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Factors of Leadership Identy “A leader is one who sees more than others see, who sees farther than others see, and who sees before others do”

Review of Literature •

Leadership is viewed from many angles and aspects. Leadership had been conceptualized and measured in dierent ways  Theories of leadership are organized into conceptual families ( Bass, Northouse, 2003: Rost, 1993 ) 1990:

Review of Literature •

Social identy theory of leadership ( Hogg, 2001) There are some qualitave review of the trait perspecve in leadership research( Judge A. Timothy,2002)

Review of Literature   A number of studies have linked personality variables and other stable personal aributes to leader eecveness, (e.g., Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002; Peterson, Smith, Martorana, & Owens, 2003; see Zaccaro Kemp, & Bader, 2004 )

Review of Literature •

Leadership Identy development is a growing eld of study (Chan& Drasgov2001; Dugen, 2004, Komives et al.,2004) (Can be sited at the beginning)

Komives, et al., studied the process a person experiences in creang a leadership identy ( 2005)

Review of Literature Leadership Identy •

is the Cumulave condence in one’s ability to intenonally engage with others to accomplish group objecves.( objecve s.( Komives, et.al, 2005)

They dened leadership identy as a personal and social identy that acknowledges one can make a dierence by working with others to create change(Renn. A. Christen & Ozaki. Casey C.2010)

Review of Literature •

Each person discovers and uncovers their identy through a connual process of observaon and reecon( Komives et al.,2005) People discover , more than create, their idenes, and they do it within a social context ( Erikson,1968) Identy is oen viewed as a global sense of self but it can also refer to parcular identy( McEwen,2003).

Through a grounded theory methodology Komives, et al.( 2005) idened six developmental stages of college students .

Parcipants described their leadership identy as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborave and relaonal process

In their open, axial, and selecve coding and analysis of data, they also found out out ve categories that inuenced the development of leadership.

They are:

Developmental inuences

Developing self

Group inuences Students changing view of self with others

Developing self  •

Among these ve Developing self is considered to be the most inuencing category. This category contains properes with dimensions of personal growth that changed throughout the leadership identy.

They are:  Deepening self awareness,  Building self condence,

Establishing interpersonal ecacy,

Applying new skills,

Expanding movaons

Scope of the Present Study •

Need for Studies in this regard in Asian context.

The present study is to explore this category in a quantave quantave way in the Philippines’ high school students context.

Moreover to nd out the factors involved in developing self as a category of leadership identy.

Dening the Properes 1. Deepening self awareness From a highly vague and diuse sense of self the students move to an identy of their own •

having personal values and sense of personal integrity. 2. Building self condence

From a period of self-doubt and low-self esteem they are able to idenfy their strength and weakness and take leadership roles realizing their potenal

Dening Properes 3. Establishing Interpersonal Ecacy   They learn to relate to and communicate with people dierent from themselves and appreciate harmonious relaonships 4. Applying New Skills   When they become aware of interdependence they come to need new skills of trusng others and being open to diverse ideas and perspecves

Dening Properes 5. Expanding movaons   As they developed personally and gained more experience, they sought a deep sense of commitment to something and knew that passion would be strong movaon to acon.

Conceptual Framework

DEVELOPING SELF

Methodology

Procedure 5 factors were pooled in 100 items. 

They were given 5 choices. (SA=Strongly Agree, A=Agree, NDA= Neither agree or Disagree, DA=Disagree, SDA=Strongly Disagree)

Among 120, only 108 were selected as complete responses.

Methodology

Parcipants 

The respondents were from Carlos Alberto High school, Araneta Avenue, Manila 108 ( M= 59, F= 49) The age range of the parcipants was 15-19 with a mean of 16 years of age.

Results

Factor analysis examined correlaons among a set of original variables in order to idenfy clusters of highly correlated variables.

Number of variables: 100 Method: Principal components Analysis

Number of factors extracted: 4 Among 100 Variables 79 were selected by Varimax Rotaon

Results

Eigenvalues (Shee (Shee t1 in Im Extraction: Pri P rincipal ncipal com co mpo Eig Ei g % Cu Cu va Eig % 1 2 3 4

2 4 24 5. 5. 5. 4. 3.

4. 4. 3. 3.

24 30

24 30

35 38

35 38

Using Principal Component Analysis 4 Factors were

extracted

Results

With a Factor Loading set to .40, a total of 144 items loaded on the 4 factors (unrotated).

Factor Loadings (Unrotated) (Sheet1 in Imported from C:\Users\elvis ferna Extraction: Principal components (Marked Marked loadings are >.40 000 0) Facto Facto Facto Facto Variabl 1 2 3 4 Item 1 -0 .3 .3 9 -0 .3 .3 4 7 0 .1 .1 0 4 -0 .1 .1 4 0 Item 2 -0 .3 .3 4 -0 .3 .3 6 0 0 .2 .2 7 2 -0 .0 .0 9 3 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

-0.38 -0.39 -0.45 -0.49 -0 .3 .3 9 -0.43 -0.46 -0 .5 6 -0 . 3 39 9 -0 .3 .3 2 -0 ..1 15 -0 .5 1 -0.48 -0 .5 1 -0.46 -0.45 -0.57 -0.50 -0.66

-0.504 -0.447 -0 0 . 38 38 4 -0 0 . 37 37 3 -0 .1 .1 8 8 -0 0 . 21 21 3 -0 0 . 23 23 3 -0 .4 9 6 -0 . 3 36 64 -0 .2 .2 7 6 -0 ..3 33 35 5 -0 .4 3 4 -0 0 . 36 36 6 -0 .4 0 9 -0 0 . 25 25 9 -0 .3 4 2 -0 -0 ..0 05 50 0 - 0. 0. 1 0 0 - 0. 0. 1 9 2

0 .2 3 1   0.061 0 . 17 17 6 0 . 11 11 0 0 .3 .3 2 1 0 . 31 31 5 0 . 13 13 2   0.038 -0 . 0 01 17 0 .1 .1 5 6 0 ..0 0 44 44   0.013 0 . 05 05 5   0.058 0 . 20 20 0 -0 .0 0 2 0 ..1 1 77 77 - 0. 0. 1 05 05 - 0. 0. 0 60 60

Item Item Item Item

2 2 2 2

-0.42   -0 -0 .0 .0 5 9 -0.54   -0 0 .1 .1 2 9 -0.44   -0 -0 ..2 21 17 7 -0 ..3 38 -0 ..1 14 48 8

0 .3 .3 0 7 0 .1 .1 2 0 0 ..3 3 12 12 0 ..2 2 32 32

-0 .0 11 11 -0 . 36 36 0 -0 . 28 28 8 -0 . 32 32 4 -0 .0 .0 8 9 -0 . 17 17 3 -0 . 16 16 9 -0 . 05 05 7 -0 . 1 19 92 -0 .0 .0 1 7 0 ..0 0 02 02 -0 . 31 31 2 -0 . 09 09 1 -0 . 25 25 6 -0 . 10 10 2 -0 .0 0 3 0 ..1 1 48 48 0 . 0 57 57 0 . 1 75 75 0 .0 .0 1 11 1 0 .0 .0 3 1 11 1 0 ..0 0 89 89 0 ..0 0 35 35

Results

Variabl Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 3 Item 3 Item 3 Item 3 Item 3 Item 3 Item 3 Item 3 Item 3 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5

Factor Loa dings (Unr (Unrota ota ted) (Shee t1 in Imported from C C:\User :\Users\elvi s\elvis s ferna Extraction: Principal components (Marked loadings are >.400000) Facto Facto Facto Facto 1 2 3 4 -0 ..3 38 -0 ..1 14 48 8 0 ..2 23 32 2 0 ..0 03 35 5 -0.44   -0 0 ..1 1 32 32 0 ..0 07 71 1 0 ..0 05 57 7 -0.48   0 .0 . 0 19 19 0 ..1 13 36 6 0 ..0 0 38 38 -0.57   -0 -0 .3 .32 2 7 -0 .0 .08 84 0 .1 .15 56 -0.481   -0 ..0 0 59 59 0 ..1 15 58 8 0 ..3 36 62 2 -0.481 -0.51   -0 0 ..0 0 44 44 0 ..1 18 87 7 0 ..3 35 54 4 -0.59   -0 -0 .2 .25 5 3 -0 .2 .26 67 0 .2 .29 93 -0.55   0 ..1 11 9 -0 ..0 0 3 8 0 ..2 25 57 7 -0.62   -0 0 ..0 0 99 99 0 ..0 04 47 7 0 ..2 25 55 5 -0.59   0 .0 . 0 91 91 0 ..0 01 17 7 0 ..2 2 21 21 -0.51   -0 0 ..2 2 24 24 0 ..1 15 59 9 0 ..0 00 04 4 -0.31 0.311 1 -0.244 -0.149 0.062 -0.67   -0 0 .13 .13 6 0 .1 .12 2 3 -0 .0 4 45 5 -0.67   -0 -0 .1 .15 5 3 -0 .1 .11 17 0 .16 .16 6 -0 .2 .26 61 -0 .3 .3 5 -0 .2 .2 6 -0.45   -0.49   -0.54   -0.54   -0.68   -0.51   -0.65   -0.58   -0.50

-0 .0 .02 21 -0 ..1 135 0 ..0 0 55 55 0 ..1 191 0 .04 .04 0 0 . 05 05 7 0 .2 . 2 04 04 0 .1 . 1 24 24 0 .2 . 2 33 33 -0 -0 .1 .15 53 -0 -0 .0 .08 81 -0 -0 .0 .02 27

0 .3 .35 59 0 .0 .08 89 0 .2 .2 3 36 6 0 ..1 11 8 1 0 ..0 06 64 4 0 ..2 2 60 60 -0 ..0 0 9 0 0 ..3 30 00 0 -0 .0 .07 7 5   0.499 0 ..0 09 95 5   0.410 0 ..0 01 16 6 0 ..2 2 97 97 0 ..1 14 41 1 0 ..3 3 66 66 0 ..1 14 49 9 0 ..3 3 74 74 -0 .0 .06 61 0 .3 .36 69 -0 .3 .33 31 0 .0 .02 27 -0 .0 .03 37 0 .3 .32 27

Results

Variabl Item 5 Item 5 Item 5 Item 5 Item 5 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7

Item 7 Item 7 Item 7

Factor Loa dings (Unr (Unrota ota ted ) (Sh (Sh ee t1 in Impo rted from C:\U C:\Users\el sers\elvi vis s ferna Extraction: Principal components (Mar Marked ked loadings a re >.4 000 00) Facto Facto Facto Facto 1 2 3 4 -0.52   -0 -0 . 0 07 7 7 -0 . 3 31 15 0.0 03 32 -0.73   -0.042 -0.157 -0.023 -0.56   -0.070   -0.404   -0.075 -0 .1 .1 8 0 ..0 03 35 5   0.509   -0.074 -0 .1 .1 4 0 ..1 10 01 1   0.438   0.147 -0 .0 .0 9 -0.56 -0.56 -0.58 -0.47 -0.46 -0.40 -0.53 -0.53 -0 ..3 30 -0.41 -0.41 -0.61 -0.52 -0.58 -0.48 -0.41

0 ..0 02 29 9 -0 -0 . 1 13 35 -0 -0 . 1 17 71 0.04 43 3 -0.063 -0.092 0 .0 .0 8 0 0 ..1 1 09 09 -0.077 0 ..2 22 26 6 0 .0 . 0 89 89 0 .2 . 2 70 70 0.27 76 6 0.08 85 5 0.21 11 1 0 ..1 1 76 76 0 ..0 0 94 94

0 .2 .2 2 25 5 -0 . 0 07 78 -0 . 1 13 30 -0 . 0 05 52 -0.319 -0.363 -0 ..1 147 0 .1 .1 2 25 5 -0.164 0 ..3 39 98 8 0 .1 .1 3 36 6 0 .0 .0 1 18 8 -0 . 1 13 34 -0 . 2 21 13 -0 . 2 21 15 0 .3 .3 2 24 4 0 .2 .2 5 52 2

-0 ..0 08 85 5 0.2 21 10 0.2 26 60 -0 . 0 1 13 3 -0.088 -0.040 0 ..0 088 -0 ..1 19 98 8 -0.247 0 ..2 2 25 25 0 .0 .0 6 68 8 0 .0 .0 0 03 3 -0 . 1 11 10 -0 . 0 5 56 6 -0 . 0 5 57 7 -0 ..3 37 76 6 -0 ..2 24 44 4

-0.61   0 . 0 8 86 6 -0 . 1 19 9 1 -0 . 2 7 75 5 -0.46   0 ..3 3 82 82 0 .2 .2 0 00 0 -0 ..0 04 42 2 -0 .3 .3 3 0 ..3 35 53 3   0.417   -0.089

Results

Factor Loa dings (Unr Unrota ota ted ) (She (She et1 in Imported fr from om C:\U C:\Users sers\elvi \elvis s ferna Extraction: Extr action: P rinci incipa pa l compone nts

Variabl Item 7 Item 7 Item 7 Item 7 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1

(Mar Marked ked load ings are >.4000 00) Facto Facto Facto Facto 1 2 3 4 -0 ..3 33 0 ..2 2 8 5   0.510   0.006 -0 ..3 30 0 ..1 197 0 ..3 330 -0 0 ..2 26 60 0 -0.42   0 ..3 344 0 ..2 2 2 5 -0 ..3 32 22 2 -0.58   0.054   -0.422   -0.072 -0.54   -0.005 -0.323 -0.159 -0.471 0.511   0.117 0.117 -0.002 -0.44   0.370   0.461   -0.161 193 0 ..0 0 1 4 -0 ..0 04 45 5 -0.61   0 ..1 -0.62   0 . 1 5 55 5 -0 . 2 21 1 4 -0 . 0 06 64 -0.47   0 . 3 4 43 3 -0 . 1 12 2 9 -0 . 0 05 58 -0 ..3 35 0 ..3 347 0 ..0 016 -0 0 ..1 13 37 7 45 5 -0 . 0 00 0 7 -0 . 1 16 62 -0.60   0 . 2 4 -0.55   0 . 2 5 50 0 -0 . 2 21 1 9 -0 . 2 26 66 11 1 4 -0 . 2 25 5 2 -0 . 1 18 83 -0.67   0 . 1 -0.60   -0.54   -0.55   -0.42   -0.57   -0.46   -0 .3 .3 7 1 -0.58   -0.58   -0.50   -0 .4 .4 3

0.34 47 7 -0 . 2 25 52 0.28 87 7 -0 . 1 17 70 0.18 89 9 -0 . 0 06 68 0 .2 .2 5 50 0 0 .0 .0 6 63 3 0.06 61 1 -0 . 3 35 55 0 ..3 339 0 ..0 077 0 .3 .3 3 3 0 .0 .0 2 3 0.13 37 7 -0 . 2 25 53 0 .0 .0 2 5 -0 .1 .1 8 9 0.28 86 6 -0 . 1 16 69 0 .4 .4 1 3   0 ..1 188

-0 . 2 24 46 -0 . 1 14 49 -0 . 0 02 25 0 ..0 0 41 41 -0 . 1 12 22 -0 ..1 13 38 8 -0 .2 .2 0 8 -0 . 0 03 35 0 .0 .0 1 8 -0 . 1 17 77 -0 . 0 02 24

Varimax Rotaon

Variab Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 5 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

Factor Lo ad ings (V (Vari arimax max no rmali malized) zed) (Shee t1 in Imported fr from om C:\User C:\Users\el s\el Extraction: Principal components (Mar Marked ked loadings a re >.40 00 00) Facto Facto Facto Facto 1 2 3 4 . 0 5 9 0 .0 .0 7 9 0.11   0.53   0 .0 . 1 5 1 0 .1 .1 0 7 -0.03   0.54   0 .1 -0.05   0.64   0 .0 . 0 3 7 0 .1 .1 9 2 -0.115 0.18   0.66   0.030 -0.1 0.14   0.65   0 . 1 5 0 -0 -0 . 0 1 4

6 0.22   0.65 7 0.02   0.44 8 0.07   0.50 9 0.19   0.49 1 0.19   0.69 1 0.20   0.53 1 0.02   0.41 1 -0 .0 .0 3 0 .3 .3 5 1 0.27   0.68 1 0.18   0.56 1 0.24   0.66 1 0.12   0.50 1 0.17   0.49 1 0 ..1 19 0 ..3 31 2 0 .3 .3 3 0 ..2 28 2 0.34   0.41 2 0 .0 .0 6 0 ..3 32

0 . 1 2 8 -0 -0 . 0 3 0   0 .2 . 2 9 2 0 .1 .1 4 3   0 .3 . 3 0 9 0 .0 .0 9 0   0 .1 . 1 6 9 0 .0 .0 9 3   -0 0.033 0.231   -0 0.028 0.025   0 .0 . 0 8 0 0 .1 .1 5 3 -0 ..0 091 0.0 08 80   0 . 0 2 7 -0 -0 . 0 1 5   0 .0 . 0 2 7 0 .1 .1 6 3   0 .0 . 0 5 9 0 .0 .0 3 5   0 .1 . 1 8 9 0 .1 .1 5 4   -0 0.035 0.219 0 ..2 25 51 1   0.426 0 ..0 01 14 4 0 ..2 29 94 4   0.021   0.477 0 ..3 33 33 3 0 ..2 24 46 6

Item 2 0 .2 .2 2 0 ..3 38 0 ..1 18 89 9 Item 2 -0.00   0.43   0 .2 .2 4 1 Item 2 0 .0 .0 4 0 ..3 34 0 ..2 21 10 0

0 ..3 30 08 8 0 .3 .3 2 0 0 ..2 23 37 7

Varimax rotaon

Variab Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 3 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

Factor Lo ad ing s ( (V Vari arimax max no rmali malized zed ) ( (Sh Sh ee t1 in I mported from C C:\User :\Users\el s\el Extraction: Principal components (Mar Marked ked loadings are >.400 00 0) Fact Fact Facto Facto 1 2 3 4 0 .1 .1 8 0 ..3 32 0 ..1 11 2 0 ..2 27 77 7 0 .2 .2 2 0 ..2 24 0 ..2 25 55 5 0 ..2 28 84 4 0 .2 6   0.47   -0.089   0 .4 1 3 0 .0 .0 7 0 .2 1 0 . 1 4 9   0 .5 6 4 0 .0 .0 8 0 .2 2 0 . 1 9 1   0 .5 7 5

.3 6 0 ..3 3 3 -0 ..2 21 18 8   0 .5 2 6 3 0 .3 .3 3 0 .0 8 0 . 1 4 2   0 .4 9 4 3 0 .3 .2 5 0 ..3 31 0 ..1 11 6   0 .5 3 3 3 0 .2 .3 3 0 .1 5 0 . 1 9 3   0 .4 9 2 3 0 .3 1 6 5 0 ..2 271 3 0 .1 5   0.46   0 ..1 .1 9 0 ..2 2 9 -0 ..1 15 56 6 0.1 19 95 3 0 .1 2 4 7 0 ..3 304 3 0 .3 2   0.47   0 ..2 .3 9 0 .3 7 0 . 0 0 2   0 .4 6 7 3 0 .3 0 8 0 ..2 20 0 ..3 31 19 9 0 ..2 23 33 3 3 -0 ..0 0 0 0 ..3 30 0 ..1 18 89 9 0 ..2 29 93 3 4 -0 ..0 06 0 ..0 02 0 ..0 09 95 5 0 ..3 36 63 3 4 0 ..0 .3 1 -0 .0 .0 3 0 .0 .0 9 9   0 .4 8 2 4 0 .3 .2 1 0 ..0 0 4 -0 ..0 00 05 5   0 .6 7 2 4 0 .2 .1 7 0 .1 2 0 . 1 6 9   0 .6 3 3 4 0 .1 .3 1 0 .0 2 0 . 2 1 5   0 .5 3 1 4 0 .3 .2 7 0 .1 6 0 . 2 9 4   0 .6 6 8 4 0 .2 .1 9 -0 .0 .0 0 0 .3 .3 0 2   0 .5 9 5 4 0 .1

Item 4 Item 4 Item 5

0 .2 .2 9 0 ..3 31 0 .5 4   0 . 2 6 0 .2 .2 3 0 .1 6

-0 ..0 01 10 0   0 .6 4 2 -0 . 1 11 11 0 . 2 9 2 0 . 0 3 5   0 .5 3 3

Varimax Rotaon

Factor Loadings (Varimax normalized) (Sheet1 in Imported from C:\Users\e Extraction Extracti on : Pri Principal ncipal compone nts

Variab Item 5 Item 5 Item 5 Item 5 Item 5 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

(Mar Marked ked load ing s are Fact Fact Facto 1 2 3 0.49   0 . 2 3 -0 . 11 11 9 0.56   0 .3 .3 6 0 .0 .0 97 97 2 5 -0 .1 .1 4 2 0.611   0 ..2 -0 ..1 15 0 .2 .2 0   0 . 4 7 9   -0 ..1 1 8 0 .0 .0 5 0 .3 .3 91 91

>.400 000 ) Facto 4 0.2 26 66 0 .3 .3 33 33 0 ..1 187 0.066 0 .2 .2 33 33

5 -0 ..0 04 0 .1 .1 0 0 .2 . 2 3 5 -0 ..0 01 11 1 5 0 ..2 29 0 .3 .3 0 -0 .0 . 0 03 03   0 . 4 5 7 5 0 .3 .3 0 0 .3 .3 0 -0 .0 . 0 75 75   0 . 4 9 4 5 0.42   0 .2 .2 4 0 .1 .1 72 7 2 0 .2 .2 77 77 6 0.50   0 .2 . 2 3 -0 .0 . 0 9 9 0 . 13 13 7 6 0.50   0 .2 . 2 2 -0 .1 . 1 6 2 0 . 17 17 1 6 0 .3 .3 5 0 .0 .0 7 0 .0 .0 37 3 7 0 .2 .2 7 70 0 6 0 .3 .3 6 0 .2 .2 6 0 .3 .3 71 7 1 0 .1 .1 0 05 5 6 0.49   0 .3 .3 5 0 .0 .0 67 6 7 0 .0 .0 40 40 6 -0.04 -0.00   0 . 4 5 5   0 . 3 7 6 6 0 .1 .1 9 0 .1 .1 4 0 .2 .2 63 6 3 0 .2 .2 7 77 7 6 0 .3 .3 4 -0 ..0 0 0 0 .2 .2 8 5 0 ..2 214 6 0.60   0 .0 .0 8 0 .2 .2 64 6 4 0 .2 .2 04 04 6 0.51   0 .1 .1 5 0 .0 .0 63 6 3 0 .1 .1 98 98 7 0.59   0 .0 .0 8 0 .1 .1 47 4 7 0 .2 .2 30 30 7 0 .2 .2 9 0 .2 .2 8   0 . 5 8 5   -0.056 7 0 .2 .2 2 0 .2 .2 6   0 . 4 3 2   0 . 0 1 5 7 0.62   0 .2 .2 6 0 .1 .1 63 6 3 0 .0 .0 54 54 7 0 . 3 1 -0 . 0 1   0 . 5 0 6   0 . 2 1 3 7 0 .1 .1 0 0 .0 .0 1 11 1   0.626   0.124

Varimax Rotaon

Factor Lo ad ings (V (Vari arimax max no rmali malized zed ) (Sh ee t1 in Impo rted from C:\Users\el C:\Users\el Extracti Extr action on : P rinci ncipa pa l compon en ts

Variab Item 7 Item 7 Item 7 Item 7 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item 8 Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1

(Marked loadings are >.400000) Facto Facto Facto Facto 1 2 3 4 -0 .0 .0 0 0.0 05 5   0.637   0.213 0 .1 .1 4 0 ..1 1 4   0 . 5 1 3   -0.045 0 .3 .3 5 0 ..0 0 8   0 . 5 6 4   -0.046 0 . 6 7   0 . 16 1 6 -0 .0 .0 8 8 0 . 1 9 96 6 2 3 -0 .0 .0 3 4 0 . 1 0 08 8 0 . 5 9   0 . 23 0 . 4 0   -0.14   0 . 5 0 2   0 . 2 4 6 0 .1 .1 7 0 ..0 0 8   0 . 7 2 0   0.118 0 . 4 6   0 . 16 16 0 .3 .3 1 8 0 ..2 27 71 1 0 . 6 0   0 . 15 15 0 .1 .1 3 3 0 ..2 24 42 2 0 . 5 1   -0 -0 ..0 05 0 ..2 2 4 6 0 ..1 181 0 .3 .3 8 -0 .0 .0 5 0 .3 .3 4 1 0 ..0 06 65 5 0 . 5 2   0 . 14 14 0 .3 .3 5 3 0 ..1 16 61 1 0 . 6 6   0 . 10 10 0 .2 .2 0 8 0 ..0 03 34 4 0 . 6 8   0 . 23 23 0 .1 .1 3 0 0 ..1 16 62 2 0.73 0.59 0.46 0 .3 .3 0 0.64 0.40 0.40 0.58 0.49 0.58 0 .3 .3 1

0 . 03 03 0 .2 .2 4 4   0 . 04 04 0 .2 .2 3 0   0.1 11 1 0 .2 .2 2 8 0 ..0 01 0 ..3 30 00 0   0 . 18 1 8 -0 .0 .0 2 3   0.01   0.415     -0 -0 ..0 01 0 ..3 360   0 . 12 12 0 .0 .0 7 2   0 . 21 21 0 .0 .0 5 0   0 . 03 03 0 .2 .2 2 7 -0 . 0 05 5   0.501

0 ..0 07 73 3 0 ..1 13 32 2 0 ..2 25 51 1 0 ..2 25 53 3 0.15 54 4 0.119 0 ..0 010 0 ..2 24 41 1 0 ..2 29 93 3 0 ..0 09 91 1 0.216

The Scree Test criterion was used

Results

to decide on the number of factors for extracon. •

Plot of Eigenvalues 28 26 24 22

4 Factors were

20 18

decided to be extracted since the smooth decrease of Eigenvalues appeared to level o to the right of the plot aer the fourth factor

16   e   u    l   a    V

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Number of Eigenvalues

Eigenvalues

Eigenvalues (She Eigenvalues (Sheet1 et1 in Im Imported ported fro fro Extraction: Principal components Ei ge % Tot Cumul Cum Val varian Eigenv % 1 24 . 2 4. 2 4. 24 . 2 5. 6 5.6 3 0. 30 . 3 4. 7 4.7 3 5. 35 . 4 3. 7 3.7 3 8. 38 .

The second column explains the variance (eigenvalues) on the new factors that were successively extracted. Factor 1 accounts for 24 % of the variance. The cumulave variance extracted by Factors is 38 %

Factor Loadings (Varimax normalized) (Sheet1 in Imported from C:\Users\el Extraction: Extracti on: Principal Principal componen ts

each factor (to maximize the variance) the Varimax normalized rotaonal strategy was usd. Four items were deleted since it loaded on two Factors.

(Marked loadings are >.400 000) (Marked Facto Facto Facto Facto Variab 1 2 3 4 Item 1 0.11   0.53   0.059 0.079 Item 2 -0.03   0.54   0.151 0.107 Item 3 -0.05   0.64   0.037 0.192 Item 4 0.18   0.66   0.030 -0.115 Item 5 0.14   0.65   0.150 -0.014 Item 6 0.22   0.65   0.128 -0.030

28 items loaded on Factor 1

20 items loaded on Factor 2

Item 7 Item 8 Item 9 Item 1 Item 1 Item 1 Item 1 Item 1

0.02   0.07   0.19   0.19   0.20   0.02   -0.03 0.27

0.44   0.292 0.143 0.50   0.309 0.090 0.49   0.169 0.093 0.69   -0.033 0.231 0.531 -0.028 0.531  -0.028 0.025 0.41   0.080 0.153 0.35 -0.091 -0.091 0.0 0.080 80 0.68   0.027 -0.015

Item 1 Item 1 Item 1 Item 1 Item 1 Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 2 Item 2

0.18   0.24   0.12   0.17   0 .1 .1 9 0 .3 .3 3 0.34   0 .0 .0 6 0 .2 .2 2 -0.00   0 .0 .0 4

0.56   0.027 0.163 0.66   0.059 0.035 0.50   0.189 0.154 0.49   -0.035 0.219 0 .3 .3 1 0 ..22 5511   0.426 0 .2 .2 8 0 ..00 1144 0 .2 .2 9944 0.41   0.021   0.477 0 .3 .3 2 0 ..33 3333 0 .2 .2 4466 0 .3 .3 8 0 ..11 8899 0 .3 .3 0088 0.43   0.241 0.320 0 .3 .3 4 0 ..22 1100 0 .2 .2 3377

11 items loaded on Factor 3  17 items loaded on Factor 4

Factors for Filipino Students •

Interpersonal Awareness

Self awareness Self Condence Social Movaon

Sample Items •

Interpersonal awareness

Sample Items 1.II encourage 1. encourage othe others rs 2.I appreciate the qualies in others 3. I am concerned 3.I concerned with the need of others 4.I trust people and in their capabilies

Sample Items •

Self awareness

Sample Items 1. know my strengths 1.II know my weaknesse 1. weaknessess 2. I am aware of my 2.I my threats threats 3.II am aware of my opportunie 3. opportuniess

Sample Items •

Self condence

Sample Items 1.II feel condent 1. condent in organizing a progra program m 2.II have no stage ffear 2. ear 3. I have novel 3.I novel ideas ideas 4.I know how to present an idea in creave way for a group

Sample Items •

Social movaon

Sample Items 1.I can easily socialize with people 2.II have many 2. many fri friends ends 3.When in a group I introduce myself rst 4.II can get along with 4. with people well

Discussion

The result shows that the relaonal leadership proposed by Komives et al ( 1998 ) has more relevance in the populaon . The interpersonal awareness comes rst with 30 items correlang, “ leadership is a relaonal process of people working together to accomplish change or to make a dierence that will benet the common good”( Komives, Lucas,,& McMahon,1998).

Discussion •

It also corresponds to the ndings that the primary emphasis in leadership development is on building and using interpersonal competence.( Day,2001).

The students who were selected for study

were not acve in any organizaons. were not selected because they exhibited a relaonal leadership approach to others.

Limitaons/Implicaons •

It has implicaons for working with adolescents as they develop their leadership. In designing programs in promong leadership of students these factors can guide the direcon. This study was just a preliminary quantave analysis of the factors of development of self in an Asian context with only limited parcipants. Addional research is of course needed to promote leadership identy development.

Fr. Sebasan Puthen Thank you

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