RFID Attendance Full Document

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ABSTRACT :
RFID is an acronym for Radio Frequency Identification. RFID is one
member in the family of Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC)
technologies and is a fast and reliable means of identifying just about any material
object. This project can be applied in real time applications such as for recording the
attendance. This system can be used in big companies, industries, colleges, schools,
etc where there are many numbers of candidates available. This system helps us in
recording the attendance of a person easily within fraction of seconds. RFID is
increasingly used with biometric technologies for security. Primarily, the two main
components involved in a Radio Frequency Identification system are the Transponder
(tags that are attached to the object) and the Interrogator (RFID reader).
Communication between the RFID reader and tags occurs wirelessly and generally
doesn’t require a line of sight between the devices.
RFID tags are categorized as either active or passive. Active RFID
tags are powered by an internal battery and are typically read/write, i.e., tag data can
be rewritten and/or modified. An active tag's memory size varies according to
application requirements; some systems operate with up to 1MB of memory. Passive
RFID tags operate without a separate external power source and obtain operating
power generated from the reader. This project uses passive tags. Read-only tags are
typically passive and are programmed with a unique set of data (usually 32 to 128
bits) that cannot be modified. The reader has three main functions: energizing,
demodulating and decoding. The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and
to read and write data to it.
In this project, the RFID module reader typically contains a module
(transmitter and receiver), a control unit and a coupling element (antenna). This
module is interfaced with the micro controller and when the card is brought near to
the RFID module it reads the data in the card and displays on the LCD.
If the data in the card is matched with the data in the program memory
then it compares with that ID code and displays as “ID FOUND” along with his/her
name on the LCD. After it displays it records the time at which the person has entered
into the premises using real time clock (RTC) DS-1307. If the data is not matched then
it simply displays as “ID NOT FOUND”.
In this project as we are using an RTC, to set the current time there are two switches
provided one for entering and the other for incrementing. Then next one more switch

is provided for checking the list of the candidates present. For the data not matched it
alerts a person through a buzzer. The RFID module indicates a buzzer whenever it
reads the data from the RFID card.
The significant advantage of all types of RFID systems is the non
contact, non-line-of-sight nature of the technology. Tags can be read through a variety
of substances such as snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime, and other visually and
environmentally challenging conditions, where barcodes or other optically read
technologies would be useless. Hence this project can be very much useful and can be
implemented in real time applications for recording the attendance.
This project uses regulated 5v, 500mA power supply. 7805, a three
terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier
is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12v step down transformer. The
RFID module requires a separate +5v power supply.

SYNOPSIS:
Most educational institutions’ administrators are concerned about student
irregular attendance. Truancies can affect student overall academic performance. The
conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is
very time consuming and insecure, hence inefficient. Radio Frequency Identification
(RFID) based attendance system is one of the solutions to address this problem. This
system can be used to take attendance for student in school, college, and university. It
also can be used to take attendance for workers in working places. Its ability to
uniquely identify each person based on their RFID tag type of ID card make the
process of taking the attendance easier, faster and secure as compared to
conventional method. Students or workers only need to place their ID card on the
reader and their attendance will be taken immediately. With real time clock capability
of the system, attendance taken will be more accurate since the time for the
attendance taken will be recorded. The system can be connected to the computer
through RS232 or Universal Serial Bus (USB) port and store the attendance taken
inside database. An alternative way of viewing the recorded attendance is by using
HyperTerminal software. A prototype of the system has been successfully fabricated.
To maintain attendance of students. This system encompasses regulatory, behavioral,
and Sociological aspects of the current attendance system. In this system, each and
every staff uses the RFID cards for regular attendance. Student’s attendance is

entering by the corresponding staff; here period wise attendance is calculated. All
students and staff attendance are viewed by the department HOD’s.

EXISTING SYSTEM
Automated fingerprint identification
Automated fingerprint identification is the process of automatically
matching one or many unknown fingerprints against a database of known and
unknown prints. In this system, fingerprint is used in the identification system. A
friction ridge or also knows as a raised protion of the epidermis on the palm or
digits, is unique to each people. The basic idea behind fingerprint identification
is to capture and measure the pyshical difference between ridges and valleys
and thus help the system to identify the fingerprint. Automated fingerprint
identification systems are primarily used by law
enforcement agencies for criminal identification initiatives, the most important
of
which include identifying a person suspected of committing a crime or linking a
suspect to other unsolved crimes. Usually, electronic hardware is used to
accompany the process of identifying fingerprint.

Barcode system
Barcode system consists of an electronic hardware and software for scanning a
barcode and an optical machine-readable which represent certain data. Optical
scanners or special softwares are used to scan and read the barcode. Barcode are
widely adopted by companies to mark their products. Nowadays, various software to
generate or read barcode exist in the market. This include the online web site that
generate barcode according to the input keyed in
by the user. There are also many alternatives to read the barcode.
For example:
User can take a picture of the barcode, save it in computer and using special
software, the barcode can be read. This system is not relevant to be used in secured
area as it can be easily faked.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
Radio frequency identification (RFID) refers to the use of radio frequency wave
to identify and track the tag implanted into an object or a living thing.It is a wireless

mean of communication that use electromagnetic and electrostatic coupling in radio
frequency portion of the spectrum to communicate between reader and tag through a
variety of modulation and encoding scheme .Modulation refers to the variation in the
amplitude, frequency or phase of a high frequency carrier signal to convey
information. Encoding is a process of converting
information from one format to another. RFID system usually consists of RFID reader
and tag. It is very useful because it can uniquely identify a person or a product based
on the tag incorporated. It can be done quickly and this usually takes less than a
second. A prototype of the system has been designed and fabricated. The RFID reader
used in the system is passive
type which has maximum range of detection of around 5cm above the reader. It
operates at frequency of 125 kHz and 12V power supply. The system has ability to
uniquely identify and take attendance for persons. The users only need to place their
RFID tag on the reader to
take attendance. They do not need to go through the long list to look for their name.
Hence, it is very time efficient.Attendance will be taken if the encoded tag ID scanned
matches the tag ID stored in the memory. Otherwise, an error message will be
displayed. Attendance taken will be more accurate with the real time clock included in
the system. RS232 and Universal Serial Bus (USB) port allow the system to display the
information and attendance of a particular person on
Personal Computer (PC). The In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) pins and serial
programmer integrated in the system allow update of microcontroller firmware from
time to time. The power supply system designed will automatically switch to batteries
power if
the ac power was removed. The size of the device is considered to be small. These
two features make the system portable to be carried to class or other places

.
A. Wiegand 26-bit Format
The passive RFID reader implemented in the system uses Wiegand 26-bit protocol
format for Transistortransistor Logic input/output communication. Hence, it can
directly connect to the microcontroller. There are two outputs and one input wire from
the RFID reader. The two output wires are DATA0 (usually green) and DATA1 (usually
white). The card data are in binary

and the RFID reader just received the radio frequency (RF) signal from the tag or card,
translate it to Wiegand protocol and send the complete binary string to the
microcontroller. Then, the microcontroller will combine the strings of characters from
both data lines into the original set of binary data. The RFID reader performs no
processing or quality checking on the data received. It only receives RF signal from
tags and converts it into Wiegand format data for transmission to the microcontroller.
The format of Wiegand 26-bit and example of output
from RFID reader are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively. Wiegand refers to a
specific reader to card interface, specific binary reader to controller interface,
electronic

signal

carrying

data,

standard

26-bit

binary

card

data

format,

electromagnetic effect, or card technology. The term Wiegand format actually refers to
the general concept of security card data encoding card
format is identical in both 125kHz Proximity and 13.56MHz card to ensure any
controller capable of understanding data from 125kHz and 13.56MHz system. There
are 255 possibilities for the facility code since the equivalent decimal number for 8-bit
binary with all value equal to one is 255. There can be up to 65535 card ID numbers
since is equivalent to 65535.

Normally, there are two output data lines from the RFID reader. DATA1 line indicates
logic 1 bit while DATA0 indicates logic 0 bit. In their idle state, both lines are held high.
During data transfer, the appropriate data line will be low for 50us follow by period of
2ms. Each dip in the line represents a change from 5V to 0V, thus communicating the
bit.

B. RFID Reader and Tag
RFID reader is the device capable of extracting or reading information stored
inside RFID tags. Two types of RFID reader available are active and passive RFID
reader. Active RFID reader can detect the active RFID tag at few meters to line of

sight while passive RFID reader can only detect passive RFID tag at a few centimeters
from the reader. The RFID reader used in the system is a low cost reader for reading
passive RFID tags. It operates at frequency of 125 kHz and 12V power supply. The
effective detection range of the reader is around 5cm from the antenna. The RFID
reader is constructed based on the EM4095 RFID transponder IC. Each RFID tag will
have unique ID or serial number which makes it suitable for distinguishing among
products. Some RFID tags even contain information that can only be read by RFID
reader. There are three types of RFID tags, namely active, semi-passive and
passive RFID tag.
The main difference between these RFID tags is that active and semipassive RFID tags contain internal battery while passive RFID tags do not
have any internal battery.

C. Basic Operation
A basic RFID system usually consists of a RFID reader and RFID tag which contain a
coil that serves as antenna for transmitting and receiving signals as shown in Fig. 3.
All kinds of RFID system operate using similar concept. RFID readers generate radio
wave that reaches the RFID
tags. Then, RFID tags use backscatter technology to reflect back the radio wave which
has been combined with the data through modulation to the reader .

INTRODUCTION:

Our final year project is RFID based Attendance cum Security System. This idea
came to my mind when I saw our lecturers taking the attendance of 100s of students
very hardly. We thought we can integrate the RFID based Security System with
attendance system as well. That what our final year project is doing.In a very
interesting article, the San Jose Mercury News tells us about Charles Walton, the man
behind the radio frequency identification technology (RFID). Since his first patent
about it in 1973, Walton, now 83 years old, collected about $3 million from royalties
coming from his patents. Unfortunately for him, his latest patent about RFID expired in
the mid-1990s. So he will not make any money from the billions of RFID tags that will
appear in the years to come. But he continues to invent and his latest patent about a
proximity card with incorporated PIN code protection was granted in June 2004.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is more widely used to facilitate common
day-today activities due to new developments in processing, wider reading ranges,
and larger
memory capacities, making it a key contributor to the growth of the radio technology
industry. RFID is almost indispensable when it comes to tasks that include automated
data capture and identification applications, where a contact less identification is
possible through RF signals. Many large corporations are interested in research and
development within the field of RFID due to potential growth in various RFID
applications. The people management system is an application where masses data
need to be collected and managed in a short duration. RFID is an automated data
collection technology in which radio communication for data transfer across two
entities: a reader and a tag. The tag has two sections: one for radio communication
and other for data storage. The tags are broadly classified into 3 categories namely
active, passive and semi passive. The active tags have an internal power source e.g. a
battery, which limits the life time. A passive tag doesn’t have a power source and
obtain the energy from the magnetic field of the reader. These types of tags are
smaller, cheaper and can be used for long time. The scope of the paper is limited to
passive tags. The functionality of RFID Passive tags is very simple. When a tag comes
in the vicinity of the reader, it detects the radio signals generated by the reader and
start to transmit the data stored in the memory. The radio signal generated by the
reader offers the power needed to function and the synchronization data for
communication between two entities. RFID has emerged as a key technology for
automatic data collection and has been adapted for various applications. This paper
presents the adoption of this technology for attendance monitoring.

SYSTEM ANALYSIS:
RFID is short for Radio Frequency Identification. Generally a RFID system consists
of 2 parts. A Reader, and one or more Transponders, also known as Tags. RFID
systems evolved from barcode labels as a means to automatically identify and track
products and people. You will be generally familiar with RFID systems as seen in:


Access Control.
RFID Readers placed at entrances that require a person to pass their proximity
card (RF tag) to be "read' before the access can be made.



Contact

less

Payment

Systems.

RFID tags used to carry payment information. RFIDs are particular suited to
electronic Toll collection systems. Tags attached to vehicles, or carried by
people transmit payment information to a fixed reader attached to a Toll station.
Payments are then routinely deducted from a users account, or information is
changed directly on the RFID tag.


Product Tracking and Inventory Control.
RFID systems are commonly used to track and record the movement of ordinary
items such as library books, clothes, factory pallets, electrical goods and
numerous items.

 How do RFIDs work.
Shown below is a typical RFID system. In every RFID system the transponder Tags
contain information. This information can be as little as a single binary bit , or be a
large array of bits representing such things as an identity code, personal medical
information, or literally any type of information that can be stored in digital binary
format. Shown is a RFID transceiver that communicates with a passive Tag. Passive
tags have no power source of their own and instead derive power from the incident
electromagnetic field. Commonly the heart of each tag is a microchip. When the Tag
enters the generated RF field it is able to draw enough power from the field to
access its internal memory and transmit its stored information.

When the

transponder Tag draws power in this way the resultant interaction of the RF fields
causes the voltage at the transceiver antenna to drop in value. This effect is utilized
by the Tag to communicate its information to the reader. The Tag is able to control
the amount of power drawn from the field and by doing so it can modulate the
voltage sensed at the Transceiver according to the bit pattern it wishes to transmit.

SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT:
Hardware Specification


Intel Pentium IV



256/512 MB RAM



1 GB Free disk space or greater



1 GB on Boot Drive



17” XVGA display monitor



1 Network Interface Card (NIC)

Software Environment


MS Windows XP/2000



MS IE Browser 6.0/later



MS Dot Net Framework 2.0



Internet Information Server (IIS)



MS SQL Server 2000



Language :VB.NET

COMPONENTS OF RFID
A basic RFID system consist of three components:


An antenna or coil



A transceiver (with decoder)



A transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information

These are described below:
1. ANTENNA
The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and read and write data to it.
Antennas are the conduits between the tag and the transceiver, which controls the
system's data acquisition and communication. Antennas are available in a variety of
shapes and sizes; they can be built into a door frame to receive tag data from persons
or things passing through the door, or mounted on an interstate tollbooth to monitor
traffic passing by on a freeway. The electromagnetic field produced by an antenna can
be constantly present when multiple tags are expected continually. If constant
interrogation is not required, a sensor device can activate the field.
Often the antenna is packaged with the transceiver and decoder to become a reader
(a.k.a. interrogator), which can be configured either as a handheld or a fixed-mount
device. The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet
or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. When an
RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation

signal. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon
chip) and the data is passed to the host computer for processing.

2. TAGS (Transponders)

An RFID tag is comprised of a microchip containing identifying information and an
antenna that transmits this data wirelessly to a reader. At its most basic, the chip will
contain a serialized identifier, or license plate number, that uniquely identifies that
item, similar to the way many bar codes are used today. A key difference, however is
that RFID tags have a higher data capacity than their bar code counterparts. This
increases the options for the type of information that can be encoded on the tag,
including the manufacturer, batch or lot number, weight, ownership, destination and
history (such as the temperature range to which an item has been exposed). In fact,
an unlimited list of other types of information can be stored on RFID tags, depending
on application needs. An RFID tag can be placed on individual items, cases or pallets
for identification purposes, as well as on fixed assets such as trailers, containers,
totes, etc.
Tags come in a variety of types, with a variety of capabilities. Key variables
include:
"Read-only" versus "read-write"

There are three options in terms of how data can be encoded on tags: (1) Read-only
tags contain data such as a serialized tracking number, which is pre-written onto them
by the tag manufacturer or distributor. These are generally the least expensive tags
because they cannot have any additional information included as they move
throughout the supply chain. Any updates to that information would have to be
maintained in the application software that tracks SKU movement and activity. (2)
"Write once" tags enable a user to write data to the tag one time in production or
distribution processes. Again, this may include a serial number, but perhaps other
data such as a lot or batch number. (3) Full "read-write" tags allow new data to be
written to the tag as needed—and even written over the original data. Examples for
the latter capability might include the time and date of ownership transfer or updating
the repair history of a fixed asset. While these are the most costly of the three tag
types and are not practical for tracking inexpensive items, future standards for
electronic product codes (EPC) appear to be headed in this direction.

RFID TAGS

Data capacity
The amount of data storage on a tag can vary, ranging from 16 bits on the low
end to as much as several thousand bits on the high end. Of course, the greater the
storage capacity, the higher the price per tag.

Form factor
The tag and antenna structure can come in a variety of physical form factors
and can either be self-contained or embedded as part of a traditional label structure

(i.e., the tag is inside what looks like a regular bar code label—this is termed a 'Smart
Label') companies must choose the appropriate form factors for the tag very carefully
and should expect to use multiple form factors to suit the tagging needs of different
physical products and units of measure. For example, a pallet may have an RFID tag
fitted only to an area of protected placement on the pallet itself. On the other hand,
cartons on the pallet have RFID tags inside bar code labels that also provide operators
human-readable information and a back-up should the tag fail or pass through non
RFID-capable supply chain links.

Passive versus active
“Passive” tags have no battery and "broadcast" their data only when energized
by a reader. That means they must be actively polled to send information. "Active"
tags are capable of broadcasting their data using their own battery power. In general,
this means that the read ranges are much greater for active tags than they are for
passive tags—perhaps a read range of 100 feet or more, versus 15 feet or less for
most passive tags. The extra capability and read ranges of active tags, however,
come with a cost; they are several times more expensive than passive tags. Today,
active tags are much more likely to be used for high-value items or fixed assets such
as trailers, where the cost is minimal compared to item value, and very long read
ranges are required. Most traditional supply chain applications, such as the RFIDbased tracking and compliance programs emerging in the consumer goods retail
chain, will use the less expensive passive tags.
Frequencies
Like all wireless communications, there are a variety of frequencies or spectra
through which RFID tags can communicate with readers. Again, there are trade-offs
among cost, performance and application requirements. For instance, low-frequency
tags are cheaper than ultra high-frequency (UHF) tags, use less power and are better
able to penetrate non-metallic substances. They are ideal for scanning objects with
high water content, such as fruit, at close range. UHF frequencies typically offer better
range and can transfer data faster. But they use more power and are less likely to
pass through some materials. UHF tags are typically best suited for use with or near
wood, paper, cardboard or clothing products. Compared to low-frequency tags, UHF
tags might be better for scanning boxes of goods as they pass through a bay door into
a warehouse. While the tag requirements for compliance mandates may be narrowly

3.

defined, it is likely that a variety of tag types will be required to solve specific
operational issues. You will want to work with a company that is very knowledgeable
in tag and reader technology to appropriately identify the right mix of RFID technology
for your environment and applications.

EPC Tags
EPC refers to "electronic product code," an emerging specification for RFID tags,
readers and business applications first developed at the Auto-ID Center at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This organization has provided significant
intellectual leadership toward the use and application of RFID technology. EPC
represents a specific approach to item identification, including an emerging standard
for the tags themselves, including both the data content of the tag and open wireless
communication protocols. In a sense, the EPC movement is combining the data
standards embodied in certain bar code specifications, such as the UPC or UCC-128
bar code standards, with the wireless data communication standards that have been
developed by ANSI and other groups.

RF Transceiver:
The RF transceiver is the source of the RF energy used to activate and power
the passive RFID tags. The RF transceiver may be enclosed in the same cabinet as the
reader or it may be a separate piece of equipment. When provided as a separate
piece of equipment, the transceiver is commonly referred to as an RF module. The RF
transceiver controls and modulates the radio frequencies that the antenna transmits
and receives. The transceiver filters and amplifies the backscatter signal from a
passive RFID tag.
SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION:
FRONT-END
VB.NET
Visual Basic .NET is designed around the .NET Framework, which provides
enhanced security, memory management, versioning, and deployment support.
The .NET Framework also enables interoperability between objects you create with
any .NET programming language. This means you can create objects with Visual Basic

.NET that are easy to use from other .NET languages, and you can use objects from
other .NET languages just like you use objects created with Visual Basic .NET.
 ASSEMBLIES
Assemblies form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse,
activation scoping, and security permissions for a .NET-based application. Assemblies
take the form of an executable (.exe) file or dynamic link library (.dll) file, and are the
building blocks of the .NET Framework. They provide the common language runtime
with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. You can think of an
assembly as a collection of types and resources that form a logical unit of functionality
and are built to work together.
With Visual Basic .NET, you use the contents of assemblies, and add references
to them, in much the same way as you use type libraries with previous versions of
Visual Basic. What makes assemblies different from .exe or .dll files in earlier versions
of Windows, however, is that they contain all the information you would find in a type
library, plus information about everything else necessary to use the application or
component.

 ASSEMBLY MANIFEST
Within every assembly is an assembly manifest. Similar to a table of contents, the
assembly manifest contains the following:


The assembly's identity (its name and version).



A file table describing all the other files that make up the assembly, including,
for example, any other assemblies you created that your .exe or .dll file relies on,
or even bitmap or Read me files.



An assembly reference list, which is a list of all external dependencies — .dlls or
other files your application needs that may have been created by someone else.
Assembly references contain references to both global and private objects. Global
objects reside in the global assembly cache, an area available to other
applications, somewhat like the System32 directory. The Microsoft.VisualBasic
namespace is an example of an assembly in the global assembly cache. Private
objects must be in a directory at either the same level as or below the directory in
which your application is installed.

Because

assemblies

contain

information

about

content,

versioning,

and

dependencies, the applications you create with Visual Basic .NET do not rely on
registry values to function properly. Assemblies reduce DLL conflicts and make your
applications more reliable and easier to deploy. In many cases, you can install a .NETbased application simply by copying its files to the target computer.
 REFERENCES AND THE IMPORTS STATEMENT
You can make external objects available to your project by choosing the Add
Reference command from the Project menu. References in Visual Basic .NET can point
to assemblies, which are like type libraries but contain more information.
Assemblies include one or more namespaces. When you add a reference to an
assembly, you can also add an Imports statement to a module that controls the
visibility of that assembly's namespaces within the module. The Imports statement
provides a scoping context that lets you use only the portion of the namespace
necessary to supply a unique reference.
The Imports statement has the following syntax:
Im p orts [| alias name =] Namespace
Alias name refers to a short name you can use within code to refer to an imported
namespace. Namespace is a namespace available through either a project reference,
through a definition within the project, or through a previous Imports statement.
A module may contain any number of Imports statements. They must appear after
any Option statements, if present, but before any other code.
Note: Do not confuse project references with the Imports statement or the Declare
statement. Project references make external objects, such as objects in assemblies,
available to Visual Basic .NET projects. The Imports statement is used to simplify
access to project references, but does not provide access to these objects. The
Declare statement is used to declare a reference to an external procedure in a
dynamic-link library (DLL).
 USING ALIASES WITH THE IMPORTS STATEMENT
The Imports statement makes it easier to access methods of classes by
eliminating the need to explicitly type the fully qualified names of references. Aliases
let you assign a friendlier name to just one part of a namespace. For example, the
carriage return-line feed sequence that causes a single piece of text to be displayed
on multiple lines is part of the Control Chars class in the Microsoft.VisualBasic

namespace. To use this constant in a program without an alias, you would need to
type the following code:
MsgBox ("Some text" & Microsoft.VisualBasic.ControlChars.crlf _
& "Some more text")
Imports statements must always be the first lines immediately following any Option
statements in a module. The following code fragment shows how to import and assign
an alias to the Microsoft.VisualBasic.ControlChars namespace:
Imports CtrlChrs=Microsoft.VisualBasic.ControlChars
Future references to this namespace can be considerably shorter:
MsgBox ("Some text" & CtrlChrs.crlf & "Some more text")
If an Imports statement does not include an alias name, elements defined within the
imported namespace can be used in the module without qualification. If the alias
name is specified, it must be used as a qualifier for names contained within that
namespace.

 NAMESPACES
Namespaces organize the objects defined in an assembly. Assemblies can
contain multiple namespaces, which can in turn contain other namespaces.
Namespaces prevent ambiguity and simplify references when using large groups of
objects such as class libraries.
For

example,

Visual

Studio

.NET

defines

the

List

Box

class

in

the

System.Windows.Forms namespace. The following code fragment shows how to
declare a variable using the fully qualified name for this class:
Dim LBox as System.Windows.Forms.ListBox
Visual Studio .NET namespaces address a problem sometimes known as
namespace pollution, in which the developer of a class library is hampered by the use
of similar names in another library. These conflicts with existing components are
sometimes called name collisions.
For example, if you create a new class named List Box, you can use it inside
your project without qualification. However, if you want to use the Visual Studio .NET
List Box class in the same project, you must use a fully qualified reference to make

the reference unique. If the reference is not unique, Visual Basic .NET produces an
error stating that the name is ambiguous.
By default, every executable file you create with Visual Basic .NET contains a
namespace with the same name as your project. For example, if you define an object
within a project named ListBoxProject, the executable file, ListBoxProject.exe, contains
a namespace called ListBoxProject.
Multiple assemblies can use the same namespace. Visual Basic .NET treats them
as a single set of names. For example, you can define classes for a namespace called
Some Namespace in an assembly named Assemb1, and define additional classes for
the same namespace from an assembly named Assemb2.
 FULLY QUALIFIED NAMES
Fully qualified names are object references that are prefixed with the name of
the namespace where the object is defined. You can use objects defined in other
projects if you create a reference to the class (by choosing Add Reference from the
Project menu) and then use the fully qualified name for the object in your code.
Fully qualified names prevent naming conflicts because the compiler can always
determine which object is being used. However, the names themselves can get long
and cumbersome. To get around this, you can use the Imports statement to define an
alias — an abbreviated name you can use in place of a fully qualified name.
If you use the Imports statement without an alias, you can use all the names in
that namespace without qualification provided they are unique to the project. If your
project contains Imports statements for namespaces that contain items with the
same name, you must fully qualify that name when you use it.
If you attempt to use Class1 without fully qualifying it, Visual Basic .NET
produces an error stating that the name Class1 is ambiguous.
 NAMESPACE LEVEL STATEMENTS
Within a namespace, you can define items such as modules, interfaces, classes,
delegates, enumerations, structures, and other namespaces. You cannot define items
such as properties, procedures, variables and events at the namespace level, these
items must be declared within containers such as modules, structures, or classes.

 ATTRIBUTES
Attributes are keyword-like tags in which you can specify additional information
about entities defined in Visual Basic .NET applications. Attributes, which are saved
with an assembly's metadata, annotate programming elements such as types, fields,
methods, and properties. Other applications, such as the Visual Basic .NET or ASP.NET
compilers, can refer to the information in attributes to determine how objects should
be used.
The following sections provide more information about attributes and how they
are defined, applied, and retrieved.
 ATTRIBUTES OVERVIEW
Attributes are descriptive tags that provide additional information about
programming elements such as types, fields, methods, and properties. Other
applications, such as the Visual Basic compiler, can refer to the extra information in
attributes to determine how these items can be used.
 ATTRIBUTES AND METADATA
Attributes are saved with the metadata of Visual Basic .NET assemblies.
Metadata is information that describes every element managed by the runtime. This
includes information required for debugging and garbage collection, as well as
security attributes, marshaling data, extended class and member definitions, version
binding, and any other information the runtime requires.
With attributes, you specify the metadata in much the same way as you use
keywords like Public and Private to provide information about access levels.
However, unlike keywords, most attributes are not language-specific. Using attributes,
you can extend the capabilities of the Visual Basic language without requiring changes
to the compiler.

 FUNCTIONALITY AND CAPABILITIES OF ATTRIBUTES
Some key points about attributes include:



You can apply one or more attributes to entire assemblies, modules, or smaller
program elements such as classes and properties.



Attributes can accept arguments in the same way as methods and properties.



Attributes fall into two groups: those that are used by the .NET Framework and
Visual Basic .NET, and custom attributes that are meaningful only to specific
applications.



While the .NET Framework contains many useful attributes, you can define your
own custom attributes if necessary.



Custom attributes are defined in attribute classes based on the System.
Attribute class. Attribute classes themselves use Attribute Usage to provide
additional information about how the attribute can be used.



The process of retrieving metadata from attributes is called reflection. Reflection
involves using tools that allow objects to retrieve and examine metadata about
their own members.

ABOUT OS
WINDOWS XP PROFESSIONAL SP2
Install Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) to better defend against
viruses, worms, and hackers. Its enhanced security infrastructure provides increased
manageability and control for IT professionals and an improved experience
for Windows XP users.
Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) provides new proactive security
technologies for Windows XP, to better defend against viruses, worms, and hackers. In
addition to a more robust security infrastructure, SP2 improves the security
configuration options of Windows XP, and provides better security information to help
users faced with security decisions.
TOP 10 REASONS TO DEPLOY WINDOWS XP SERVICE PACK2


INTRODUCTION



PROACTIVE PROTECTION



COMPATIBILITY



IMPROVED MANAQEABILITY



WINDOWS FIREWALL



BLOCKING POP-UPS



INTERNET EXPLORER



UPDATES



WIRELESS



MORE NEW TECHNOLOGIES

 INTRODUCTION
There’s a lot of information elsewhere on Microsoft.com, highlighting the
business benefits of Windows XP, the consumer benefits of SP2, the important
security enhancements it contains, and so on. But what seemed to be missing was an
article written from the perspective of the IT pro, on what admins and, well, “noncasual” users should expect from this super-size (266 MB!) update. This article looks
at the changes in Windows XP SP2 that affect IT pros, and why we think you will find it
a worthwhile update. This service pack has an impact on everything from web
browsing to wireless networking. But make no mistake: Windows XP SP2 is, first and
foremost, about helping you stay secure. So let’s start there.
 PROACTIVE PROTECTION
You’ve probably heard the marketing message: “Service Pack 2 for Windows XP
delivers proactive protection against malicious code by blocking exploits at the
point of entry as opposed to simply focusing on patching known vulnerabilities.” For
the technically inclined, this means that Windows XP SP2 recompiles many core
system binaries with a new GS flag that helps mitigate buffer overruns. This, in fact, is
the main reason the service pack is so big—and the newly compiled code optimizes
performance in many instances, as well. Windows XP SP2 introduces for the first time,
support for the NX “no-execute” flag that, with a supported CPU (currently, AMD's K8

and Intel Itanium), provides enhanced protection against memory-based attacks, by
preventing code that has been injected via a buffer overrun attack on a data page
from executing.
There’s proactive protection aimed at users of more mainstream CPUs, too:
Windows XP SP2 gets you all the bits for SP1, as well as all service bulletin updates
through MS04-25. The overall attack surface area is significantly reduced, with
changes to core Windows components such as DCOM and RPC.
Outlook Express, Internet Explorer and Windows Messenger have all been
updated with the ability to identify and isolate malicious file attachments as they are
being opened.
And, as discussed in more detail below, pop-up blocking is now available,
providing further protection against this form of annoying and occasionally malicious
intrusion.
 COMPATIBILITY
Compatibility. Every IT pro knows it: there always seem to be a few
unforeseen compatibility issues when service packs are deployed. There’s already
been wide trade-press coverage of compatibility issues discovered—embarrassingly,
rather late in the beta process—with Microsoft’s own CRM software and the popular
Halo game. Fortunately, these issues have already been resolved (see the products’
respective websites), as have a few other snags with third-party firewalls and other
tools. But the lesson remains: IT pros need to be cautious and methodical when rolling
out this, or any new software update. Fortunately, we’ve put together a terrific library
of documentation, Knowledge Base articles and deployment guides to help you roll
out Windows XP SP2 efficiently. Be sure to check out the IT Pro Portal on TechNet,
where these guides will help you get started.
The good news is: this service pack has already been tested by literally
hundreds of thousands of beta testers, in a vast array of hardware and software
environments, and the feedback and fixes incorporated into the final release. Indeed,
many of the very best programmers at Microsoft were pulled off other projects to give
Windows XP SP2 the quality and polish it deserves. Sure, it was delayed a few times.
It’s no secret that recent rounds of worms and network-borne attacks made this a top

priority for the company and, as a result, Windows XP SP2 evolved into a much more
security-centric update than was originally planned.
As you might know, Microsoft has been encouraging its employees and partners
to use the beta releases of Windows XP SP2 since the earliest release candidates
became available. The TechNet team has been tracking user feedback about Windows
XP SP2 for months and we have seen remarkably few issues. You should still carefully
test your mission-critical systems before rolling out Windows XP SP2 across your
enterprise, but the feedback we’ve received about the last few release candidates has
been incredibly encouraging.

 IMPROVED MANAQEABILITY
Windows XP Service Pack 2 provides improved manageability of security
settings with 609 new Active Directory Group Policy Objects specific to security
configuration
Run gpedit.msc and you’ll find some interesting new entries in the list of
Administrative Templates, including a whole new category of “Attachment Manager”
entries allowing admins to control, for example, the default risk level for file
attachments, the inclusion list for high-risk file types, and so on. You can also elect to
“notify antivirus programs when opening attachments,” using these new SP2-specific
entries.
4. There’s more and better security information for users, so that when
faced with a trust decision, the user is more likely to take an action that preserves his
or her privacy and security.
Windows XP SP2 significantly changes the default behavior of Web pages with
ActiveX scripts and other executable code to advise the user of possible risks.
In addition to the obvious-to-some basics, such as information on recommended
security essentials (in short: use a firewall, install critical updates, and keep antivirus
software up to date), the new Security Center Control Panel explains less obvious
details, such as why—and, in brief, how—security settings on corporate computers are
managed by a network administrator when the computer is part of a domain.

Incidentally, the red “alert” shield that appears by default in the system tray
when an unrecognized anti-virus package is used, automatic updates are disabled or
the firewall is turned off, can be reconfigured or disabled, if you wish. Here's how: Go
into the "Security Center" under the Control Panel. There, you’ll find a link on the left
under "Resources" that says "Change the way Security Center alerts me." Uncheck the
appropriate alert type. This feature, too, can be controlled or access to it disabled via
Group Policy.
 WINDOWS FIREWALL
The new Windows Firewall is on by default and enabled even before the network
starts up, as Windows XP SP2 boots. It’s another important security feature that gains
even more functionality in the domain environment, where firewall profiles for mobile
scenarios can be configured using Group Policy—a feature of Windows 2000 Server
and Windows Server 2003 that is built on Active Directory—to accommodate dual
configuration profiles on systems that are members of a domain. For enterprise users
of notebooks or Tablet PCs, this is incredibly useful.
With that said, there are still some reasons you might want a more full-featured
firewall – almost no outbound traffic checking is performed, and all machines on the
local subnet are trusted, but if you know anything about firewalls, you’ll also know
that these features are also much less likely to cause users to want to turn off the
firewall, or worse, go running to the Helpdesk for support. In short, the new firewall is
advanced enough to easily allow you to custom-configure open ports for UDP
traffic, instant messaging and the like, but secure enough (and turned on by default)
to block common attack vectors.
In our tests, the Windows XP SP2 Firewall passed the Shields Up test at GRC.com
with a perfect “Trustiest” rating. Not a single packet – solicited or otherwise – was
received from TechNet’s Windows XP SP2-updated test system as a result of GRC’s
security probing tests. See GRC for details on how these tests work and what these
results mean. From the standpoint of the hacker, the machine looks like it does not
even exist on the Internet. In short, passing this test is a very good thing.
And yes, you can use a third-party firewall if you’d rather, although there are
some known issues with a few third-party firewalls not being recognized by the
Windows Security Center if they are used in place of the new Windows Firewall. Even

when it’s not recognized by the Security Center, most third-party firewalls will work as
they should.
By supporting the new Security Center APIs in Windows XP SP2, security
software vendors can make their products work even more seamlessly with the
Security Center’s management interface. It’s also worth mentioning that it’s possible
to centrally configure Windows Firewall on all the workstations on your network, to
customize the operational mode and exception list entries.
See the Windows Firewall articles on our IT Pro Portal page to learn more about
this powerful new feature and how to modify its settings before or after installation.
 BLOCKING POP-UPS
Automatic blocking of internet pop-ups. Pop-ups are more than a nuisance;
they are another common attack vector and the pop-up blocking capabilities of SP2
are important to maintain the security that is expected of Microsoft products.
The new Pop-up Manager feature in the Windows XP Service Pack 2 release of Internet
Explorer is turned off by default, but it’s a feature most users will probably want to
enable.
 INTERNET EXPLORER
. Windows XP SP2 provides enhanced protection against spoofing and phishing
attacks with changes to Internet Explorer. A more secure IE infrastructure includes
changes to object caching, binary behaviors, mime handling, zone elevation, etc.
When

you’ve

installed

Windows

XP

SP2,

you’re

protected

against

critical

vulnerabilities described in critical update bulletins through MS04-25, updated Aug. 1,
2004. IE includes a new locked-down Local Machine security zone to help prevent
malicious scripts and other dangerous Web downloads from compromising the system.
Oh, and by the way: the Windows Messenger Service (you know, the network
administration tool that has been exploited by spammers) is switched off by default.
There are restrictions on the size and position of pop-up windows in IE,
regardless of the Pop-up Manager setting: Pop-up windows cannot be opened larger
than or outside the viewable desktop area. You can also centrally manage IE add-ons,
to enable or disable browser extensions, browser helper objects and ActiveX controls
using an easy graphical interface. Most of us would agree, that’s A Good Thing.

 UPDATES
It’s easier to keep Windows up to date. There have been significant
improvements to the Automatic Updates service and Background Intelligent Transfer
Service (BITS) as used by the Windows Update Web site. These services are designed
to minimize impact to the user’s computing experience. Automatic Updates can
automatically keep a machine up to date with security updates, while BITS enables
background downloading of the updates to minimize bandwidth impact on other
Internet activities. A couple of examples of how the Windows Update Web site takes
advantage of these services are to leverage the download that Automatic Updates has
already started/completed and to resume a download after an Internet connection was
dropped.
Windows Update leverages a secure connection over the Internet by sending
data about the computer and receiving information about which updates are
applicable to the computer over HTTPS. Further, these services do not have remoteable interfaces nor do they listen on any ports.
 WIRELESS
Easier wireless configuration. In versions of Windows XP prior to SP2, the
wireless configuration dialog boxes only displayed the name of the network and
whether it was an infrastructure mode or ad hoc mode network. Now, the
configuration details are more discoverable, and easier to manage.
However, some users moving directly from the original release of Windows XP
might be disoriented by the many changes made in the wireless configuration panels
since that release. For example, in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (and Windows XP
with Service Pack 1), the Authentication tab has been moved to the properties of a
wireless network. To access it, do the following:

 MORE NEW TECHNOLOGIES
We haven’t touched upon many of the service pack’s other components,
including support for new technologies such as DirectX 9.0c, Bluetooth, Media
Player 9, etc. See the Windows XP section for more about these features. One point IT
pros may find interesting: the 266 MB (network installer) version of SP2 contains all

the bits necessary to update the OS on a Tablet PC to the Tablet PC 2005 release codenamed “Lone star”. This release is compatible with Windows-based desktops,
portables, tablets and Windows Media Center PCs.

BACK-END
SQL SERVER 2000
SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard computer language
for accessing and manipulating database systems. SQL statements are used to
retrieve and update data in a database. SQL works with database programs like MS
Access, DB2, Informix, MS SQL Server, Oracle, Sybase, etc.
SQL Database Tables
A database most often contains one or more tables. Each table is identified by a name
(e.g. "Customers" or "Orders"). Tables contain records (rows) with data.
SQL Queries
With SQL, we can query a database and have a result set returned.
SELECT - extracts data from a database table
UPDATE - updates data in a database table
DELETE - deletes data from a database table
INSERT INTO - inserts new data into a database table
CREATE TABLE - creates a new database table
ALTER TABLE - alters (changes) a database table
DROP TABLE - deletes a database table
CREATE INDEX - creates an index (search key)
DROP INDEX - deletes an index
SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML)

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a syntax for executing queries. But the SQL
language also includes a syntax to update, insert, and delete records.
SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML)
SQL (Structured Query Language) is a syntax for executing queries. But the SQL
language also includes a syntax to update, insert, and delete records.
The Result Set
The result from a SQL query is stored in a result-set. Most database software systems
allow navigation of the result set with programming functions, like: Move-To-FirstRecord, Get-Record-Content, Move-To-Next-Record, etc.
Semicolon after SQL Statements?
Semicolon is the standard way to separate each SQL statement in database systems
that allow more than one SQL statement to be executed in the same call to the server.
Some SQL tutorials end each SQL statement with a semicolon. Is this necessary? We
are using MS Access and SQL Server 2000 and we do not have to put a semicolon
after each SQL statement, but some database programs force you to use it.
Modern SQL Servers are built on RDBMS.
DBMS - Database Management System
A Database Management System (DBMS) is a computer program that can access data
in a database.
The DBMS program enables you to extract, modify, or store information in a database.
Different DBMS programs provides different functions for querying data, reporting
data, and modifying data.
RDBMS - Relational Database Management System
A Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is a Database Management
System (DBMS) where the database is organized and accessed according to the
relationships between data.

RDBMS was invented by IBM in the early 1970's.
RDBMS is the basis for SQL, and for all modern database systems like Oracle, SQL
Server, IBM DB2, Sybase, MySQL, and Microsoft Access.
SYSTEM DESIGN:

 Module Description
Admin section








Staff Module
Student Module
Management Module
RFID reader module
Library Management Module
Placement Module



Student Module(or)staff module :

The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433.92MHz with a range of
approximately few meters
(i)
(ii)
(iii)


It accepts both linear and digital inputs
It can operate from 1.5 to 12 Volts-DC
It is approximately the size of a standard postage stamp.

Management Module:
It is nothing but, our database, it’s developed by vb .dotnet s\w

and its
Output depends upon signals (RF) from our PC’s com port that is
connected
to RF reader…


RFID reader module:

( i)

It also operates at 433.92MHz, and has a sensitivity of 3uV.

(ii)

It operates from 4.5 to 5.5 volts-DC,
(iii)

It has both linear and digital outputs.

SYSTEM TESTING AND MAINTANENCE:
RFID Based Attendance System Test Result Based on the design explained in the
Software Development section, RFID Based Attendance System’s initial state will be
waiting for the student to put his/her ID on the RFID Reader. The LCD will display a
message ”Please Put your ID on the reader” while waiting for an input from the RFID
Reader. This state is called standby mode. It do nothing except waiting for a signal
from the RFID Reader.

Figure 4.2: RFID Based Attendance System Standby Mode.
4.3 Test On Samples In Standby Mode, the UART flag, RCIF is in active low, which
indicate that no signal is coming from the RFID Reader. When a student put his/her
card on the reader, the RCIF flag will turn to active high and the microcontroller will
process the signal sent by the RFID Reader. During the process, the system will
display a message ”Identfying, Please Wait” on LCD.

Figure 4.3: Identifying the ID.
After the microcontroller processed and identify the data sent by the RFID reader, it
will display the ID and name of the student on LCD. If it doesn’t match any data stored
inside the

microcontroller, it will display a message ”ID Unknown”. The system is

tested based on the samples shown in Table 3.4. An observation on the accuracy of

the ID received and the name assigned to it is tested. This is done to ensure that the
system is working properly. The results are shown on Figure 4.4, Figure 4.5 and Figure
4.6. If unassigned ID is detected, the system will display a message ”ID Unknown”.
Based on Figure 4.7, the 0002419950 ID number has not been assigned any name in
it.

Figure 4.4: Identifying Sample 1.

Figure 4.5: Identifying Sample 2.

Figure 4.6: Identifying Sample 3.

Figure 4.7: Unknown ID.
Based on the results, it can be said that RFID Based Attendance System identify all of
the samples correctly.
4.4 Button Tests
The next test is to check whether the button 2 function, which is to display the
absentees’ data work properly. This button will display the name of the absentees. In
this test, the two absentees’ will be sample 1 and sample 2. Sample 3’s card was put
on the RFID Reader and thus, this means Sample 3 attend the class. Hence, sample 1

and sample 2 are the absentees. The results are shown on Figure 4.6 and Figure 4.7. If
all the students are present, the system will display a message ”All Present”.

Figure 4.8: The system shows absentee 1.

Figure 4.9: The system shows absentee 2.

Figure 4.10: Output when all student present.
When a user press Button 3, it will display the first entry. To view the next entry, user
should press the button again. When it reach the last entry in the database, it will go
back to the first entry. The button is tested to determine if it shows the entry correctly.
The aim of this pro ject was to develop a full automated class attendance
register solution.

FUTURE
ENHANCEMENT:

CODE
Attendance
CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Imports system.data
Imports System.Data.Sql
Imports System.Data.SqlClient
Imports System.Threading
Public Class Form1
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim

45

application development.
cn As SqlConnection
cmd As SqlCommand
dr, dr1 As SqlDataReader
ds As DataSet
da As SqlDataAdapter

tigated.
Private SMSThread As Thread

7.2 Recommendations
Private ReadThread As Thread
Shared _Continue As Boolean = False
This section includes recommendations for extending the existing
system,
and enhancing
system
design.
A mobile
Wifi-enabled
RFID scanner device was designed and built and controlling soft-

ware was developed. Prototypes for a full application software suite were implemented.
of Surface Mount Components: The processing and communications module was
AllUse
hardware requirements for the development of such a system were addressed. Most
designed
only components as the manufacturing for surface mount
softwarefor surface-mount
requirements
were addressed, although only partial prototypes were written in some
components and their availability was not clear. However, the manufacturing
cases
due to time constraints.
processes faculty are su cient for surface mount component utilisation, and
at the engineering
Testing and integration results show that the developed modules satisfy the objectives
the use of surface mount components is recommended.
of this pro ject, and are suitable for a practical application. The hardware developed
canused
be as-is in the field if placed in a suitable enclosure.
Battery Temperature Monitoring: Additional functionality for monitoring battery temThe modular
tree-level
taken in synthesis and design of components allows
perature
canapproach
be implemented.
components to be interchanged if upgrades or superior alternatives become available.
This
approach
’Thin’ Clients:
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7.1 Achievements
Shared _ContSMS As Boolean = False
Private _Wait As Boolean = False
This section can be used as a reference for new pro jects to be developed. It includes
findings
and functionality that worked notably well and can be recommended for future
solutions.
The following hardware components performed remarkably well:

• The ConnectOne iWifi module. With more functionality than similar modules that is
• twice
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Shared _ReadPort As Boolean = False
Public Event Sending(ByVal Done As Boolean)
Public Event DataReceived(ByVal Message As String)
Private Sub Form1_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load
cn = New SqlConnection("Data Source=system3;Initial
Catalog=ATTENDANCE;Integrated security=true;")
If RFID.IsOpen = False Then
RFID.Open()
End If
End Sub
Private Sub Button7_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles Button7.Click
End
End Sub
Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click
p_delete.Visible = False
p_edit.Visible = True
cmd_update.Text = "ADD"
End Sub
Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click
p_add.Visible = False
p_delete.Visible = False
p_edit.Visible = True
cmd_update.Text = "UPDATE"
ds = New DataSet
Try
Dim opt As String
cn.Open()
opt = InputBox("RFID Number", "RFID")
da = New SqlDataAdapter("select * from studentinfo where RFIDno='" & opt &
"'", cn)
da.Fill(ds, "studentinfo")
txt_aroll.Text = Trim(ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(0))
txt_arfid.Text = Trim(ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(1))
txt_aname.Text = Trim(ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(2))
txt_adpt.Text = Trim(ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(3))
txt_aphone.Text = Trim(ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(4))
txt_anolve.Text = Trim(ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(5))
cn.Close()
Catch
End Try
End Sub

Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click
p_add.Visible = False
p_delete.Visible = True
p_edit.Visible = False
Try
cn.Open()
da = New SqlDataAdapter("select RFIDno from studentinfo ", cn)
ds = New DataSet
da.Fill(ds, "studentinfo")
cmb_name.DataSource = ds.Tables(0)
cmb_name.ValueMember = ds.Tables(0).Columns(0).ColumnName.ToString()
cmb_name.DisplayMember = ds.Tables(0).Columns(0).ColumnName.ToString()
Catch ex As Exception
End Try
End Sub
Private Sub cmd_update_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles cmd_update.Click
cn.Open()
If cmd_update.Text = "ADD" Then
cmd = New SqlCommand("insert into studentinfo values (" & Val(txt_aroll.Text)
& ",'" & txt_arfid.Text & "','" & txt_aname.Text & "','" & txt_adpt.Text & "','" &
txt_aphone.Text & "'," & Val(txt_anolve.Text) & ")", cn)
cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()
MsgBox("Data Added successfully!!!")
Call clr()
ElseIf cmd_update.Text = "UPDATE" Then
cmd = New SqlCommand("update studentinfo set Rollno=" &
Val(txt_aroll.Text) & ",RFIDno='" & txt_arfid.Text & "',Name='" & txt_aname.Text &
"',Department='" & txt_adpt.Text & "',Phoneno='" & txt_aphone.Text & "',Noofleave="
& Val(txt_anolve.Text), cn)
cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()
MsgBox("Updated successfully!!!")
Call clr()
End If
cn.Close()
End Sub
Public Sub clr()
txt_aroll.Text = ""
txt_adpt.Text = ""
txt_aname.Text = ""
txt_anolve.Text = ""
txt_aphone.Text = ""
txt_arfid.Text = ""
txt_aroll.Focus()
End Sub

Private Sub cmd_delete_Click(ByVal
System.EventArgs) Handles cmd_delete.Click
Try

sender

As

Object,

ByVal

e

As

cn.Open()
cmd = New SqlCommand("delete from studentinfo where RFIDno='" &
cmb_name.Text & "'", cn)
cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()
MsgBox("successfully Deleted!!!")
cn.Close()
Catch
End Try
End Sub
Private Sub RFID_DataReceived(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As
System.IO.Ports.SerialDataReceivedEventArgs) Handles RFID.DataReceived
If System.DateTime.Now() <> "5.00.00PM" Then
txt_RFIDATT.Text = RFID.ReadLine.Trim
cn.Open()
cmd.CommandText = "Select RFIDno,[Date] from register Where RFIDno = '" &
txt_RFIDATT.Text & "'"
dr1 = cmd.ExecuteReader
If dr1.HasRows = True Then
cmd = New SqlCommand("insert into register values ('" & txt_RFIDATT.Text
& "','" & System.DateTime.Today & "','" & System.DateTime.Now() & "','" &
System.DateTime.Now() & "')", cn)
cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()
'MsgBox("Data Added successfully!!!")
txt_RFIDATT.Text = ""
Else
cmd = New SqlCommand("update register set endtime='" &
System.DateTime.Now() & "'", cn)
cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()
End If
cn.Close()
Else
cn.Open()
cmd.CommandText = "Select RFIDno,[Date] from register Where RFIDno = '" &
txt_RFIDATT.Text & "'"
dr1 = cmd.ExecuteReader
If dr1.HasRows = True Then
RFID.Close()
SMS.Open()
sendsms(txt_RFIDATT.Text)
End If
End If
End Sub
Public Sub sendsms(ByVal RFID As String)
cn.Open()
da = New SqlDataAdapter("select Phoneno from studentinfo where RFIDno='" &
RFID & "'", cn)
ds = New DataSet

da.Fill(ds, "studentinfo")
With SMS
.PortName = 1
.BaudRate = 19200
.Parity = 1
.DataBits = 8
.DtrEnable = True
.RtsEnable = True
.NewLine = vbCrLf
End With
If SMS.IsOpen = True Then
SMS.WriteLine("AT")
SMS.WriteLine("AT+CMGF=1" & vbCrLf) 'set command message format to text
mode(1)
'SMS.WriteLine("AT+CSCA=""+919659820828""" & vbCrLf) 'set service center
address (which varies for service providers (idea, airtel))
SMS.WriteLine("AT+CSCA=" & Chr(10) & Trim(ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(4)) &
Chr(10) & vbCrLf) 'set service center address (which varies for service providers (idea,
airtel))
SMS.WriteLine("AT+CMGS= + TextBox1.text + " & vbCrLf & Chr(26)) ' enter
the mobile number whom you want to send the SMS
_ContSMS = False
'SMS.WriteLine("+ TextBox1.text +" & vbCrLf & Chr(26)) 'SMS sending
MessageBox.Show(":send")
SMS.Close()
End If
End Sub
End Class

Bibliography

[1] Inc., C.E.: Lithium ion battery discharge graph. Available at:
http://www.buchmann.ca/, [2008, October 27], 2008.
[2] BITKOM Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Pro ject Group:
Rfid white paper. technology, systems, and applications. Available at: http://www.rfidconsultation.eu/docs/ficheiros
/White_Paper_RFID_english_12_12_2005_final.pdf, [2008, October 27], 2005.
[3] Reinhold, C. and Scholz, P.: E cient antenna design of inductive coupled rfidsystems
with high power demand. Journal of Communications, vol. 2, no. 6, 2007.
[4] Nohl, K.: Cryptanalysis of crypto-1. Available at:
http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~kn5f/pdf/Mifare.Cryptanalysis.pdf, [2008, October 27], 2008.
Class Diagram
[5] LionPrecision: Capacitive sensors - an overview. Available at:
http://www.lionprecision.com/capacitive-sensors, [2008, October 27], 2005.
[6] ConnectOne: Mini socket iwifi data sheet ver. 1.1. Available at:
http://www.connectone.com/media/upload/Mini_Socket_iWiFi_DS.pdf, [2008,
October 27], 2008.

[7] Strangio, C.: The rs232 standard. Available at:
http://www.camiresearch.com/Data_Com_Basics/RS232_standard.html, [2008,
October 27], 2006.

Use case

Activity:
Object

State

SEQUENCE:

Dataflow
Start

Read RFID

Stop
Get Phone
Send
SMS Number

Store
Details
Read
Date
and

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