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Maintenance of Building
 It is the work undertaken to keep restore or improve every facility in every part of a building, its services and surroundings to currently accepted standards and to sustain utility values of facility.  It is defined as the work done to keep the civil engineering structures and work in a condition so as to enable them to carry out the functions for which they are constructed.

Objectives of Maintenance operations
 To preserve in good condition buildings and services.  To make improvements whenever required.  To sustain utility value.

Classifications of maintenance
    Preventive maintenance Remedial maintenance Routine maintenance Special maintenance

( Aspects of inspection )

Preventive maintenance  The preventive maintenance is the work done before the defects occurred or damage developed in the structure.  It includes through inspection, planning the programme of maintenance and executing the same. It depends upon specifications, condition and use of structures. Remedial maintenance The remedial maintenance is the work done after the defects or damages occurs in the structures. It involves the following basic steps., 1. Finding the deterioration 2. Determining the causes of damages 3. Evaluating the strength of the existing structures 4. Evaluating the need of the structure 5. Selecting and implementing the repair procedure Routine maintenance  Routine maintenance is the service of maintenance attended to the structure periodically.  The nature of work done and interval of time at which it is done depends upon specifications and materials of structure , purpose, intensity and condition of use.

Special maintenance Special maintenance is the work done under special condition and perform to rectify heavy damage.

Facets of maintenance :• • • • • • • • Emergency maintenance - damage caused by natural calamity like earthquake, floods, etc., Condition based maintenance - work initiated after during inspection. Fixed time maintenance - activities repeated at predetermined intervals. Preventive maintenance - this is intended to preserve by preventing failure and detecting incipient faults. Oppurunity maintenance - work done as and when possible within the limits of operational demand. Day to day and care maintenance Shutdown maintenance - thorough overhaul and maintenance after closing a facility. Improvement plans – this is essentially a maintenance operation wherein the weak links in the original construction are either replaced by new parts or strengthened.

Condition Assessment of Buildings
1. Main objective of condition assessment are to place the building into one of the following three categories: A The building has not shown any signs of distress and It satisfies all the safety and serviceability requirements according to relevant Codes of practice, hence no action is needed towards retrofitting. B The building is seen to be deficient (or distressed) but it can be repaired and strengthened to satisfy the Codal safety requirements or performance criteria set by the user.

C The building is badly damaged. It is to be demolished and a new building may be built, build back better.

2. Main steps of condition assessment will be a) To record the damage if any, and find out the causes for distress b) To assess the extent of distress and to estimate the residual strengths of structural components and the system including the foundation. c) To plan the rehabilitation and retrofitting/strengthening of the building. 3. Typical visible distress detrimental to the safety of buildings Cracks in RC beams , Columns , slabs, masonry walls (particularly if the walls are load bearing walls), spalling of concrete, sagging of beams or slabs and tilting of columns or RC frames (out of plumb) and major failure of structural members are the typical types of crucial damages that will require structural repairs to bring back the lost strength. Such actions will need to be done along with retrofitting if that is also decided for the building in question.

Main causes of such distress in buildings Either one or more of the factors listed below may cause distress in buildings (Figs.2-12): • Deficiencies in design • Poor detailing of reinforcement in RC structural members and joints • Poor quality of construction • Corrosion of reinforcement due to aggressive environment. • Inadequacies in the structural system to resist lateral forces due to natural hazards like cyclones and earthquakes. • Settlement or differential settlement of foundation • Extreme and unforeseen loading.

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