patients from biting. Dr. Antonucci began to release the women from their confinement, spending many, many hours each day talking with them and “penetrating their deliriums and anguish.” In every case, Dr. Antonucci listened to stories of years of desperation and institutional suffering. Under Dr. Antonucci’s leadership, all psychiatric “treatments” were abandoned and some of the most oppressive psychiatric wards were dismantled. He ensured that patients were treated compassionately, with respect, and without the use of drugs. In fact, under his guidance, the ward transformed from the most violent in the facility to its calmest. After a few months, his “dangerous” patients were free, walking quietly in the asylum garden. Eventually they

Dr. Giorgio Antonucci (left and above with patient) repeatedly dismantled some of the most oppressive concentration camp-like psychiatric wards by ensuring that patients were treated compassionately, with respect and without the use of drugs.

were stable and discharged from the hospital after many had been taught how to read and write, and how to work and care for themselves for the first time in their lives. Dr. Antonucci’s superior results also came at a much lower cost. Such programs constitute permanent testimony to the existence of both genuine answers and hope for the seriously troubled.

CHAPTER FIVE Jeopardizing
Medical Ethics


eyond the many valid medical sex-related offenses over a 15-year period found reasons for non-psychiatric physicians that psychiatry and child psychiatry featured in to resist the mental health vision of significantly higher numbers than other branches. psychiatrists, there is also the matter While psychiatrists accounted for only 6% of of preserving their professional integrity physicians in the country, they comprised 28% of and reputation. physicians disciplined for sex crimes.100 While medicine has nurtured an enviable A 1998 report on patient complaints issued record of achievements and general popular by Sweden’s Social Board (medical board) found acceptance, the public still links psychiatry to that psychiatrists were responsible for nearly snake pits, straitjackets, and “One Flew Over half of the mistreatments of patients reported. the Cuckoo’s Nest.” Some were so gross — Psychiatry has done involving violence and little to enhance that sexual abuse — that “Suicide, stress, divorce perception with its they were referred to development of such prosecutors for further — psychologists and other brutal treatments as action.101 mental health professionals ECT, psychosurgery, Between 10% and may actually be more screwed 25% of mental health the chemical straitjacket caused by antipractitioners admit to up than the rest of us.” psychotic drugs, and sexually abusing their — Psychology Today, 1997 its long record of patients. A U.S. nationtreatment failures. al study of therapistclient sex revealed that In the area of fraud, psychiatry is considerably over-represented. therapists abuse more girls than boys. The female The largest health care fraud suit in U.S. his- victims’ ages ranged from three to 17. For sexually tory involved mental health, yet it is the small- abused boys, the ages ranged from seven to est sector within the healthcare field.99 16 years old.102 According to a veteran California healthMeanwhile, psychiatrists work hard to care fraud investigator, one of the simplest expand their referral business by influencing ways to detect fraud is to review the drug pre- primary care medicine to use diagnostic checkscription records of psychiatrists. lists based on the DSM. As ethical practitioners are an essential part of a profession’s standing, it behooves non-psychiatric physicians to Sex Crimes A review of U.S. medical board actions consider the likely reputational consequences for against 761 physicians disciplined for medicine itself.

CHAPTER FIVE Jeopardizing Medical Ethics

A Better Future


n a survey of physicians in three European In a wish list for mental health reform, Mad countries and in the United States, 72% said in America author Robert Whitaker stated, “At qualities that best describe a good physi- the top of this wish list, though, would be a cian are compassion, caring, personable simple plea for honesty. Stop telling those and good listening and communication diagnosed with schizophrenia that they suffer skills. In this way, they felt they could help make from too much dopamine or serotonin activtheir patients healthier and lead better lives. ity and that the drugs put these brain chemiWhen asked how to distinguish between a cals back into ‘balance.’ That whole spiel is a “mental disorder” and a physical illness, 65% said form of medical fraud, and it is impossible to imagine any other that physical examigroup of patients—ill nations and clinical “Yes, I believe ‘a’ Hippocratic diagnostic testing say, with cancer or carshould first rule out diovascular disease— Oath is relevant—for me in physical problems. being deceived in this June of 1990 (when I took it)... way.” Psychiatrists rarely and every day of my life in this physically test and David B. Stein, diagnose. A prePh.D., clinical psyprofession in which I am honored packaged checklist of chologist and associate to be a member. What is the behaviors is consulted professor of psychoessence of a Hippocratic Oath? and the “diagnosis” is logy says, “Physicians made. All that remains are trained to heal. ‘May I care for others as I would is to prescribe the They really want to have them care for me.’” psychoactive drug. help. They often claim — Physician that they don’t have Meanwhile, to an alternative—that combat the paucity of interest in psychiatry, the World Psychiatric the only way to help these [ADHD, learning Association has produced a “Core Curriculum disordered] children is with drugs. Besides, parents and teachers are constantly at their throats in Psychiatry for Medical Students.”104 Its objective is to train all future physi- for them to write prescriptions. They want their cians to identify and treat mental illness. The disruptive kids under control immediately. Some authors candidly state, “Since most students doctors dislike doing this; many wish for an will not enter psychiatry, the acquisition of alternative.”106 appropriate attitudes is of primary importance” With psychiatric diagnoses and treatand should be taught not just in psychiatry ments impacting more people’s lives through but all other subjects.105 primary care medicine, the alternatives need to be

CHAPTER SIX A Better Future

one in which a patient was complaining of headaches, dizziness and staggering when he walked. The patient had complained of these symptoms to psychiatric personnel for five years before a medical check-up revealed that he had a brain tumor.108 Dr. Thomas Dorman says, “…please remember that the majority of people suffer from organic disease. Clinicians should first of all remember that emotional stress associated with a chronic illness or a painful condition can alter the patient’s temperament. In my practice I have run across countless people with chronic back pain who were labeled neurotic. A typical statement from these poor patients is ‘I thought I really was going crazy.’” Often, he said, the problem may have been “simply an undiagnosed ligament problem in the back.”109

2) Help Without Mind-Altering Drugs
German psychiatrist Paul Runge says he’s helped more than 100 children without using psychiatric drugs. He has also helped reduce the dosages of drugs prescribed by other physicians.110 Dr. L.M.J. Pelsser of the Research Center for Hyperactivity and ADHD in Middelburg, the Netherlands, found that 62% of children diagnosed with “ADHD” showed significant improvements in behavior as a result of a change in diet over a period of three weeks.111 Dr. Mary Ann Block, who has helped thousands of children safely come off or stay off psychiatric drugs, says, “Many doctors don’t do physical exams before prescribing psychiatric drugs … [Children] see a doctor, but the doctor does not do a physical exam or look for any health or learning problems before giving the child an ADHD diagnosis and a prescription drug. This is not how I was taught to practice medicine. In my medical education, I was taught to do a complete history and physical exam. I was taught to consider something called a ‘differential diagnosis.’ To do this, one must consider all possible underlying causes of the symptoms.”112 Dr. Block does allergy testing and develops dietary solutions to “behavioral” problems. She cites a Journal of Pediatrics (1995) study showing that sucrose may cause a 10-times increase in adrenaline, in children, resulting in “difficulty concentrating, irritability, and anxiety.”

The emphasis must be on workable medical testing and treatments that improve and strengthen individuals and can save the person from a lifetime of psychiatric abuse.
emphasized. The following alternatives are derived from years of working with health professionals who are qualified to address such medical issues.

1) Check for the Underlying Physical Problem
The California Department of Mental Health Medical Evaluation Field Manual states: “Mental health professionals working within a mental health system have a professional and a legal obligation to recognize the presence of physical disease in their patients. … Physical diseases may cause a patient’s mental disorder [or] may worsen a mental disorder.”107 The Swedish Social Board cited several cases of disciplinary actions against psychiatrists, including


Citizens Commission on Human Rights International
CCHR’s work aligns with the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in particular the following precepts, which psychiatrists violate on a daily basis: Article 3: Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 5: No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 7: All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. Through psychiatrists’ false diagnoses, stigmatizing labels, easy-seizure commitment laws, brutal, depersonalizing “treatments,” thousands of individuals are harmed and denied their inherent human rights. CCHR has inspired and caused many hundreds of reforms by testifying before legislative hearings and conducting public hearings into psychiatric abuse, as well as working with media, law enforcement and public officials the world over.

he Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR) was established in 1969 by the Church of Scientology to investigate and expose psychiatric violations of human rights, and to clean up the field of mental healing. Today, it has more than 250 chapters in over 34 countries. Its board of advisors, called Commissioners, includes doctors, lawyers, educators, artists, business professionals, and civil and human rights representatives.

While it doesn’t provide medical or legal advice, it works closely with and supports medical doctors and medical practice. A key CCHR focus is psychiatry’s fraudulent use of subjective “diagnoses” that lack any scientific or medical merit, but which are used to reap financial benefits in the billions, mostly from the taxpayers or insurance carriers. Based on these false diagnoses, psychiatrists justify and prescribe life-damaging treatments, including mind-altering drugs, which mask a person’s underlying difficulties and prevent his or her recovery.


Board of Commissioners
David Egner, Ph.D. Seth Farber, Ph.D. Mark Filidei, D.O. Nicolas Franceshetti, M.D. Marta Garbos, Psy. D. Howard Glasser, M.A. Patti Guliano, D.C. Edward C. Hamlyn, M.D. Brett Hartman, Psy.D. Lawrence Hooper, M.D. Dr. Joseph Isaac Georgia Janisch, R.D. Dr. Derek Johnson Jonathan Kalman, N.D. Dr. Peter Kervorkian, D.C. Professor Oleg Khilkevich Kenichi Kozu, Ph.D. Eric Lambert, R. Ph. Anna C. Law, M.D. Richard Lippin, M.D. Otani Logi Lloyd McPhee Dr. Bari Maddock Joan Mathews-Larson, Ph.D. Conrad Maulfair, D.O. Colleen Maulfair Clinton Ray Miller Dr. Robert Morgan, Ph.D. Craig Newnes Gwen Olsen Mary Jo Pagel, M.D. Vladimir Pshizov, M.D. Lawrence Retief, M.D. Franklin H. Ross, M.D. Megan Shields, M.D. Allan Sosin, M.D. David Tanton, Ph.D. William Tutman, Ph.D. Tony Urbanek, M.D., D.D.S. Margaret von Beck, Ph.D. Wanda von Kleist, Ph.D. Julian Whitaker, M.D. Spice Williams-Crosby, BSc, MFS, CFT Michael Wisner Sergej Zapuskalov, M.D. Norman Zucker, M.D. POLITICS & LAW Rep. Russell Albert Lewis Bass, M.S., J.D. Timothy Bowles, Esq. Robert Butcher, LLB Robert E. Byron, LLC Lars Engstrand Guillermo Guzmán de la Garza Sandra Gorcia Rojas Steven Hayes, Esq. Gregory Hession, J.D. Sen. Karen Johnson Erik Langeland, Esq. Leonid Lemberick, Esq. Vladimir Leonov, M.P. Lev Levinson Doug Linde, Esq. Jonathan W. Lubell, LL.B. Jeff Lustman Kendrick Moxon Rep. Curtis Oda Col. Stanislav Pylov Rep. Guadalupe Rodriguez Sandro Garcia Rojas Timothy Rosen, Esq. Steven Russell, Esq. Rep. Aaron Tilton, (UT) Rep. Mark Thompson Rep. Michael Thompson Rep. Matt Throckmorton ARTS, ENTERTAINMENT & MEDIA Kirstie Alley Anne Archer Jennifer Aspen Catherine Bell David Campbell Raven Kane Campbell Nancy Cartwright Kate Ceberano Chick Corea Bodhi Elfman Jenna Elfman Cerise Fukuji Isaac Hayes Donna Isham Mark Isham Jason Lee Geoff Levin Gordon Lewis Juliette Lewis John Mappin Jaime Maussan Jim Meskimen Tamra Meskimen Marisol Nichols John Novello David Pomeranz Kelly Preston Tariz Nasim Kelly Patricia O’Meara Leah Remini Lee Rogers Carrina Ricco Raul Rubio Harriet Schock Dennis Smith CCHR’s Commissioners act in an official capacity to assist CCHR in its work to reform the field of mental health and to secure rights for the mentally ill. International President Jan Eastgate Citizens Commission on Human Rights International, Los Angeles National President Bruce Wiseman Citizens Commission on Human Rights United States Citizens Commission on Human Rights Board Member Isadore M. Chait Founding Commissioner Dr. Thomas Szasz, Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus at the State University of New York Health Science Center SCIENCE, MEDICINE & HEALTH Rohit Adi, M.D. Ivan Alfonso, M.D. Professor Garland Allen Giorgio Antonucci, M.D. Ann Auburn, D.O. Mark Barber, D.D.S. Lisa Bazler, B.A., M.A. Ryan Bazler, B.S., MBA Margarethe von Beck, DLitt et Phil Shelley Beckmann, Ph.D. Lisa Benest, M.D. Peter Bennet Mary Ann Block, D.O. John Breeding, Ph.D. Lisa Cain Anthony Castiglia, M.D. Roberto Cestari, M.D. James Chappell, D.C. N.D., Ph.D. Beth Clay Bishop David Cooper Jesus Corona Ann Y. Coxon, M.B., B.S. Moira Dolan, M.D. Mary Ann Durham, B.S. Dan L. Edmunds, ED.D., M.A., B.C.S.A. Michelle Stafford Cass Warner Miles Watkins Kelly Yaegermann EDUCATION Dr. Samuel Blumenfeld Cassandra Casey Gleb Dubov, Ph.D. Beverly Eakman Professor Antony Flew, Ph.D. Dr. Wendy Ghiora, Ph.D. Professor Hector Herrera Wendy McCants-Thomas Sonya Muhammad, M.S. James Paicopolos Nickolai Pavlovsky Anatoli Prokopenko Gayle Ruzicka Joel Turtel Shelley Ucinski Micheal Walker Charles Whittman, III BUSINESS Lawrence Anthony Michael Baybak Phillip Brown Luis Colon Bob Duggan Joyce Gaines James A. Mackie Cecilio Ramirez Sebastien Sainsbury Roberto Santos RELIGION Rev. Doctor Jim Nicholls Pastor Michael Davis Bishop Samuel V.J. Rowland ACTIVISTS/HUMAN RIGHTS Paul Bruhne Janice Hill Nedra Jones, Ph. D. Elvira Manthey Sheila Matthews Lynette Riley-Mundine Ghulam Abbas Sajan William Tower Ishrat Nasim Patricia Weathers Allan Wohrnitz, B.Sc. Lloyd Wyles

CCHR National Offices
CCHR Australia
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Australia P.O. Box 6402 North Sydney New South Wales 2059 Australia Phone: 612-9964-9844 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Finland
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Finland Post Box 145 00511 Helsinki, Finland Phone: 358-9-8594-869

CCHR Italy
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Italy (Comitato dei Cittadini per i Diritti Umani ONLUS — CCDU) Viale Monza 1 20125 Milano, Italy E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Russia
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Russia Borisa Galushkina #19A 129301, Moscow Russia CIS Phone: (495) 540-1599 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR France
Citizens Commission on Human Rights France (Commission des Citoyens pour les Droits de l’Homme—CCDH) BP 10076 75561 Paris Cedex 12 , France Phone: 33 1 40 01 09 70 Fax: 33 1 40 01 05 20 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Austria
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Austria (Bürgerkommission für Menschenrechte Österreich) Postfach 130 A-1072 Wien, Austria Phone: 43-1-877-02-23 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Japan
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Japan 2-11-7-7F Kitaotsuka Toshima-ku Tokyo 170-0004, Japan Phone/Fax: 81 3 3576 1741 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR South Africa
Citizens Commission on Human Rights South Africa P.O. Box 710 Johannesburg 2000 Republic of South Africa Phone: 011 27 11 624 3538 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Germany
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Germany (Kommission für Verstöße der Psychiatrie gegen Menschenrechte e.V.—KVPM) Amalienstraße 49a 80799 München, Germany Phone: 49 89 273 0354 Fax: 49 89 28 98 6704 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Belgium
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Belgium (Belgisch comite voor de rechten van de mens) Postbus 338 2800 Mechelen 3, Belgium E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Latvia
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Latvia Dzelzavas 80-48 Riga, Latvia 1082 Phone: 371-758-3940 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Spain
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Spain (Comisión de Ciudadanos por los Derechos Humanos—CCDH) c/Maestro Arbos No 5 – 4 Oficina 29 28045 Madrid, Spain Phone: 34-91-527-35-08 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Mexico
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Mexico (Comisión de Ciudadanos por los Derechos Humanos—CCDH) Cordobanes 47, San Jose Insurgents México 03900 D.F. Phone: 55-8596-5030 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Canada
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Canada 27 Carlton St., Suite 304 Toronto, Ontario M5B 1L2 Canada Phone: 1-416-971-8555 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Greece
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Greece P.O. Box 31268 Athens 47, Postal Code 10-035 Athens, Greece Phone: 210-3604895

CCHR Sweden
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Sweden (Kommittén för Mänskliga Rättigheter—KMR) Box 2 124 21 Stockholm, Sweden Phone/Fax: 46 8 83 8518 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Colombia
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Colombia P.O. Box 359339 Bogota, Colombia Phone: 57-1-251-0377 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Holland
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Holland Postbus 36000 1020 MA, Amsterdam Holland Phone/Fax: 3120-4942510 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Nepal
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Nepal P.O. Box 1679 Kathmandu, Nepal Phone: 977-1-448-6053 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Switzerland
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Lausanne (Commission des Citoyens pour les droits de l’Homme— CCDH) Case postale 5773 1002 Lausanne, Switzerland Phone: 41 21 646 6226 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Czech Republic
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Czech Republic Obcanská komise za lidská práva Václavské námestí 17 110 00 Praha 1, Czech Republic Phone/Fax: 420-224-009-156 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Hungary
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Hungary Pf. 182 1461 Budapest, Hungary Phone: 36 1 342 6355 Fax: 36 1 344 4724 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR New Zealand
Citizens Commission on Human Rights New Zealand P.O. Box 5257 Wellesley Street Auckland 1141, New Zealand Phone/Fax: 649 580 0060 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Taiwan
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Taiwan Taichung P.O. Box 36-127 Taiwan, R.O.C. Phone: 42-471-2072 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Denmark
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Denmark (Medborgernes Menneskerettighedskommission—MMK) Faksingevej 9A 2700 Brønshøj, Denmark Phone: 45 39 62 90 39 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Israel
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Israel P.O. Box 37020 61369 Tel Aviv, Israel Phone: 972 3 5660699 Fax: 972 3 5663750 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR Norway
Citizens Commission on Human Rights Norway (Medborgernes menneskerettighets-kommisjon, MMK) Postboks 308 4803 Arendal, Norway Phone: 47 40468626 E-mail: [email protected]

CCHR United Kingdom
Citizens Commission on Human Rights United Kingdom P.O. Box 188 East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 4RB, United Kingdom Phone: 44 1342 31 3926 Fax: 44 1342 32 5559 E-mail: [email protected].

1. David Samuels, “Saying Yes to Drugs,” The New Yorker, 23 Mar. 1998. 2. Ty. C. Colbert, Ph.D., Rape of the Soul: How the Chemical Imbalance Model of Modern Psychiatry has Failed its Patients (Kevco Publishing, California, 2001) pp. 74-75 3. “Controlling the diagnosis and treatment of hyperactive children in Europe,” Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe Preliminary Draft Report, Mar. 2002, Statement from Dr. Paul Runge. 4. Op. cit., Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe Preliminary, point 16. 5. “Evolution of the number of prescriptions of Ritalin (Methylphenidate) in the Canton of Neuchatel between 1996 and 2000,” Dr. Jean-Blaise Montandon, Public Health Service and Laurent Medioni, Chief of Pharmaceutical Control and Authorization Division, Switzerland. 6. David Reardon, "Mind Drugs are Hurting Normal Children: AMA," Sydney Morning Herald, 6 Feb. 1999. 7. Op. cit., Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe Preliminary Draft Report, Point 15. 8. “The ADHD Debate—Parents, doctors and educators struggle to define—and treat—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Daily News (New York), 9 Apr. 2001. 9. Louria Shulamit, M.D., Family Practitioner, Israel, Quote Provided to CCHR International, 2002. 10. Gina Shaw, “The Ritalin Controversy Experts Debate Use of Drug to Curb Hyperactivity in Children,” The Washington Diplomat, Mar. 2002. 11. Jeanie Russell, “The Pill That Teachers Push,” Good Housekeeping, Dec. 1997. 12. Dr. Mark Graff, interview, CBS Studio 2, July 2005. 13. People Magazine, 11 July 2005. 14. Elliot S. Valenstein, Ph.D., Blaming the Brain, (The Free Press, New York, 1998), p. 4. 15. Lisa M. Krieger, “Some question value of brain scan; Untested tool belongs in lab only, experts say,” The Mercury News, 4 May 2004. 16. Ibid. 17. Dr. Mary Ann Block, No More ADHD, (Block Books, Texas, 2001), p. 35. 18. Ty C. Colbert, Ph.D., Rape of the Soul: How the Chemical Imbalance Model of Modern Psychiatry has Failed its Patients, (Kevco Publishing, 2001), p. 74. 19. Physician’s Desk Reference-1998, (Medical Economics Co., N.J.), pp. 1896-1897. 20. Brian Vastig, “Pay Attention: Ritalin Acts Much Like Cocaine,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 22/29 Aug. 2001, Vol. 286, No. 8, p. 905. 21. Dr. David Stein, Ph.D., Unraveling the ADD/ADHD Fiasco, (Andrews Publishing, Kansas City, 2001), p. 22. 22. Ibid. p. 20. 23. Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IIIR), (American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 136. 24. Sydney Walker III, M.D., The Hyperactivity Hoax, (St. Martin’s Paperbacks, New York, 1998), p. 47. 25. Op. cit., Dr. Jean-Blaise Montandon and Laurent Medioni. 26. Lucy Johnston, “These Youngsters are like guinea pigs in a huge medical experiment….,” Sunday Express, 15 June 2003. 27. K. Minde, M.D., FRCPC, “The Use of Psychotropic Medication in Preschoolers: Some Recent Developments,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 43, 1998. 28. Criado Alvarez JJ, Romo Barrientos C., “Variability and tendencies in the consumption of methylphenidate in Spain. An estimation of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Rev Neurol. Nov 1-15;37(9):806-10; INCB Comments on Psychotropic Substance statistics, 1999, p.28. 29. Richard De Grandpre, Ritalin Nation, (W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1999), p. 177. 30. Kate Muldoon, “Shooting spurs debate on Prozac’s use by kids,” The Oregonian, 1 June 1998. 31. “The eating cure: Forget drugs—diet is the way forward in treating mental illness….,” The Guardian (London), 4 May 2004. 32. “Worsening Depression and Suicidality in Patients Being Treated with Antidepressants Medications,” US Food and Drug Administration Public Health Advisory, 22 Mar. 2004. 33. Kelly Patricia O’Meara, “GAO ‘Study’ Plays Guessing Games,” Insight Magazine, 16 May 2003. 34. R.S. Pollack, “A Boy’s Behavioral Problems Stop After a Blockage is Removed from His Colon,” Sun Sentinel News, 4 Mar. 2002. 35. American Psychiatric Association Campaign Kit 1989: “Opening letter by Harvey Ruben, M.D.”; section on “About this year’s campaign”; section on “About legislators”; section on “About the public” 36. “Acknowledgements,” A WHO Educational Package—Mental Disorders in Primary Care, 1998, p. 3. 37. Edward Shorter, A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylums to the Age of Prozac, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997), p. 1. 38.Franz G. Alexander, M.D., and Sheldon T. Selesnick, M.D., The History of Psychiatry: An Evaluation of Psychiatric Thought and Practice from Prehistoric Times to the Present, (Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1966), p. 4. 39.Thomas Szasz, M.D., The Manufacture of Madness, (Harper & Row, New York, 1970), p. 299. 40. Op. cit., Edward Shorter, p. 17. 41. Thomas Szasz, M.D., Pharmocracy, (Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT, 2001), p. 6. 42. Ibid. 43. John G. Howells, M.D., World History of Psychiatry, (Brunner/ Mazel, Inc., New York, 1975), p. 264. 44. Ibid. 45. Op. cit., Szasz, The Manufacture of Madness, p. 305. 46. Erwin H. Ackerknecht, A Short History of Psychiatry, (Hafner Publishing Co., New York, 1959), pp. 33-34. 47. Thomas Röder, Volker Kubillus, Anthony Burwell, Psychiatrists— The Men Behind Hitler, (FREEDOM Publishing, Los Angeles, 1995), p. 28, citing: Friedrich Nietzsche, Book III, p. 67. 48. Stanley Finger, Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations into Brain Function, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1994), p. 58. 49. Elliot S. Valenstein, Ph.D., Blaming the Brain, (The Free Press, New York, 1998), p. 19. 50. Ibid., p. 19. 51. American Psychiatric Association Campaign Kit 1989: “Opening letter by Harvey Ruben, M.D.”; section on “About this year’s campaign”; section on “About legislators”; section on “About the public”. 52. “Acknowledgements,” A WHO Educational Package—Mental Disorders in Primary Care, 1998, p. 3. 53. Sarah Boseley, “Psychiatric Agenda ‘set by drug firms,’” The Guardian, 9 Jul. 2001 54. Shankar Vedantam, “Drug Ads Hyping Anxiety Make Some Uneasy,” The Washington Post, 16 Jul., 2001 55. Joseph Glenmullen, M.D., Prozac Backlash, (Simon & Schuster, New York, 2000, p. 12. 56. Op. cit., Elliot S. Valenstein, p. 4. 57. David Healy, The Antidepressant Era (Harvard University Press, 1997), p. 231. 58. David Kaiser, M.D., “Against Biological Psychiatry,” Dec., 1996, kaiser.htm. 59. Herb Kutchins, Stuart A. Kirk, Making Us Crazy, (The Free Press, New York, 2000), p. 22. 60. Ibid, P. 263. 61. Matthew Dumont, A diagnostic parable (First edition-un-revised). READINGS: A Journal of Reviews and Commentary in Mental Health, December 1987, pp. 9-12. 62. Op. Cit., Edward Shorter, p. 295. 63. Steven Miran, M.D., “Testimony of the APA before the House Subcommittee on Labor, Health & Human Services and Education Appropriations,” 5 Apr., 2000. 64. Op. cit., David Healy, p. 174. 65. Op. cit., Joseph Glenmullen, p. 193. 66. J. Allan Hobson & Jonathan A. Leonard, Out of Its Mind, Psychiatry in Crisis, A Call for Reform, (Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2001) p. 125.

67. Op. cit., David Healy, Intro., p. 5.
68. Op. cit., Elliot S. Valenstein, p. 4. 69. Jeffrey R. Lacasse and Jonathan Leo, “Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect between the Advertisements and the Scientific Literature,” PLoS Medicine. Vol 2. 392, Dec. 2005. 70. Lisa M. Krieger, “Some question value of brain scan; Untested tool

belongs in lab only, experts say,” The Mercury News, 4 May 2004. 71. Dr. Darshak Sanghavi, “Health Care System Leaves Mentally Ill Children Behind,” The Boston Globe, 27 Apr. 2004. 72. Op. cit. Elliot S. Valenstein, p. 4. 73. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II, (American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 1968), p. ix. 74. E. Fuller Torrey, M.D., Death of Psychiatry, (Chilton Publications, Pennsylvania, 1974), pp. 10-11. 75. Robert Whitaker, Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill, (Perseus Publishing, New York, 2002), p. 183. 76. Ty Colbert, Blaming the Genes (Kevco Books, California, 2001), p. 73 77. Op. cit., Robert Whitaker, p. 203. 78. Ibid., p. 191, citing George Crane, “Tardive Dyskinesia in Patients Treated with Major Neuroleptics: A Review of the Literature,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, supplement, 1968, pp. 40-47. 79. Op. Cit., Whitaker, p. 208, citing Estimates of incidence rates for NMS vary from 0.2% to 1.4%. At a rate of 0.8%, that would mean approx. 24,000 cases annually from the 1960s to the 1980s (with 3 million Americans on the drugs), with total deaths of 5,280 (24,000 x 22% mortality rate) annually. Over a 22 year period, that would lead to more than 100,000 deaths. At 4%, the number would be 20,000. 80. Op. cit., Whitaker, pp. 227-228, citing L. Jeff, “The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia: Five-Year Follow-Up Findings,” Psychological Medicine 22 (1992), pp. 131-145; Assen Jablensky, “Schizophrenia: Manifestations, Incidence and Course in Different Cultures, a World Health Organization Ten-Country Study,” Psychological Medicine, supplement, (1992): pp. 1-95. 81 Op. cit., Whitaker, p. 229. 82. Ibid., pp. 253-254. 83. The Associated Press, “Lilly Reports More on Zyprexa,” 7 Aug, 2006. ; “J&J: TO ISSUE LETTER ON RISPERDAL STROKE RISK FOR ELDERLY,” American Health Line, 14 Apr. 2003; Philip S. Wang, M.D.,

Dr.P.H., Sebastian Schneeweiss, M.D., Jerry Avorn, M.D., Michael A. Fischer, M.D., Helen Mogun, M.S., Daniel H. Solomon, M.D., M.P.H., and M. Alan Brookhart, Ph.D., “Risk of Death in Elderly Users of Conventional vs. Atypical Antipsychotic Medications,” New England Journal of Medicine, 1 Dec. 2005, 353;22. 84. Op. cit., Robert Whitaker, p. 258. 85. Edward G. Ezrailson, Ph.D., Report on Review of Andrea Yates’ Medical Records, 29 Mar. 2002. 86. Op. cit., Whitaker, pp. 182, 186. 87. Ibid., p. 188. 88. “Worsening Depression and Suicidality in Patients Being Treated with Antidepressant Medications,” US Food and Drug Administration Public Health Advisory, 22 Mar. 2004. 89. FDA’s Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program, Effexor XR, Nov. 2005. 90. Kelly O’Meara, Psyched Out, How Psychiatry Sells Mental Illness and Pushes Pills that Kill, AuthorHouse, 2006, citing Theodore A. Henderson, M.D., Ph.D., Matrix ADHD Clinic, Neurobehavioral Research, Keith Hotman, M.D., “Aggression, Mania, and Hypomania Induction Associated with Atomoxetine,” Pediatrics Vol. 114, No. 3, Sept. 2004. 91. "Acute Drug Withdrawal," Pre Mec Medicines Information Bulletin, Aug 1996, and 6 Jan. 1997, Internet url: http://www.premec. 92. Op. cit., Joseph Glenmullen, p. 78. 93. Ibid., p. 78. 94. Jim Rosack, “SSRIs Called on Carpet Over Violence Claims,” Psychiatric News, Vol. 36, No. 19, 5 Oct. 2001. 95. Interview with New York State Dept. of Law, Medicaid Fraud Control Unit, 15 Dec. 1995, regarding 1995 health care fraud convictions in 1995 and 1992 report, “Special Prosecutor Arrests Westchester Psychiatrist—NY State Employee—In $8200 Medicaid fraud,” Special Prosecutor For Medicaid Fraud Control News release, 6 Feb. 1992; Gilbert Geis, Ph.D., et. al., “Fraud and Abuse of Government Medical Benefit Programs by Psychiatrists,” Am. J. Psychiatry, 142:2, Feb. 1998, p. 231.

96. Kenneth Pope, “Sex Between Therapists and Clients,” Encyclopedia of Women and Gender: Sex Similarities and Differences and the Impact of Society on Gender, (Academic Press, Oct. 2001). 97. Sydney Walker, A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine and Misdiagnosis, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, NY, 1996), p. 132. 98. Martin L. Gross, The Psychological Society, A Critical Analysis of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis and the Psychological Revolution, (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1978), p. 46. 99. “Czech health care corruption widespread, experts say,” Deutsche Presse Agentur, Oct. 10, 2001. 100. “Physicians Disciplined for Sex-Related Offenses,” Christine E. Dehlendorf, BSc: Sidney M. Wolfe, MD, JAMA, 17 June, 1998, Vol. 279, No. 23. 101. Tomas Bjorkman, “Many Wrongs in Psychiatric Care,” Dagens Nyheter, 25 Jan. 1998 102. Op. Cit.. Kenneth Pope 103. David E. Sternberg, M.D., “Testing for Physical Illness in Psychiatric Patients,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 47, No. 1, Jan. 1986, Supplement, p. 5; Richard C. Hall, M.D. et al., “Physical Illness Presenting as Psychiatric Disease,” Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 35, Nov. 1978, pp. 1315-20; Ivan Fras, M.D., Edward M. Litin, M.D., and John S. Pearson, Ph.D., “Comparison of Psychiatric Symptoms in Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Those in Some Other Intraabdominal Neoplasms,” American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 123, No. 12, June 1967, pp. 1553-62. 104. “Attitude objectives,” Core Curriculum in Psychiatry for Medical Students, (1996), WPA website, 105. Ahmed Mohit, Psychiatry and Mental Health for Developing Countries, Challenges for the 21st Century, January 25-28, 2001, p. 4; World Federation for Medical Education website, http://www. 106. David B, Stein, Ph.D., Ritalin is Not the Answer: A Drug-Free, Practical Program for Children Diagnosed with ADD or ADHD,

(Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, San Francisco, 1999), p. 16. 107. Lorrin M. Koran, Medical Evaluation Field Manual, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University Medical Center, California, 1991, p. 4. 108. Tomas Bjorkman, “Many Wrongs in Psychiatric Care,” Dagens Nyheter, 25 Jan. 1998. 109. Thomas Dorman, “Toxic Psychiatry,” Thomas Dorman’s website, 29 Jan. 2002, Internet URL:, accessed: 27 Mar. 2002. 110. Op. cit., Dr. Paul Runge. 111. “Controlling the diagnosis and treatment of hyperactive children in Europe,” Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe Preliminary Draft Report, Mar. 2002, point 19. 112. Op. cit., Mary Ann Block, pp. 19-20. 113. Sydney Walker III, The Hyperactivity Hoax (St. Martin’s Paperbacks, New York, 1998), p. 6. 114. Ibid, p. 12.

Citizens Commission on Human Rights
ducation is a vital part of any initiative to reverse social decline. CCHR takes this responsibility very seriously. Through the broad dissemination of CCHR’s Internet site, books, newsletters and other publications, more and more patients, families, professionals, lawmakers and countless others are THE REAL CRISIS—In Mental Health Today Report and recommendations on the lack of science and results within the mental health industry MASSIVE FRAUD—Psychiatry’s Corrupt Industry Report and recommendations on a criminal mental health monopoly PSYCHIATRIC MALPRACTICE—The Subversion of Medicine Report and recommendations on psychiatry’s destructive impact on health care INVENTING DISORDERS—For Drug Profits Report and recommendations on the unscientific fraud perpetrated by psychiatry SCHIZOPHRENIA—Psychiatry’s For Profit ‘Disease’ Report and recommendations on psychiatric lies and false diagnoses BRUTAL THERAPIES—Harmful Psychiatric ‘Treatments’ Report and recommendations on the destructive practices of electroshock and psychosurgery PSYCHIATRIC RAPE—Assaulting Women and Children Report and recommendations on widespread sex crimes against patients within the mental health system DEADLY RESTRAINTS—Psychiatry’s ‘Therapeutic’ Assault Report and recommendations on the violent and dangerous use of restraints in mental health facilities PSYCHIATRY—Hooking Your World on Drugs Report and recommendations on psychiatry creating today’s drug crisis REHAB FRAUD—Psychiatry’s Drug Scam Report and recommendations on methadone and other disastrous psychiatric drug ‘rehabilitation’ programs


becoming educated on the truth about psychiatry, and that something effective can and should be done about it. CCHR’s publications—available in 15 languages— show the harmful impact of psychiatry on racism, education, women, justice, drug rehabilitation, morals, the elderly, religion, and many other areas. A list of these includes: CHILD DRUGGING—Psychiatry Destroying Lives Report and recommendations on fraudulent psychiatric diagnoses and the enforced drugging of youth HARMING YOUTH—Screening and Drugs Ruin Young Minds Report and recommendations on harmful mental health assessments, evaluations and programs within our schools COMMUNITY RUIN—Psychiatry’s Coercive ‘Care’ Report and recommendations on the failure of community mental health and other coercive psychiatric programs HARMING ARTISTS—Psychiatry Ruins Creativity Report and recommendations on psychiatry assaulting the arts UNHOLY ASSAULT—Psychiatry versus Religion Report and recommendations on psychiatry’s subversion of religious belief and practice ERODING JUSTICE—Psychiatry’s Corruption of Law Report and recommendations on psychiatry subverting the courts and corrective services ELDERLY ABUSE—Cruel Mental Health Programs Report and recommendations on psychiatry abusing seniors BEHIND TERRORISM—Psychiatry Manipulating Minds Report and recommendations on the role of psychiatry in international terrorism CREATING RACISM—Psychiatry’s Betrayal Report and recommendations on psychiatry causing racial conflict and genocide CITIZENS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS The International Mental Health Watchdog

WARNING: No one should stop taking any psychiatric drug without the advice and assistance of a competent, non-psychiatric, medical doctor.


Citizens Commission on Human Rights

The Sankei Shimbun; two shots AP Wideworld Photos; page 30: Jose Luiz Pelaez, Inc./Corbis.

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