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Chapter1 INTRODUCTION 1.1Training:-

 

It is an educational process. People can learn new information, re-learn and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have time to think and consider what new options can help them improve their effectiveness at work. Effective trainings convey relevant and useful information that inform participants and develop skills and behaviours that can be transferred back to the workplace. The goal of training is to create an impact that lasts beyond the end time of the training itself. The focus is on creating specific action steps and commitments that focus people‟s attention on incorporating their new skills and ideas back at work. Training can be offered as skill development for individuals and groups. In general, trainings involve presentation and learning of content as a means for enhancing skill development and improving workplace behaviors. 1.2Organizational  Development It is a process that “strives to build the capacity to achieve and sustain a new desired state

that benefits the organization or community and the world around them.” (from the Organizational Development Network website) OD work implies creating and sustaining change. An OD perspective examines the current environment, the present state, and helps  people on a team, in a department and as part of an institution identify effective effect ive strategies for improving performance. In some situations, there may not be anything “wrong” at the present time; the group or manager may simply be seeking ways to continue to develop and enhance existing relationships and performance. In other situations, there may be an identifiable issue or problem that needs to be addressed; the OD process aims to find ideas and solutions that can effectively return the group to a state of high performance. These two processes, Training and Organizational Development, are often closely connected. Training can be used as a proactive means for developing skills and expertise to prevent 1

 

 problems from arising and can also be an effective tool in addressing any skills or  performance gaps among staff. Organizational Development can be used to create solutions to workplace issues, before they become a concern or after they become identifiable problem.

Fig.1.1

In a nutshell, Human Resource training and development should be of such nature that it should oil the human resources machinery making it something that takes the organization forward. If Human Resource training and development is not professional or appropriate; the result is a bureaucratic setup that is a hindrance to everyone in the organization. Rather than get mired in mindless formalities; HR should facilitate the growth of the oruman Resource training and development is the imparting of necessary knowledge and skills to a human resource professional in the organization. This is necessary for a number of reasons. HR  professionals are very important for the organization. They need n eed continuous upgrade of their skills and attitudes. Training them to bring them on par with the organization's goals and in tune with the industry trends is necessary, since well-equipped HR professionals are the means to ensuring optimal performance from the organization's employees.

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1.3 Different Methods of Training Training Employees by Audra Bianca, Demand Media

Classroom training can help employees learn many new concepts. Picking the best method of training employees is a challenge for business owners. Some methods are more cost effective than others, but you want the option that best equips employees with transferable skills and accommodates different learning styles. If they can  bring back skills from training, they can perform more successfully in their jobs.

Classroom Training To keep costs low, you can plan classroom training that only requires one trainer, plus the cost of binders and copies of training materials. One trainer can handle classroom training for small groups of five to 10, but also large groups of 30 to 40. A trainer must make learning fun and interactive. The format might include new reading material for employees, graphics  presentations by the trainer, peer discussion groups, small group tasks, and employee self3

 

reflections. Classroom training must offer feedback on what employees have learned, usually  by comparing results of pre- and post-assessments.

Web Seminar Training Using Web conferencing software, trainers can set objectives and ways to measure learning. It's important not to assume that employees will get all information needed as passive listeners in a Web seminar, or "webinar." Trainers can design the webinar training to be interactive by using all tools in the Web conferencing software. A webinar can also feature visuals and discussions among participants, as long as each participant has a microphone. Some webinar software also enables communication over a screen sc reen chat or a video conference.

Off-the-Job Training Employers can use off-the-job training to provide employees a chance to learn away from their work setting. Besides classroom training, employers choose other formats such as elearning. In a self-contained e-learning program, learners can work at their own pace, moving through modules, learning new tasks, sometimes trying tasks and completing assessments. Elearning can include discussions with other participants, scenarios in which employees must choose the right outcome, training videos, and games.

On-the-Job Training This option is designed for the actual work setting or a close approximation of the work setting. Training conditions should match work conditions as closely as possible. In on-the job training, employees get specific instruction on their job tasks. They try new skills, such as operating a cash register or selling a service, with observation and feedback by a coach -usually a fellow employee or trainer. Some businesses require employees to jump right into this type of training without classroom training because they believe immersion is most helpful for learning the job quickly and determining if an employee is a good fit for the job.

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Chapter 2  LITERATURE

REVIEW

PROCESS

ADOPTED

Finding the problem of research to start working is a difficult task as the research in Doctral. degree has to posses the originality and something new added to the current literature / knowledge available in the world. In order to choose specific objectives of research on need to follow a typical process to arrive at the conclusion of uniqueness, novelty and significance of the problem in a specific area / sub area. Therefore there has been many procedures and processes defined by the researchers to undergo through and arrive at certain conclusion of research objectives. One has to start with a broader domain of some area / sub area and while doing study of literature narrow down the domain to specific point of issue to decide upon.

Literature survey includes the study of various sources of literature in the area of research. It includes finding the related material from magazines, books, research articles, scientific research  papers published in various conferences, journals & transactions. Study and understanding the literature other than scientific research papers is bit easy as it elaborates the concepts in simple and explanatory techniques. At the same time these contents cannot be considered as base to arrive at the conclusion of framing research objectives as it is not supported through proper review by various researchers working in the area. Review of a scientific research paper is a tedious job. It needs the prior knowledge of the area of research. The scientific research papers are highly structured, compact and precise in explanation. One may take few days to few weeks to understand a research paper published in standard peer reviewed journals. The researchers need to adopt certain path for doing literature review of such literature.

We have followed one of the typical processes to make a literature review and frame the objectives of research. The process diagram is shown below, which includes in all five stages defined as under:

2.1 Stage 0: Get the Feel 2.2 Stage 1: Get Big Picture 2.3 Stage 2: Get the Details 2.4 Stage 3: Evaluate the Details 5

 

2.5 Stage 4: Synthesize the Details

Stage 0 Get a “feel “feel” ” 

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

picture”  Get the “big “big picture”

Get the “details “details” ” 

Evaluate the

details” “details ” 

Stage 4 “Synthesize the details” details ” 

Fig. 2.1 Review Process

The review process is divided into five stages in order to make the process simple and adaptable  by every researcher. As it i t reflects from the literature that while beginning the finding of research objectives, it is necessary to start with a broader domain of any area / sub area of interest and narrow down to specific issue, the process described in the diagram includes the narrowing down along with the research objectives as outcome with justification of the problem. The details of various stages followed are presented below.

2.1 Stage 0: Get a “feel”:

This stage is the beginning of literature review process wherein one has to broadly select his / her area of interest and start searching the scientific research papers from valid sources. 6

 

Almost all the research papers you download have to be scanned for deciding whether it  belongs to the area of interest or not. This stage provides the details to be checked while starting literature survey with a broader domain and classifying them according to requirements. It needs to go through some of the information quickly to get the feel of the  paper. The information needed to briefly know about the paper. What is the

paper deals

with?, what is length of the paper ?, who is the publisher ?, what are the contents of the paper etc. Although this stage does not exactly classify the research papers, it supports to go ahead. We have gone through large number of research papers and selected 20 research papers  published in various research resear ch journals using this stage. The process adopted under this stage includes following activities. 

Read the title.



See how long the paper is (2 to 40+)



Where is the paper published?



Look at the figures

 

 

 

 

 



Read the section/sub-section headings.

2.2 Stage 1: Get the “big picture”  picture” 

In order to understand the paper broadly and get an idea whether the paper exactly belong to the research area / sub area selected or it deviates, if deviates how much, these concepts are made clear this stage, known as Get Big Picture. It helps in classifying the research papers according to key issues and narrowing down the survey. The papers are selected through the stage 0, are processed through this stage classified into different groups. The groups of research papers are prepared according to common issues & application sub areas. In order to understand the paper, it is necessary to find out the answers to certain questions by reading the Title, Abstract, introduction, conclusion and section and sub section headings. Following are the questions to be answered during this stage.

 

What research area / sub-topic does the paper fall under?

 

What problem does the paper attempt to solve?

 

What is the motivation for this problem?

 

Why is this paper needed –  needed –  i.e.  i.e. what is related work and why is it not sufficient

 

What key contribution does the paper claim? 7

 

 

Broadly, how does the paper solve the problem?

 

How do the authors defend the solution?

 

What category of paper is this?

2.3 Stage 2: Get the “details”:  “details”: 

Stage 2 deals with going in depth of each research paper and understand the details of methodology used to justify the problem, justification to significance & novelty of the solution approach, precise question addressed, major contribution, scope & limitations of the work presented. Smaller set of papers has to go through this stage and extract the data needed for its utilization in research. The following Tables how the questions and the probable locations in the highly structured research paper.

Table 2.1 Stage 2 questions along with probable location of answers in the papers

What you are looking for?

Where to find it?

What problem does the paper attempt to

Introduction, Problem definition

solve? What is related work? What are gaps?

Introduction, Literature Survey or Related Work

What contribution does the paper claim  –   Introduction, Conclusion idea, technique, proof, surprising result etc? How does the paper solve the problem?

Solution, Experiment, figures.

How do the authors defend the solution?

Methodology, Experiment, Results.

What is the precise research question

Introduction, Problem definition

addressed? Why is it believed that solution works,

Solution approach, figures

 better than previous? What are assumptions, scope?

Problem definition , solution approach

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What are details of proposed solution  –   Solution, argument,

proof,

implementation,

System

details,

Experiment,

Methodology, figures

experiment? What evidence is provided?

Figures, Results

What is the take-away message from the  paper?

Overall

2.4 Stage 3: Evaluate the detail:-

To fully understand a paper, we require a third stage. The key to the third stage is to attempt to virtually re-implement the paper: that is, making the same assumptions as the authors, re-create the work. By comparing this re-creation with the actual paper, we can easily identify not only a paper‟s innovations, but also its hidden failings and assumptions. This stage requires great attention to detail. One should identify and challenge every assumption in every statement. Moreover, one should think about how one would  present a particular idea. This comparison of the actual with the virtual lends a sharp insight into the proof and presentation techniques in the paper and one can very likely add this to your repertoire of tools. During this stage, one should also jot down ideas as for future work. Reading Introduction, Problem definition Literature Survey or Related Work, Experiment, figures Methodology, Solution and Results and looking for answers to: 

 

What is the precise research question addressed?



 

Why is it believed that solution works, better than previous?



 

What are assumptions, scope?



 

What are details of proposed solution  –   argument, proof, implementation, experiment?



 

What are details of proposed solution  –   argument, proof, implementation, experiment? 9

 



 

What is the take-away message from the paper?



 

What is the take-away message from the paper?

Thus this stage provides insight how to deal with the evaluation of the details  presented by the researchers and generalize the concept. All the 250 papers were subjected to this stage. 2.4 Stage: 3+: Synthesize the details

Stage 3 deals with evaluation of the details presented and generalization to some extent. This stage deals with synthesis of the data, concept and the results presented by the authors. This stage requires the understanding of the research papers and creative thinking and good knowledge in the area of of research. In order to understand the  process questions have been framed that need to be answered after in depth and critical analysis of all the data and discussion presented in the literature review. 

 

What are some alternative approaches to address the research problem?



 

Could there be a different way to substantiate the claim?



 

Are their counter-examples counter-examples or arguments against the paper‟s claims?  claims?  



 

Are all assumptions identified and validated?



 

How can the research results be improved?



 

How can the results be generalized?



 

What are the new ideas and open problems suggested by this work?

At the end of this stage, one should be able to reconstruct the entire structure of the  paper, methodology, findings as well aass be able to identify iits ts strong and weak point points. s. In particular, one should be able to pinpoint implicit assumptions, missing citations to relevant  work, and potential issues with experimental or analytical techniques. With the Five -stage process, one can able to see how each stage is related to the next and understands how the whole process of the literature re-view is constructed to form the theoretical foundation for the proposed research. Over. So, the present Researcher has made an effort to review about 250 studies of those researchers and analysts, conducted from the following sources by adopting the 3+ Star Approaches. 

 



IEEE 10

 

Wiley inter science

 



 

SPRINGER



 

Taylor n Francis



 

ELSEVIER



 

Index science



 

UCONN



 

IGi Global



 

ERIC



 

ASME/ASCE



 

JSTOR



 

Questia



 

UNISA



 

Lexisnexis.com



 

EBSCO



 

Pro quest



 

WASEAS



 

Emeralds text



 

Harvard Business Review



 

Google

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Chapter 3 CATEGORIAL REVIEW IN AREA

An exhaustive review of 30 research papers on Training and Development

has been

undertaken. The review process adopted was based on the five stage analysis as discussed  previously. The following sections would describe the particular issue found in the area along with the summaries of the papers reviewed under the issue followed by findings. A table with  papers under issues has been included which would help in understanding some specific findings of each research paper

3.1 ISSUES IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 3.1.1 web based configuration tool 3.1.2 ERP implementation 3.1.3 High training cost 3.1.4 Issue related to MRP implementation 3.1.5 SPSS used used to conduct several form of analysis.

Issue 3.1.1 web based configuration tool This papers reports about the conceptual approach, design and development as well as findings for further work. The main contribution in the paper covers a Web-based configuration tool. It supports end-users (learners and teachers) to design and reuse learning settings that include 3D components The OpenSim (OS) platform has proven to be applicable and the project is in an early stage of development. The plugin mechanism of the OS platform for controlling and interacting with objects in-world has proven to be a sufficient sufficient approach . In this paper author hav havee reported on various w ways ays in both virtual and traditional approaches to support new forms of learning requiring flexibility and adaptation of learning groups‟ needs.Author have also emphasized the need for easy  configuration, 12

 

adaptation and reuse of learning settings in virtual immersive environments. A promising proof of concept for the Second Life platform has led to an improved approach for the open source platform using OpenSimulator-world OpenSimulator-world tools.The basic idea i dea is to design and develop a simple tool for endusers to create, manage, reuse and adapt learning settings by pre-existing 3D objects and learning tools by a simple 2D drag and drop interface.

[Noel yee]  has focused on developing an airway manageme management nt training systems designed to reproduce

various cases of difficult airway. The main challenges for developing efficient medical robotic training systems are simulating real-world conditions of the task and assuring training effectiveness. In this paper, author has presented an airway training system which embeds actuators into a mannequin. In particular, the mechanism design of the Waseda Kyotokagaku Airway No.2 (WKA-2) is detailed. The WKA-2 is composed of twelve active and one passive degrees of freedom; which are designed to reproduce the various cases of difficult airway In addition, a tension sensor was designed to measure the applied forces while a trainee is interacting with the WKA-2. As a future work, we will implement the virtual compliance control to enable the WKA-2 to physically interact with the operator during the training session.

[Martin J.Gannon] has constructed a new teacher education model, which constructed by a virtual

learning community based on a teacher training platform on the interne.Teachers interne. Teachers can‟t be  be  competent their work by one-off learning but lifelong learning to adapt to the changing and developing society. That is to say teachers need to keep learning while working. However, in-service teacher will meet many difficulties when they receive training because of limited time, energy, chances and so on. Because of the local restrictions on the level of teaching, there are a few representative teac teaching hing video cases at present. Virtual Learning Community Based on Teaching Video Cases is an organization serving teachers. Members Members in the t he Virtual Learning Community include the front-line teachers, experts and backbone teachers. Network environment and supporting platform provide rich learning resources and vast space for community members. The education committee committee in the shunyi district and many middle school and primary school put a high  price on this teacher education project. They think teachers can benefit from this t his teacher education and organize their own school‟s teacher s to join in the training actively. There are 943 members in the virtual learning community at present. In order to promote the balanced development of education in Beijing suburbs, teacher education model of TVC-VLC will continue and accumulate experience in more suburbs to support much more teachers to enhance their professional quality

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ISSUE 3.1.2 ERP IMPLEMENTATION  [Tracy Taylor] reports on the development of a model to improve the understanding of the t he extent of

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system usage in universities.

However, low usage of

implemented ERP systems has been identified as a major challenge facing management of various organizations including HEIs [1]. In many cases, the users often only make use of a subset of available ERP system features [2]; [3]; [4]. This has resulted in inefficiency in university operations such as unsatisfactory service delivery to university stakeholders, particularly students who are paying for better services [5]. [5]. This study attempted to improve improve ERP system usage by adapting adapting Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2) theoretical model with additional Information Technology (IT) system usage factors of training, management support, perceived behavioral control and technical support.A dataset of 312 full time academics academics from a University of Technology in South Africa was generated by a survey method to validate the developed research model using Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis technique. RESEARCH METHOD

 A. Data collection and measurements The data for this research was obtained by a questionnaire survey which was distributed to full-time academics that have experience using the Durban University of Technology (DUT) ERP system known as Integrated Tertiary Software (ITS).

 B. Demographic characteristics of respondents A sample size of 312 academics was used and respondents were chosen based on availability. The developed research model in this study aims to improve ERP system usage by integrating additional IT usage factors that have been identified in the literature as having an effect on ERP system usage. Knowledge acquired from this study can potentially benefit university stakeholders and all interested groups in improving ERP system usage in a developing country such as South Africa.

3.1.3 ISSUE: High training cost 

[Vishal Shah]  Investigate the Research state of on board training system from home and abroad,

combines the latest ship automation research Achievement, researches the critical technology of warship main power plant on board training system, proposed hybrid modeling method based on neural network, uses CompactRlO embedded system to embed on board training system in the warship main power plant monitoring network with CAN bus and Ethernet network. but the 14

 

development cost is high, training time is not nimble, training effect is limited; on t he contrary, navigation training is training in a real environment ,operation training effect is good, but there are huge spending, training opportunity is inconvenience. combining shore-based training simulator and navigation training to set up a co mprehensive training environment developed, which is ca 11 on  board training system [4]. This paper researches the cri tical technology of warship main power plant on board training system, proposed hybrid modeling method based on neural network, embed on  board training system in the warship main power plant monitoring network with CAN bus and Ethernet network. The idea overcome the shortage of two train ing method, it can comprehensive simulate all possible condition and fault state, get real effects by t raining in the actual equipment. This paper puts forward the basic struc ture of main power plant OBTS, research the embedded technology, has a guiding significance for the subsequent OBTS research.  . [

] The diversification training mode for students in major of software engineering based on

university enterprise cooperation is proposed in this paper. the set of talents training objectives, which was formed under the planned economic system in Chinese higher education, is a single model. The teaching plan is unified and the trained talents are lack of feature and personality characteristics. Too centralized and unified management, limited professional education and too rigid teaching mechanism cause that the training mode is lack of flexibility. There are some problems in the selection and design of software talents training mode. the implementation of university enterprise cooperation in educating software talents, author have always been guided by the demands of the society and the enterprises, established an effective mechanism for mutual cooperation, with cooperation in the areas covering practice bases, adjunct teachers, practice platform and second class learning, and explored a new method in training educating software talents. This method provides an innovative format in effectively educating software talents, talents, and is worthy of continued studying and experiment.

[Ahamad &Azman] provides a revie review w of the current state of computer computer game game applications, with a

special focus on education and training implementations implementations.. A remarkable feature of video games is their  power to motivate. Computer game features such as active participation, intrinsic and prompt feedback, challenging but achievable goals, and a certain degree of uncertainty and open-endedness contribute to these these games‟ appeal, Furthermore, they add elements of competition and chance. A game engine is the essential core of a computer game with reusable functional components (e.g. graphics rendering, audio output, in-game physics modeling, game logics, rudimentary artificial intelligence, user interactions as well as multi-user networking) and is usually accompanied by a software development kit (SDK). Recently, computer gaming started to be used in many fields, including medicine, disaster response and military training. The type of games that these engines were 15

 

designed for are predominantly “first person shooters”, where shooters”,  where the user controls the movements and actions of a computer character and the visual display mimics the perspective of what the in-game character would see with his/her own eyes. While these systems are still in the early stages of their development, developme nt, they have already provided us with glimpses into their tremendous potential for creating effective learning and training experiences in various fields, including education and student laboratories, medicine as well as disaster response and military training. . Thang, N. N., Quang, T. & Buyens, D. (2010).  aims to advance understanding of the effects of training

on firm performance by reviewing theory and previous empirical studies on the relationship between training and firm performance. The paper aims to describe the important theoretical approaches and  proposes a framework for analysing training and firm performanc performancee issues.In issues. In review presented in this  paper the focus is mainly on research published in many different journals across a   number of disciplines from 1991 to 2007, that have assessed the relationship between training and firm firm    performance.  performanc e. Major psychological, managerial, managerial, or business journals (e.g., Personnel Psychology, Labour   Economics, Industrial Relations, International Journal of Human Resource Management and Journal of   Operational Management) and books (American Society for Training and Development) were scanned for articles containing related information and data. This article used selective and descriptive analysis. Firm performance in the studies was reduced into two categories: 1) financial firm performance (ROI, sales, productivity, profit, market share), and 2) non financial firm  performance (turnover, absenteeism, absenteeism, job satisfaction, motivatioThe review offers new directions for future research that has potential to guide practitioners and managers to decide on their human capital investment plans and provide training for their employees. employees.  

[AutTruong Quang & Chit Thavisay hor]  aims at the response to the disappointing economic  performancee in the 1980s, the Lao governm  performanc government ent started liberalizing the economy and turned more

decisively toward a market-oriented policy under the system called New Economic Mechanism (NEM). This includes a sweeping privatization program of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Processwide, privatization has been implemented rather successfully. The few remaining SOEs were given extended operational autonomy autonomy in order to survive the transition tr ansition toward a market economy. The HRD study was carried out during a period of two months between December 1997 and January 1998. A survey was done for this purpose throughout 10 selected enterprises survey  enterprises from the existing 60 SOE‟s. They represented a wide  wide  range of businesses and sizes, ranging from 24 to 2,866 workers and were located either in the capital city of  Vientiane or in the southern provinces of the Lao PDR. On a larger scale, 500 questionnaires were distributed to the  the  employee employeess in tthese hese selected 10 enterprises, with the official endorsement of their management, to cross check their   reaction on the policy and practice of HRM at 16

 

their work. In total, 242 responses were returned, representing representing aa  yield rate of 48.3%. At the same time, face-to-face interviews with officials in charge of personnel matters at the top   and middle management levels were conducted to shed light on the practical side of the issue.As well as on the  job training mode was selected .This lead us to conclude that the effort to improve and develop SOEs should first be tackled at macro macro   (national) level. In this respect, a consistent and coherent economic development policy will provide well designed  designed  and coordinated implementation mechanism that will, in turn, facilitate the process of organizational restructuring restructuring   and human resource development at micro (enterprise) level. This is more important in such country as the Lao   PDR where resources are scarce and infrastructure conditions are still insufficient. Against this background, some some   recommendations can be drawn to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the privatization  program and the  the enterprises‟ reform afterward.  afterward. 

[Siu, N. Y. & Darby, R. (1999 )] addresses the key management development issues in China. The case

of a multinational food corporation that has a joint venture in China is used to illustrate the complexities and problems encountered in the implementation of management development  programmes. It is argued that an integrated cross-cultural managem  programmes. management ent developm development ent programme programme is crucial to the success of the organisational performance in China‟s market.  market. The opening up of the vast market has created many opportunities and, at the same time, many problems to foreign enterprises. Because of the unique political, economic and cultural environment environment in China, it is difficult for foreign  joint ventures to introduce their preferred approach in managing the employees and the organisation in China. This has highlighted a crucial issue for international companies to be aware of the crosscultural implications.  implications.  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY visit was paid to the factory where observations and interviewing twelve managers were carried out. This was followed by an interview with the Personnel Manager in March 1997 and an interview with the Training Manager in October 1997. This has helped to trace the progress of management development developme nt issue in i n their joint venture in the enterprise.. The approach of management development has been moved from functional to strategic and the focus has shifted from the graduate trainees to the senior management team. It was still too early to comment on the success of the programme.  Nevertheless,  Nevertheles s, the management management have acknowledged acknowledged its importance and a behavioura behaviourall commitmen commitmentt was seen in the process. It is argued that if cross-national organisations intend to develop and sustain their  business in the People‟s Republic of China, appropriate integration of cross-cultural cross-cultural management development programmes into their own human resource strategy is crucial. This will be essential to the success of the organisational performance in China‟s market.  market.   17

 

[Poon, J. M. L., Stevens, C. K. & Gannon,   M. J. (2000)].  discusses about the effects of traning method

and learning style on cross-cultural training outcomes were examined. MBA students (N = 123) completed a learning style inventory and were randomly assigned to receive either didactic or experiential training. In the didactic training condition, cross-cultural concepts and issues were  presented through lectures, discussions, and video clips. In the experientia experientiall training condition,  participants role played a cross-cultural simulation game. The game. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether matching training methods with individual individual   differences in learning style would improve attitudinal (cross-cultura (cross-culturall awareness) awareness) and motivational (self-efficacy  (self-efficacy  and satisfaction) crosscultural training outcomes. A second objective was to investigate mediating mechanisms for explaining these training outcomes. The findings suggest that the effectiveness of a training method in fostering positive cross-cultural cross-cultural attitudes and trainee reaction does indeed depend in part on trainees‟  preferred mode mode of learning. learning.  Specifically, the results showed that the didactic method produced greater attitude change and satisfaction among trainees with a reflector-theorist learning style than among those with an activist pragmatist learning style. The experiential method, in contrast, promoted greater cross-cultural cross-cultural attitude change among trainees with an activistpragmatist learning style than among those with a reflector reflector-theorist learning style.

[Tracy Taylor & Adrienne] discusses the use of succession management approaches in the strategic development development of an organisation‟s organisation‟s high potential and talented employees. employees. The evaluation of this succession management programme provides a measure of its impact on the promotion and retention ret ention of high potential staff as well as calculating the return on the organisation‟s investment. In this instance succession management has provided the implementing organisation with a systematic and transparent process for successfully identifying, developing and promoting high potential employees and is an example of best practice in succession management.A comprehensive succession management programme in a large Australian organisation is presented as a case study. The evaluation of this succession management programme provides a measure of its impact on the  promotion and retention of high potential staff as well as calculating the return on the t he organisation‟s investment. In this instance succession management management has provided the implementing organisation with a systematic and transparent process for successfull identifying, developing and promoting high  potential employees and is an example of best practice in success succession ion managem management ent  The evaluation model was adapted from Kirkpatrick‟s hierarchy of evaluation. evaluatio n. The four levels of   evaluation and their components. The evidence for the evaluation was collected by means of interviews, video case   studies and organisational data on development planning, placements and utility analyses. The 18

 

employees targeted for development were more satisfied with the programme than those who scored low on on   their assessments. This highlights the importance of effectively managing the assessment,  placement  placeme nt and  and  promotion components, to ensure that employee dissatisfaction is minimised.This finding highlights the importance of involvement at all levels fully with  with  communica communication tion to all staff. 

[Vishal Shah & Rajendra Bandi] presents the human resource practices followed in a technical

support call centre. Most of the call centre literature discusses cases where the customer support task is routine and low in complexity. Call centres are considered as modern equivalents of factory sweatshops in this literature. Technical support, however , is  an example of a knowledge intensive support service and it was found that in such a service industry, there is a need for a very different kind of HR policy that specifically   treats employees as a valuable organisational resource.  This paper  presents a case study of a technical support call centre that assists customers with technical problems problems   and queries through e-mail, internet based text chat or the telephone. The work environment and employment   practices employment practices at this technical support call centre do not conform to the sweatshop stereotype stereotype described in the  the  literature. A total of twenty-four semi structured and unstructured interviews were carried out in the organisation and these  these   spanned across hierarchies and departments. Each interview lasted approximately one and a half hours and was was   transcribed within twenty-four hours. The interviews were supplemented with observations of support agents at at   work and observations of the regular weekly meetings. A review of documentary evidence including minutes of meetings, process manual and samples of daily reports was also carried out. About one hundred and twenty e-mails related to support centre management issues were also used as primary data.The data presented are in a descriptive format. In particular, personal commentary of respondents is provided to „humanise‟ the issues experienced experienced in the work settings. The case study presents evidence that in knowledge intensive IT Enabled Services, human resource practices that treat employees as valuable resource are the ones that are likely to enable development of or ganisational ganisational capabilities. Considering that it is the agents‟ interactions with customers that determine customer satisfaction with a service, HR policies can differentiate a firm‟s performance from its competitors. TechHelp implemented practices that were   very different from the sweatshop model of a call centre. The organisation recognised that the customer support agents were experts, possessing a high degree of knowledge and skills. This understanding was reflected in the HR practices. Training was a highly developed function, geared to equip employees for the knowledge intensive business environment charac characterised terised by speed.

[Ikhlas Altarawne  ] sought to explore the current practices and challenges of the T&D evaluation

stage within Jordanian banking organisations through a combination of semi structured interviews and a survey questionnaire, which was administered to the persons responsible for the T&D within the 19

 

organisations. The study findings reveal, that although the majority of the organisations evaluate their training programme, usually there is an absence of systematic and effective procedures for evaluation, and most of the organisations rely on external providers to evaluate their T&D programmes. The most  popular evaluation tools and technique used are questionnaires, and the most common model used is the Kirkpatrick model, however, the most common level of evaluation is the reaction level. Implications for the findings of the current study and directions   for future research are discussed  in the paper .  Based on the results of this study suggestions are given for organisations seeking to improve their T&D evaluation  stage. For instance, more attention and effort is required when evaluating T&D programmes. programmes. Importantly, there iiss a   need to evaluate the outcomes of external T&D  programmes  programm es rather than asking the external provider to perform the examina examination tion phase. Organisations are encouraged to use a systematic evaluation model. For more effective benefits   an emphasis might  be to consider the Kirkpatrick evaluation model outcome levels l evels instead of an overem overemphasis phasis on  the reaction level, which do not provide or reflect much about T&D effectiveness. Finally, evaluation needs to be  conducted based on the objectives of the planned T&D programmes. The paradox for senior executives of the  Jordanian banking sector is how to become enlightened about the evaluative  parameters of T&D programmes  parameters programmes that  provide credible underpinning for generating effectual T&D initiatives and valued outcomes.

[Ng Kueh Hua, Rusli Ahmad & Azman   ] attempted to rectify the lack of literature by

investigating the relationship between a supervisor's role in training programmes, and the transfer of training in four East Malaysian local governments. Indepth interviews were conducted with a total of 12 employees to develop the self report questionnaire, and a pilot study was conducted conducted with the participation of 60 employees to pre test the questionnaire. The questionnaire was then used to gather   quantitative data from 1100 management and non management employees working in the administrative and technical divisions for hypotheses testing. Pearson  correlation  analysis showed a positive  and significant relationship between supervisor's role in training programmes and the transfer of training. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated among the studied variables, supervisor communication acted as a dominant factor in enhancing the transfer of training. These findings have implications for human resource management (HRM) policies and practices by detailing guidelines to improve organisational remuneration system as well as pathways for enhancing the role of supervisors in training programmes in order to facilitate the transfer of training, particularly within the Malaysian public sector.

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The findings and implications of this t his study may bring important iinsights nsights into such relationships as the supervisor‟s role in training programmes and the transfer of training are not trivial topics. In the effort to reach a better understanding of the transfer of training from diverse perspectives, future research should replicate and expand the research framew framework ork to further explore the nature of such relationships in different settings. [ Nguyen Ngoc Thang ] is among the first researcher to examine the level at which employers  perceived and utilised training as a means to improve employee productivity and organisational  performancee in midway economies.  performanc economies. The data were collected from 196 companies across industries to measure the level of  impact of training on firm  performance performance in Vietnam. The research research results indicate that manufacturing companies that implemented implemented training in 2006 had increased sales and productivity, while training had a non statistically significant effec effectt on sales and productivity of non manufac manufacturing turing companies. The research findings have significant implication for HRM practitioners in Vietnamese firms. In order to survive and ensure sustainable growth, Vietnam Vietnamese ese firms need to pay more attention on training for their employees as shown by the study findings which suggest training assists in enhancing firm effectiveness, especially in manufacturing firms, which is the core of its economic growth. Ultimately, Vietnamese firms can gain competitive advantages advantages throughout human capital c apital and need to consider training expenditures not as costs but as investments. 

The paper studies the effects of training on employee productivity. This paper provides a review of the current evidence of such a relationship and offers suggestions for further investigation .  The objective of this paper is, to analyze the impact of training on employee productivity across various industries. The sample includes firms from various sectors with a minimum of 1000 employees for the last financial year. In this study, the industries from various sectors like Automobile, Agricultural, Service (Insurance), Financial Services (Credit Banks) and Luxury Items FMCGs (Branded Wall Paints) were chosen. The data was collected from two different sources primary and secondary. Primary data was collected by distributing the questionnaire. Secondary data about the Net Sales &  Number of

employees of various organizations/companies organizations/companies was collected from Capitaline Plus

Database. Capaitaline Plus provides fundamental and market data on more than 20,000 Indian listed and unlisted companies, classified under more than 300 industries.The author found that the basic industries like Automobile and Agricultural (which is having a developed and mature market, and whose consumption pattern shows the vibrancy in the economy) have high degree of relationship  between training and productivity. Higher the training in these companies higher will be the  productivity. The risky businesses like Credit which falls in the category of high profit high risk  business, the training plays a small part in the productivity of the employees employees . In case of service industry like insurance companies, employees consist of both direct and indirect employees like 21

 

agents. Though training practices in this sector were found to be very organized and constructive but due to its diverse employees employees the effect was was low.

Training has a significant role to play play on

 productivity.But there are other dominant market forces which reduces its significance. significance. Our analysis is a comparative study of training practices and other macro economic and market forces, both of which affect productivity. There are other determinants of employee productivity which are not focused in this research. Due to time constraints, and small sample size the generalizability of results can be challenged.

.  [Dr.Chikati Srinu ] aims to attempt the need of training and development development programmes in respective organaization and examine the methods and evalution of training programmes was effectiveness of the organization depends on quality of the manpower.In manpower.In this globalize discussed. The effectiveness  business environment, where changes are  are   only the permanent feature of the organization, the need is to focus on enhancing the competencies competencies of tthe he employees this can be done only when the organization  proved effective training training development programs. programs. scope of the study is mainly confined to NTPC Ltd,. at Ramagundam.And this data is collected from 60 responds in NTPC Ltd at Ramagundam.The respondents are given well prepared questionnaire. The study mainly covers the satisfaction of employees towards the services provided by the NTPC Ltd at Ramagundam. The study is an attempt to study the training and development process related Executive level, supervisory level, workmen level, employees.It‟s aimed at analyzing the current trends in Training & Development process and their influence on implementation of an appropriate system to suit to needs of the organization.The study is confined to opinions of the trainees and and trainees of staff center. center.

From the study of”

Assessment Assessme nt of Training Needs programs” at NTPC Ltd., Ramagundam Ramagundam it was found that for all the 20 items chosen the more than half of the respondents were agreeing to the fact that thetraining and development programs were effective and added value  value  to the job.In the Training program process; the identification of the needs is a crucial aspect. Hence the needs are identified according to the organizational analysis as well as task t ask analysis.

[ P. Bala Subbulakshmi] Streta IT Solutions, is the leading offshore software product and  project development company and they are one of the leaders in providing complete IT solutions in India. They are expert in offshore outsourcing, IT outsourcing and onshore development. The objective of this study is as follows: To ascertain the effectiveness of Training and Development Program in Streta IT solutions Private Limited, and To study the training and development Program organized by the company. The most important need of training is that to prevent the obsolescence of the employees by updating their skills and 22

 

knowledge.In research methdology Descriptive research methodology is used for study. Survey method is used for data collection. Questionnaire is used as research instrument. The  population of study is 75. The sample size of the study was 60.To conclude that the Training and Development Program conducted in Streta IT Solutions Private Limited was found to be good and the same may be said that if Streta IT Solutions Private Limited enhance its Training and Development Program based on the above findings and suggestions it would help the employees to build their personality better to face the challenging business environments.

[Ikechukwu E. Nwosu]  examines

the role of communication training and research in

integrated rural development. The author's major thesis is that if rural development communicators and workers in developing countries are inculcated with the right skills, they can utilize the rich  potentials of modern and traditional communica communication tion to

achieve rural developm development ent goals. Rural

development efforts in Nigeria and various other parts of the developing world are still largely dominated by extremely specialised,urban-oriented, single purpose, professionally balkanized and top-down programmes, conceptualised and executed by specialised government departments and other foreign or local agencies. In agencies.  In this research two models were used the tri-modular training and  and   Sequential Research Models. After all this, the conclusion we still must make is that in order to   reap fully the rich benefits of communication in achieving rural   development goals, we must produce a corps of well-trained rural  rural development communicators and researchers who can, among  among  other things, know how to remove or reduce the negative or   or   unwanted influences of foreign communication and research   models, know the benefits of effectively combining modern and   trado-rural comm research communication unication modes in executing rural development  development   projects and realise that communica communication tion has to work closely with  other related fields to achieve integrated rural development  with development objectives.

[ Fabrice Galia and Diègo Legros] This paper simultaneously explores the firm-level relationships between R&D investments, innovation, training investments, quality and firm  performance.  performanc e. It offers empirical evidence on how innovation, training and quality affect firm  profitability. This study is based on a sample of French firms and it establishes a circular scheme  between training, R&D, innovation and exports. However, the innovation literature does not simultaneously account for the relationships between R&D investments, innovation, training investments, quality and firm performance. This paper aims at describing these relationships and the firms' specific characteristics conducive to performance. A five-equation system is specified and 23

 

forms a circular scheme. In order to estimate consistently this model, author use appropriate econometric methods (ALS) which correct for simultaneity biases. The results are consistent with many stylized facts of the empirical literature and show that the feedback effects are important. This  paper confirms the existence of a virtuous circle which links innovation to profitability via training and quality. It permits to take into account simultaneously the important role of training and quality iin n an innovation perspective. This study advocate for more empirical evidence that permit to highlights the role of training and quality. Summary:-

[Florian Friedrich]  presents the findings from the first stage of a doctoral research project that investigates innovative pedagogic pedagogic practice in full full-time -time vocational education and training (VET) in the 16-19 1619 age bracket.The project aims to discover teachers‟ under standings under standings and motivations for innovative practice, with a view towards improving educational policy making. This paper outlines how initial expertinterviews facilitated the development of research foci as well as appropriate analytical designs, and presents the results of these interviews. This research paper outlines the design and some preliminary findings of a research project aimed at investigating innovative change  processes from the point of view of VET practitioners. It is based on assumptions assumptions that identify teachers as central actors in the operationalisation of change. These findings can be expected to aid the formulation of future VET policy changes. Invariably, VET is a complex sector, featuring both a variety of college types and colleges with highly specific profiles. Increasingly, VET institutions  branch out into other sectors such as higher education and academic academic 16-19 provision. Public  perceptions of VET are limited or skewed, both in terms of the quality and pervasiveness pervasiveness of the system. VET policy is often pursued by people with little first-hand experience in the sector and is therefore frequently dominated by academic preconceptions.The development of pilot initiatives at schools (bottom-up approaches to innovation; cooperation between schools or different types of institutions such as FE colleges and „academies‟, changes resulting from halting Modellversuche Modellversuche   at a federal level in Germany. Germany.

[Myers (2009)]  seeks to understand the role of existing training needs analysis

 process of Abu Dhabi Police, and the factors f actors that affect the process to identify the needs and the impact of this on improving organisational performance. To achieve the aim of this study, questionnaires and interviews will be carried out in the Abu Dhabi Police. Moreover, this study hopes to contribute to the knowledge, by raising and improving the understanding of current methods and practices of training needs analysis in Abu Dhabi Police and enrich and fill the gaps in the literature of training needs analysis in Arab countries. This study will use 24

 

The McGehee and Thayer‟s three-level three -level (Organisation-Task-Person) conception of needs assessment because it is considered the core framework for needs assessment in the academic literature and most of the models developed since have been based on this three-level framework (Holton, E. et al . 2000 The basis of this thi s study is phenomenology which will adopt mainly a qualitative approach to achieve the aims and objectives. The phenomenological  paradigm involves detailed examination of participant‟s participant‟s personal experience and is concerned with an individual‟s personal perception or account of an object or event as opposed to an attempt to produce an objective statement of the object or event itself). Both primary and secondary data are used in this study. This study will also hope to raise awareness of the importance of the training as an important strategic function, which could help organizations to achieve corporate strategies and gives a better understanding of how training needs analysis could be effectively approached and implemented and help to uphold the  performance of different public organizations, like Abu Dhabi Police. Police.

[Hodges & Burchell, 2003]  reports on work in progress. The overall aim of the study is to develop a library and information cooperative education model for higher education institutions in South Africa. In doing so, the author seeks also to document best practices from all the library and information academic academic institutions. Questionnaires for the study were sent to students, work placement hosts and academic institutions involved in WIL but this paper will only present the findings of those work placement supervisors (n=21) who had responded at the time of writing this paper.Thirty-four questionnaires were emailed to work placement supervisors. Twenty-one questionnaires were returned fully completed and the data could be used for analysis purposes. Intotal, a response rate of 62% was achieved. The study has further revealed that library and information hosts view communication skills as very important (this includes both verbal and written communication skills) and further regard interpersonal skills as an important skill. Library and information practitioners work in different aspects within the field: at the circulation desk they deal on a one-to-one basis with library users; as subject librarians they they deal directly with students students and staff. The findings of this study will will assist library schools to learn best practices that may be included in their curriculum to make sure that students are adequately prepared before entering the workplace.

[MARGOT PEARSON]  presents a framework for an approach to supervisor development,  based on the assumption that in order to discuss supervisor development it is important to understand 25

 

what supervisors do and why. The article examines the nature of the educative process for research students in the current research environment. It articulates the generic processes supervisors need to engage in for effective supervision A framework for examining a range of implications for supervision is provided by an investigation of senior academics‟ conceptions of research. Since, in the investigation, academics sometimes used the concept of scholarship to describe their understandings of research, it was possible also to identify different conceptions of scholarship in the data. This article presents a framework for an approach to supervisor developm development, ent, based on the th e assumption that in order to discuss supervisor development development it is important to understand what supervisors do and why. The article examines the nature of the educative process for research students in the current research environment. It articulates the generic processes supervisors need to engage in for effective supervision. The critical issues for supervisor development (as indeed for students) are priorities and  and   time. In the current context of pressure on students to achieve a range of outcomes, it is   incumbent upon supervisors to undertake the necessary professional development to prepare  prepare   themselves for the complex task of supervision. However, no single supervisor nor any one  one   individual student will wish to achieve all that we have outlined in this article as desirable   outcomes. Whatever the path any individual supervisor takes, the important outcome from such a  a  programme  programme would would be the development development of adaptable,   flexible supervisory practice based on an  an   awareness of the broader issues associated •

with the induction of research students, not only  only  into the academic community, but into a world, as Barnett (1997) puts it, characte characterised rised by by  multi-comp multi-complexity, lexity, uncertainty and plurality. plurality.  

[Ghazala Ishrat  deals with the comparative study of recruitment and selection, training and development process of INDIAN MNCs and FOREIGN MNCs. This research paper highlights the differences and and similarities of the policies policies being followed in MNCs. Companies cha change nge   their HR  practices according to  to  the culture and PEST environment  environment  of the  the  countries in which they operate. Globalization is also an important driver in setting specific benchmarks for the hr policies being followed. New concepts concepts like E-HRM and HRMIT are developed developed to cope with the scenario in which company is operating(as all companies now want to move beyond boundaries). Basic aim of all the companies is to earn PROFIT but now the concept is little bit changed as HRM has taken an important place in working of all the companies may it   be national or multinational .Datas were collected in both form. form.  Primary data was collected through survey method by distributing questionnaires questio nnaires to the employees.while secondary Data was collected from books, magazines, web sites, going through the records of the  the  organisation, etc.  etc. The recruitment process to some extent is not done objectively and therefore lot of bias hampers the future of the employees. employees. That is why the search or headhunt of people should be of those whose skill fits into the companys values. Most of the 26

 

employees were satisfied but changes are required according to the changing scenario as recruitment  process has a great impact i mpact on the working of the company as a fresh blood, new idea enters in the company. From the questionnaire found that mostly employees are young. Conclusion is that company should try to utilize workforce through training and development .as its a good factor that work force was young.  young. 

ISSUE 3.1.4 MRP IMPLEMENTATION [W. H. IP]Manufacturing Resources Planning  (MRP  II) is recognized as being an effective

management system that has an excellent planning and scheduling capability which can offer a dramatic increase in customer service, significant gains in productivity, much higher inventory turns, and a greater reduction in material costs. Many companies world-wide have attempted to implement MRP II systems. Many of them are now using MRP II with various levels of satisfaction. However, failure of MRP II implementation was in fact experienced by other companies. One of the major reasons of the failure of MRP II implementation is lack of understand and training of people. MRP II is a people system rather than a computer system. Furthermore, the major driving force for the adoption of MRP II system always comes from the management of the company. Thus the training must not only cater for engineers but also the managers. This paper proposes a generic training  program for the engineers as well as management management students with the objective to enhance their understanding on the operation principles of MRP II, the emphasis being on the observation of manufacturing in action rather than the familiarization of the canned software system. The training  program is developed from major manufacturing projects organized by the local industr industry. y. It enables the students to assimilate the knowledge of MRP II planning and execution acquired from their academic academ ic study and apply them in an industrial i ndustrial environm environment. ent.

ISSUE 3.1.5 SPSS USED TO CONDUCT SEVERAL FORM OF ANALYSIS [Owoyemi, Oluwakemi Ayodeji]  explores the relationship between training and employees‟

commitment to their organisation. The paper was based on a survey of 250 employees and management staff of a financial firm based in the South Western part of Nigeria. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to conduct several forms of Analysis. A regression analysis was conducted on the data collected. The study revealed a positive statistical significant relationship

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 between the different levels This paper emphasise the importance of maintaining training, t raining, learning and development levels during recession. This is based on two main suppositions; first, training improves employees‟ employees‟ commitment to tthe he organisation, and second, committed employees are likely to  be more productive. Nul l H ypo ypothes thesis: is: There is no statistical significant relationship between training and employees‟ commitment commitment to the organisation. organisation.   Al ter ter native H ypothes ypothesis  is  : There is a positive statistical significant relationship between training and

employees‟ commitment to the to the organisation. The target population for the study consists of all the employees of Financial Service organisation in South-Western Nigeria. A total of 250 respondents, which represents seventy five percent of the total  population, returned the questionnaire distributed. This research has adopted a one-sided approach of the effect of training, learning and development on employee attitude in terms of commitment. Although this result suggests that it is beneficial to both employees and employers, it did lay much emphasis on the fact that training can increase the operational cost of running an organisation which can reduce the gross profit for those establishments that are large and those that train most of their employees. The cost implications can be either monetary attitude in terms of commitment. The main  purpose of this t his paper is to investigate the t he relationship between training, learning and development to commitment. This result is consistent with other research and findings on the relationship between training and employees‟‟ commitment to the organisation. employees

[ARUNKUMAR PENNATHUR, ANIL MITAL, VENKAT RAJAN,DAVID KABER ,] ,] reviews training literature, identifies re search de ficiencies, and propose s a framework for training workers in contemporary manufacturing manufacturing environments. environments. The obje ctive s of this paper are to: ( 1) review published training lite rature , ( 2) identify re search de ficiencie s in industrial worker training are a, and ( 3)  propose a ge ne ric framework for training industrial worke rs. The discussion is limited to and is in the context of product manufacturing. The emphasis is on de ve loping a training proce ss framework that would al low worke r s in man ufactur in g organization s to acquire skills needed to harn ss the latest te chnology. Training lite rature is reple te with a var ie ty of instructional me thods, such as classroom le cturing, programmed instruction, compute r aided instruction, machine simulators,  behavior modification technique s, simulations involving business game s, role playing, and  behavioral role -mode ling li ng used. A pre -training and post-training test will help to determine if the trainee s‟ performance improved significantly after training. The overall conclusion of surveys is that training the workforce is indeed essential. There are , however, no systematic investigations of training methods in the manufacturing context that have been reported in engineering literature. As 28

 

mentioned earlier, these studies provide insights into training methods, factors affecting training and influencing training outcomes, training performance measure s, and human behavior. However, the y  provide very little insight into training practice s, needs, methods, and e valuation criteria, that one would find useful in developing training programs for workers in a manufacturing. The se studies demonstrate that a method `works‟ or is `superior‟ to another method, but add little practical value as the y do not show why a certain method enhance s learning or how a certain method can be used more effectively for training (Tannenbaum and Yukl 1992 ) .

The purpose of this t his research is to determine the current training and development development experiences and the emerging best practices of large corporations in the manufacturing and non-manufacturing sectors in the Philippines. Findings reveal that the most frequently cited importance of training is that it helps improve job performance. Companies implement technical training slightly more than behavioural training. The most often used training method is the lecture, combined with the use of new technologies such as the CD-ROM, the Internet, and the company intranet/portal. Adequate resources like budget and expertise are provided for the delivery of the training and development programs. programs. The implementation of extensive and continuous training and development programs, not only for the improvement improveme nt of technical competence, competence, but also for the development of cultural behaviours and values congruent with the company‟s core values and philosophy, is one of the emerging best practices that stimulate innovation. Several emerging workplace patterns and best training and development  practices which are considered to stimulate and generate innovations were identified by the different  participating companies.These companies.These lessons which other companies can learn from are related to people commitment,use of resources, and a conducive organizational climate. The top prevailing emerging  best practice is the implementation of extensive continuing training and development development programs, not only for the improvement of technical competence, but also for the development of cultural  behaviours and values congruent congruent with that of the company‟s core values and philosophy.  philosophy. 

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COMMON FINDING:-

1.Author have reported on various ways in both virtual and traditional approaches to support new forms of learning requiring flexibility and adaptation of learning groups‟ needs.  needs.  2.The author aims at diversifica diversification tion training mode for students in major of software engineering based on university enterprise cooperation is proposed in this paper. This method provides an innovative format in effectively educating software talents, and is worthy of continued studying and experimenting. 3. This highlights the importance importance of effectively effectively managing managing the assessme assessment, nt, placement placement and promotion promotion components, to ensure that employee dissatisfaction is minimised.This finding highlights the importance of involvement at all levels fully with comm communication unication to all staff. 4. On the job training method was adopted in order to train employees. 5. .on board training system has realistic training environment, effective, low cost, safety, ease of implementation and many other advantages. 6 The literature review of previous experienc experiences es revealed that new forms of learning require flexibility and adaptation towards the learning l earning groups‟ needs. 7.. With the advantage of training costs less, high security, training content easy setting, but the development cost is high, training time is not nimble, training effect is limited; on t he contrary, navigation training is training in a real environment ,operation training effect is good, but there are huge spending, training opportunity is inconvenience. 8. A 8. A combination of semi structured interviews and a survey questionnaire, which was administered to the persons responsible for the T&D within the organisations 9.   Datas were collected 9. collected   in both form. form.  Primary data was collected through survey method by distributing questionnaires questionnaires to the employees.while employees.while secondary secondary

Data was was collected from books, books,

magazines, magaz ines, web sites, going through the records of the organisation, etc. 10. Most of the employees were satisfied but changes are required according to the changing scenario as recruitment process has a great impact on the working of the company as a fresh blood, new idea enters in the company. From the questionnaire found that mostly employees are young. Conclusion is that company should try to utilize workforce through training and development .as its a good factor that work force was young.

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11.Training literature is replete with a variety of instructional methods, such as classroom lecturing,  programmed  programme d instruction, computer aided instruction, machine simulators, behavior modification technique s, simulations involving busine ss game s, role playing, and behavioral role -modeling used. A pre -training and post-training test will help to determine if the trainee s‟ performance improve dsignificantly after training .12.Adequate resources like budget and expertise are provided for the delivery of the training and development developme nt programs. 13. The top prevailing emerging best practice is the implementation of extensive continuing training and development programs, not only for the improvement of technical competence, but also for the development of cultural behaviours and values congruent with that of the company‟s core values and  philosophy.

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Chapter 4 STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS

Strength: 1.A promising proof of concept for the Second Life platform has led to an improved approach for the open source platform, platform, OpenSimulator. OpenSimulator. It supports end-users ((learners learners and teachers) teachers) to design and reuse learning settings that include 3D components and in-world tools. 2.author have reported on various ways in both virtual and traditional approaches to support new forms of learning requiring f llexibility exibility and adaptation of learning groups‟ needs. 3 Author has focused on developing an airway management training systems designed to reproduce various cases of difficult airway. 4.In particular, the mechanism mechanism design of the Waseda Kyotokagaku Airway No.2 (WKA-2) is detailed. 5.As a future work, author will implement the virtual compliance control to enable the WKA-2 to  physically interact interact with the operator operator during the training training session 6.Author aims to construct a new teacher education model, which is constructed by a virtual learning community based on a teacher training platform on the internet. The application of video cases opens a new way for teachers‟ professional development.  development.  7.. In order to promote the balanced development of education in Beijing suburbs, teacher education model of TVC-VLC will continue and accumulate experience in more suburbs to support much more teachers to enhance their professional quality. 8.This study attempted to improve ERP system usage by adapting Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2) theoretical model with additional Information Technology (IT) system usage factors of training, management management support, perceived behavioral behavioral control and technical support 9.This forward the basic stru ture of main power plant OBTS, research the embedded technology, has a guiding significance for the subsequent OBTS research 10.on board training system has realistic training environment, effective, low cost, safety, ease of implementation and many other advantages. 11.The author aims at diversification training mode for students in major of software engineering  based on university enterprise cooperation is proposed in this paper. This method provides an

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innovative format in effectively educating software talents, and is worthy of continued studying and experimenting.

12.Then game engines were introduced and The type of games that these engines were designed for are predominantly “first person shooters”, where the user controls the movements and actions of a computer character and the visual display mimics the perspective of what the in-game character would see with his/her own eyes. .Benifts including education and student laboratories, medicine as well as disaster disaster response and military training. training.

13. on the job training method was adopted in order to train employees. This lead us to conclude that the effort to improve and develop SOEs should first be tackled at macro (national) level. In this respect, a consistent and coherent economic development policy will provide well designed and coordinated implementation mechanism that will, in turn, facilitate the process of organizational restructuring and human resource development at micro (enterprise) level. management approaches in the strategic development of 14.The author discusses the use of succession management an organisation‟s high potential potential and talented employees. employees. In this instance success succession ion management has  provided the implementing implementing organisation organisation with a systematic systematic and transparent transparent process process for successfu successfully lly identifying, developing and promoting high potential employees and is an example of best practice in succession management. 15. The 15.  The evaluation evaluation model was adapted adapted from Kirkpatrick‟s Kirkpatrick‟s hierarchy of evaluation. The four levels of evaluation and their components. The evidence for the evaluation was collected by means of interviews, video casestudies and organisational organisational data on development development planning, planning,

placements and

utility analyses. 16.This highlights the importance importance of eff effectively ectively managing managing the assessment, assessment, placement placement and promotion components, to ensure that employee dissatisfaction is minimised.This finding highlights the importance of involvement at all levels fully with commu communication nication to all staff. 17. The most popular evaluation tools and technique used are questionnaires, and the most common 17. The model used is the Kirkpatrick model, however, the most common level of evaluation is the reaction level

18.   Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive and significant relationship between 18. supervisor's role in training programmes and the transfer of training.

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19. These findings have implications for human resource management (HRM) policies and

 practices by detailing guidelines to improve organisational remuneration system as well as  pathways for enhancing the t he role of supervisors in training programmes in order to facilitate the transfer of training, particularly within the Malaysian public sector .

20. Tri-modular training and Sequential Research Models were used.

21. A 21.  A five-equation system is specified and forms a circular scheme. In order to estimate consistently this model, author use appropriate econometric methods (ALS) which correct for simultaneity biases. The results are consistent with many stylized facts of the empirical literature and show that the feedback effects are important. This paper confirms the existence of a virtuous circle which links innovation to profitability via training and quality. 22. This study will use The McGehee and Thayer‟s three-level three -level (Organisation-Task-Person) conception of needs assessment because it is considered the core framework for needs assessment in the academic literature and most of the models developed since have been based on this three-level framework. 23. New concepts like E-HRM and HRMIT are developed to cope with with the scenario in which company is Operating. 24. Manufacturing Resources Planning  (MRP  II) is recognized as being an effective management system that has an excellent planning and scheduling capability which can offer a dramatic increase in customer service, significant gains in productivity, much higher inventory turns, and a greater reduction in material costs. 25. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to conduct several forms of Analysis. A regression analysis was conducted on the data collected. 26. The most often used training method is the lecture, combined with the use of new technologies such as the CD-ROM, the Internet, and the company intranet/portal.. Adequate resources like budget and expertise are provided for the delivery of the training and development programs.

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WEAKNESS:-

1 .The literature review review of previous experiences experiences revealed that new new forms of learning require require flexibility and adaptation towards the learning groups‟ needs. needs.   2.

Because of the local local restrictions restrictions on the level of teaching, there are a few representative

teaching video cases at present. 3.

With advantage advantage of of training costs less, high security, training content content easy easy setting, but the

development cost is high, training time is not nimble, training effect is limited; on t he contrary, navigation training is training in a real environment ,operation training effect is good, but there are huge spending, training opportunity is inconvenience. 4

Too centralized centralized and unified mana management, gement, limited limited professional professional education education and too rigid teaching

5. This has highlighted a crucial issue for international companies to be aware of the cross  

cultural implications 6. Importantly, there is a need to evaluate the outcomes of external T&D programmes rather  

than asking the external provider to perform the examination phase. 7. In the Training program process; the identification of the needs is a crucial aspect. Hence the  

needs are identified according to the organizational analysis as well as task analysis. 8. Rural development efforts in Nigeria and various other parts of the developing world are  

still largely dominated by extremely specialised, urban-oriented, single purpose,  professionallybalkanized  professionallyba lkanized and top-down programme programmes, s, conceptualise conceptualised d and executed by specialised government government departments and other foreign or local l ocal agencies 9.

 

This paper will only present the findings of those work placement supervisors (n=21) who had responded at the time of writing this paper.

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CONCLUSION The review of 30 research papers has been carried out in the area of Training and development to investigate and find out current challenges and scope of work.   A promising  proof of concept for the Second Life platform has led to an iimproved mproved approach for the open source  platform, OpenSimulator. It supports end-users (learners and teachers) to design and reuse learning settings that include 3D components and in-world tools. Author have reported on various ways in both virtual and traditional approaches to support new forms of learning requiring flexibility and adaptation of learning groups‟ needs. Author has focused on developing an airway management training systems designed to reproduce various cases of difficult airway. .In particular, the mechanism mechanism design of the Waseda Kyotokagaku Airway No.2 (WKA-2) is detailed. As a future work, author will implement the virtual compliance control to enable the WKA-2 to  physically interact with the operator during the training session.Author session.Author aims to construct a new teacher education model, which is constructed by a virtual learning community based on a teacher training platform on the internet. The application of video cases opens a new way for teachers‟  professional development. development. In order to promote the balanced development of education in Beijing suburbs, teacher education model of TVC-VLC will continue and accumulate experience in more suburbs to support much more teachers to enhance their professional quality.

Manufacturing Resources Planning  (MRP  II) is recognized as being an effective management system that has an excellent planning and scheduling capability which can offer a dramatic increase in customer service, significant gains in productivity, much higher inventory turns, and a greater reduction in material costs. These findings have implications for human resource management (HRM) policies and  practices by detailing guidelines to improve organisational remuneration system as well as  pathways for enhancing the role of supervisors in training programmes. 

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RFERENCES

1.The relationship between training and firm performance. Thang, N. N., Quang, T. & Buyens, D. (2010). The Relationship Between Training and Firm Performance: A Literature Review, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management. 2. Quang, T. & Thavisay, C. (1999). Privatization and Human Resource Development Issue: A Preliminary Study of State-Owned State- Owned Enterprises in the Lao People‟s Democratic Republic, Research and Practice in Human Resource ManagemenSiu, Ma nagemenSiu,

3. N. Y. & Darby, R. (1999). A Study of Management Development Practices in a Foreign Joint Venture in China, Research and Practice in Human Resource management. 4. Poon, J. M. L., Stevens, C. K. & Gannon, M. J. (2000). Effects of Training Method and Learning Style on Cross- Cultural Training Outcomes, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 8(2), 73-97. 5. T. &Management Bennett, A. (2002). Strategic Development of Organisational Talent: The Use of Taylor, Succession Approaches, Research and Practice in Human Resource 6. Shah, V., & Bandi, R., (2003). Developing People Capabilities in Knowledge Intensive Remote Services, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 11(1), 55-64 7. Altarawneh, I. (2009). Training and Development Evaluation in Jordanian Banking Organisations, Research and Practice in H 8 Hua, N. K., Ahmad, R. & Ismail, A. (2011). The Impact of the Supervisor‟s Role in Training Programmes on the Transfer of Training: A Case Study in Four East Malaysian Local Governments, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, uman Resource Management, 9.Dr. chikati srinu,kumara swamy moutam,chikati satish(2012),Training and development  practices-A study of NTPC ltd. Ramagundam, Ramagundam, Human resource management. 10.P.bala subbulakshmi, R Tamilarasan (2013). A study on training Effectiveness with reference to streta IT solution. International journal of research in O.B and HRM. 11.Ikechukwu E.Nwosu(1987) Research on training for rural development communication: Adopting the tri- modular training and sequential research models. African council on communication education.

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12.Fabrice Galia and diego Legros. ERMES-UMR-7017-CNRS. Universities Pantheon-Assas Paris II Research and development, innovation,training,quality and profitability profitability –   – Evidence Evidence from France. 13. Florian friedrich university of oxford (june 2012) Educational reform in vocational education and training in germany and England. 14. Brunel Business School - Doctoral Symposium 27th & 28th March 2012 “Training Needs Analysis: An empirical study of the Abu Dhabi Police”  Police”   15.Developing skills through work integrated learning: important or unimportant? 16. Margot Pearson,Angela brew.volume 27 (2002) research training and supervision development. 17 Ghazala Isharat IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278487X. Volume 7, Issue 5 (Jan. - Feb. 2013), PP 29-43  29-43   www.iosrjournals.org  www.iosrjournals.org  A comparative study of recruitment and selection ,training and development polices in Indian MNC and Foeign MNCS.

18.W.H.IP and K.W.K.A.M (1998) . An education and training model for manufacturing resource planning. TEMPUS Publication. 18.Owoyemi, Oluwakemi Ayodeji, Oyelere, Michael, PhD, Elegbede, Tunde July 2011, Enhancing Employees‟ Commitment to Organisation through Training. Train ing.

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