Published on May 2016 | Categories: Types, Creative Writing | Downloads: 62 | Comments: 0 | Views: 588
of 10
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Reviews of articles regarding brand placements in movies



Brand/product Placement in

Authors: - Mahima Kapoor, Rohit Bhatt.

This article speaks about how the marketers are trying to promote the product without
causing any inconvenience to the audience. They use different types of channels for promotion
of the product. One of the best ways for communicating is by using the film industry. By
producing television ad‟s people may skip the channel and they may not be interesting in
watching the advertisement. This even costs them more when compared to brand placement in
movies. Many brands have been placed in movies so that the viewers may feel much less
obstructive when compared to TVC‟s. Products gain more credibility when popular and
respected movie stars use them. This is becoming a regular tool for promoting the product or a
brand. The target audience should be aware of the product that is being placed in the movie. If
not the placement of the brand/product in the movie will be useless. The companies will place
the script to the agency and the agency will carry forward the script to the production house/film
studio. This is how the process is carried out for brand partnering in movies. Coca-Cola, Mc
Donald‟s, Thums Up, Lays, Tata Tea etc. These are the FMCG which have done their brand
Partnering successfully in many Bollywood movies and many international brands also made
their brand partnering a part of promotional tool which brought them a huge gain in sales and
also they are successful in bringing the brand image and brand awareness in the minds of the
viewers and create an impact to buy the product.

Authors: - Dr.Meera Mathur, Dr.Shubham Goswami.

Films in India are the prominent medium for entertainment. Impact of films is
evident from the fact that film stars have iconic status in India. A movie where coke positioned
its brand in such a way that by producing limited edition drinks which made them to increase the
brand image and they went on with the advertising campaign “Piyo Sir Uthake.” In India Leo
entertainment was the first to bring the brand partnering strategy into India and the Indian
Cinema. This played a major role in developing the concept of brand partnering in the context of
Indian Cinema. Brand partnering was something new to Indian Cinema. In 1970‟s Emami was
the first brand to use this strategy in Indian Cinema. Most famous was Rajdoot motorcycle which
was used in the film Bobby starring Rishi Kapoor. This was the classic example of brand
partnering in Bollywood movies and in Indian cinema. They said the product can be placed in
two different ways beyond brand partnering.
1Active Placement
2.Passive Placement.
When compared to Hollywood the brand partnering was started first in Hollywood. Columbia
Pictures started contacting the advertising agencies and made contacts with them. Columbia
Pictures tried to maintain a very good relation with the agencies and they used this strategy to
gain more investments and increase the brand image of both the Columbia Pictures and the
Brands which are associated with it. Most of the movies promoted cigars and alcohol related
products. By portraying these products lead to negative impact in the female viewers who are
viewing the films in both Hollywood and Bollywood. These may create a negative impact in the
mindsets of the viewers.

Authors: - Anshul Rathi, Bhaskar Pant, Alpa Rathi.

Five films are taken into consideration for producing this paper, two from Hollywood
and three from Bollywood. The authors say that the brand partnering and the product placement
are related with each other. It depends upon the product and which segment they trying to target.
For this they authors done a research and they gave the results. They targeted students between
age18 to 26 years. The sample size is 100 students. They used random sampling technique to
find the sample size. The major limitation was they conducted the research in one geographical
location only. The data was collected by using questionnaire. There are two sources for the data
collection. Primary data was collected by using questionnaire and the secondary data which is
collected through books and magazines and some articles from internet. The films were selected
by a certain criteria. How many brands and how they are portrayed in the film. This was the
major criteria. The data was analyzed using Microsoft excel. CEI [Celebrity Effectiveness Index]
is tool used for the analyzing the data which is given the excel document. According to the given
data students who are of the brands in English movies are 60% and Hindi movies are 100% and
both are 80%. CEI played major in this research. The findings say that some students denied the
repurchase of the product because they are not satisfied with the quality of the product. This
study indicates that Bollywood and Hollywood are playing a major role in creating the
effectiveness of the brand in the mindsets of the customer by using brand partnering as one of the
promotional technique.

Authors: - Moonhee Yang, David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen

There will be two types of memory according to the author, Explicit and Implicit
memory. When the brand/product is placed in a film or movie, it depends upon the viewer how
he remembers the product/brand which is used in the film/movie. In Explicit memory the viewer
will only remember the product/brand which is displayed in the movie. It depends upon the
mindset of the viewer to think about the product or not. The Implicit memory means nothing but
creating an attraction towards the product/brand which is used in the scene. This will make the
viewer think indirectly about the product and it will create an impact in the mindsets of the
viewers. The impact may be negative one or a positive impact. Activation level depends upon the
brand‟s familiarity and it may help in recalling the brand in future. Some customers choose their
brand according to their status and they try to maintain the status which they are not familiar to
them. When a celebrity using a particular brand, it will create an influence in the minds of the
customer and the viewer who is viewing the film. This will help the company to promote the
brand pre and post release of the picture. This will create brand effectiveness in the minds of the
customers as well as the viewers.

Authors:-SonalKureshi, VandanaSood
This article speaks about the product placement in Bollywood and Hollywood. The
results clearly show that higher number of films using this brand partnering as the promotional
tool for promoting a brand/product belong to Hollywood. In Indian film industry the brand
partnering plays a major role now-a-days. There are many multi-national companies in India.
They are trying to improve their brand image by using brand partnering as one of the major
promotional tool. Hollywood had a wider range of products that were using in films placements
in contrast to Bollywood. According to the study only 17.66 percent of MNC‟s are using this
technique as the promotional strategy. When we take FMCG into consideration the breakfast
cereal plays a major role in the Bollywood films. They are trying to differentiate from the normal
way which we follow daily. The appearances of the celebrities in the films change the lifestyle of
them as well as the viewers. They are making a greater impact on the society. The significantly
lower incidence of alcohol and tobacco brands as placements in Bollywood in comparison to
Hollywood. Alcohol and tobacco are allowed in the Hollywood and they are being restricted by
showing statutory warning in the films usage will cause problems and they are advising the
viewer‟s not to use the products which are related to alcohol and tobacco. The major drawback
by using this in-film placement is there is no appropriate technique for the in film placement.
The multi-national brand managers could use their learning from Hollywood like Seamless
integration of the brand with the film storyline, while placing brands in Bollywood also.

Authors: - Prachi Singh

Apart from Brand Partnering in the films or a prominent character promoting it indirectly
the Bollywood producers integrated the product placement into the story line. Their main
intention behind brand partnering and product placement is to create a special connection to its
consumers as well as the bringing awareness to the viewers about the product and the usage and
advantages of the brand/product. Young people are the influencers of buying the product. The
availability of captive audience with greater reach the brand partnering is an alternative than the
traditional way of giving advertisements. The major advantage of showing any brand in its
natural environment provides motivation for the product placement and brand partnering.
Bollywood movies are the best platform for the brand partnering in Indian cinema. There will be
wide reach of the Bollywood movies in and around India and its neighboring countries. Many
Bollywood movies are released worldwide and they will be a very big success. Typically both
brand and related products are flashed on the screen. The brand is highlighted more effectively.
There will be no comparison between two brands or similar products. Due to increase in
popularity of Bollywood in west many companies are trying to go brand partnering to increase
their brand image. By this technique they bring the brand awareness into the mindsets of the
customers. As consumer markets are becoming more saturated the cost is increasing for the
traditional marketing. So many marketers are using this brand partnering and product placement
to reduce the cost for marketing. They are trying to sustain the competition in the market.

Authors:-Rishikesh Padmanabhan, Sanjay Kumae Jena

The population believes product placement as the better form for advertising rather than
traditional methods as it frustrates the consumer especially if the story line is out of context.
Clear brand placement proved to have great brand recall and well-known brands are more
recalled. Brand that is more visible in advertisement and marketing campaigns proven to have
more recall. While enquiring, most of the consumers were associating brands with particular
movies based on the actor in the movie. In this modern and mass adverting world, brands are
constantly trying to bring out newer methods to reach out to their target audience. Innovative
ways of delivery can only lead them to success. The importance of movies on masses was
evident in south India especially in Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Consumers feel that the
advertisements should be entertaining and the same should be conjoined with the storyline in
order to convey the brand message in the best possible way. The publicity of a movie in south
India especially in Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh is huge, which gives the brands a prospect to
influence the customers with the association.

Author: Tapan K Panda

This research paper identifies the basic reasons for the product/brand placement in Indian films
especially Hindi films and its effectiveness in the mindsets of consumers and this paper also
provides the category of brand placements namely,
- IMPLICIT product placement, in which the brand is displayed in the movie scene but no
dialogues or reference regarding the brand or its benefits.
- USED IN THE SCENE product placement, in which the product or the brand is used in a
movie scene but no dialogue reference to the brand.
- INTEGRATED EXPLICIT product placement, in which the product or the brand is used
in the scene where the star mentions about the benefits of the brand/product.
Four Hindi films are taken into consideration; they are Taal, Yadein, Dilwale Dulhaniya Le
Jayenge, Phir Bhi Dil Hai Hindustani The author had considered 80 randomly selected students
from IIM-Indore, Lucknow, and Kozhikode as the respondents for the research. Questionnaires
are distributed among the respondents, to check their attitude towards brand placement, brand
recall and recognition of the brand directly after watching the movie clips. The brands identified
among the movie clips are Coke, Pass, Stroh beer, Swatch, Santro, Akai, HMV and Hero.
Among all those brands, Coke has highest brand recall and recognition and HMV has the least.
Well-noted brands have higher brand recall than low-noted brands. Explicit placements have
higher effectiveness compared to implicit placements. This paper has also found that the type of
movie also plays a prominent role in having the effectiveness of the brand. Future research can
focus on academicians, ad agencies and film production units. They can also focus on comparing
the different categories of products like FMCG vs. Consumer Goods, less-known vs. well-known
brands and focus on regional language films, other media like television programs.

Author: Shriti Vinayak Gokhale

This paper analyzes and compares the content in 15 Hollywood and 15 Bollywood films released
in 2005-2009. The author says the product placement in Hollywood is practiced from long back
and relatively a new concept in Bollywood films. This paper also analyzes the duration, level of
product placement, number of types of product placements are used as criteria. The main purpose
of this paper is to analyze the similarities and differences between Bollywood and Hollywood
films. Audio-visual elements were identified from 30 movies in the sample, as common for the
research. The top 3 highest revenue collected box-office hits in each year in both Bollywood and
Hollywood in between 2005-2009 are taken in the sample and other criterion of the sample is the
genre of the films. Types of product placements are seen, mentioned and used; theatrical context
of brand placement as positive, negative and neutral, level of placement as Level A: This level of
product placement of a brand delivered all of the six characteristics. 2. Level B: This level of
product placement of a brand delivered four or five of the six characteristics. It included an
action in the scene using the product or a featured exposure of the brand identity. 3. Level C:
This level of product placement of a brand delivered up to three of the six characteristics. The
exposure may be delivered via background signage, recognizable logo, or product identity near
the scene‟s primary action. Both Bollywood and Hollywood films have transportation as the
most frequent category of product in the films. Followed by electronics and publishing and in the
subcategory cars are the dominant products. More than 80% of the brand placements are used in
the films and very few are seen and mentioned. Level B is popular than A and C. Integration in
the storylines is more effective in Hollywood than in Bollywood. Both the industries have never
placed a single brand; they preferred multi-brands in a film. The main difference between
Hollywood and Bollywood product placements is the integration of brands with the storyline,
types of product placements and duration. Both industries have almost similar product
placements. The future study includes the reactions from the audiences and other media like TV,
Radio, etc.


This paper focus on the practice of product placement in Hindi films in India, especially on
consumer goods like cars, mobile phones, motorcycles, etc. This paper mainly focuses on the
evolution of product placement in Hindi films. The author had cited many examples in the paper,
few are brand placement of Rajdoot mini motorbike in Bobby, Tata Motors paid Rs. 1.25 crores
for the placement of Tata Safari in Hindi film „Road‟, Coca-cola assumed that it paid Rs. 75
lakhs- Rs. 1 crore in „Taal‟, Bournvita in Koi Mil Gaya, Samsung products in Aitraaz, Suzuki
bike in Dhoom, by John Abraham, hit film Kaho Na Pyar Hai , had doubled the tourists from
India to New Zealand. Observing that trend, many countries like Malaysia and Thailand had
promoted their countries for good locations to shoot. Singapore Tourism Board (STB) had signed
a contract with Krrish film producers, to have their shooting 60% of the film in Singapore. UK
had identified more than 55, 000 locations maps for shooting for Bollywood films. Many films in
production are looking for brand/product placement in their film. The film producers look for the
brands which link-up well in the film, generation next brands, young at heart. The film producer
can get Rs. 85 lakhs- Rs. 1 crore for the product placement; this will reduce the production costs.
The companies also seek that their brand‟s logo to be promoted in film banners, implied
endorsements, audio functions and other promotions besides product placement. The synergy of
both brand and film industry is always successful. In-film advertisement or embedded
advertisement or product placement is the best alternative for the companies to focus on rather
on the TV advertisements.

Auther: Alex Walton

This paper discusses the evolution of product placement in Hollywood films and its effectiveness
is measured by taking nine films, each from every decade and number and quality of the product
placement. The product placement is defined as a paid product message aimed at influencing
movie or television audiences via the planned and unobtrusive entry of a branded product into a
movie or television program. The product placement had evolved in Hollywood some 90 years
back and the characteristics had not changed then and now. The content analysis is done on each
film from a decade in between 1920-2000. The findings also showed that majority of the brand
placements are visual and more than 97% of the brand placements are clear and less relevance to
the plot. More than 54% of the brand placements are done using a character. The research also
discusses that from time to time the number of product placements has increased. More than 70%
of the placements in 1950-70 are of audio only and that trend has changed in 1980-2000 with
more than 80% of the placements are of video only. Most of the placements are visual and very
clearly shown. The placements are used by a character and omitted competition to the brand.
Another interesting finding is that many product placements have taken place for instance, which
were not actually paid for it.

Authors: Etienne Bressoud and Jean-marc Lehu

This paper emphasize on the relationship between a spectator and a movie, focusing on a brand
placements. For this to happen the authors have chosen DVD as an exposure and to know the
effectiveness of the brand placements the authors have considered SDAR (Spontaneous Day
After Recall) of the brands placed in the movies. 3,532 DVD viewers are taken as a sample for
the research and considered the spontaneous brand placements recall after a day, the viewers
watching a movie in a DVD in their homes in the natural conditions. To move forward, the
authors have proposed three placement modalities, they are:
- Prominence
- Audio-visual
- Plot insertion

Prominence is the size or the position of the brand on the screen, Parisian restaurant in
Ratatouille is screened at the center of the screen, this is cited as an example for prominence
of brand placement. Audio-visual modality focuses on the appearance and dialogue or
description of the brand in a scene. “Snakes on a plane” is a Hollywood movie, in which
Ebay logo is shown and also inserted in the dialogue. Plot insertion is the degree of
integration of the brand placement in the storylines of the movie. Many brand placements go
for big-budgeted movies. The results of the research show most people identify the brand
placements, based on the liking of choice of the respondents, some chose to view the film
because they liked the film-maker, some liked the genre.


This research paper focuses on the attitudes and perceptions of the product placements in an
independent film rather than effectiveness of the placements. Independent films are
documentaries and narrative films. The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the attitudes and
level of interest of filmmakers. The result of interviewing the filmmakers, gave five theme, they
are: money, control, experience, interest in product placement and art versus business. A major
finding leading to a result that shows the product placement in independent films and feature
films differ greatly. Many filmmakers had said that they would see how well the product
placement will sink with the movie script, but none of them had said the product placement
would overweigh the vision of the film. Many of the independent filmmakers said that they were
interested in product placements in independent films, considering the level of control. As the
independent films are not backed by any financiers or shot in production studios. The idea of
placing a product in independent films will carry both benefits and risks. For the independent
filmmakers, the product placements will reduce the cost of production of the film, who receives
the goods or services from the branded companies, who wants to place their product/brand. The
major disadvantage of this product placement is that loss of control on the film and it adds
artificiality to the film. This paper mainly focuses on the qualitative analysis and the future paper
can include the quantitative analysis.

Article 14: Virtual Product Placement as a New Approach to Measure
Effectiveness of Placements
Author: Dr. Judy Drennan and Dr. John McDonnell

This research paper provides a new approach to measure the effectiveness of the product
placements and this study also analysis the gap between the brand recall and recognition of new
brands in placements. The author defined virtual product placement as the image of a branded
product is digitally inserted into a film or TV program after the program has actually been made,
is a recent development in the field of marketing. The measurement of the effectiveness of the
brand placement is very difficult. The product placements are very expensive and the marketers
have to evaluate the effectiveness of the placement and that is evaluated based on the size of
reach and it is quite difficult determine the size of the reach. Familiar brands have more
advantage than less-familiar brands. Selection of a movie, in which the need to be placed is very
important and it is very difficult to evaluate the reach to the target audience, because different
age groups do watch the film, the marketer cannot analyze that. Few video clips were selected
and inserted few imaginary brands and displayed them to the under-graduate students, to know
whether they can recognize the brand or not. The results shows that only 5% of the sample could
recall the names of the unfamiliar brands correctly whereas more than 23% have recalled the
names of familiar brands. This shows the effectiveness in familiar brands is more than in
unfamiliar brands. Virtual product placement will be better choice compared with the earlier
ones to evaluate the effectiveness of the brand, when a company tends to place a new product.
Even though the results show very low effect on unfamiliar brands yet it creates a great impact in
the mindsets of the customers. There is a lot of scope in future research, this research limits to
only visual placement and the future research can also include audio too.

Authors: Pavan C Patil and P L Bisoyi

India is the world‟s biggest film industry and product placement in Indian films is relatively a
new concept and films are now turning out to be a powerful media for promoting the brands.
This paper aims at understanding the concept of product placement and the utility and scope of
product placement as a way of brand promotion. Product placements are cost-effective method as
it reaches the huge audience of target group. Product placements are more effective than TV
commercials, which are now experiencing the zapping and switch off the channel. Product
placements are more effective as per the following reasons:
- goodwill gains by associating with a popular program
- purchase of large portion of commercial time within the programme prevents
communication interference
- from competition and integration with program reduces likelihood of zapping
Consumer‟s beliefs towards product placement activities have been found to influence their
acceptance of the placements in general. A few number of research studies have also attempted
to establish a correlation between audience beliefs towards product placements activities and
their purchase intent following exposure by comparing the effects across the cultures.

Product placement effectiveness: revisited and renewed
Authors: Kaylene Williams, Alfred Petrosky, Edward Hernandez, Robert Page, Jr.
Product placement in movie is worth full .It gives a good combination of commercial and non
commercial activities. It helps to achieve audience exposure. To increase consumer‟s memory.
To make product or brand the complete success. To change consumer‟s attitude. Product is
mostly placed through TV, radio, computer games, film. According to the findings the average
consumers are exposed to at least 3000 commercials each year .The main aim of product
placement is that consumer should notice it but they should also remember it also. The entire
product placement situation is win-win. It is a gain for all.
Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of
Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude
Author: Cristel Antonia Russell
The article is all about the practices in product placement. The methods used in testing are
theatre methodology. This article tells about how the product creates a connection between the
brand consumers memory that in turn changes the consumers attitude. The article talks about the
commercial of a retail store pottery barn. It is a TV series and the episode revolves around the
product they buy from the retail shop pottery barn. Product placement in TV show is highly
profitable for both the marketer and the media. It makes the placement look real as it is placed in
the TV show. But if not handled properly it might be able to make the commercial look unreal
and audience can get a impact that it is just for promotion sake. The article is further, extended
on screen script and plot placement. The testing is done and the result shows that these three are
not linear. The findings also tell that the emotionally laden product should not be placed in the
movie. As it creates a negative impact. Thus, to effectively place the product in the TV show the
product, timing and content of the commercial should be considered.

Viewers and brand placement in movies: new insights about viewers technique”

Authors: Jean-Marc Lehu and Etienne Bressoud

Nowadays, traditional type of promotion have become non beneficial so product placement have
become really useful .Product placement in movies have always given a fruitful result but
sometimes it fails too.The research is based on the two types of hypothesis. H1a and band band
H2a and b. : Hypothesis 1a: the number of brand placements SDAR on DVD viewing is
favourably influenced by a first viewing of the movie at the cinema.H1 B IS FOR: Watching the
movie at home, on a large home cinema screen improves the brand placement number of SDAR.
Hypothesis 2a: Choosing a DVD movie because of the director improves the brand
Placement number of SDAR. Hypothesis 2b: The more the video viewers appreciate the movie,
the more they spontaneously recall placed brands
The findings of the article say that the product placement in film has become an attractive
concept aunitnd it is appreciated by everyone. It also increases the opportunities.

Article 19:- Cross-cultural challenges in product placement
Authors:- Tajun (David) Lee, Yongjun Sung, Federico de Gregorio
The research is done on the students to find how brand placements will make an impact
on the viewer by not creating any cross cultural barriers. This research is done on US and Korean
students by using their attitudes towards the different media (i.e. Films, T.V shows, & Songs) the
product acceptance depends upon how they show the product. The research is done on 471
college going students in US and South Korea. The findings say that they South Koreans young
adults are more ethical to the product placement in the T.V shows which are tele-casted. The US
young adults will more concentrate on realism than Korean adults. Both the people accept the
cultural changes in product placement/brand placement in the Films or T.V shows and Songs.
The present study is limited to only 2 countries. The geographical location is also a constraint for
this research. The research is done in southwestern and southeastern regions in US and Korea.
There may be cultural differences within the country itself. There should more quantitative
research done in the South Korean Films and T.V shows should be more concentrated in US.

Article 20:- Branding is no longer a child’s play
Author:- Martin Lindstrom
The author states that Tweens will play a major role for the sales of the products in the
market. They are between the age of 8yrs to16yrs. So they should be taken into consideration
while advertising in some movies and advertisements. They have multiple personalities in them.
They use them accordingly. Author says that gaming online/offline is become a part of the life.
The placement of brand matters in games also. Every child will have many characters in his
gaming life. They change accordingly to the situation and according to their mindset. Based a
study conducted globally the author thinks that tweens attitudes are studied and they play a major
role in convincing the purchasing power. So the author says brand placement is not that easy
satisfy all the viewers and make a presence in the mind of the customer.
Article 21:
TV commercials are experiencing the zapping of channels. The consumers not only go to the
theaters to watch the films, but they also watch in DVDs, free-online movies. Most of the time
people mostly watch TV than the movies in theaters. TV product placements in popular TV
shows is more effective than advertisements during the intervals. When compared to the
movies, the product placement has higher impact than in TV shows, but it is cost-effective.

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on


Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on


Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in