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SURVEY OF EMERGING TRENDS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN KENYA
PRESENTED BY CALEB NGANYI OGWAYO DATE DUE: 31ST MAY 2010

ABSTRACT
The ever improving sophisticated technologies have brought about changes across the dynamite human population making it possible for people to take pleasure in any aspect of communication. To many, it is a daily necessity which one cannot do without. The main purpose of undertaking this research was to find out the perception in Information Communication Technology (ICT) towards the Kenya communities. Survey method was employed in undertaking the research. Questionnaires were distributed to the respondents and later retrieved; data was tabulated using the Microsoft software packages. This research will enable employees across the various fields to check and reconsider undertaking prioritization so as to minimize costs involved in within their organizations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First I would like to thank the Almighty God for his love and mercies for keeping us safe and healthy. I would also like to thank those who supported me throughout the course of this project, without their time and effort; this endeavor would not have been possible. I extend my heartfelt gratitude to my family members for their support during my studies. I would also like to thank those who agreed to be questioned or interviewed, for without their time and cooperation, this project would not have been possible. To each of the above i extend my deepest appreciation and sincerest thankfulness may God’s blessing rest upon you all until the end of time. Amen

DEDICATION With all my love to my treasured parents; Mr. /Mrs. Joseph Ogwayo Likalama, to my cherished friends and family members.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preliminary pages pages Title sheet Abstract………………………………………………………………………………… ………………. i Dedication……………………………………………………………………………… ……………… ii Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………… ……………. iii Table of contents………………………………………………………………………………… … IV List of tables and charts…………………………………………………………………………. v

1 THE PROBLEM
1.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… 1 1.2 Background to the study………………………………………………………… 1 1.3 Statement of the problem……………………………………………………… 1 1.4 Objectives of the study…………………………………………………………… 1 1.5 Research questions………………………………………………………………… 2 1.6 Significance of the study…………………………………………………………. 2 1.7 Hypotheses………………………………………………………………………………

3 1.8 Scope and limitations………………………………………………………………. 1.9 Definition of terms……………………………………………………………………

3
4

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… …… 5 2.2 ICT in Education………………………………………………………………………… 5
2.3 ICT in

Enterprise…………………………………………………………………… …. 7
2.4 ICT in Health

services…………………………………………………………….…. 8
2.5 ICT in Poverty

reduction……………………………………………………….….. 9
2.6 ICT in

Entertainment……………………………………………………………… … 10
2.7 ICT in the Kenyan

Government…………………………………………………
2.8 A Review of developing sectors in ICT field in Kenya

12

………………

12 15

2.9 A Review of Kenya’s ICT position in 2009

……………………………..

2.10 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….. 18

3.0 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 19 3.2 Area of study………………………………………………………………………… 19 3.3 Research design…………………………………………………………………… 19 3.4 Study population………………………………………………………………… 20 3.5 Data collection instruments………………………………………………… 3.6 Research framework…………………………………………………………… 20
21

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRATATION
4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 22 4.2 Data analysis…………………………………………………………………………
22

5.0 SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… 31

5.2 Summary of the findings…………………………………………………………

31

5.3 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………… ……… 32 5.4 Recommendations…………………………………………………………… ……. 32 5.5 Suggestions for further Research…………………………………………… 33

6: BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………………
………… 34

7: APPENDICES
a) Questionnaires

……………………………………………………………………………. …………… 36

35

b) Interview……………………………………………………………………………

LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS TABLES
3.1- Employees’ population profile……………………………………………… 4.1-Employees general profile……………………………………………………… 19 22

4.2- Profile of Eldoret employees………………………………………………… 4.3- Profile of Eldoret employees………………………………………………… 4.4- Profile of Eldoret Employees………………………………………………… 4.5- Amount spending based on Gender……………………………………… 24

22 23 24

4.6- Amount spending based on Residence status………………………… 25 4.7- Amount spending based on Employment status……………………… 26 4.8- market growth based on knowledge economy........................... 28

4.9-Tabulation of different Telecommunication Network’s market shares... 29

CHART
4.1- profile of male and female employees……………………………………………… 23

4.2- profile of employees residence status……………………………………………… 4.3- profile of employees’ employment status……………………………………… 24

23

4.4- Amount spending analysis based on gender…………………………………… 25 4.5- Amount spending analysis based on Residence status…………………… 26 4.6- Amount spending analysis based on Employment status………………… 27 4.7- Analysis of industry performance in Kenya……………………………………… 27 4.8- Analysis of market growth as at January 2007 to date....................... 4.9- Analysis of ICT infrastructure as from 2009 to date.......................... 4.10 Analysis of Network market share based on Kenya………………. 28 29 30

CHAPTER ONE
THE PROBLEM
1.1 Introduction
Kenya is currently under-going a massive transformation, whilst many options are being produced, harnessing the power of information and communication technology (ICT) which stands a better chance of success. Indeed, we are persuaded that the resilient ubiquitous, robust, distributed and fast ICT tools not only hold the key but also the means of reconfiguring Kenya.

1.2 Background to the study
Within the last couple of years ICT has grown into a multimillion market in Kenya and all over the world. Many people perceive that having ICT is a requirement in the day-to-day living to some. The rise of new technologies and the improving living standards has always affected people’s perceptions towards the use of mobile phones as explained by Macharia (2009). As much as being very essential in life communication should not be viewed as something which one cannot do without. Kimutai (2009) brings out a clear understanding on the impacts of ever-changing improved mobile phone technology with the introduction of new services that will ease and make comfortable for mobile subscribers to conduct their day-today activities. This research is geared towards the establishment of a true picture on the way in which different categories of ICT has emerged in Kenya. This research will enable the various employees under various docket have a clear understanding on how ICT is used on day-to-day basis.

1.3 Problem statement
The ICT and the overheads of related services remain high year-in and year-out with many people across the different economics and social spheres of life perceive it as a common daily needs. The working class in particular may not realize how consequential it might be if one doesn’t undertake effective management of ICT and other related outlay.

1.4 Objective of the study
o o

To determine the spending behavior of employees on ICT. To determine the spending behavior of employees across various job categories. To determine if there is significant difference between male and female employees in ICT. To determine how much on average the employees spent on ICT on a weekly basis.

o

o

o To determine the market growth of each of the different firm in Kenya.
o

Establish a way of encouraging employees to consider using the ICT channels services

1.5 Research questions
1. What is the profile of the employees in Kenya when they are

classified into gender, residence status and employment status? 2. What are the significant characteristics of employees spending when they are classified into gender, residence status and employment? 3. What is driving demand for ICT in Kenya? a) ICT industry performance b) Knowledge economy c) ICT for development d) Telecommunication

1.6 Significance of the study
1)

To the researchers

The research will enable the researchers to have a broader ideas in the field of research equipping them with adequate research skills, competence and know how in undertaking any research works 2) To the employees

This research is of much importance to the employees in that it will enable them have a clear understanding on how they use on ICT.

3)

To the community

This research will benefit the community by influencing the attitudes of the employees on the importance of making use of relevant priorities in terms of using ICT anywhere.

1.7 Hypothesis
HO1 : There is significant difference between the male and female employees on ICT. H02 : There is significant difference in the spending on ICT between the residence status i.e the rural and urban status. H03 : There is significant difference in the amount spent on ICT between employees across the different employment status.

1.8 Scope and limitations
a) Geographical area The area of my research was around the Eldoret town in Kenya and around the neighbor of Eldoret town and villages b) Resources It was difficult to obtain all the resources I wanted to accomplish my project. These included, getting information from the employees. c) Time

The time to administer the interviews was equally difficult and searching for more research resources was challenging.

1.9 Definition of terms
3G technology: Convergence of various wireless telecommunications systems into a single uniform global system which includes terrestrial and satellite components in its functioning. Administrators: Employees who are responsible for the daily running of management and administrative work. Airtime: Monetary term of the amount of time one spends when communicating through a phone. M-Pesa: Electronic money transfer service offered by the safaricom network. Safaricom, Zain, Orange, and Yu: Mobile service providers in Kenyan market. Zap: Zain’s electronic money transfer service. Yu Cash: Yu’s electronic money transfer service.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a review of literature so as to provide insight to what has already been carried out in this field of study. It also formed the basis for analyzing and interpreting the data collected from the field. Literature related to this study was review from books, newspapers, internet materials, articles, periodicals and journals. Literature related to this study was reviewed to get opinions and views on the following main topics about ICT in Kenya. 3 ICT in Education
4

ICT in Enterprise

5 ICT in Health services 6 ICT in Poverty reduction 7 ICT in Entertainment 8 ICT in the Kenyan Government

2.2 ICT in Education

Education is one of the key pillars of civilization, ICT opens a new chapter in education altogether. Technology enhanced education can provide students with information and learning opportunities that are not possible with text-books and teachers alone. Access to technology can help narrow the gap between students who are the achiever and those who are not. The vision of Kenya’s ministry of Education is ‘’Quality Education for Development. Its mission is to provide, promote and co-ordinate life long education, training and research for Kenya’s sustainable development. The power of ICT in education lies in its capacity to support digitized hypertext including visual images, sounds, animations and video (hypermedia). These unique properties have huge ramifications for learning.

The benefits of ICT in Education:• No physical boundaries – This implies learners do not have to be physically near the schools to access education. • No time limitations – Access to ICT supported education programmes is timeless, this means that students and teachers can work at their own pace. • Adequate learning materials – ICTs have enabled the compilation and publication of vast learning resources which are accessible at the click of a button. • Collaboration – ICT backed systems can enable high levels of collaboration between the students and the teachers, teachers and teachers, students and students, This is mainly because ICT enables fast, reliable, interactive and real time communication through both synchronous and asynchronous models.

• Research – The use of ICT in schools enables students to develop research skills and be able to work independently yet collaboratively.


Motivation – In and of itself, use of ICT can be of great motivator to get students to learn and explore. It encourages independence and autonomy that is important for students to achieve in their learning process. Class, race, ability and disability hinderances are removed when a student is online.

E-Learning in the secondary school environment E-Learning in Kenya secondary schools: Opportunities and challenges To some it connotes distant, face-less teachers and face-less students, online tutoring and online examination and certification. Yet to others it brings to memory opportunities made available by modern electronic tools supported by the internet and related technologies that have revolutionized teaching and learning in hitherto disadvantage communities. Electronic learning rides on modern information technology to provide learning materials, interaction for teachers and learners, student evaluation mechanisms as well as learning institutions management support. Major benefits of electronic learning The major benefits lie in its ability to bring to the class rooms or even homes rare resources and facilitate self-paced learning opportunities for the students. Projects currently on going to introduce e-learning to Kenya schools are as follows:1. Computer for schools 2. The NEPAD e-school initiative

3. Cisco Academies To successfully set up a favorable, e learning ecosystem in a secondary school environment, one needs the requisite equipment which includes:a) Computer(s) b) A projector c) ICT Literacy d) Internet connection ICT in schools through learning initiatives can be used to: o Make available syllabi o Provide copies of course materials o Provide research links to further readings o Develop a presentation of the knowledge learned o Provide online evaluation instruments The future of education in Kenya must include the integration of ICT.

2.3 ICT in Enterprise
The impact of the emerging revolution on business is best captured in the concept of electronic commerce, fondly known as ecommerce this has opened flood-gates of opportunities for business transactions. It is touted as the grand panacea to all problems and challenges facing modern business. This enables fast, affordable and transparent exchange of goods and services locally, regionally and globally leading to reduction in operations costs and remarkable increase in profits and markets. Though it is very difficult to define this concept, there is a general consensus that e-commerce is the process of conducting business communication and transactions online through the use of ICT tools. A further mutation has also introduced a new dimension to digital

business: collaborative commerce. Basically, collaborative commerce, also known as Inter-Enterprise integration, is the use of internet technologies to integrate a company’s core business processes with those of its customers, suppliers and business partners. This integration enhances the ability of the companies to effectively communicate and cooperate with one another as part of a comprehensive value-added chain of suppliers, consultants, customers and even employees. The collaboration occurs in spheres such as exchange of ideas, information and product data as well as the conclusion of business transactions. Collaborative commerce requires implementing cascading transparency of information across the supply chain and sharing business-critical data with the customers and partners. The major benefits of e-commerce, whether fixed, mobile or collaborative, can be lumped into efficiency, intelligence and availability. These result from the digitization of the business communication and processes which provides opportunities for one to one marketing, automation of crucial tasks such as payment transactions as well as extraction of business intelligence information. For businesses operating online, these benefits result in access to expanded markets, reduced costs of business (minimal marketing, distribution, product development, order processing, supplies, staffing, 24/7 business hours and telecommunication costs), increased sales and profits. E-commerce is complex but encompasses entire processes of electronically marketing, selling/buying, paying/being paid for and distributing services and goods world wide. There are three main spheres of e-commerce:1. B2C- Business to consumer transactions involving trade between consumers and businesses.
2. C2C- Consumer to consumer trade.

3. B2B- Business to business transactions.

ICT through e-commerce can make this possible. It will only facilitate business efficiency, intelligence and ubiquitous service/product availability but will also create direct and indirect jobs as well as novel investments opportunities.

2.4 ICT in Health services
Healthcare is one of the leading issues developing to develop socio-economic development in Kenya today. Lack of information on treatments and disease management is often an underlying issue that hinders effective patient care and disease prevention. ICT can enhance health services and can be used as tool for collecting community health information to support decision-making; improving doctors’ access to current medical information; and linking health care professionals so they can share information and knowledge; and enhancing health administration, remote diagnostics and distribution of medical supplies. There are many cases where ICT is already taking the central role in the provision of health services both in Kenya and abroad. However, there is urgent need to cover more health matters and reach more people.

2.5 ICT in Poverty reduction
Poverty is one of the threats to dignified enjoyment of national freedoms. Economic statistics show that a majority of Kenyans live below the poverty line i.e spending less than a dollar a day. ICT helps Poor community in Rural Kenya and provides them with Market Information on how to engage themselves in reducing poverty. ICT as a tool in poverty reduction was proposed by the ERS in Kenya. That sets out using ICTs for Poverty Reduction and Environmental Protection in Kenya focusing on the IT component of Kenya's national policy, the wide-ranging in regard to ICT access, e-education and poverty reduction Crosby mwanza, a renowned African communication researcher and consultant, identifies five ways ICT can be used to fight poverty:
o

To facilitate the convergence of local and global knowledge and disseminate it to the rural areas so as to improve economic

production capacity in the settings in which many of the poor live.
o

To support the documentation of the hybrid knowledge developed from the convergence into explicit knowledge components which are easy to transmit and store. To enable the modernization of agriculture practice so as to improve yields, processing, marketing, sales and storage of the harvest. To facilitate fast, reliable and affordable means of communication and exchanges. To provide new investments and revenue streams through establishment of telecommunication centers and other digital ventures.

o

o

o

The role of ICT in rural development ICT as an investment opportunity in the rural areas through digitization will unlock great business potential. Digital shops will sprout in all corners and with them massive local, regional and global business opportunities previously untenable. While current village entrepreneurs can only have retail shops, the same shops will diversify operation and services with the adoption of ICT. With ICT integration, they will also be able to provide knowledge services such as content creation, organization, searching, retrieval, repackaging, dissemination and storage. This will result in more profits and hence greater wealth creation and poverty reduction in these areas. ICT brings global market to the rural areas.

2.6 ICT in Entertainment
Napoleon recognized this when he stated that the right information at the right time is 9/10 of any battle. Given that ICTs are used to create, organize, store, disseminate and use knowledge. ICT has opened new horizons for applications and benefits that were hitherto unimaginable. Communication systems that were once

capable of carrying only one type of message can now carry a range of signals. Telephone, cable and satellite systems can all be used to transmit television, telephone and computer data. Similarly, the internet and the WWW that emerged purely as textual media today have expanded to cover audio and visual media enabling unfathomable online communication and online games for entertainment. Many forms of ICT exist in the modern market place. Computers, the internet, the World Wide Web(www), radios, television, satellite systems, telephone systems(fixed line and mobile), digital cameras, scanners, portable digital assistants(PDAs),personal electronic organizers, hand held devices, networked system, pagers and beepers are some of the technology tools that the concepts of ICT encompasses. Men and in particular, young men have traditionally dominated domestic personal computers usage and this is hardly surprisingly given the early focus on computer games. Women make far greater domestic use of the telephone both in terms of the number of calls and their duration, this implies to mobile users Students and non students in institutions of higher learning have perfected the art of milking technology for all it can produce. To start with the technological gadgets used by students come in different forms and specialties. A walk within these institutions will tell of a large population of students owning computer laptops, desktops in their rooms, and GPRS enabled mobile phones from where they can access Internet services. Also in this category are music gadgets like IPods and music system. The Moble phones, the 3G Technology, and computers The development of the mobile communication industry as to date been largely driven by the decisions of suppliers and regulatory frameworks. This is demonstrated by the evolution of several generations of mobile communication technology from the simple analogue voice only services of 1970’s and 1980’s to the digital multimedia voice and data services of the present day.

The changes in technology have been generally appreciated by users in that they have brought entertainment to their life. The current transition to 3G capabilities and its potential new products and services is yet another example of new technology needing to find new applications. Vincent et al (2005) argues that people will expect to use their 3G products and services to meet their every day needs but this services has to build upon the ways in which they have always conducted themselves. For example, a mobile user may want to talk to other people, mainly friends and family, the difference being that they may now want to enhance this with text, taking pictures and possibly video too. It has been argued that the emotional responses that people have to their mobile phone are a likely key influence on their future adoption of new services. This emotional attachment appears to extend to the familiarity of some services on their device, such as favorite game and ringtones. (Vincent et al October, 2005) Computers are likely more in usage by employees of different background, computers in homes, work place, and cyber café are used to access many different options, they are used to access internet to chat online, listen music, send message with e-mails, and play games online and a lot of more entertainment.

2.7 ICT in the Kenyan government
This refers taking the Kenyan government on-line. E – government which is a department at the office of the president responsible for developing systems that enable the government services to be delivered all over the country using technology. The project started in 2004 and has managed to create a web site for all the ministries, initiate the fiber optic cable project amongst other initiatives this refers to the use of a range of information technologies, such as Wide Area Network (WANs), internet and mobile computing, by government agencies to transform government operations in order to improve effectiveness, efficiency, services delivery and to promote democracy. Basically the use of information technology is to support

government operations and provide investments that are needed in people, tools, and policies, processes to engage citizens and provide government services. E – Government priorities and implementation strategy According to the National ICT policy document, the main aim of Kenya’s e-government strategy was to help the government meet its overall goal of being “more result-oriented, efficient and citizen centered” Through the website, citizens will be able to access government services and information efficiently and effectively and even participate in the governance of the country.

A REVIEW OF DEVELOPING SECTORS IN ICT FIELD IN KENYA
By all measures, 2009 was a very key year for the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in Kenya. So much happened in a relatively short period of time that will be massively define ICT in Kenya for the coming years, I have listed some of that I have come across during my research, they are as follows:-

Kenya data network (Boosting wireless communication) Having their logon as a butterfly, butterfly is not a product but a lifestyle developed by Kenya data network to provide broadband wireless connectivity to the internet and local network from Nairobi. Allows stand alone palmtop and desktop computer with wireless capability to remotely connect the network from anywhere any time. It offers triple play service (data, voice and video) making it a convenient one stop communication solution for individuals and organizations Virtual city (customizing business solutions) Established in 1999, virtual city has grown from her days as a web service company to a business solutions provider offering a wide

range of products from management of Electronic commerce and mobile commerce to knowledge management systems. The company prides herself in keeping up with the fast paced and dynamic technology solutions to her clients. The business center model simplifies business transactions by incorporating the various business needs and solutions into one composite module. With this model, companies are able to expand from just basic data input and output computing to conducting fullyfledge business transactions online. The model combines e-commerce solutions, knowledge management solutions, and cashless transaction processing solutions. Computer pride (information technology training facilities and opportunities) It offers numerous market-oriented courses, it helps students learn computers with skills and know-how that are up to date and give them a leading edge in the market. Computer pride expects to stretch its already broad clientele with concerted efforts to take ICT to the rural areas. Taurus Business System (automating business procedures) Taurus is a software development company that strives to build business automation solutions to fit their clients need.

Digital age institute A software development house, Digital Age Institute Limited focuses on two main areas; training young Kenyans in software development and creating software for out sourcing. Kenya ICT Board (Information regarding how to open a digital village project) The k (ICT)B a state corporation is implementing the digital village project (DVP) under the Kenya transparency communication

infrastructure project (KTCIP) which will see the establishment of a network of digital information facilities across the country. This DVP is an integral part of an innovative public private partnership (PPP) for taking ICTs to the rural communication in Kenya. It seeks to harness the vast untapped potential of the rural sector by making ICTs more accessible and affordable to the wider population through the development and utilization of ICT facilities in the rural areas Kenya Law Reports (moving justice into the electronic age) The Kenya law reports website is published by the national council for law reporting which is a corporate body established by the National Council for Law Reporting Act, 1994 Categories of KLR website o Case search - the door to a comprehensive database of judicial opinion of Kenya’s High court and Court of Appeal. o Laws of Kenya – Africa’s first and only free, full text database of national legislation. o Kenya gazette – A weekly synopsis of recent government appointment and legislation passed by parliament. o Bench Bulletin – A bi-monthly digest of recent developments in case law and legislation.
o

Parliament – Selected editions of the parliamentary hansard

A Review of Kenya’s ICT Position in 2009
In a nutshell, and in retrospect, below is a comprehensive review of what happened in 2009:

TEAMS and SEACOM Go Live.


Kenya has finally got broadband internet connectivity through the SEACOM and TEAMS high speed undersea data cables. Both cables went live in the second half of 2009 and since then we have noted impressive improvements in internet speeds and reliability. However, the biggest caveat (still) is that Internet access remains largely expensive with pricing dropping only marginally, even as Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have much lower costs as they move from satellite-based internet access. Going forward, the main ICT sector that is expected to gain from the low-cost and high speed cables is outsourcing. Prior to the cables going live, the cost of access was as high as 10 times as much on satellite links. The savings are expected to make Kenya’s outsourcing globally more competitive and profitable.

Controversial ICT Bill Is Approved. Earlier in 2009, the Kenya ICT (Media) Bill was passed. The ICT Bill makes provisions for e-commerce and digital signatures which are key for enabling online business in Kenya. At the same time, the ICT Bill provides for a broader range of provisions that will deal with risk areas such as online fraud and piracy of intellectual property. All things considered even as the ICT Bill has some controversial aspects especially in the Media sections, the overall benefits for ICT far outweigh the potential downsides. Mobile Money Goes Mainstream. 2009 was the year that mobile money really took off. The shift to mobile money was largely dominated by Safaricom’s M-Pesa service which is the pioneer and market leader. Zain also launched its ZAP mobile money service in 2009 where it was significantly late to the mobile money party as M-Pesa is now the fast mobile money service in Kenya. At the very end of 2009, YU launched its yuCash mobile money offering which is based on the global Obopay service. 2009 also saw mobile money being unanimously endorsed by the business community as they signed up for M-Pesa. Even Banks who we’re the largest opponents of M-Pesa in Kenya are integrating mobile money into their offerings. Going forward, the next big wave for mobile money in will be the adoption of Internet-based services that will could ultimately drive e-commerce in Kenya. Mobile Internet Gains Massive Adoption. 2009 will be remembered as the year that the mobile internet went main stream. Statistics from last year confirm that the mobile internet is growing at a torrid pace as

users opt to ditch cyber cafes and fixed line internet for mobile internet access. This trend was largely driven by Safaricom’s massive campaign to market its 3G offerings throughout Kenya – largely succeeding in the process. However, at the end of 2009, Zain, YU and Orange have also been aggressively pushing their mobile internet offerings although none of them have 3G yet and are still on the slower GPRS and EDGE services. Going forward, a major area of contention will be the expensive license fees for 3G in Kenya which currently stand at US$ 25 million. This fee needs to drop urgently if widely available and more cost-effective 3G mobile internet access is to take off. Government’s 2009/10 Budget Gifted ICT in Kenya. The 2009/10 Budget as announced by the Ministry of Finance in June 2009 gifted the ICT sector with lots of benefits. Firstly, tax was removed from digital and video cameras. Mobile phones we’re made exempt from value added tax (VAT). K.shilings. 1.3 Billion was allocated to the establishment of mobile computer labs country-wide. ISPs we’re allowed to offset taxable income against the cost of purchasing internet bandwidth. Wear and tear on telecommunications infrastructure was increased from 12.5% to 20%. Tax was also reduced on purchasing certain types on computer software. Therefore, in a nutshell, the 2009/10 budget was designed to give ICT in Kenya an edge for the coming years. “Local Content” Became The New Buzz Phrase. In 2009, one could not talk about ICT in Kenya without the inevitable mention of local content coming up. This is a key issue since although Kenya has over 18 million mobile users and 4 million internet users; the bulk of digital content they access is international and not local. The opportunity therefore for the development, distribution and monetization of local content is potentially huge and everyone is trying to get a piece of the action. What remains to be seen in 2010 (and the years to come) is how many will succeed and fail in the process – I suspect we will see something that will mirror the dotcom bust and boom that happened in the US a decade ago as everyone rushes for local content gold. Digital TV Starts Broadcasting. One of the last major milestones for ICT in Kenya for 2009 was the launch of Digital TV (DTV). DTV will revolutionize television broadcasting as we know it in the coming years since its highly efficient and interactive. The opportunity to reach more audiences and also reduce the cost of broadcasting should appeal to many businesses operating in this space. Currently, only a few TV networks in Kenya are broadcasting using test DTV signals in Nairobi and other locations in Kenya. Full adoption of DTV will take a good number of years although Kenya is one of the first countries in Africa to adopt the standard.

Social Media Grew Up. In 2009, social media moved from the sideline to the mainstream in Kenya. 2009 saw social media move from being a novelty that engaged the youth to a movement that saw businesses take notice. On many ranking services on both the mobile web and p.c. web, social networks have become some of the most trafficked internet destinations in Kenya. Brands are taking notice and the mean age for users is getting more and more adult every day. This trend will only increase as people blog more, use twitter, and face book incessantly, as well as businesses start sharpening their social media Kenya’s 2009/2010 budget will grow ICT. For me, the most interesting aspect of this year’s budget is the ICT friendly measures announced, as follows:
• •









Tax on Televisions, Digital Cameras and Video Cameras has been removed (i.e. the cost of content generation and consumption just got cheaper!) Mobile phones are now exempted from value added tax (VAT) although excise duty remains and airtime is still being taxed (i.e. buying a new mobile phone to get cheaper although old stock will probably still be taxed. Expect airtime charges to start going up, eventually). Kes. 1.3 Billion (Kes. 6 million per constituency) has been allocated for the purchase of mobile computer laboratories to grow the use of broadband internet throughout Kenya (i.e. More and more Kenyan’s will have access to the Internet over really fast internet connections country-wide, even in the most rural of areas. There is also the potential for more widespread local content generation and digitization, as well online entrepreneurial ventures mushrooming countrywide!). Internet Service Providers (ISP’s) can now offset taxable income against the costs of purchasing bandwidth for a period of over 20 years (i.e. cheaper internet costs and ISP’s can be more profitable at the same time). Wear and tear on telecommunications infrastructure is increased from 12.5% to 20% (i.e. your internet costs should get even cheaper going forward, even as the TEAMS, EASSY and SEACOM high speed cables are set to already lower internet access charges significantly at the ISP level). Tax on software has been reduced (i.e. its going to be cheaper for you and/or your organization to buy software).

Cisco partnership boosts ICT education in Kenya. Also reported in today’s edition of the Business Daily, Cisco’s just signed partnership through its Networking Academy and Kenya Ministry of Education will vastly improving ICT education at Institutions of Higher Learning. Cisco’s Networking

Academy provides online courses, interactive tools and lab activities to prepare individuals for ICT and networking careers in virtually every type of industry.

2.8 Conclusion
This chapter has indicated some of the studies previously done related to ICT in Kenya, ICTs create new demands for services and goods leading to more investment, opportunities in areas such as banking, technical support and maintenance, construction, transport and training The greatest benefits of ICT lie in its power to overcome geographical barriers. ICT infrastructure offers economies of scale that stimulate network building and consequent spill over benefits. ICT enables interactive communication unhindered by distance, volume, medium or time. Some commentators however hold much more skeptical views of the benefits of ICTs for development.

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the research methodology used in the study. It covers procedure of data collection and data analysis, study population and instrumentation

3.2 Area of study
This study was carried out in particular areas in rural and urban residence at Eldoret town in Kenya

3.3 Research design
A survey was preferred since it collects data about a population as it exists. In this study simple random sampling method was employed where each employee had equal chances of being in corporate into the sample.

3.4 Study population
The target population of this study was made up of employees working in different firms. The study population was drawn from different employment status the permanent and the temporary; this gave a total population of hundred percent in the number of employees from different job description.

Table 3.1 Employees’ population profile ( in %) Job Description Permanent Temporary Total Number of employees 40 60 100

3.5 Data collection instruments

Data for this study were collected through questionnaire, interview and observation. The questionnaire contained items which was mainly closed ended questions. The questionnaires were administered to some employees. Interviews schedules were administered to selected employees. The research also gathered information through observation; this helped to verify the responses received through questionnaires and interviews.

3.6 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

CONTROL GROUP INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATI ON

EMPLOYE ES
GEND RESIDEN CE
Rur al Urba n

EMPLOYME NT SATUS

Mal e

Femal e

Permane nt

Tempora ry
H03

H01

H02

FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDAT IONS

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction
This chapter deals with analysis of data, discussion of the findings and interpretations. This is presented using descriptive statistics such as totals, percentages and graphs. This study sought to find out how employees interact with ICT tools. This chapter is divided into different sections according to the research questions. Each research questions was analyzed with variables that the study sought to find. Tables were used to present the data collected. The charts were used to show comparisons of the results.

4.2 Employee’s profiles
The preceding tables interpret the sample numbers into percentage of the overall total sample. This table translates the sample numbers into percentages of the overall total sample. For instance in table 4.1shows the employee general profile Table 4.1-Employees general profile (in %) Employment status Permanent Temporary Total Male Urban 15 30 45 Rural 5 10 15 Female Urban 10 20 30 Rural 4 6 10 Total 34 66 100

The findings showed that out of the total employee population male and female were 60% and 40% respectively. As shown in table 4.2 and chart 4.1 Table 4.2- profile of Eldoret employees – Gender classification (in %)

Total

Male 60

Female 40

Total 100

Chart 4.1- profile of male and female employees

Table 4.3- profile of Eldoret employees – Residence classification (in %) Urban Rural Total Male 45 15 60 Female 30 10 40 Total 75 25 100

Chart 4.2- profile of employee’s residence status

75% of the population compromised employees who lived within urban areas and of whom 45% were male and 30% being female. Those living in rural areas comprised of 25%, male being 15% and female 10%

Table 4.4- profile of Eldoret Employees – Employment status classification (in %) Permanent Temporary Total Male 20 40 60 Female 14 26 40 Total 34 66 100

Chart 4.3- profile of employees’ employment status

Permanent represent 34% and Temporary represent 66% of the total population of 100%. Of the permanent employment status 20%were male and 14%were female. 40% and 26% of the temporary employment population status were male and female.

4.3 Employees spending analysis
Table 4.5- Amount spending based on Gender (in %) Amount of employees Male Female Total

spending per week 200 400 600 800 1000 Total

30 20 10 2 2 64

20 10 5 1 36

50 30 15 3 2 100

Chart 4.4- Amount spending analysis based on gender

From the chart above, many employees spend between ksh 200 and 400 per week, with most of them being male.

Table 4.6- Amount spending based on Residence status (in %) Amount of employee’s spending per week 500 1000 1500 2000 Rural areas Urban areas 30 25 5 5 Total

15 10 5 1

45 35 10 6

2500 Total

0 31

4 69

4 100

Chart 4.5- Amount spending analysis based on Residence status

Many of the urban employees spend a weekly average of ksh 500 as compared to the rural employees Table 4.7- Amount spending based on Employment status (in %) Amount of employee spending per week 500 1000 1500 2000 Total Permanen Temporary t 10 10 30 5 55 30 10 5 45 Total

40 20 35 5 100

Chart 4.6- Amount spending analysis based on Employment status

Most of the permanent employee uses an average of ksh 1500 per week unlike those of temporary employee who uses an average of ksh 500.

4.4 What is driving demand for ICT in Kenya?
a) ICT industry performance ICT is driving industry performance in Kenya to another level in that production of goods is faster emerging to the top than before. Chart 4.7- Analysis of industry performance in Kenya

The finding shows that in 2009 to date industry performance has grown to a higher level making the Kenyan market on demand of newer goods. b) ICT is driving knowledge economy in Kenya Over 18 million mobile users are communicating over different networks to pass information and this has increased the economy of mobile subscribers across Kenya. And 4 million internet users are connecting to various networks across Kenya and around the world Table 4.8- market growth based on knowledge economy (in million figures) Mobile subscribers Internet users 2007 5 million 2008 5.5million 2009 10 million 3.5 million 2010 18 million 4 million

1.5 million 2 million

Chart 4.8- Analysis of market growth as at January 2007 to date.

In 2009 and 2010 market economy has grown instantly unlike in the past years this shows that Kenya is emerging from different variations in the economy world.

c) ICT for Development Chart 4.9- Analysis of ICT infrastructure as from 2009 to date.

Development in ICT has increased infrastructure from 12.5% to 20% in 2009 to 2010 increasing the industry performance and the economy of Kenya from different fields of ICT d) Telecommunication Table 4.9-Tabulation of different Telecommunication Network’s market shares

Network Safaricom Zain Orange Others Total

Percentage 55.74 30.30 11.30 2.66 100

Safaricom leads in the market shares with an average share of 55.74%, this is mainly attributed to the promotions and other services it offers in the market. Zain is on the second position with an average share of 30.30%. Orange having joined the market lately has a market share of 11.30%. Other networks e.g Yu and the rest are struggling with a negligible market shared of 2.66%

Chart 4.10 Analysis of Network market share based on Kenya

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMARRY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
This chapter is a summary of the study. It presents the major research findings, the conclusions drawn as well as the recommendations made and areas of further research. As expressed in chapter one the main purpose of this research was to find out the degree of employees relations with ICT and to know whether there is significant differences across the various employee profiles. Related literature was reviewed primarily for the purpose of getting insight of what had been done before. The study area was located at Eldoret town in Kenya and her neighboring towns and primarily her employees; the research design used was mainly a survey. The data collection instruments included the questionnaire, interview and observation.

After collection, analyzing and the interpretation of data, the findings were summarized in the summary of the findings below.

5.2 Summary of the Findings
From the hypotheses tested in this study the following findings were made: HO1 : There is significant difference between the male and female employees on ICT. The findings showed that there is a significance difference in the amount spent on ICT among male and female employees because the values were different. Therefore the hypothesis was adopted and then submitted H02 : There is significant difference in the spending on ICT between the residence status i.e the rural and urban status. The findings showed that there was a significance different in the amount spent on ICT between the residence. And in this case the different hypothesis was adopted and accepted. H03 : There is significant difference in the amount spent on ICT between employees across the different employment status. Findings indicated that there is a significant difference amongst employees with different employment status. Therefore the alternative hypothesis was adopted.

5.3 Conclusions
From the study findings the following conclusions were made  Employees both male and female employees had the different perception towards ICT tools.  Irrelevant of residential status, employees would just spend different types on ICT tools.

 Across the various employment status employees reacted differently showing that their perceptions depended on the job scale they hold.

5.4 Recommendations
Emanating from the findings and consequent conclusions the following recommendation was proposed;  Employees should play a forward role in educating their individuals on the importance and usage of ICT tools  Because of the new literacy this include the skills, strategies and insights necessary to successful, that means that we must help others learn how to learn new technologies of literacy  Engaging employees in ICT to radically transform Kenya’s economy, society and politics.

5.5 Suggestions for further Research
This study cannot be considered exhaustive in covering the major areas of study in employee perception towards ICT. The following related parameters would require investigations: • In Information and information technology these two key development tenet go hand –in –hand with sustainable economic and social development. • Research to be done to establish employee perception towards ICT. • Similar study to be done in other employment centers having different working environment using various ICT.

• Study into the relationship of employee usage on ICT tools in different sectors.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Vincent et al (2005, October). The influence of mobile phone users on the design of 3G products and services. New York: Thompson

Bruce 1997; leu, in press aj Reinking, 1998. Literacy in technology Communications Africa volume (ii) issue 6 ICT village magazine. (www.ICT village.com) 2008 ICT Development Expo. From ICT village magazine. (A review of Kenya’s ICT positions in 2009) Retrieved from ministry of information and communication published on January 2,2010 from http://www.information.go.ke Macharia, E. (2009, November 3). CCK (communication commission of Kenya) survey. The standard, p.20. Kimutai, C. (2009 May).Mobile subscribers to migrate in style. Management, volume 4.

APPENDICES
Survey questionnaire for Employee Please cross mark (x) criteria that apply to you.
Gender ( ) Male ( ) Urban Area ( ) Female ( ) Rural Area

Residence

Age ( ) 20 – 30 yrs Nationality Education

( ) 31 – 40 yrs

( ) 41 – 50 yrs

( ) Above 50 yrs

( ) Kenyan ( ) Student

( ) Non Kenya ( ) Non student ( ) Regular ( ) Regular () ( ) Contract

Employment status [ ] Permanent Contract [ ] Temporary

Rate the preferences 4 (excellent), 3 (Good), 2 (Fair), and 1 (Poor) for services offered in ICT Intern et Price affordability Availability of the cards in vendors Quality of connection and communicat ion Services provided for calling/sms promotion Do you have any knowledge of how ICT is being used? ( ) no ( ) yes Mobil e phon es E– learni ng Network services safarico zai orang Y m n e u Other s

Have you ever used any type of ICT services? If yes, specify ………… What are the examples of ICT specify…………… Has ICT developed a change in your life? If yes, specify how…………

Interview Questions For Employees both in Rural and Urban areas
• What do you understand about the word ICT? • Have you ever come across an ICT tools? • Give examples of where ICT is being used? • What is your education level? • What is your employment status? • What are the uses of ICT? • Do you have knowledge of how ICT is being used? • Do you know any type of ICT?

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