Regions of the Philippines

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Regions of the Philippines
Philippines is an archipelagic country which is composed of approximately 7,109 islands with Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao as the major islands. These islands are divided into 17 regions which are based on the geographical, cultural and ethnological characteristics of the country. These regions are:


Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) Ilocos Region (Region I) Cagayan Valley (Region II) Central Luzon (Region III) National Capital Region (NCR) CALABARZON (Region IV-A) MIMAROPA (Region IV-B) Bicol Region (Region V)


Western Visayas (Region VI) Central Visayas (Region VII) Eastern Visayas (Region VIII)


Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX) Northern Mindanao (Region X) Davao Region (Region XI) SOCCSKSARGEN (Region XII) Caraga (Region XIII) Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)

These regions, although separated from one another do not possess individual government authority except the ARMM which has exercised a separate sovereignty even before the Spanish came to colonise the country. ARMM is predominantly home to Muslim Filipinos which has its own elected regional assembly and is ruled by the Regional Governor.

While ARMM nestles in the southern Philippines, CAR (originally called as Cordillera Autonomous Region) is located at the northern part of the country. CAR initially intended as an autonomous region was changed into an administrative region due to the failure of two referendums. This region vastly governs and protects the indigenous tribes mainly called as Igorots.

Every region is divided into provinces which individually govern the local government units (districts, cities and towns) except the NCR. The National Capital Region which is mainly the Metropolitan Manila or Metro Manila is the smallest administrative region in the country and the only region without any provinces. It is instead, subdivided into 17 local government areas (cities and municipalities), which are grouped together into districts for administrative purposes.

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Region XIII Caraga
² Region ²

Map of the Philippines showing the location of Region XIII



Island group Mindanao Regional center Area - Total 21,471 km2 (8,290 sq mi) Butuan City

Population (2007) - Total - Density Time zone Provinces 2,293,480 106.8/km2 (276.7/sq mi) PST (UTC+8) 5



Municipalities 70 Barangays Cong. districts Languages 1,310 7 Surigaonon, Cebuano, Butuanon, Manobo, others

For the municipality in the province of Davao Oriental, see Caraga, Davao Oriental Caraga is an administrative region of the Philippines, on the northeastern portion of the island of Mindanao. It is the newest region in the Philippines, and is also called Region XIII. The Caraga Region was created through Republic Act No. 7901 on February 25, 1995. The region is composed of four (4) provinces: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur; three (3) cities: Butuan, Surigao, Bislig; seventy (74) municipalities and 1,346 barangays. Butuan City is the regional center.

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1 History 2 Political divisions o 2.1 Location and size o 2.2 Climate 3 Land classification and major land uses 4 Gross regional domestic product (GRDP) 5 Demography o 5.1 Population o 5.2 Language o 5.3 Religion 6 Cultural Groups 7 Poverty 8 Regional economy o 8.1 Caraga¶s GRDP: 2001-2003 o 8.2 Exports and investments 9 Natural resources 10 Major products 11 Tourist attractions o 11.1 Surfing

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11.2 Island-hopping 11.3 Mountain-biking 11.4 Trekking 11.5 Scuba diving 11.6 Caving 11.7 Bird-watching 11.8 Events and festivals 12 Facilities 13 Social development o 13.1 Education and skills development o 13.2 Health and nutrition o 13.3 Social welfare services o 13.4 Housing 14 Infrastructure-utilities development o 14.1 Roads and bridges o 14.2 Ports and airports o 14.3 Telecommunication facilities 15 References 16 See also
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[edit] History
The history of Caraga can be traced back to the 15th century when explorers discovered the existence of "Kalagans", believed to be of Visayan Origin in one of the three districts in Mindanao. The word Caraga originated from the Visayan word Kalagan: kalag meaning soul or people, and a meaning land. The Kalagans have a long history of being brave and fearless. Thus, the region was called by early chroniclers as the "Land of the Brave and Fierce People". The "Kalagans", called "Caragans" by the Spaniards, occupied the district composed of the two provinces of Surigao, the northern part of Davao Oriental and eastern Misamis Oriental. The two Agusan Provinces were later organized under the administrative jurisdiction of Surigao and became the independent Agusan province in 1914. In 1960, Surigao was divided into Norte and Sur, and in June 1967, Agusan followed suit. While Butuan then was just a town of Agusan, the logging boom in the 1950s drew business to the area. On August 2, 1950, by virtue of Republic Act 523, the City Charter of Butuan was approved. It is reported that during the early years of the Caraga region, its inhabitants came from mainland Asia, followed by Malayans, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish and Americans. Migrants from the Visayan and Luzon provinces later settled in the area. Most of its inhabitants speak Cebuano and reside in the rural areas.

[edit] Political divisions
Caraga is subdivided into 4 provinces and Butuan City.

Political map of Caraga Province/City Capital Population (2007)[1] 559,294 481,416 501,808 Area Pop. density (km²) (per km²) 1,773.2 161.0 8,966.0 62.4 1,936.9 175.8 4,552.2 110.2

Agusan del Norte Cabadbaran City 285,570 Agusan del Sur Prosperidad Surigao del Norte Surigao City Surigao del Sur Tandag City Butuan City ²

298,378 (2007)307,942 (2009) 817.3 327.0

¹ Butuan City is a highly urbanized city; figures are excluded from Agusan del Norte.

[edit] Location and size
Caraga Region, situated in the northeast section of Mindanao, is located between 8 00¶ to 10 30¶ N. latitude and 125 15¶ to 126 30¶ E. longitude. It is bounded on the north by the Bohol Sea; on the south by the provinces of Davao, Compostela Valley and Davao Oriental of Region XI; on the west by Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental of Region X; and on the east by the Philippine Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The region has a total land area of 18,846.97 km². This represents 6.3% of the country¶s total land area and 18.5% of the island of Mindanao. 47.6% of the total land area of the region belongs to the province of Agusan del Sur.

Topography The region is characterized by mountainous areas, flat and rolling lands. Mountain ranges divide Agusan and Surigao Provinces and sub-ranges separate most of the lowlands along the Pacific Coast. The most productive agricultural area of the region lies along the Agusan River Basin. The famous Agusan Marsh also sits in the middle of Agusan del Sur. Among the lakes in the region, Lake Mainit is the widest. It traverses eight (8) municipalities: Alegria, Tubod, Mainit and Sison in the Province of Surigao del Norte and Tubay, Santiago, Jabango and Kitcharao in Agusan del Norte.

[edit] Climate
Caraga Region has Type II kind of climate, with no pronounced wet and dry season. It has been observed that during the months of November to February, occurrence of heavy rains is usually experienced in the region.

[edit] Land classification and major land uses
Of the total land area, 71.22% is forestland and 28.78% is alienable and disposable land. Major land uses include forestland comprising 31.36% and 23.98% of agricultural and open spaces.

[edit] Gross regional domestic product (GRDP)
The region performed fairly well in terms of regional output contributing 8.01% in 1998, 8.25% in 1999 and 8.29% in 2000 to the Mindanao GRDP. The region contributed 1.44% in 1998, 1.48% in 1999 and 1.50% in 2000, to the Philippine economy. In terms of growth rate, the region accelerated faster and outpaced the other regions in Mindanao from 1998 to 2000, except for the Southern Mindanao Region which posted a 6.06% increase in 1999-2000. Caraga Region recorded a 5.42% increase during the same period. GRDP in 2000 amounted to P14.336 Billion as against the 1999 performance of P13.599 Billion. The deceleration of the region¶s economy from 6.03% in 1999 to 5.42% in 2000 was attributed to the slowdown of the Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry (AFF) and Services sectors. The improved performance of the Industry sector, from 5.69% in 1999 to 6.69% in 2000, cushioned the effects of what could have been a slowdown of the region¶s economy.

[edit] Demography
[edit] Population
Based on the final results of the 2000 census, the total population of the region was 2,095,367 which was 7.86% higher than the 1995 population of 1,942,687. The annual population growth rate over the last five years was pegged at a manageable 1.63%, one of the lowest in the country. Among the four (4) provinces, Agusan del Sur registered the largest population at 559,294, and Surigao del Norte the smallest at 481,416. In terms of growth rate, Surigao del Norte was the

fastest growing province with an annual average growth rate of 1.84% over the last five (5) years, while Surigao del Sur was the slowest at 1.35% over the same period. Butuan and Surigao Cities which were included in the census tabulation have total population of 267,279 and 118,534, respectively. Butuan City registered an annual growth rate of 1.70% in the last five (5) years, while Surigao City posted 2.65%.

[edit] Language
Cebuano was spoken by 43.79% of the household population in the region. Other dialects spoken were Surigaonon, spoken by 25.21%; Kamayo, by 7.06% ; Boholanon, by 5.87%; Manobo, by 4.73%; Butuanon, by 31.9%; Hiligayon, by 2.87%; and other dialects by 7.20%.

[edit] Religion
The 1995 census revealed that the dominant religion in the region was Roman Catholic, with the population of 1,397,343 or 79% of the total household population in Caraga. Most numerous in this census were the manobos with 294,284 or 43.55% of the total population of cultural communities. Most of them reside in the province of Agusan del Sur. Other cultural communities in the region with significant population were the Kamayo, Higa-onon, Banwaon, Umayamnon, and Mamanwa. Surigaonon is a local Philippine language spoken in the province of Surigao del Norte, and some portion of Agusan del Norte especially in towns near Mainit Lake. It is related to the Butuanon and Tausug languages.

[edit] Cultural Groups
The majority of the inhabitants of the region are of Visayan heritage. The province is also home to several minority groups, totaling 675,722 in 1995, representing 34.7% of the region's population. Most numerous were the Manobos with 294,284 or 43.55% of the total population of ethnic minorities. Other cultural groups in the region with significant population were the Kamayo, Higa-onon, Banwaon, Umayamnon, and Mamanwa. Most members of these cultural groups reside in the province of Agusan del Sur. It is reported that during the early years of the Caraga region, its inhabitants came from mainland Asia, followed by Malayans, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish and Americans. Migrants from the Visayan and Luzon provinces later settled in the area. Most of its inhabitants speak the Cebuano dialect and reside in the rural areas.

[edit] Poverty
Poverty incidence in the region decreased by 1.7% from 44.7% in 1997 to 42.9% in 2000. Another positive development is the increase in the regional annual family income based on the 1997 and 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, which increased by 13.65% from PhP 71,7126.00 in 1997 to PhP 81,519.00 in 2000. Regional annual family expenditures also posted a 16.65% increase, from PhP 61,815.00 in 1997 to PhP 72,108.00 in 2000. The average annual

savings slipped by 5% from PhP 9,911.00 to PhP 9,411.00. Poverty incidence data for 2003 is not yet available.[2] On a national and Mindanao-wide perspective, Caraga Region is one of the most impoverished regions in the country. The region has the fourth highest poverty incidence level of families among all the regions in the country for years 1997 and 2000 while among Mindanao regions, Caraga has the third highest poverty incidence (in terms of incidence of families).[2]

[edit] Regional economy
From 2001-2003, Caraga Region consistently maintained its performance vis-à-vis other regions in Mindanao, Philippines. Caraga posted a 0.9% growth rate compared to the 9.5% growth rate of Region 12 and the 2.6% growth rate of the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Caraga¶s growth rate in 2001-2002 and the 2002-2003 period was the same (0.9%). This was much less than the growth of the population. This performance was better however than the region¶s performance in 2000-2001 period, where the region¶s economy declined by 1.4%. The region¶s contribution to Mindanao¶s domestic product is 7.58% in 2003. In terms of per capita income, Caraga has the second lowest per capital income among Mindanao regions and nationwide. In 2003, the region accounted for 1.35% of the country¶s GNP.

[edit] Caraga¶s GRDP: 2001-2003
Caraga¶s economic performance, in terms of the GVA and the GRDP, was not as robust as expected. Nevertheless, some bright spots in the region¶s economic sector emerged from 20012003 which the region can capitalize to further increase economic growth and maximize social welfare. From the 1.4% decrease in the GRDP in 2000-2001, the GRDP bounced back in 2001-2002 by a 0.9% growth. The positive trend was maintained in 2002-2003, with the region¶s GRDP growing by 0.9%, the same growth rate from the previous year. The agriculture, fishery and forestry (AFF) sector is Caraga¶s banner economic sector, exhibiting an increasing growth trend of 3.8% and 6.8% growth rates in 2001 and 2003 respectively. Despite the decreasing growth trend of the agriculture and fishery subsectors, the sizeable growth rate of the forestry subsector more than compensated for the decrease. The forestry subsector grew by 36.3% in 2003, the highest growth rate for any subsector in the region. It is also important to note that Caraga region has the highest GVA in the forestry subsector among all regions in the Philippines. The services sector is also one of the bright spots in the region¶s economy. After experiencing a decelerated growth rate in 2002 compared to the previous year¶s 6.1% growth rate, the sector bounced back in 2003 with a 5.6% growth rate. Moreover, the trade subsector continued to be the dominant subsector posting a 5.6%, 6.6% and 6.3% growth rate in 2001 to 2003 respectively. It is significant to note that all the subsectors posted positive growth rates in 2001 and 2003. The

transportation, communication and storage sub-sector posted the highest growth rate of 8.4% among the sub-sectors in the services sector. The industry sector was the worst performing sector of the regional economy with a continuous decline from 2001-2003. Although the sector¶s slide slightly decelerated in 2002 (-6.7% in 2002 from -13.3% decline in 2001), it contracted by -12.1% in 2003. The construction subsector had the largest decline of 16.6%, 11.3% and 33.5% in 2001, 2002 and 2003 respectively. The mining subsector also posted negative growth rates but the decreasing trend in this subsector decelerated. The manufacturing offset the decrease in the two sub-sectors by growing at 8.9% in 2003, making it the biggest contributor to this sector. It should be noted that even with the negative performance of the mining and quarrying sector, Caraga was the second highest producer of metallic minerals, with metallic mineral productions valued at PhP 1.25 billion in 2001 (Philippine Yearbook, 2003).

[edit] Exports and investments
The amount of exports from the region and investments pouring in the region are concrete indicators of a region¶s economic dynamism, progress and development. It also serves as an indirect indicator of the business climate in the region and a barometer of investor confidence in the region. Investments in the region fell by 25.4% from PhP 6.3 billion in 2002 to PhP 4.6 billion in 2003. All provinces in the region posted a negative growth rate in investments, with Agusan del Sur posting the biggest year-on-year decline of 62.6% for the 2002-2003 period. Agusan del Norte¶s percentage share on investments increased from 64.8% to 79.5% despite an 8.5% decline. Per DTI Caraga¶s advise, the data on investments are partial at best and is not reflective of the whole investment level in the region. DTI Caraga¶s data does not include public investment figures. Exports decreased by 19.08% in the 2000-2001 period and 57.52% in 2001-2002. Agusan Norte, Surigao Norte and Surigao Sur posted negative growth rates in the 2000-2001 period, with Surigao Sur posting the biggest decrease in exports (81.31%). In 2002, Agusan Norte posted an impressive 741.04% increase in exports, a harbinger of increased economic activity in the province. Surigao Norte posted the biggest decrease in exports for 2002 (63.17%). It is of interest to note that Caraga¶s percentage contribution to Mindanao¶s exports has been erratic. In 2000, the region contributed 1.87% to Mindanao¶s exports; this expanded to 2.68% in 2001 only to decrease to 0.77% in 2002.[2]

[edit] Natural resources
Rich in natural resources, the region has large tracts of land available for development. The region is noted for its wood based economy, its extensive water resources and its rich mineral deposits such as iron, gold, silver, nickel, chromite, manganese and copper. Its leading crops are palay, banana and coconut. It has excellent tourism potentials because of its unspoiled and beautiful beaches, abundant and fresh seafood, ancient and historical landmarks, hot and cold springs, evergreen forests and balmy weather.

[edit] Major products
Its long stretch of shoreline promises abundance in production of fisheries and aquatic products. With its large tract of fertile lands, the region has a great capacity in producing varied commercial crops as well as livestock and poultry. Major agricultural products of the region are palay, corn, coconut, gold, banana, rubber, oil palm, calamansi, prawns, milkfish, crabs, seaweeds and mango. Caraga's proximity to Cebu and Manila makes it a favorable shipping point for products to and from these markets. Nasipit Port can serve as a secondary shipping hub to Cagayan de Oro when traffic volume from other points in Mindanao increases. With a roll-on, roll-off (RORO) ferry service now in place, Surigao City serves as a vital transportation link for trucks and buses bound for Luzon. Agusan Del Norte rice, coconut, corn, mango, bananas, palm oil, vegetables, and prawns Agusan Del Sur Surigao Del Norte Ironwood, nickeleferous laterite ore, gold, chromite, lode ore, and laterite ore; limestone, silica deposits, guano, rock phosphate, sand, and gravel; chromate; Marlin, tuna, lapulapu, molluscs, crabs, even squids, stingrays, and octopuses Surigao Del Sur palay, corn, coconut, abaca, soybeans, coffee, and other high value crops; prawns, milkfish, and crabs; are Narra, red and white Lauan, Mayapis, Almon, Apitong, Yakal, Bagtikan, Tanguile, Rattan and Bonbon


[edit] Tourist attractions
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[edit] Surfing
Lying at the edge of the Philippine archipelago, Siargao is reputed as the surfing capital of the Philippines, and hosts an annual international surfing event. Its waves combine the best features of top-rated waves of Hawaii's fabled "pipeline" and the top-billed waves of Indonesia. The huge and powerful "pacific rollers" have been ranked among the top five breaks in the world, including the "Cloud Nine" which is considered one of the world's top surfing waves. Other excellent breaks, which offer the adventurous surfer top-class exploratory surfing without crowds, are found in the towns of Cantilan, Tandag and Lanuza.

[edit] Island-hopping
Hop from island to island while you discover the picturesque landscapes and feast on the rich marine delights like the fresh blue marlin, crabs, squids, seaweeds, giant clams and lobsters. Once in Caraga, you can take your pick of which to visit. The alluring islets and islands of

Guyam, Daku, Naked or Pansukian, La Janosa, Pig-ot, Dinagat, Bucas Grande,Britania and the General island in Cantilan have white-sand beaches and are ringed by teeming coral reefs that are ideal for swimming and snorkelling. Among the region's tropical treat include: a boat ride along the naturally-carved water channels amidst the jade-colored lush of mangrove forest in Barangay Manjagao; a journey to the floating village of Barangay Dayasan, and to Buenavista Cave; and a visit to the tropical island paradise of white sand beach, deep blue crystal water in Sagisi island. The Britania in San AgustinSurigao del Sur hosts 25 unspoiled islets and islands of sugary-white sand and clusters of limestones hills, much like the fabled hundred islands in pangasinan. After having enough sightseeing, swimming and snorkeling, you can spread your picnic blankets in the sand and eat with gusto amidst the serenade of slashing waves and the whispering winds. But you have to bring your food and drinks since there are no restaurants yet in the islands.

[edit] Mountain-biking
Great trails run all around the Cities of Butuan and Surigao, Surigao del sur, Agusan del Norte and Siargao. There are regular cross-country and downhill competitions done in these areas which are participated by local and international bikers. Caraga has an active and hospitable biking scene. Butuan or Surigao-based bikers regularly tour the rugged terrain of the region and are eager to show their routes to new comers.

[edit] Trekking
Mt. Mas-ai and Mt. Hilong-Hilong are the best sites for trekking or mountain climbing. The views from the mountains are superb, taking in the full scope of the vast lower Agusan Valley. Close to Mt. Mas-ai lies the picturesque Lake Mainit, which is considered the fourth-largest lake in the country, with a total land area of 147 km². Through the years, the lake has been a known lair for pidjanga, tilapia, kasili, banak, haw-an, gingaw, saguyon and igi. Migratory birds, pagosi and tabokali flowers are its intermittent added attractions. From the coastal areas of Lake Mainit to the hills of Jabonga, Tubay, and Santiago, hikers are offered the opportunity to explore the quiet and interesting life of these places. There are a few established treks in the region, but everywhere else you will be hiking in areas virtually untouched by tourism. Surigao first became famous for its surf, so kayakers who like big waves enjoy it very much. There are also mangrove swamps in the island where you can paddle both in the main channel and through narrow passages in the mangroves while seeing some wildlife and enjoying the serenity of the place. The first is just behind the Pansukian Tropical Resort while the other one is in del Carmen, where the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the Philippines is located. The "must see" place in Caraga where you can paddle around spectacular limestone formations to a point where you can enter a narrow channel which soon becomes a cave is in Sohoton Cave and Lagoon in Bucas Grande Island, which is more than an hour boat ride from Siargao. Since the sport is new here, only Pansukian Tropical Resort offers kayak tours in several locations around Siargao. Aside from sea kayaking, Masao & Agusan Rivers, Lake Mainit and the Agusan Marshland have tremendous potential for paddling using wooden canoes.

[edit] Scuba diving
Scuba diving is a new sport in the region, so there are no dive resorts available in the area but the Butuan Divers Club offers dive safari at Bito Wall in Bolobolo-Jabonga, Lipatan Shoal in Karihatag-Malimono, Punta Diwata Reefs and Balete Wall in Vinapor-Carmen, and artificial reefs in Calibunan-Cabadbaran. For adventurous divers, the coasts of Surigao offer interesting dive site while the islands of Sagisi and Corregidor are excellent for snorkelling activities.

[edit] Caving
The limestone karst bedrock of some areas in Surigao and Agusan provinces (particularly in the towns of San Agustin, Tagbina, Lianga, Rosario, and Bislig) features dozens of caves, but none of these are regular destinations for recreational cavers. Located within the towns of Tagbina and Bislig, Banbow and Tatol caves (which are ranked the 6th and 9th longest caves in the Philippines) have recently been declared by the Japanese cave explorers as the third longest cave in the country. Further expeditions are expected as more cave systems are discovered. Some of the most frequently visited and accessible caves in the region are Buenavista and Silop Caves in Surigao City and Libas Cave in Jabonga-Agusan del Norte. These caves have impressive limestone formations and naturally carved stalagmites, stalactites and columns.

[edit] Bird-watching
Agusan Marsh in Agusan del Sur is the biggest marsh in the country and is host to diversified species of birds.

[edit] Events and festivals
The events and festivals offer an experience in color and character, giving a good view of the rich culture that makes up Caraga's heritage. Whatever time of the year, there will always be an event or festival to experience and enjoy, like Naliyagan of Agusan del Sur,Kahimunan, Balangay, Kaliguan, Lisagan and Bonok-Bonok Maradjao Karadjao festivals. Surfers from around the world converge in Siargao to pit their skills against each other during the annual international surfing competition.

[edit] Facilities
The entire region is connected by roads from and to the major commercial, trading and processing centers of Cagayan de Oro and Davao. Butuan City is being developed as the regional center with modern facilities. There are secondary seaports and airports in the region. It has an increasing number of telecommunication facilities and the presence of the Nasipit International Seaport in Nasipit, Agusan del Norte as the major baseport in the region.

[edit] Social development
[edit] Education and skills development

The region's literacy rate of 93% in 1990 was marginally higher than the National Average of 92.57%. Supporting the education of the region in 1997 were the 1,478 public and 49 private elementary schools, 110 public and 71 private secondary schools, 26 secondary school annexes, and 7 vocational schools. The region has a total of 49 higher education institutions comprising 45 private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and 4 State Universities and Colleges (SUCs). Among the Higher Education Institutions, San Nicolas College (now St. Paul University-Surigao) is identified as the center for development in teacher education and the regional center for gender and development, it being the seat of CARAGA Women's resources center. While one of the SUCs, the Caraga State University (CSU) formerly known as Northern Mindanao State Institute of Science and Technology (NORMISIST), is the seat of the CARAGA center for environmental studies and management (CCESM), acts as the focal point of capability building and coordination for environmental efforts in the region. The oldest school in Caraga, the Urios College, was founded by Caraga's most loved Spanish missionary, Fr. Saturnino Urios S.J. in 1901. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) recognized Urios College as one of the best schools in the region producing topnotchers in national board examinations in Nursing, Engineering and Accountancy. Its performance in the Licensure Examinations for Teachers (LET) and the Philippine Bar (BAR) is also relatively high. On July 12, 2006, Urios College formally announced its elevation into a University and is now renamed Fr. Saturnino Urios University (FSUU), the second home-grown university in Caraga. For the school year 1996±1997, the participation rate for public elementary schools was 93.65%. Public secondary schools registered a lower rate, 56%. The teacher-to-pupil ratios for both levels were within the standard of one (1) teacher per forty (40) pupils. Cohort survival rates were considered low for both the elementary and secondary levels at 66.23% and 68.93%, respectively. For the school year 1996±97, dropout rate at the secondary level was high, especially in Butun City (9.5%) and Surigao Del Sur (7.8%). This can be one of the causes why the majority of the population finished only up to the elementary school level.

[edit] Health and nutrition
All the vital health indicators from 1992±1997 showed a decreasing trend except for maternal mortality rate. The crude birth rate decreased from the 1992-1996 five-year average of 21.02 to 18.71 in 1997. The crude death rate also decreased from 3.60 in the 1992±1996 average to 3.0 in 1997. The infant mortality rate increased from an average of 1.33 in 1992±1996 to 1.56 in 1997. All of the leading causes of morbidity from 1992±1997 were communicable diseases, and showed a reduction in rates for every 1,000,000 population, except for pneumonia (836.30 to 1,200.23), diarrhea (1,059.40 to 1,133.11), influenza (655.36 to 926.74), and malaria (216.80 to 366.5). With regards to the leading causes of mortality, lifestyle-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and cancer top the list, replacing the communicable diseases.

The region is faced with problems of endemic diseases like schistosomiasis and malaria. Although there was a slight reduction in its prevalence for the past three years, still Caraga ranked as number two in schistosomiasis cases and number six in malaria cases nationwide. Malnutrition rates were posted at 49.25%, of which 34.05% were classified as mildly underweight, 11.66% as moderately underweight, 1.43% as severely underweight and 3.60% as overweight. Life expectancy for the region, based on the 1995 census, was 65.73 years old for males and 70.98 years old for females. As of 1997, there were 62 hospitals in the region, of which 35 were government and 27 were private. Out of the 27 private hospitals, 20 were primary, 4 secondary and 3 tertiary. Out of the 35 government hospitals, 18 were primary, 14 were secondary and 3 were tertiary. There were 73 main health centers, 489 barangay health stations manned by 76 doctors, 147 nurses, 35 medical technologists, 45 dental aides, 52 dentists, 608 midwives and 137 sanitary inspectors. All of these were devolved to the local government units in accordance with the 1991 local Government code.

[edit] Social welfare services
In 1996, Caraga had 1,619 welfare facilities of which 1,238 were Day care Centers;8 were Senior Citizens' Center; 3 were Productivity Skills capability Building for Disadvantaged Women (PSCBDW); and with 1 each were the child Learning and Resource Center, Women Center, Home for the Girls, Regional Rehabilitation Center for Youth, Lingap Center, Balay Silongan, Foster Home for Exploited Children And Women, and Halfway Home for Improved Mental Patients. On the community-based services, only the PSCBDW is being managed by DSWD while the rest are managed by the LGU's.

[edit] Housing
The region had unique housing profile in 1990. While other areas complained of housing shortage, a significant number of houses, particularly in Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte were vacant. However, available statistics do not give the magnitude of substandard of units to be replaced and current housing backlog. Currently, the cities of Butuan and Surigao and other municipalities are not spared from housing problems, i.e. squatters bought by urbanization.

[edit] Infrastructure-utilities development
[edit] Roads and bridges
The region is connected to the major centers of its neighboring regions by the Maharlika Highways that runs from Davao City to Butuan, Cagayan de Oro and Surigao Cities. The

provinces are interlinked with concrete roads, except for Surigao del Sur. Total road length of the region runs to 7,515.596 km. Road density was at 0.3988 as of 1995. There were 1,325.558 km classified as national roads in the region and 1,289.774 km of city and provincial roads. The total municipal road length for the region was 696.46 km. The region had bridges with the combined length of 23,775.49 meters linear. Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur had the longest bridge length 9,288.520 m linear and 7,853,4 m linear, respectively.

[edit] Ports and airports
As the overland gateway to Visayas and Luzon, the region is accessible by sea through the baseport of Nasipit in Agusan del Norte, Lipata Ferry Terminal in Surigao city and other terminal ports of Surigao Cit, Tandag, and Bislig. Fast craft ferry services also ply Surigao-Cebu everyday. Private ports can also be found in the different municipalities of the region, however, only three of these 42 ports are operational. The region is also serviced by commercial flights to and from Manila and Cebu through the airports of Butuan, Surigao, Siargao and Tandag. The Bislig airport used to serviced commercial flights before its operation were suspended. There are six other private owned airports in the region. The ports and airports are supported by the road natworks that connect the provinces within and outside the region.

[edit] Telecommunication facilities
All provincial centers have access to domestic and international telephone facilities, both landlines and cellular phones. Three (3) telephone companies serve the region, namely BAYANTEL, CRUZTELCO, TETCO and PHILCOM. The three cellular phone companies in the Philippines (Globe, Smart and Sun) have facilities in the region. There are four Internet Service Providers (ISP) serving Butuan City and two in Surigao City.

[edit] References
1. ^ Final results - 2007 Census of Population 2. ^ a b c Caraga Regional Development Plan 2004-2010

Eastern Visayas
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Region VIII Eastern Visayas
² Region ²

Map of the Philippines showing the location of Region VIII



Island group Visayas Regional center Area - Total 23,432 km2 (9,047.1 sq mi) Tacloban City, Leyte

Population (2007) - Total 3,912,936

- Density Time zone Provinces Cities

167/km2 (432.5/sq mi) PST (UTC+8) 6 4

Municipalities 139 Barangays Cong. districts Languages 4,390 12 Waray-Waray (Leyte-Samarnon), Cebuano, Abaknon

Eastern Visayas is one of the two regions of the Philippines having no land border with another region, MIMAROPA being the other, and is designated as Region VIII. It consists of six provinces, namely, Biliran, Eastern Samar, Leyte, Northern Samar, Samar and Southern Leyte. These provinces occupy the easternmost islands of Visayas: Leyte, Samar and Biliran. The regional center is Tacloban City.



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1 Geography o 1.1 Climate o 1.2 Land o 1.3 Natural Resources 2 Culture o 2.1 Languages o 2.2 Dances o 2.3 Music 3 Economy 4 Education o 4.1 Political Divisions o 4.2 Component Cities o 4.3 Independent Cities


5 External links

[edit] Geography
[edit] Climate
The region belongs to Type-B climate, which is basically wet to very wet with no pronounced dry season.

[edit] Land
Eastern Visayas is primarily an agricultural region with rice, corn, coconut, sugarcane and banana as major crops. Its total land area is 21,431.7 km². 52% of its total land area are classified as forestland and 48% as alienable and disposable land.

[edit] Natural Resources
The region¶s sea and inland waters are rich sources of salt and fresh water fish and other marine products. It is one of the fish exporting regions of the country. There are substantial forest reserves in the interiors of the islands. Its mineral deposits include chromite, uranium(in Samar), gold, silver, manganese, magnesium, bronze, nickel, clay, coal, limestone, pyrite and sand and gravel. It has abundant geothermal energy and water resources to support the needs of medium and heavy industries.

[edit] Culture
[edit] Languages
Waray-Waray is spoken on the island of Samar, eastern Biliran and the eastern part of the province of Leyte while Cebuano is spoken in the rest of Leyte, western Biliran, as well as in the province of Southern Leyte; both of these languages are called Visayan by their speakers. A Samar language, distantly related to the languages of the region, called Abaknon is spoken in the island of Capul in Northern Samar.

[edit] Dances
Tinikling, the Philippines' national dance is folkdance that originated from the region. But the most popular cultural dance among Warays is the Curacha, danced during feast celebrations and special gatherings. The Leyte Kalipayan Dance Troupe, a local cultural group, held highly successful performances around the world.

[edit] Music

Waray people are music lovers whose folkloric music are mostly ballads in form, famous of which is "Dandansoy" while "Iroy nga Tuna" (Motherland) is a patriotic song.

[edit] Economy

Float exhibiting products of Eastern Visayas

Wilsam Uptown Mall Primary sources of revenue are manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade and services. Mining, farming, fishing and tourism contribute significantly to the economy Manufacturing firms include mining companies, fertilizer plants, sugar central, rice and corn mills and other food processing plants. Tacloban is the hub of investment, trade and development in the region. Other industries include mining, rice, corn and sugar milling, coconut oil extraction, alcohol distilling, beverage manufacture and forest products. Home industries include hat and basket weaving, metal craft, needlecraft, pottery, ceramics, woodcraft, shell craft and bamboo craft.

[edit] Education
Eastern Visayas is home to several state universities, including the prominent University of the Philippines Visayas (UPV Tacloban College). The region is also home to the University of Eastern Philippines (UEP), located in Catarman, Northern Samar, which holds the most number of baccalaureate and post-baccalaureate courses among universities in the region. UEP is considered one of the most notable state universities in the country, offering programs in liberal arts, sciences, medicine, agriculture, education, and law.

The Zonal Agricultural University for the Visayas under the National Agriculture Education System concept, Visayas State University (VSU) is also in the region. Formerly known as Leyte State University (LSU) and Visayas State College of Agriculture (ViSCA), the University is home to high-caliber faculty and academic staff obtaining most of their local and international recognitions in research and development, 92 of whom are Ph.D. degree holders, 110 MS degree holders and 72 BS degree holders from reputable colleges and universities here and abroad. Standing on plains and hillsides of the more than 1,099-hectare campus are 193 buildings composed of academic departments, research and trainings centers, staff and student housing facilities and other vital structures. VSU is well known as a center for excellence in research and extension and has been collaborating with partner universities local and abroad to improve its capabilities. As proof of its excellence in instruction, the school have time and time again produced several board topnotchers in national licensure examinations for agriculture, agricultural engineering, geodetic and geomatics engineering, forestry, chemistry and veterinary medicine.

[edit] Political Divisions

Political map of Eastern Visayas Population Area Pop. density Province Capital (2000) (km²) (per km²) Biliran Naval 140,274 555.4 252.6 Eastern Samar Borongan 375,822 4,339.6 86.6 Leyte Tacloban City 1,592,336 5,712.8 278.7 Northern Samar Catarman 500,639 3,498.0 143.1 Samar Catbalogan 641,124 5,591.0 114.7 Southern Leyte Maasin City 360,160 1,734.8 207.6

[edit] Component Cities
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Catbalogan City, Samar Calbayog City, Samar Maasin City, Southern Leyte

[edit] Independent Cities
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Ormoc City¹, Leyte Tacloban City, Leyte

¹ Ormoc City is an independent component city.

Cordillera Administrative Region
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Cordillera Administrative Region
² Region ²

Map of the Philippines showing the location of Cordillera Administrative Region



Island group Luzon Regional center Area - Total 19,294 km2 (7,449.5 sq mi) Baguio City

Population (2007) - Total - Density Time zone 1,520,743 78.8/km2 (204.1/sq mi) PST (UTC+8)

Provinces Cities

6 2

Municipalities 75 Barangays Cong. districts 1,176 7 Ilokano, Ibaloi, Kankanaey, Kalanguya, Kalinga, Ifugao, Itneg, Isneg, Pangasinan, others


The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) is the Philippines' only land-locked region. It is consisted of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mountain Province and Baguio City (the regional center). The Cordillera region encompasses most of the areas within the Cordillera Central mountain range of Luzon, the largest range in the country. This region is home to numerous indigenous tribes collectively called the Igorot.

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1 CAR Provinces and Population 2 Economy 3 Tourist attractions 4 Culture 5 Gallery 6 References 7 External links

[edit] CAR Provinces and Population
CAR is subdivided into 6 provinces and one chartered city, Baguio.

Province/City Abra Apayao Benguet Ifugao Kalinga Baguio City

Capital Bangued Kabugao

Population Area Pop. density (2007)[1] (km²) (per km²) 230,953 3,975.6 58.1 103,633 3,927.9 26.4 2,599.4 143.3 2,517.8 71.8 3,119.7 58.4 2,097.3 70.9 57.5 5,250.9

La Trinidad 372,533 Lagawe 180,711 Tabuk City 182,326 148,661 301,926

Mountain Province Bontoc ²

¹ Baguio City is a highly urbanized city; figures are excluded from Benguet Province.

[edit] Economy
Cordillera has abundant mineral reserves. These include metallic ores such as gold, copper, silver, zinc, and non-metallic minerals like sand, gravel and sulfur. Mineral reserves are found in all the provinces. However, mining is concentrated in Benguet. Baguio City and La Trinidad, Benguet are considered as the industrial centers in the region due. In Baguio, you will find an Export Processing Zone where operations of big companies like Texas Instruments, and MOOG are located. In La Trinidad you will find the Provincial Capitol and regional branches of government organizations.

[edit] Tourist attractions
Tourist attractions in the region include the world-famous Banaue Rice Terraces in the province of Ifugao. Nations around the world boast of their own self-proclaimed "eighth wonder of the world." The Philippines considers Banaue Rice Terraces as its "Eighth Wonder of the World." The Banaue terraces, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old, are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. They are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, widely found in the provinces of Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, and Mountain Province. Natural attractions of the region include the Sumaguing Cave in Sagada and the mummy caves of Benguet and Mt. Province. There are four National Parks: Cassamata Hill, Mount Pulag, the highest mountain in Luzon, and second highest mountain in the Philippines, following Mount Apo of Davao, with an elevation of 2,922 meters above mean sea level, Mt. Data, and Balbalasang-Balbalan, located in the province of Kalinga. Kalinga also offers world-class white water rafting along the Chico River. The summer capital of the Philippines is Baguio, within the Cordillera Administrative Region.

Political map of Cordillera Administrative Region

[edit] Culture
The Cordillera region is known for its unique musical instruments including the gangsa kalinga, nose flute, bamboo flute, buzzer, bangibang, tongatong, diwdiw-as, saggeypo, and bamboo zither. The region also has various festivals. They include: Panagbenga / Baguio Flower Festival which is celebrated in February. The festival focuses on Baguio as the Flower Garden City of the North. Highlights include flower exhibits, lectures, garden tours, floral competition and a parade of floats. Ullalim Festival/ in Kalinga which is celebrated every February 14. It is in celebration of the founding anniversary of the province and the Peace acts called Bodong. It is the poetic expression of the heroic exploits, romance, joys, successes as well as tribulations, and the way of life of the Kalingas from birth to death. The Festival highlights the weaved clothes (laga) exhibits, world class coffee beans and other products of Kalinga. LANG-AY Festival in Mountain Province celebrated every April 7. This is a week-long agroindustrial trade, tourism and cultural fair with tribal dances and songs. Lang-ay is a native term which describes the tradition of the people of Mountain Province to celebrate festivities, share happiness, foster family solidarity, hospitality and nurture friendship - all with a toast of homebrewed wine.

Banaue Imbayah festival which is celebrated every 4 years. It is a three-day festival from December 5 to 8 consisting of a parade portraying the evolution of the Ifugao culture followed by ethnic games. Tabuk Matagoan Festival which features G-String marathon (runners wear G-String only), cultural dances and songs. The festival showcases the different products of tabuk coming from the different parts of Kalinga such as the aromatic Kalinga coffee.

[edit] Gallery

The Bontoc Museum, run by the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, hosts many of the materials used by the different Ethnic Tribes in the Mountain Province.

The Sagada Rice Terraces, one of the main tourist spots of the region.

Ilocos Region
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Region I Ilocos Region

Map of the Philippines showing the location of Region I

Country Island group Regional center Area - Total Population (2007) - Total - Density Time zone

Philippines Luzon San Fernando City, La Union

13,055 km2 (5,040.6 sq mi)

4,545,906 348.2/km2 (901.9/sq mi) PST (UTC+8)

Provinces Cities Municipalities Barangays Cong. districts Languages

4 9 116 3,265 12 Ilokano, Pangasinan, Bolinao

The Ilocos region or Region I (Ilokano: Rehion ti Ilocos, or Deppaar ti Ilocos ; Pangasinan: Rihiyon na Sagor na Baybay na Luzon) of the Philippines is located in the northwestern region portion of Luzon. It is bounded by the Cordillera Administrative Region and Cagayan Valley to the east, Central Luzon to the south and by the South China Sea to the west.

The province of Pangasinan composes 58% of the region's population, 42% of its area and 61% of its economy.[1]

The region is composed of four provinces, namely: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Pangasinan. Its regional center is San Fernando City, La Union. The Ilocano speaking people compose 66% of the region, the Pangasinan speaking people compose 27%, and the Tagalogs compose 3%.[2]

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1 Physical 2 Demographics 3 History 4 Economy 5 Political Divisions o 5.1 Component Cities o 5.2 Independent Cities 6 Tourist attractions o 6.1 Ilocos Norte o 6.2 Ilocos Sur o 6.3 La Union o 6.4 Pangasinan 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

[edit] Physical
Region I occupies the narrow plain between the Cordillera Central mountain range and the South China Sea. It also occupies the northern portion of the Central Luzon plain, to the north-east of the Zambales Mountains.

Lingayen Gulf is the most notable body of water in the region and it contains a number of islands, including the Hundred Islands National Park. To the north of the region is Luzon Strait.

The Agno river runs through Pangasinan and empties into the Lingayen Gulf. The river flow into a broad delta in the vicinity of Lingayen and Dagupan City.

[edit] Demographics
The Ilocos provinces of the Ilocos Region is the historical homeland of the Ilocanos including Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. The Ilocanos compose 66% of the region, the Pangasinan people compose 27%, and the Tagalogs compose 3%.[2] Pangasinan is the historical homeland of the Pangasinenses including Former Philippine President Fidel Ramos. The population of Pangasinan comprises approximately 60% of the total population of the region. The Pangasinenses presently constitute around 50% of the population of the province.[2] The Ilocanos were not originally inhabitants of Pangasinan. They started migrating to Pangasinan in the 19th century.[3] Pangasinan was formerly a province of Region III (Central Luzon), but President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1, 1972, incorporating it into Region I. Minority groups include the Tinggian and Isneg communities that inhabit the foothills of the Cordillera mountains.

The population is predominantly Roman Catholic with strong adherents of Protestantism such as the Aglipayan denomination further north of the country. There are also adherents to other Christian denominations, such as Iglesia ni Cristo, Mormons, and the like. There is also an undercurrent of traditional animistic beliefs especially in rural areas. The small mercantile Chinese and Indian communities are primarily Buddhists, Taoists, and Hindus.[citation needed]

[edit] History
Region 1 was first inhabited by the aboriginal Negritos before they were pushed by successive waves of Malay immigrants that penetrated the narrow coast. Tingguians in the interior, Ilocanos in the north, and Pangasinense in the south settled the region. From the data on the population distribution of Region 1, it is clear that not all the inhabitants are Ilocanos. Around one-third are non-Ilocanos and yet there is a popular misconception that all the inhabitants are Ilocanos.[4] The use of the term Ilocos Region promotes the wrong notion that all the residents of Region 1 are Ilocanos. Before the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, Pangasinan was not a part of the region.[5]

The Spanish arrived in the 16th century and established Christian missions and governmental institutions to control the native population and convert them to the Roman Catholic church. Present-day Vigan City in Ilocos Sur province became the bishopric seat of Nueva Segovia. Ilocanos in the northern parts were less easily swayed, however, and remained an area filled with deep resentments against Spain. These resentments bubbled to the surface at various points in the Ilocos provinces' history as insurrections, most notably that of Andres Malong and Palaris of Pangasinan, Diego Silang and his wife Gabriela Silang in 1764, and the Basi Revolt in the 19th century. However, it was the Pangasinenses in the south who were the last to be stand against the Spaniards.[6]

In 1901, the region came under American colonial rule, and in 1941, under Japanese occupation.

During 1945, the combined American and the Philippine Commonwealth troops including with the Ilocano and Pangasinese guerillas liberated the Ilocos Region from Japanese forces during the Second World War.

Several modern presidents of the Republic of the Philippines hailed from the Region: Elpidio Quirino, Ferdinand Marcos, and Fidel V. Ramos.

Before the formation of the Cordillera Administrative Region, Region 1 also included the provinces of Abra, Mountain Province, and Benguet. Before Region 1 was modified by Ferdinand Marcos, Pangasinan was not part of the region.

[edit] Economy
Although the economy in the southern portion of the region, esp. Pangasinan, is anchored on agro-industrial and service industry, the economy in the northern portion of the region is anchored in the agricultural sector. The economy in Pangasinan is driven by agro-industrial businesses , such as milkfish (bangus) cultivation and processing, livestock raising, fish paste processing (bagoong), and others. At the same time the importance of trading, financial services, and educational services in the economy cannot be denied. Income in the Ilocos provinces or northern portion mostly come from cultivating rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and fruits; raising livestock such as pigs, chicken, goats, and carabaos (water buffalos).

The distribution of the economic activity in the region may be seen from the collection of tax revenue of the national government. The bulk of the collections come from Pangasinan, which posted 61% of the total.[1]

The service and light manufacturing industries are concentrated in the cities. Dagupan City is mostly driven by its local entrepreneurs, which have started to expand its network up to the national level. San Fernando City in La Union also has an active shipping port and Laoag City in Ilocos Norte has an international airport.

The tourism industry, driven by local airlines and land transportation firms in the area like Farinas Transit Company and Partas, focuses on the coastal beaches and on eco-tourism. There are fine sands stretching along Bauang, La Union and the rest of the region. Opportunities to engage in other water sports and activities abound. Eco-tourism takes advantage of the marine and forest resources in the region and displays the natural beauty of the Region 1.[citation needed]

The region is also rich in crafts, with renowned blanket-weaving and pottery.[citation needed] The Ilocanos' burnay pottery is well known for its dark colored clay.[citation needed]

[edit] Political Divisions

Political map of Ilocos Region
Region 1 is composed of 4 provinces and a total of 9 cities.



Population Area Pop. density (2007) (km²) (per km²) 547,284 632,255 3,399.3 151.3 2,579.6 230.3 1,493.1 440.7

Ilocos Norte Laoag City Ilocos Sur La Union Pangasinan Dagupan City Vigan City

San Fernando City 720,972 Lingayen

2,645,395 5,368.2 453.4 149, 554 37.23 3,427

[edit] Component Cities
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Alaminos City, Pangasinan Candon City, Ilocos Sur Laoag City, Ilocos Norte San Carlos City, Pangasinan San Fernando City, La Union Urdaneta City, Pangasinan Vigan City, Ilocos Sur

[edit] Independent Cities

Dagupan City¹, Pangasinan

¹Dagupan City is an independent component city, figures are excluded from Pangasinan province.

[edit] Tourist attractions
[edit] Ilocos Norte

Paoay Church, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
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Marcos Museum Batac Parish San Nicolas Church Sinking Belltower, Laoag City Paoay Lake Fort Ilocandia Hotel Paoay Golf Course Paoay Church Laoag Cathedral

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Aglipay Shrine Malacanang Of The North Patapat Bridge Gilbert Bridge Ilocos Norte Capitol Cape Bojeador Lighthouse Bangui Windmills Ilocos Norte Museum Juan Luna Shrine Ricarte Park and Shrine Badoc Church Sarrat Church Dap-ayan, Laoag, Ilocos Norte Food Court and Ilocos Norte Products La Paz Sandunes, Laoag, Ilocos Norte Fine Sandunes Nueva Era

[edit] Ilocos Sur y y y y y y

Vigan Spanish House Sinait Church Ilocos Sur Capitol Santa Maria Church Pinsal Falls Bell tower of Bantay Ilocos Sur

[edit] La Union y y y y y y y y

La Union Capitol Pindangan Ruins La Union Botanical Garden Wallace Air Station Thunderbird Resort and Casino La Union Surfing Capital (San Juan) Bauang Beach Poro Point (sea port)

[edit] Pangasinan y y y y y y y y y y

Hundred Islands Pangasinan Capitol The Shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag San Carlos City Plaza San Juan River in San Carlos City Bonuan Blue Beach in Dagupan City Antong Falls Cacupangan Cave Mount Balungao Manleluag Spring National Park

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Sanctuario de Senor Divino Tesoro Salasa Church Lingayen Gulf War Museum Bolinao Museum Oceanographic Marine Laboratory Red Arrow Marker of the WWII 32nd US Infantry Division Rock Garden Resort Umbrella Rocks Urduja House St. John Cathedral Garden Caves in Bolinao Boat ride in Pantal River Provincial Capitol Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center Hundred Islands Marine Sanctuary Tondol Beach Tambobong White Beach Blue Beach Pergola Plaza in Pozorrubio, Pangasinan

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