RIMT-INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING&TECHNOLOGY MANDI GOBINDGARH
Report On RF Based Car Documentation Checking System
Submitted To Mr.Abhishek Sharma (HOD ECE Dept.)
Submitted By Kushagra Abhinav
This is to certify that the project report entitled “RF Based Car Documentation Checking System” which has been completed and submitted by Group no.-10, B-tech (E.C.E), 4th (7th sem) year towards the partial fulfilment of the requirement for award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION (ECE), is the bonafide work by them and has been completed under my guidance and supervision.
HoD ECE Deptt. Mr. Abhishek Sharma
Training Incharge Mr. Ravinder Pal Singh
Introduction to project
PCB Designing and Fabrication of project
Component and Project Detail
Technical Drawings & Layouts
Conclusion and Applications
“If practical knowledge carves and sharps the career of a person, practical experience polishes it and adds luster and brilliance to it.” Here, we found this golden chance to acknowledge all those people who had blessed, encouraged and supported us technically and morally through all the phases of our project. we thank almighty God for giving us this opportunity to express gratitude to all those who helped us in our project. The report of “GSM modem based message display on notice board” undertaken by “RIMT-IET” is a learning experience for us. First of all, we would like to pay our immense gratitude to Mr. Ravinder Pal Singh and Mr. Ashok Arora of RIMT-IET to undergo this training under his concern.we are also grateful to Mr. Abhishek Sharma (HOD ECE Department) RIMT-IET, Mandi Gobindgarh for providing help and giving us a chance for showing our skills through continued support and cooperation during this project. We extend our fort right thanks to our family and friends for their moral support and encouragement throughout the project .
Chapter 1:-Introduction to project
Objective: In this project we will check the documentation of customer using RFID module. In this there is no need of paper RC, driving license and other documents. Everything will be in electronics records memories. When any car will come in contact with government toll plaza or checking system, then our car RFID will transmit our car ID and documentation to that station. If we will have complete documents (RC, DRIVING LICENSE, INSURANCE AND POLLUTION CHEK) then barrier will open and will allow to car passing otherwise barrier will not open and police will catch you. Technology used:We will use GSM modem for recharging the amount in our card. On receiver end it will check our all documentations and will give response to it. We will use RF technology for this purpose. RF remote control which is built using HT12E and HT12D chips. The remote control is built using RF encoder chip HT12E that will generate different codes. These codes will be transmitted by 434 MHz RF transmitter. At the receiving side these codes will be received by 434 MHz RF receiver and decoded by RF decoder chip HT12D.In this project we show that how we design a RF information transfers. In this project we use two RF modules for wireless data transfer. IN this project we use 89s52 microcontroller as a main processor. This controller is basically a 40 pin IC. In this project we use two sensors also. ROM of 89s52 is 8k and ram is 256 byte. We are using 16*2 LCD in this project. LCD is connected to port 0 which will display the no. On receiver side RF module will give signal to microcontroller. Microcontroller is decision maker here and informer to person on duty. It will give data to LCD, buzzer and LED‟s. we will also use four LEDs for immediate action. These sensors are connected to the port p34 and port p35Pin no 40 is connected to the positive supply. In this project we provide a 5 volt dc power supply. This power supply is truly regulated power supply. Pin no 20 is connected to the negative supply. Here we supply a negative voltage on this pin. Crystal is connected to the pin no 18 and 19 of the microcontroller. Crystal provides a clock signal to run the vehicle and process all the internal requirement of the circuit. We use two sensors and these two sensors are connected to the p3.4 and p3.5 of the microcontroller. For the regulated power supply we use ic 7805 as a regulator to provide a fix 5 volt power supply. Application area:The prime application area of this project is on the toll plaza on the national highway, but we can use this system to all the parking area where it is need to check all the document of each and every car. Currently this system is being used in all the major cities parking area where security is the prime concern. This type of system can really be helpful to each and every organization parking area; this system has the major role to protect the car form being stolen.
Block diagram of Receiver LED visual INDIACTI ON 5 v dc circuit BUZZER CIRCUIT 12v DC supply
On/off LCD display Switch
Motor drive circuit
Block diagram transmitter
RF Module TX
Circuit Diagram of Receiver
Circuit Diagram of Transmitter
Chapter 2: PCB Designing and Fabrication of Project. OrCAD
OrCAD is a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for electronic design automation. The software is used mainly by electronic design engineers and electronic technicians to create electronic schematics and electronic prints for manufacturing printed circuit boards. The name OrCAD is a portmanteau, reflecting the company and its software's origins: Oregon + CAD. Founded in 1985 by John Durbetaki, Ken and Keith Seymour as “OrCAD Systems Corporation” in Hillsboro, Oregon, the company became a leading worldwide supplier of desktop electronic design automation (EDA) software. "Wouldn't it be nice if there were a CAD program that was both inexpensive and would run in the IBM Personal Computer (PC)? John Durbetaki thought so back in 1984, when he began designing an expansion chassis for the IBM PC. Durbetaki, who had left Intel Corp. after five years as an engineer and project manager, decided, along with brothers Keith and Ken Seymour, to start his own company to develop add-on instrumentation for the PC." Durbetaki began creating his own schematic capture tool for his use in the PC expansion chassis project; eventually, the hardware project was shelved entirely in favour of developing low-cost, PC-based CAD software. The company's first product was SDT (Schematic Design Tools), which shipped for the first time late in 1985.
OrCAD Capture CIS
OrCAD Capture CIS is a software tool used for circuit schematic capture. It is part of the OrCAD circuit design suite. Capture CIS is nearly identical to the similar OrCAD tool, Capture. The difference between the two tools comes in the addition of the component information system (CIS). The CIS links component information, such as printed circuit board package footprint data or simulation behaviour data, with the circuit symbol in the schematic. When exported to other tools in the
OrCAD design suite, the data stored in the CIS is also transferred to the other tool. Thus, when a design engineer exports a schematic to the circuit board layout utility, the majority of the circuit elements have footprints linked to them. This saves time for the design engineer. Capture CIS has the ability to export net lists, representative of the circuit schematic which is currently open, to the OrCAD simulation utility, PSpice. Capture CIS also exports a simulation configuration file, accessible through the simulation toolbar. This, coupled with the CIS, allows for quick simulations with data representative of how the circuit will behave. Capture may also export a net list to the SPICE simulation utility. Capture may export a hardware description of the circuit schematic that is currently open, either in Verilog or VHDL. Capture also has the ability to export net lists to several different circuit board layout utilities, such as OrCAD Layout, Allegro, and others. When combined with the CIS, circuit board footprints are linked to this net list. This, combined with the pin to pin interconnect description of the net list, will open the correct part footprints, and, if the CIS data that CIS exported is correct, will connect all of the pads together with representative lines. This feature makes the circuit board design process easier for the design engineer. Recent versions of capture also include a TCL/TK scripting functionality that allows users to execute a command through a command prompt. The command can be stored and replayed later. This allows users extensive customization and scripts can be written to automate any task possible though the graphical interface. The latest version of OrCAD also includes a marketplace much like the Android or iPhone app stores. This enables customers to get on-demand access to information, design data, and resources from across the Web, and apps both free and paid, written in TCL/TK which can be used to customize the design environment and get features and capabilities not supported by the tool.
Capture CIS Option
Capture CIS option is a part of Capture CIS that can interface with any database which complies with Microsoft's ODBC standard. Data in an MRP, ERP, or PDM system can be directly accessed for use during component decision-making process.
PSPICE is a SPICE analog circuit and digital logic simulation program for Microsoft Windows. PSPICE is an acronym for Personal computer Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis. PSPICE was the first version of UC Berkeley SPICE available on a PC, having been released in January 1984 to run on the original IBM PC. This initial version ran from two 360 KB floppy disks and later included a waveform viewer and analyser program called Probe. Subsequent versions improved on performance and moved to DEC/VAX minicomputers, Sun workstations, Apple Macintosh, and Microsoft Windows.
The Layout design flow Layout supports every phase of the design process. A typical printed circuit board design flow has five key phases: • Board-level schematic • Component placement • Board routing • Post processing • Intertool communication
Board-level schematic Using a schematic capture tool, such as OrCAD Capture, you can create a Layoutcompatible
netlist that includes preset design rules to guide logical placement and routing. This gives you the ability to specify critical design rules at the schematic level, such as component locations, net spacing criteria, component group information, net widths, and routing layers, and bring them into Layout in a netlist. If the schematic netlist changes, you can reload it. Layout‟s AutoECO (automatic engineering change order) utility updates the board without harming finished work.
Component placement Whether you choose to use Layout‟s manual placement tools, or the interactive and autoplacement utilities (available in Layout Plus only), you have ultimate control of the component placement process. You can place components individually or in groups. During autoplacement, Layout‟s shove capability moves components out of your way automatically while adhering to design rule check (DRC) guidelines. You can autoplace components individually, by area, or you can autoplace the entire board. . Board routing With Layout, you can route your board manually, or you can use Layout‟s interactive and automatic routing tools (available in Layout Plus and Layout only).Using manual routing, you guide the routing process and manually route each track.Then you optimize routing using a variety of manual routing commands.In interactive routing, you still control the routing of individual tracks, but can take advantage of Layout‟s automatic routing technologies, such as push-and-shove,which moves tracks to make space for the track you are currently routing. If you choose to use Layout‟s autorouter, you can interrupt routing at any time to manage and control the routing process. You can autoroute a single track, a selected area of the board, a group of nets, or the entire board.
Post processing In Layout, all of your output settings are stored in a spreadsheet that you can call up and revise. You can give layer-by-layer instructions for writing to Gerber files, DXF
Files, or hardcopy devices. Layout produces more than twenty standard reports, including fabrication drawings, assembly drawings, and pick-and-place reports. In addition, you can create custom reports of your own.
Intercool communication Layout has the capability to communicate interactively with OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Express using intertool communication (ITC).You can use intertool communication to communicate updated schematic information to Layout at any stage of the design process. Also, you can back annotate board data to Capture or Express from Layout.Intertool communication supports cross-probing to facilitate design analysis. If you select a signal or part in Capture or Express, the corresponding signal or part is highlighted in Layout, and vice versa.
Procedure to Develop Film and PCB Fabrication: 1. Take out the print out of the Layout of Bottom Layer from OrCAD Layout on Transparent Sheet or Butter Paper. (This will be the Positive of the Design) 2. In the Dark Room, to develop the negative, Switch off all the light and switch on the red light lamp of Film Marker Machine. Take the lith film and cut according to the positive size. Now put the positive film on the dark side of Lith film then develop the film in film marker machine: (put both film attached to each other as described above in the film marker, lock the machine, press the button or switch on the machine for 15-20 seconds). Then take out the lith film. 3. Now wash the lith film in the Sodium Carbonate and Beautile Solution about 2-3 minutes ; the film will be darken and the circuit will be develop (this is known as negative) 4. Wash the developed negative in water 1 minute. 5. To make the circuit of negative as transparent, wash the negative in fixer solution about 2-3 minutes. (This will be final negative). And dry the negative by any method (hanging in Air or in Oven). 6. Now cut the Copper sheet in accordance to negative, and clean it by using steel wool. 7. Dip the cleaned copper sheet in the dip coating machine (Photo resist)10 seconds and take out it when it will be properly squeezed.
8. Put the copper sheet in side oven for 1.5 minutes and take out when it will be little bit paste-able. 9. Now Put the Negative on the Copper sheet and Expose it under UV light (UV Exposure Machine) for 3 minutes. 10. Dip the UV exposed Copper sheet in Developer Machine for 1-2 minutes. Now circuit will be visible. 11. Wash the PCB with water under low flow (otherwise Circuit will be vanished). 12. Dip the PCB in Blue ink in Developer / Dye Machine for 10-20 seconds. (Now circuit will be visible with blue ink) 13. Put the PCB in the oven for 2 minutes. 14. Now to etch the unwanted copper put the PCB in Etching Machine until unwanted copper will be removed. 15. Clean the PCB with steel wool.
Chapter: 3 Component Detail and Working in Project.
Name STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER DIODE VOLT REGULATOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR TRANSISTOR: TRANSISTOR CAPACITOR CAPACITOR CAPACITOR MICROCONTROLLER L.C.D. VARIABLE RESISTOR RF Module GENERAL P.C.B Encoder/Decoder HT12e HT12d IC817 L.E.D Optocoupler
Value 220 – 9 VOLT AC IN 4007 7805 47K 470 ohm 1 K ohm NPN PNP 1000µF 470 µF 33 µF 89S52 2BY16. 4K7
Amount 1 8 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1
1 1 2 1 6
The flow of charge (or current) through any material, encounters an opposing force similar in many respect to mechanical friction. This opposing force is called resistance of the material. It is measured in ohms. In some electric circuits resistance is deliberately introduced in the form of the resistor. Resistors are of following types: 1. Wire wound resistors. 2. Carbon resistors. 3. Metal film resistors. 4. Wire Wound Resistors:
Wire wound resistors are made from a long (usually Ni-Chromium) wound on a ceramic core. Longer the length of the wire, higher is the resistance. So depending on the value of resistor required in a circuit, the wire is cut and wound on a ceramic core. This entire assembly is coated with a ceramic metal. Such resistors are generally available in power of 2 watts to several hundred watts and resistance values from 1ohm to 100k ohms. Thus wire wound resistors are used for high currents.
Carbon resistors are divided into three types: a. Carbon composition resistors are made by mixing carbon grains with binding material (glue) and moduled in the form of rods. Wire leads are inserted at the two ends. After this an insulating material seals the resistor. Resistors are available in power ratings of 1/10, 1/8, 1/4 , 1/2 , 1.2 watts and values from 1 ohm to 20 ohms. b. Carbon film resistors are made by deposition carbon film on a ceramic
rod. They are cheaper than carbon composition resistors. c. Cement film resistors are made of thin carbon coating fired onto a solid ceramic substrate. The main purpose is to have more precise resistance values and greater stability with heat. They are made in small square with leads.
Metal Film Resistors:
They are also called thin film resistors. They are made of a thin metal coating deposited on a cylindrical insulating support. The high resistance values are not precise in value; however, such resistors are free of inductance effect that is common in wire wound resistors at high frequency.
Potentiometer is a resistor where values can be set depending on the requirement. Potentiometer is widely used in electronics systems. Examples are volume control, tons control, brightness and contrast control of radio or T.V. sets.
These resistors are wire wound type and are used in T.V. circuits for protection. They have resistance of less than 15 ohms. Their function is similar to a fuse made to blow off whenever current in the circuit exceeds the limit.
Resistance of a wire is directly proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its thickness.
COLOUR Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Gold Silver
A capacitor can store charge, and its capacity to store charge is called capacitance. Capacitors consist of two conducting plates, separated by an insulating material (known as dielectric). The two plates are joined with two leads. The dielectric could be air, mica, paper, ceramic, polyester, polystyrene, etc. This dielectric gives name to the capacitor. Like paper capacitor, mica capacitor etc.
Types of capacitors:
Capacitors can be broadly classified in two categories, i.e., Electrolytic capacitors and NonElectrolytic capacitors as shown if the figure above.
Electrolytic capacitors have an electrolyte as a dielectric. When such an electrolyte is charged. chemical changes takes place in the electrolyte. If it‟s one plate is charged positively, same plate must be charged positively in future. We call such capacitors as polarized. Normally we see electrolytic capacitor as polarized capacitors and the leads are marked with positive or negative on the can. Non-electrolyte capacitors have dielectric material such as paper, mica or ceramic. Therefore, depending upon the dielectric, these capacitors are classified.
It is sandwich of several thin metal plates separated by thin sheets of mica. Alternate plates are connected together and leads attached for outside connections. The total assembly is encased in a plastic capsule or Bakelite case. Such capacitors have small capacitance value (50 to 500pf) and high working voltage (500V and above). The mica capacitors have excellent characteristics under stress of temperature variation and high voltage application. These capacitors are now replaced by ceramic capacitors.
Such capacitors have disc or hollow tabular shaped dielectric made of ceramic material such as titanium dioxide and barium titan ate. Thin coating of silver compounds is deposited on both sides of dielectric disc, which acts as capacitor plates. Leads are attached to each sides of the dielectric disc and whole unit is encapsulated in a moisture proof coating. Disc type capacitors have very high value up to 0.001uf. Their working voltages range from 3V to 60000V. These capacitors have very low leakage current. Breakdown voltage is very high.
It consists of thin foils, which are separated by thin paper or waxed paper. The sandwich of foil and paper is then rolled into a cylindrical shape and enclosed in a paper tube or encased in a plastic capsules. The lead at each end of the capacitor is internally attached to the metal foil. Paper capacitors have capacitance ranging from 0.0001uf to 2.0uf and working voltage rating as high as 2000V.
Diodes are polarized, which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a tyre valve). Diodes have two connections, an anode and a cathode. The cathode is always identified by a dot, ring or some other mark. The PCB is often marked with a +sign for the cathode end. Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. They are often marked with a type number. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in other. They are specialized types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED).
Integrated Circuit (IC) IC (Integrated Circuit) means that all the components of the circuit are fabricated on same chip. Digital ICs are a collection of resistors, diodes, and transistors fabricated on a single piece of semiconductor, usually silicon called a substrate, which is commonly referred to as „wafer‟. The chip is enclosed in a protective plastic or ceramic package from which pins extend out connecting the IC to other device. Suffix N or P stands for dual-in-line (plastic package (DIP)) while suffix J or I stands for dual-in-lime ceramic package. Also the suffix for W stands for flat ceramic package. The pins are numbered counter clockwise when viewed from the top of the package with respect to an identity notch or dot at one end of the chip.The manufacturer‟s name can usually be guessed from its logo that is printed on the IC. The IC type number also indicates the manufacturer‟s code. For e.g. DM 408 N SN 7404 indicates National Semiconductor and Texas Instruments. Other examples are: Fair Child National Semiconductor Motorola Sprague Signetic Burr-Brown Texas Instruments : UA, UAF : DM, LM, LH, LF, and TA. : MC, MFC. : UKN, ULS, ULX. : N/s, NE/SE, and SU. : BB. : SN.
The middle portion i.e. the IC type number tells about the IC function and also the family, which the particular IC belongs to.IC‟s that belongs to standard TTL series have an identification number that starts with 74; for e.g. 7402, 74LS04, 74S04 etc. IC‟s that belongs to standard
CMOS family their number starts with 4, like 4000, 451B, 4724B, 1400. The 74C, 74HC, 74AC & 74ACT series are newer CMOS series. Various series with TTL logic family are:Standard TTL 74. Schottky TTL 74s. Low power Schottky 74LS. Advance Schottky 74AS. Advanced Low Power Schottky 74ALs. Also there are various series with CMOS logic family as metal state CMOS 40 or 140.
LCD An HD44780 Character LCD is a de facto industry standard liquid crystal display (LCD) display device designed for interfacing with embedded systems. These screens come in a variety of configurations including 8x1, which is one row of eight characters, 16x2, and 20x4. The most commonly manufactured configuration is 40x4 characters, which requires two individually addressable HD44780 controllers with expansion chips as the HD44780 can only address up to 80 characters These LCD screens are limited to text only and are often used in copiers, fax machines, laser printers, industrial test equipment, networking equipment such as routers and storage devices. Character LCDs can come with or without backlights, which may be LED, fluorescent, or electro luminescent.
Character LCDs use a standard 14-pin interface and those with backlights have 16 pins. The pin outs are as follows: 1. Ground 2. VCC (+3.3 to +5V) 3. Contrast adjustment (VO) 4. Register Select (RS). RS=0: Command, RS=1: Data 5. Read/Write (R/W). R/W=0: Write, R/W=1: Read 6. Clock (Enable). Falling edge triggered 7. Bit 0 (Not used in 4-bit operation) 8. Bit 1 (Not used in 4-bit operation) 9. Bit 2 (Not used in 4-bit operation) 10. Bit 3 (Not used in 4-bit operation) 11. Bit 4 12. Bit 5 13. Bit 6 14. Bit 7 15. Backlight Anode (+) 16. Backlight Cathode (-) There may also be a single backlight pin, with the other connection via Ground or VCC pin. The two backlight pins may precede pin 1. The nominal backlight voltage is around 4.2V at 25˚C using a VDD 5V capable model. Character LCDs can operate in 4-bit or 8-bit mode. In 4 bit mode, pins 7 through 10 are unused and the entire byte is sent to the screen using pins 11 through 14 by sending 4-bits (nibble) at a time. The character generator ROM contains 208 characters in a 5x8 dot matrix, and 32 characters in a 5x10 dot matrix.
There is a Japanese version of the ROM which includes kana characters, and a European version which includes Cyrillic and Western European characters. The 7-bit ASCII subset for the Japanese version is non-standard: it supplies a Yen symbol where the backslash character is normally found, and left and right arrow symbols in place of tilde and the rub-out character. A limited number of custom characters can be programmed into the device in the form of a bitmap using special commands. These characters have to be written to the device each time it is switched on, as they are stored in volatile memory.
Liquid crystal display is very important device in embedded system. It offers high flexibility to user as he can display the required data on it. But due to lack of proper approach to LCD interfacing many of them fail. Many people consider LCD interfacing a complex job but according to me LCD interfacing is very easy task, you just need to have a logical approach. This page is to help the enthusiast who wants to interface LCD with through understanding. Copy and Paste technique may not work when an embedded system engineer wants to apply LCD interfacing in real world projects. You will know about the booster rockets on space shuttle. Without these booster rockets the space shuttle would not launch in geosynchronous orbit.
8051 Microcontroller Embedded system employs a combination of software & hardware to perform a specific function. It is a part of a larger system which may not be a “computer”Works in a reactive & time constrained environment. Any electronic system that uses a CPU chip, but that is not a general-purpose workstation, desktop or laptop computer is known as embedded system. Such systems generally use microprocessors; microcontroller or they may use custom-designed chips or both. They are used in automobiles, planes, trains, space vehicles, machine tools, cameras, consumer and office appliances, cell phones, PDAs and other handhelds as well as robots and toys. The uses are endless, and billions of microprocessors are shipped every year for a myriad of applications. In embedded systems, the software is permanently set into a read-only memory such as a ROM or flash memory chip, in contrast to a general-purpose computer that loads its programs into RAM each time. Sometimes, single board and rack mounted general-purpose computers are called "embedded computers" if used to cont. Embedded System Applications: Consumer electronics, e.g., cameras, cell phones etc. Consumer products, e.g. washers, microwave ovens etc. Automobiles (anti-lock braking, engine control etc.) Industrial process controller & defense applications. Computer/Communication products, e.g. printers, FAX machines etc. Medical Equipments. ATMs Aircrafts
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS:
A Microprocessor is a general purpose digital computer central processing unit(C.P.U) popularly known as CPU on the chip. The Microprocessors contain no RAM, no ROM, and no I/P O/P ports on the chip itself.
On the other hand a Microcontroller has a C.P.U(microprocessor) in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports and a timer all on a single chip. In order to make a Microprocessor functional we must add RAM, ROM, I/O Ports and timers externally to them,i.e any amount of external memory can be added to it.
But in controllers there is a fixed amount of memory which makes them ideal for many applications. The Microprocessors have many operational codes(opcodes) for moving data from external memory to the C.P.U Whereas Microcontrollers may have one or two operational codes.
DISADVANTAGES OF MICROPROCESSORS OVER MICROCONTROLLERS
System designed using Microprocessors are bulky They are expensive than Microcontrollers We need to add some external devices such as PPI chip, Memory, Timer/counter chip, Interrupt controller chip,etc. to make it functional.
Types of microcontroller architecture
There are two types of Microcontroller architecture designed for embedded system development. These are: 1)RISC- Reduced instruction set computer 2)CISC- Complex instruction set computer
Difference between CISC and RISC: CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. Most PC's use CPU based on this architecture. For instance Intel and AMD CPU's are based on CISC architectures. Typically
CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instructions. In common CISC chips are relatively slow (compared to RISC chips) per instruction, but use little (less than RISC) instructions. MCS-51 family microcontrollers based on CISC architecture. RICS stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. The philosophy behind it is that almost no one uses complex assembly language instructions as used by CISC, and people mostly use compilers which never use complex instructions. Therefore fewer, simpler and faster instructions would be better, than the large, complex and slower CISC instructions. However, more instructions are needed to accomplish a task. Atmell‟s AVR microcontroller based on RISC architecture.
History of 8051 Intel Corporation introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called 8051 in 1981 this controller had 128 bytes of RAM, 4k bytes of on chip ROM, two timers, one serial port, and four ports all are on single chip. The 8051 is an 8 bit processor, meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bit data at a time. Data larger than 8 bits broken into 8 bit pieces to be processed by CPU. It has for I/O 8 bit wide. Features of the 8051:-
Feature ROM RAM Timer I/O pins Serial port Interrupt sources
Quantity 4K bytes 128 bytes 2 32 1 6
8051 Architecture Overview The 8051 family is one of the most common microcontroller architectures used worldwide. 8051 based microcontrollers are offered in hundreds of variants from many different silicon manufacturers
The 8051 is based on an 8-bit CISC core with Harvard architecture. It's an 8-bit CPU, optimized for control applications with extensive Boolean processing (single-bit logic capabilities), 64K program and data memory address space and various on-chip peripherals. The 8051 microcontroller family offers developers a wide variety of high-integration and costeffective solutions for virtually every basic embedded control application. From traffic control equipment to input devices and computer networking products, 8051 u.c deliver high performance together with a choice of configurations and options matched to the special needs of each application. Whether it's low power operation, higher frequency performance, expanded onchip RAM, or an application-specific requirement, there's a version of the 8051 microcontroller that's right for the job. When it's time to upgrade product features and functionality, the 8051 architecture puts you on the first step of a smooth and cost-effective upgrade path - to the enhanced performance of the 151 and 251 microcontrollers.
Block diagram of 8051
Internal Architecture of 8051
Pin configuration of 8051
There are four ports P0, P1, P2 and P3 each use 8 pins, making them 8-bit ports. All the ports upon RESET are configured as output, ready to be used as output ports. To use any of these ports as an input port, it must be programmed. Port 0:- Port 0 occupies a total of 8 pins (pins 32-39) .It can be used for input or output. To use the pins of port 0 as both input and output ports, each pin must be connected externally to a 10K ohm pull-up resistor. This is due to the fact that P0 is an open drain, unlike P1, P2, and P3.Open drain is a term used for MOS chips in the same way that open collector is used for TTL chips. With external pull-up resistors connected upon reset, port 0 is configured as an output port. For example, the following code will continuously send out to port 0 the alternating values 55H and AAH Port 0 as input:- With resistors connected to port 0, in order to make it an input, the port must be programmed by writing 1 to all the bits. In the following code, port 0 is configured first as an input port by writing 1's to it, and then data is received from the port and sent to P1.
Dual Role of Port 0 :-Port 0 is also designated as AD0-AD7, allowing it to be used for both address and data. When connecting an 8051/31 to an external memory, port 0 provides both address and data. The 8051 multiplexes address and data through port 0 to save
pins. ALE indicates if P0 has address or data. When ALE = 0, it provides data D0-D7, but when ALE =1 it has address and data with the help of a 74LS373 latch. Port 1:- Port 1 occupies a total of 8 pins (pins 1 through 8). It can be used as input or output. In contrast to port 0, this port does not need any pull-up resistors since it already has pull-up resistors internally. Upon reset, Port 1 is configured as an output port. For example, the following code will continuously send out to port1 the alternating values 55h & AAh Port 1 as input:-To make port1 an input port, it must be programmed as such by writing 1 to all its bits. In the following code port1 is configured first as an input port by writing 1‟s to it, then data is received from the port and saved in R7 ,R6 & R5. Port 2 :-Port 2 occupies a total of 8 pins (pins 21- 28). It can be used as input or output. Just like P1, P2 does not need any pull-up resistors since it already has pull-up resistors internally. Upon reset, Port 2 is configured as an output port. For example, the following code will send out continuously to port 2 the alternating values 55h and AAH. That is all the bits of port 2 toggle continuously. Port 2 as input:- To make port 2 an input, it must programmed as such by writing 1 to all its bits. In the following code, port 2 is configured first as an input port by writing 1‟s to it. Then data is received from that port and is sent to P1 continuously.
Dual role of port 2:- In systems based on the 8751, 8951, and DS5000, P2 is used as simple I/O. However, in 8031-based systems, port 2 must be used along with P0 to provide the 16-bit address for the external memory. As shown in pin configuration 8051, port 2 is also designed as A8-A15, indicating the dual function. Since an 8031 is capable of accessing 64K bytes of external memory, it needs a path for the 16 bits of the address. While P0 provides the lower 8 bits via A0-A7, it is the job of P2 to provide bits A8-A15 of the address. In other words, when 8031 is connected to external memory, P2 is used for the upper 8 bits of the 16 bit address, and it cannot be used for I/O.
Port 3:- port 3 occupies a total of 8 pins, pins 10 through 17. It can be used as input or output. P3 does not need any pull-up resistors, the same as P1 and P2 did not. Although port 3 is configured as an output port upon reset. Port 3 has the additional function of providing some extremely important signals such as interrupts. This information applies both 8051 and 8031
chips. There functions are as follows:-
PORT 3 P3.0 P3.1 P3.2
Function RxD TxD ___ Int0
pin 10 11 12
P3.4 P3.5 P3.6
T0 T1 ___ WR
14 15 16
P3.0 and P3.1 are used for the RxD and TxD serial communications signals. Bits P3.2 and P3.3 are set aside for external interrupts. Bits P3.4 and P3.5 are used for timers 0 and 1. Finally P3.6 and P3.7 are used to provide the WR and RD signals of external memories connected in 8031 based systems.
ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/ 6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.
PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S8252 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.
EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming when 12-volt programming is selected.
XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
AT89s8252 AT89S8252 is an ATMEL controller with the core of intel MCS-51. It has same pin configuration as give above. The AT89S8252 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of Downloadable Flash programmable and erasable read only memory and 2K bytes of EEPROM. The device is manufactured using Atmel‟s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Downloadable Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Downloadable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S8252 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many
embedded control applications. The AT89S8252 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Downloadable Flash, 2K bytes of EEPROM, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, programmable watchdog timer, two Data Pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector twolevel interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S8252 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power Down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. The Downloadable Flash can be changed a single byte at a time and is accessible through the SPI serial interface. Holding RESET active forces the SPI bus into a serial programming interface and allows the program memory to be written to or read from unless Lock Bit 2 has been activated.
Features • Compatible with MCS-51™Products • 8K bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Downloadable Flash Memory - SPI Serial Interface for Program Downloading - Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles • 2K bytes EEPROM - Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles • 4.0V to 6V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-Level Program Memory Lock • 256 x 8 bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Three 16 bit Timer/Counters • Nine Interrupt Sources • Programmable UART Serial Channel • SPI Serial Interface • Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes
• Interrupt Recovery From Power Down • Programmable Watchdog Timer • Dual Data Pointer • Power Off Flag
Pin Description Furthermore, P1.4, P1.5, P1.6, and P1.7 can be configured as the SPI slave port select, data input/output and shift clock input/output pins as shown in the following table.
89S52 Microcontroller The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel‟s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the indus-try-standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro-grammer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero
frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.
Features • Compatible with MCS®-51 Products • 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory • 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Three 16-bit Timer/Counters • Eight Interrupt Sources • Full Duplex UART Serial Channel • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes • Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode • Watchdog Timer • Dual Data Pointer • Power-off Flag • Fast Programming Time
VCC:- Supply voltage. GND:- Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pullups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes dur-ing program verification. External pullups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2
also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped dur-ing each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALEdisable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.
Decoders(HT12d) The decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are paired with Holtek‟s series of encoders (refer to the encoder/decoder cross reference table). For proper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses. If no error or unmatched codes are found, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. The series of decoders are capable of decoding information‟s that consist of N bits of address and 12_N bits of data. Of this series, the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits, and HT12F is used to decode 12 bits of address information. Features _ Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V _ Low power and high noise immunity CMOS Technology _ Low standby current _ Capable of decoding 12 bits of information _ Binary address setting _ Received codes are checked 3 times _ Address/Data number combination _ HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data bits _ HT12F: 12 address bits only _ Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor _Valid transmission indicator _ Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission medium _ Minimal external components
Encoder (HT12E) The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. Each address/data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders. The HT12A additionally provides a 38kHz carrier for infrared systems. Features _ Operating voltage _ 2.4V~5V for the HT12A _ 2.4V~12V for the HT12E _ Low power and high noise immunity CMOS Technology _ Low standby current: 0.1_A (typ.) at VDD=5V _ HT12A with a 38 kHz carrier for infrared transmission Medium _ Minimum transmission word _ Four words for the HT12E _ One word for the HT12A _ Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor _ Data code has positive polarity _ Minimal external components _ Pair with Holtek_s 212 series of decoders _ 18-pin DIP, 20-pin SOP package Applications _ Burglar alarm system _ Smoke and fire alarm system _ Garage door controllers _ Car door controllers _ Car alarm system _ Security system _ Cordless telephones _ other remote control systems
Chapter 4: Software Module
Keil u-Vision 3.0 Keil Software is used provide you with software development tools for 8051 based microcontrollers. With the Keil tools, you can generate embedded applications for virtually every 8051 derivative. The supported microcontrollers are listed in the µ-vision KEIL PROGRAMMING STEPS Open Keil from the Start menu The Figure below shows the basic names of the windows referred in this document
Select New Project from the Project Menu
Name the project „Toggle.a51‟ Click on the Save Button.
The device window will be displayed.
Select the part you will be using to test with. For now we will use the Dallas Semiconductor part at89s52. Double Click on the Atmel Semiconductor.
Scroll down and select the at89s52 Part Click OK
Click File Menu and select New.
A new window will open up in the Keil IDE.
Copy the example to the Right into the new window. This file will Write the program.
Name the file Toggle.a51 Click the Save Button
Expand Target 1 in the Tree Menu
Click on Project and select Targets, Groups, Files…
Click on Groups/Add Files tab Under Available Groups select Source Group 1 Click Add Files to Group… button
Change file type to Asm Source file(*.a*; *.src) Click on toggle.a51 Click Add button Click Close Button Click OK button when you return to Target, Groups, Files… dialog box
Expand the Source Group 1 in the Tree menu to ensure that the file was added to the project
Click on Target 1 in Tree menu Click on Project Menu and select Options for Target 1
Select Target Tab Change Xtal (Mhz) from 50.0 to 11.0592
Select Output Tab Click on Create Hex File check box Click OK Button
Click on Project Menu and select Rebuild all Target Files In the Build Window it should report „0 Errors (s), 0 Warnings‟ You are now ready to Program your Part
Comment out line ACALL DELAY by placing a Semicolon at the beginning. This will allow you to see the port change immediately. Click on the File Menu and select Save
Click on Project Menu and select Rebuild all Target Files In the Build Window it should report „0 Errors (s), 0 Warnings‟ Click on Debug Menu and Select Start/Stop Debug Session
The Keil Debugger should be now be Running.
Click on Peripherals. Select I/O Ports, Select Port 1
A new window should port will pop up. This represent the Port and Pins
Step through the code by pressing F11 on the Keyboard. The Parallel Port 1 Box should change as you completely step through the code.
To exit out, Click on Debug Menu and Select Start/Stop Debug Session
ORG 00H AJMP START ORG 30H START: MOV LCD,#00H
MOV A,#38H ACALL COMMAND MOV A,#02
ACALL COMMAND MOV A,#01 ;CLEAR DISPLAY SCREEN
ACALL COMMAND MOV A,#0CH ACALL COMMAND MOV A,#80H ACALL COMMAND MOV DPTR,#TABLE1 ACALL DISPLAY SETB LED ;DISPLAY ERP ;MOVE CURSOR TO FIRST LINE SECOND COLOUMN ;DISPLAY ON CURSOR OFF
ACALL DELAY MOV R1,#00
MOV R0,#00 MOV R2,#00 MOV R3,#00 MOV R4,#00 MOV R5,#00 MOV A,#80H ACALL COMMAND MOV DPTR,#TABLE1 ACALL DISPLAY MOV A,#0C0H ACALL COMMAND MOV DPTR,#TABLE7 ACALL DISPLAY MAIN: ;DISPLAY ERP ;MOVE CURSOR TO FIRST LINE SECOND COLOUMN ;DISPLAY ERP ;MOVE CURSOR TO FIRST LINE SECOND COLOUMN
RET ; DISPLAY DATA ON LCD DISPLAY: CLR A MOVC A,@A+DPTR JZ NEXT ACALL WRITE JMP DISPLAY NEXT: RET WRITE: ACALL CHKBUSY MOV LCD,A SETB RS CLR RW SETB E acall delay1 CLR E RET COMMAND: ACALL CHKBUSY MOV LCD,A CLR RS CLR RW
SETB E acall delay1 CLR E RET CHKBUSY: SETB FL SETB RW CLR RS CHECK4: CLR E SETB E JB FL,CHECK4 RET
DELAY: MOV R6,#5 AGAIN: MOV R7,#2 BACK: DJNZ R7,BACK DJNZ R6,AGAIN RET TABLE1: DB 'WIRELESS CDCS',0 TABLE7: DB 'WELCOME ',0 TABLE2: DB 'RC INVALID',0 TABLE3: DB 'DRIVING LIC ERR',0 TABLE4: DB 'POLLUTION NC',0
TABLE5: DB 'INSURANCE INVALID',0 TABLE6: DB 'Eveything Clear',0 TABLE11: DB 'PAY RS.1000',0 TABLE8: DB 'PAY RS.500',0 TABLE9: DB 'PAY RS.600',0 TABLE10: DB 'PAY RS.700',0 end
Chapter 5:-Technical Drawings
Schematic Diagram for Receiver
12v D1 IN4007 T1 1
C4 R26 U6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I R Q P O N M L K J 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 R27 D4 33pf
P2.6/A14 P3.5/T1 P3.6/WR P3.7/RD P2.7/A15
R15 4.7K 5v PC117
Q2 Q1 BC548
2 3 4 3 4 3
Title <Title> Size Document Number Custom <Doc> Date: Wednesday , September 26, 2012 Sheet 1 of 1 Rev <Rev Code>
Schematic Diagram for Transmitter
D1 4.7K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H I R Q P O N M L K J 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 R3 1M LED
Higer Level Schematic Diagram for Power Supply
Higer Level Schematic Diagram for Receiver
Higer Level Schematic Diagram for Transmitter
Chapter 6:- Conclusion &Application CONCLUSION
We would like to conclude this project as a very great and enriching experience. During the project we were familiarized with soldering process. We observed that an automated device can replace good amount of human working force, moreover human are more prone to errors and in intensive condition the probability of error increases. An automated can work with diligence, versatility and with almost zero error. This project can be used in all the parking area‟s as well as in the toll gate. This project helped us to gain knowledge of hardware implementation without facing many problems. We also learned about the engineering responsibility and about their hard work. This project imparted us practical knowledge. Thus we would like to conclude our project is very useful for an individual and a very nice and wonderful experience.
Can be implemented in all the parking areas. This project will help the person to easily protect their vehicles. This project can be helpful to stop crime. This can be implemented on all the Toll gate to check all the necessary document of the vehicles.