Purpose of performance appraisal
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I. Contents of getting purpose of performance appraisal
Companies use performance appraisals for evaluation and developmental purposes. A properly
executed appraisal acts as a basis for hiring new employees, training and development of current
employees, restructuring of workflow and employee motivation. Performance appraisals offer
evidence for pay increases or for terminations. Well-designed performance appraisals can start
dialogue between supervisors, direct reports and coworkers that may result in positive outcomes
for the individuals and the business.
Businesses can choose from several types of performance appraisals. Traditionally, employee
evaluations take place one-on-one between supervisors and subordinates. Other type involves
management by objectives, or MBO, where employees and managers set objectives at the
beginning of the evaluation period and assess how well the employees meet those objectives at
the end of the period. Others include 360 degree feedback appraisals, performance ranking,
paired comparison analysis, behavioral observation scales, graphic rating scales and several
others. Companies must choose which type fits best with their company culture, budget and daily
Performance evaluations can serve as effective tools for improving employee performance and
productivity as well as determining employee developmental needs. Implemented properly,
regular performance reviews can raise individual self-esteem and deepen the relationship
between supervisor and subordinate. People often perform better when they have an idea how
their supervisor views their work, knowledge and skill. They are more likely to initiate honest
conversation regarding goals and job-related issues as well.
A quality performance appraisal scheme has a set of clearly defined parameters. The
documentation, whether electronic or written, includes ways to assess performance based on jobrelevant skills and knowledge. Evaluations should not include assessment of employees’
personality of work style, but should include a review of communication techniques and
behavior as it relates to interpersonal interaction.
A formal performance review should take place annually. In addition, managers must
communicate with employees between formal appraisals to keep them motivated and focused on
personal and company objectives. These regular communications serve as praise for good
performance and a means of stopping poor habits and behaviors before they affect the annual
No appraisal system, regardless of how sophisticated, is completely objective. Problems arise
when evaluators tend to give overly lenient or overly strict ratings on a consistent basis. Personal
prejudices can skew results, as can poorly defined standards of measurement. Finally, employees
must view the system as fair and just for the results to impact their behaviors and job
performance. If employees do not see the process as a credible one, it loses validity and value
III. Performance appraisal methods
1. Essay Method
In this method the rater writes down the employee
description in detail within a number of broad categories
like, overall impression of performance, promoteability
of employee, existing capabilities and qualifications of
performing jobs, strengths and weaknesses and training
needs of the employee. Advantage – It is extremely
useful in filing information gaps about the employees
that often occur in a better-structured checklist.
Disadvantages – It its highly dependent upon the writing
skills of rater and most of them are not good writers.
They may get confused success depends on the memory
power of raters.
2. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
statements of effective and ineffective behaviors
determine the points. They are said to be
behaviorally anchored. The rater is supposed to
say, which behavior describes the employee
performance. Advantages – helps overcome rating
errors. Disadvantages – Suffers from distortions
inherent in most rating techniques.
3. Rating Scale
Rating scales consists of several numerical scales
representing job related performance criterions such as
dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude etc.
Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total
numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are
derived. Advantages – Adaptability, easy to use, low cost,
every type of job can be evaluated, large number of
employees covered, no formal training required.
Disadvantages – Rater’s biases
4. Checklist method
Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of
employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is
prepared. Here the rater only does the reporting or
checking and HR department does the actual evaluation.
Advantages – economy, ease of administration, limited
training required, standardization. Disadvantages – Raters
biases, use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow
rater to give relative ratings
The ranking system requires the rater to rank his
subordinates on overall performance. This consists in
simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method,
the ranking of an employee in a work group is done
against that of another employee. The relative position of
each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It
may also be done by ranking a person on his job
performance against another member of the competitive
Advantages of Ranking Method
Employees are ranked according to their
It is easier to rank the best and the worst
Limitations of Ranking Method
The “whole man” is compared with another
“whole man” in this method. In practice, it is very difficult
to compare individuals possessing various individual
This method speaks only of the position where an
employee stands in his group. It does not test anything
about how much better or how much worse an employee
is when compared to another employee.
When a large number of employees are working,
ranking of individuals become a difficult issue.
There is no systematic procedure for ranking
individuals in the organization. The ranking system does
not eliminate the possibility of snap judgements.
6. Critical Incidents Method
The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of
employee that makes all the difference in the
performance. Supervisors as and when they occur record
such incidents. Advantages – Evaluations are based on
actual job behaviors, ratings are supported by
descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases,
chances of subordinate improvement are high.
Disadvantages – Negative incidents can be prioritized,
forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback
may be too much and may appear to be punishment.
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