Rice State Wise Andhra Pradesh

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Status Paper on Rice in Andhra Pradesh

Dr. C. Cheralu
Principal Scientist (Rice Breeding) Regional Agricultural Research Station, ANGR Agricultural University, Warangal 506 007, AP, India

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Introduction Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state in India accounting for 9 and 8 per cent of the country’s area and population, respectively. The state has agriculturally prosperous area in the coastal districts (9 districts), an economically and socially backward area in Telangana (10 districts), a drought prone area in Rayalaseema (4 districts) and a fairly extended tribal belt, along the Northern and North-Eastern regions. Andhra Pradesh has three major river basins (Krishna, Godavari and Pennar) and five other smaller ones drains in to the Bay of Bengal. The state has 972 km long coastal line, generally even, along its eastern border, abutting the Bay of Bengal. Rice is the Principal food crop cultivated throughout the state providing food for its growing population, fodder to the cattle and employment to the rural masses. Any decline in its hectarage and production will have a perceivable impact on the state’s economy and food security. In A.P rice is mostly cultivated under irrigated eco-system under canals (52%), tube wells (19.31) tanks (16.2%), other wells (8.8%) and other sources (3.7%). III. a. Zonal information Climate By virtue of its location and climate, Andhra Pradesh represents a transition from tropical to sub tropical zone of the country. The climate is predominantly semi arid to arid, except for the coastal region on the east coast which has humid to sub humid climate. Hot weather (summer) prevails from March to May, South West mansoon June to September, North east mansoon-October to December and winter December to February. Temperature ranges from 8oC to 46oC . b. Soil type/Nutrient management Andhra Pradesh is endowed with a wide variety of soils, ranging from less fertile coastal sands to highly fertile and productive deltaic alluvia (enti soils/verti sols) of the Godavari, Krishna and Pennar rivers and the red (alfisol) and black (verti sols) soils, developed from different parent materials. The six major soil groups present in the state are red soils (Alfi sols 65%), black soils (verti sols 25%), alluvial soils (Entisols and verti sols 5%) Coastal sands (Enti sols 3%), laterite and lataitic soils (Oxisols) and problem soils (Alfi sols & Incepti sols 1%) including saline, saline alkali and non saline-alkali soils.

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

c.

Rainfall and its distribution pattern Rainfall of Andhra Pradesh is influenced by both South West and North-East mansoons. The average

rainfall of the state is 925 mm, varying from about 520 mm in Anantapur district to 1160 mm in Vizianagaram and East Godavari districts. In some years, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari, Adilabad and Khammam districts have recorded 1400 to 1500 mm rainfall. The distribution of annual rainfall in the state as a whole is about 69% during South West monsoon, 22% during North-East mansoon and 9% during winter and hot weather months. d. Agro climatic zones Andhra Pradesh state has been divided into 9 Agro-climatic zones based on the amount and distribution of rainfall pattern. 1. North Coastal Zone: Consists of most parts of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam districts with regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Anakapalli as regional centre. This zone receives 1000-1100mm rainfall and possesses 12.6% of rice area.. 2. Godavari Zone: Comprising East and West Godavari districts with regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Maruteru as regional centre. Annual rainfall varies from 800-1100 mm and has 46.5% of rice area of the state.. 3. Krishna Zone : Consists of Krishna, Guntur, Parts of Prakasham, Krammam and Nalgonda with Regional Agricultural Research Station, (RARS), Lam as regional centre. Important soil groups are deltaic Alluvium, red soils with clay base, black cotton soils, red loamy coastal sands and saline soils. 4. Northern Telangana Zone: Comprising Adilabad, Nizamabad and Karimnagar with Regional Agricultural Research Station, (RARS), Jagtial as regional centre. Rain fall varies from 900-1150 mm and rice occupies 16% of rice area of the state. 5. Central Telangana Zone: Consisting of Warangal, Medak and Khammam with Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Warangal as regional centre. 6. Southern Telangana Zone: Comprising the districts of Hyderabad Rangareddy, Mahboobnagar, Nalgonda with Regional Agricultural Research Station, (RARS) at Palem as regional centre. This zone receives 700-900 mm rain fall and has 9.3% of rice area of the state.
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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

7.

Southern Zone: Includes the districts of Nellore, Chittoor Cadapah with Regional Agricultural Research (RARS), at Tirupathi as regional centre. Annual rainfall varies from 700-1000 mm and has about 12.6% of rice area of the state.

8.

Scarce rainfall zone: Consisting of the districts of Kurnool, Anantapur, Prakasham parts of Cudapah and Mahboobnagar with Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS) at Nandyal as Regional Centre . This zone has 3.8% of rice area. The average annual rainfall ranges from 500-700mm.

9.

High Altitude and Tribal area zone: Covering areas lying along the Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari and Khammam district with Regional Agricultural Research Station, Chintapalli as Regional centre. This zone receives high rainfall of over 1400 mm.

e)

Rice and cultural heritage in the state : Rice has a great cultural heritage . Many preparations viz., payasam,paravannam, ondrallu, arshalu, laddulu etc., are prepared and offered to the God at the time of worshipping. Rice is one among Navadhanyalu at the time of construction of houses (Bhoomipooja) and navagraha pooja.Rice is used as THALAMBRALU and AKSHANTHALU while mixing in turmeric powder and also used as VADIBIYYAM.Rice flakes (palalu) are used at the time of taking the deadbody to graveyard. Basumathi rice is a geographical indicator .

IV. •

Rice production Scenario Area: Area under rice mostly depends on the mansoon pattern and availability of water in reservoirs. Area under rice was high during 2008-09 (43.87 l.ha) and lowest is in 2002-03 (28.22 l.ha) Table-1. There is no scope for increasing area under rice and rice area is replaced by some profitable dry crops due to in sufficient water. Rice is grown in 28% of gross cropped area and 50% of area under food crops round the year in all the districts. Though there is a rise and fall of area and production of rice based on water availability, but there is a constant increase in productivity. In the context of food

security such decline in area and production is not good to meet the future rice requirement. In the coastal districts the area under rice is declining because of aquaculture activities. • Production: Rice production depends up on the seasonal conditions prevailing during that particular year. Sofar highest production was realized (140.10 l.t) during 2008-09 and lowest (73.29 l.t) during 2002-03. In the basal production, contribution of superfine varieties is 62% followed by 25% of fine
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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

varieties and the rest from common varieties. It is expected that about 20 lakh tones of fine rice would be exported from the state. More rice is produced in East Godavari (17.01 l.t), West Godavari (16.71 l.t), Krishna (11.42 l.t), Karimnagar (10.87 l.t), Guntur (10.27 l.t) and lowest in Ranga Reddy (1.04). • Productivity, Ecosystem wise : In A.P rice productivity is 3333 kg/ha compared to 2001 kg/ha (India) and 4112 kg/ha (world). Rice productivity is highest in Nellore district (4473kg/ha) followed by East Godavari (4028 kg/ha), West Godavari (3928 kg/ha) and lowest in Vishakhapatnam (2075 kg/ha). The crop is grown in three ecosystems viz., irrigated ecosystem (50.6%), rainfed low land (43.8%) and rainfed uplands (5.6%) . In A.P realized yields are above state average in 9 districts i.e., Nellore (4473 kg/ha), East Godavari (4028 kg/ha), West Godavari (3928 kg/ha), Prakasham (3779 kg/ha), Nizamabad (3629 kg/ha), Nalgonda (3555 kg/ha), Adilabad (3878 kg/ha), Guntur (3468 kg/ha), Khammam (3376 kg/ha) and in 13 districts yields are less than the state average and lowest in Vishakhapatnam district (2075 kg/ha). • Yield gap and its reasons: Most of the varieties already released and recommended are capable of yielding 4.0 to 5.0 t/ha of rice under field conditions against the average yield of 3.43 t/ha being achieved by the state. Thus, there still exists an yield gap of 0.5 to 1.5 t/ha even with the available varieties and technologies. To achieve the yield potential already created, farmers have to necessarily adopt recommended package in totality. Farmers are adopting the improved variety and a part of the package not giving adequate attention to the remaining component particularly the correction of soil problems, nutritional disorders and water management to some extent. Over 5000 litres of water is required to produce 1 kilogram of rice. Most if it is used for soil preparation and weed suppression. To make rice farming more profitable, water use efficiency has to be improved a lot in addition to other factors. Though the yields are increasing over the years to varying degree they are not proportionate to the increase in production cost. The factor productivity which is on decline should improve. Therefore, the research and extension efforts will have to focus on the efficient use of inputs, reduction in the costs of production, minimizing input losses and maximize output through scientific crop production and protection technologies like Maintance of optimum population, water, soil test based integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, in addition to sustainable soil management, harvest and post harvest management.

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

The state being one of the highest fertilizer and pesticides consuming regions in the country, the key factor leading to the difference in rice yields between A.P on one side and Punjab and Tamilnadu on the other is the proportionate share of groundwater irrigated area which is 62% in Punjab, 45% in Tamilnadu compared to 35% in A.P while Punjab and Tamilnadu developed 99% and 60% of their ultimate ground water potential respectively. A.P developed less than 20% of its ground water potential. Ground water

development, thus, appears crucial for stepping up rice yields. Another crucial factor in this regard is the extent of irrigated rice area in Andhra Pradesh. Although rice is said to be irrigated to an extent of 95% of the area planted in the state, 50% is under tanks, wells and tube wells which in turn depend on the rainfall and good mansoon. How dependable is this source is known to every one. Thus, only 50% of the rice area gets assured irrigation water through canals under major projects. A third and major factor which is pulling down the rice yields in the state is damage due to frequent cyclones and floods which are common at the time of harvest. Biotic and abiotic stresses are the other factors greatly influencing the yield gaps apart from others. e. Major contributing factors in different ecologies: Under Irrigated transplanted ecology assured water, intensive cultivation with high inputs using high yielding varieties and adoption of plant protection measures -are the major contributing factors for higher productivity. Cyclones, floods , weeds , sub-mergens of the crop at critical stages and rodents are the yield reducers. In Rainfed lowland ecology high rain fall, fertile soils, availability of suitable varieties, high input use, scope for giving irrigation at critical (later stages i. e., from tillering onwards) stages ,need based plant protection are the factors for higher yields. Drought, planting of overaged seedlings, intermittent dryspells during crop growth period and inadequate fertilizer application and Plant protection measures are the reasons for low yields. In rainfed ecology, uncertainity of rainfall, intermittent dry spells, weeds and lack of suitable high yielding varieties with production technology are the reasons for low yields. f) Contribution to the GDP: Andhra Pradesh contributes 16-18% towards rice production from an area of about 10% of country’s rice area.
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For more Information contact: Visit Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217

RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

V.

Region wise/District wise rice Ecosystems In Telangana region: Irrigated ecosystem Rainfed low land eco system Coastal Andhra Pradesh: Irrigated eco system Submergence conditions Rainfed lowland eco system Rayala Seema : Irrigated ecosystem

Irrigated ecosystem: Rice crop is mostly grown under different sources of irrigation under puddle conditions by growing dry or wet nurseries. Field is prepared with desi plough drawn by he buffaloes or by tractors. Transplantation is mostly done by contract labour by random planting method called “Chikku natu” where plant population is low. Rainfed low land eco system: In Kothaguda, Mulugu agency area of Warangal district, Bhadrachalam area of Khammam district and also is some parts ofr North Coastal area, dry nursery is raised with the on set of mansoon. The field is bunded so that the rain water from upper area gets accumulated in the field and crop resembles as if it is grown as a translplanted crop. Sometimes after dry sowing, the field is converted to wet cultivation as and when water is available. This practice is common in Visakhapatnam and Sri Kakulam district. Rainfed eco system:In some North Coastal districts and Telangana area rice is cultivated as a rainfed crop. Varieties grown under this condition are Akasavari, MTU-9992, MTU-17, mettasannalu, Varalu and all these varieties have drought resistance. They are sown behind the plough or seed drill. Some times redgram or hibiscus is taken as an intercrop. Rainfed rice varieties face intermittent drought spells. They have very good ability to recover from drought in seedling stage and maximum losses occur, if the drought prevails at flowering stage. VI. VII. Rice production and economic analysis Rice and rice based cropping systems – zone wise Godavari Zone : Rice-Rice-Pulses Rice-Rice Rice-Green manures
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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Rice-Vegetables Rice-Maize Rice-Rice-Green manure/Rice-Green manures Krishna Zone: Rice-Rice Rice-Pulses (Greengram/blackgram) Rice-Zero tillage, Maize Rice-Vegetables Rice-Rice-Green manure North Coastal zone: Rice- Rice Rice- Pulses Rice- Sugarcane Rice- Millets Rice- Green manures Northern Telangana Zone : Rice- Rice - rice Rice- Rice Rice- Sunflower/Maze Rice- Fodders Rice- Greenmanures Central Telangana Zone: Rice- Rice- Rice Rice- Rice Rice- Greenmanures Rice- Maize Southern Telangana Zone: Rice- Rice- Rice Rice- Rice Rice- Vegetables Rice- Greenmanures South Zone: Rice- Rice- Rice Rice- Groundnut Rice- Rice Rice- Rice Scarce rainfall Zon: Rice- Groundnut
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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Rice- Sunflower Rice- Greenmanure High Altitude and Tribal Zone: Rice- Rice Rice- Oilseeds Rice- Pulses

VIII Rice growing seasons of different regions Region Coastal Pradesh June - November Telangana Aabi (Kharif season) June – November Rayalasema Vanakaru (Kharif) June – December November - March) Taabi (Rabi season) 15th November –April Endakaru (Rabi) November - March Kathera (Summer) April – July Mokkadugu(Summar) February- May Edagaru(Early Kharif May – August Andhra First crop Saarva (Kharif) Second crop Dalva (Rabi season) Third crop -

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

IX. a)

Recommended package of practices Varieties/hybrids : Recommended varieties or hybrids for different situations

Seasons / Situations

High altitude and tribal zone

Scarce rainfall Zone

South Telangana

Central Telangana

Northern Telangana Zone

South zone

North Coastal zone

Godavari zone

Krishna Zone

zone Zone

1 Early Kharif

2 -

3 -

4 Pushpala, Cottondora Sannalu,

5 Bharani, Nidhi, Shravani,

6 Swarna, Samba mahsuri, Phalguna

7 Swarn a,

8

9 -

10 Pushkal a, rabi IR.64

Samba mahsu ri, Phalgu na Vijeth a

Somasila

Normal planting

Swarna, Chaitanya, Krishna

Swarna, Chaitan ya,

Srikakulam Sannalu, Swarna,

Penna, Simhapuri ,

Bhadrakali Kavya,

Bhadr a

Samba Mahsuri,

Samba mahsuri Sonamah suri,

Srikakul am sannalu, Phalghu na, Suraksh a, Vijetha, Vasund

kali Shiva, Sagarsa Kavya, Warangal Shiva, Samba, Waran Warangal gal Samba Rajavadl u, sannalu mba, Earlysam ba Depthi, Nandyala

Krishna veni, Deepthi, Ni, Prathibha, Prathib Surya, Bapatla a, Sonamah Vasundhara ve Chaitanya,

Tikkana, Pinakini Savithri, Sriranga, suri Vedagiri, Sannalu

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

sannalu, Indhra, for Prakasham District; Sriranga, NLR-9674, Pardiva, Swarna mukhi

Surya, Tolakari ,

Srikurma, Vijetha.

Pardhiva, NLR 9674

Keshava, Ramappa, Polasa

, Waran gal sannal u Kesha va, Ramap pa

Chandan, Kavya, Salema, Satya, Erramall elu, Tellaham sa, Sumathi, Taramat hi, Suganda mathi

hara

Amara Prabha, Jagityala Sannalu, Jagityala Samba, Manerson a Indursamb a Vijetha,

Polasa prabh a, Jagitya la Sannal

cotton Dorasanna lu Palalavadl u,

u, Jagitya la Samba , Maner sona Indur samba Vijeth a,

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

cotton Dora sannal u Over aged seedling planting Indhra, Bapatla sannalu, Amara Amara Mukhi, Sannalu Pardhiva, Samba mahsuri Polasa prabha Waran gal samba Samba mahsu ri polasa prabh a BPH Prone areas Chaitanya, Krishnaven i,Deepthi, veni, Indhra and Deepthi Amara. , Indhra Godava Vijetha Chaitan ya,Krish na Deepthi, Vijetha, Chaitanya, Deepthi, Vijetha cotton dora sannalu Vijeth a cotton dora sannal u Vijetha, cotton dora sannalu Deepthi Deepthi , Vijetha mahsuri Chaitan ya,Indh ra, Swarna Warangal Swarna Sri Ranga, Samba, Swarna, Swarna, Srikakulam sannalu, Simhapuri ,Tikkana, Warangal Swarna, Swarn a, Waran gal Sannal u, Samba Phalguna Surekha, Kavya, Mhsuri, Sona mahsuri Swarna, Samba Sonama hsuri

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

ri, Indhra Submer gence areas Bapatla sannalu, Mahsur Swarna, Krishnaven i Indhra Swarna i, Indhra, Badava Savithri mahsuri Badava Srikakulam sannalu, Mahsuri Badava _ _ _ _ Swarna

Seasons/ Situations

High altitude and tribal zone

Scarce rainfall Zone

South Telangana

Central Telangana

Northern Telangana Zone

South zone

North Coastal zone

Godavari zone

Krishna Zone

zone Zone

1 Saline soils

2 Deepthi, Vikas, Vedagiri, Somashila

3 Deepthi

4 Deepthi, Vikas, Somashila

5 Vedagiri, Swarna mukhi, Somashila

6 Vikas

7 Vikas

8 Vikas

9 -

10 -

Late plantings

Swarna, Chaitanya, Vijetha,

Swarna, Chaitan ya

Vasundhara Suraksha, Vamshi,

Swarna Mukhi, Swathi, Shravani,

Keshava, Pothana,

Erramall elu

Surekha, Kavya,

Samba mahsuri, Sona

-

Pothana Indur samba, Erramallel Sathya, Ramapp a jagtial sannalu keshava Erramall eluSatya, Tellaham saKrishn cotton Dora

Vijetha, Cottondora Cotton sannalu

mahsuri, Nandyala

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Dora sannalu

sannalu

Apurva

u Ramappa Jagtial sannalu3844

JGL3844 Indursa mba

a Hamsa, Rajavadl u

sannalu, Sathya, Swathi, Somashil aShravan i

Rainfed situation

MTU-9993, MTU9993 Maruteru sannalu Varalu Maruter u

Pushkala, MTU-9993, Maruteru

-

MTU9993, Rudrama,

-

-

-

MTU9993, Maruteru

Varalu sannalu Pushkala,

sannalu, Sannalu Varalu Varalu, Srisatya

Srisatya

Irrigated dry conditions

Swarna,

Swarna,

Swarna, Sona

Thikkana, Swarna

Varalu

Varalu

Swathi, Nandyala

-

-

MTU-9993, MTU9993, Maruterru sannalu, Swarna sannalu, mukhi, Cotton Dora Sannalu, Vijetha Cotton Dora Sannalu, Vijetha. Maruter u

mukhi, mahsuri, Vijetha Cotton Dora sannalu, Vijetha sannalu

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

SUITABLE VARIETIES FOR RABI SEASON Normal sowings Dora sannalu, Vijetha, IR. 64, Jagityala IR. 64, Sannalu, Jagityal Nelluru mahsuri sannalu, Nelluri mahsuri sannalu, Jagityala sannalu, manair Nelluru mahsuri Late sowings Dora sannalu Dora sannalu Sathya, Rasi, Somashila ,Vijetha, cotton Varsha, Dora Pothana, sannalu IR. 64 I.R. 64 Potana, Sathya, Krishna hamsa Keshava, Cotton Cotton Pushkala, Cotton Dora sannalu Shrawani, Sathya, Keshava , Pothana, Varsha, I.R. 64, Rasi, Sathya, Rasi Abhaya, Rasi Swathi, Tellahams a, Tellaha msa, Rasi, Erramall eluPrasa nna Shravani IR.64, Swathi, Pushkala, sannalu Manair samba, Nelluru mahsuri Dora Dora Dora sannalu, sannalu, Vijetha, Prabhat h, Cotton Vijetha Vijetha, Apurva, Swathi, Cotton Cotton Pushkala Cotton mukhi, , Swarna Erramallel u,Indursa mba, Warangal samba, Sannalu, Warang Warangal samba al Erramall sannalu, Indur samba, sannalu, elu Taramati , Nandyala sanallu, Cotton Dora sannalu, Vijetha Erramall elu,War angal Tellaham saSatya, Rasi, Dora sathya, Cotton Keshava, Swathi, Pushkala,

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

BPH Prone areas

Vijetha, Cotton Dora sannalu

Vijetha, Cotton Dora sannalu

Vijetha, Cotton Dora sannalu

Deepthi, Vijetha, Cotton Dora sannalu

Cotton Dora sannalu

Cotton Dora sannalu

Cotton Dora sannalu

-

Cotton Dora sannalu

Seasons/ Situations

High altitude and tribal zone

Scarce rainfall Zone

South Telangana

Central Telangana

Northern Telangana Zone

South zone

North Coastal zone

Godavari zone

Krishna Zone

zone Zone

1 Salt Prone areas HYBRIDS

2 Somashila

3 -

4 Somashila

5 Somashila

6 Vikas

7 Vikas

8 Vikas

9 -

10 -

APHR-1, APHR-2, KRH-2, PHB-71, PA-6201. PA-6444, DRRH-2, DRRH-3, Suruchi, US-312, RH-204

APHR-1, APHR-2, KRH-2, PHB-71, PA-6201. PA-6444, DRRH-2, DRRH-3, Suruchi, US-312, RH-204

APHR-1, APHR-2, KRH-2, PHB71, 6201. 6444, DRRH-2, DRRH-3, Suruchi, US312, RH-204 PAPA-

Somashila

Vikas

Vikas

Vikas

-

-

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

b) 1.

Management inclusive of mechanization: Seed treatment: For dry nurseries treat the seed with 3g per kg of seed and broadcast after 24hr.

while for wet nurseries use 1g per liter of water and soak the seed for 24hr and allow it to sprout for another 24 hr and broadcast in the well prepared seedbed. 2. Breaking dormancy: For varieties having seed dormancy, treat the seed with 6.3ml of concentrated

Nitric acid dissolved in 1 lit of water and for strong dormant seeds use 10ml of concentrated Nitric acid per 1ml of water and soak for 24hr and then allow it for sprouting. 3. Seed rate: 50 to 70 kg/ha for transplanted crop. 50 to 75kg/ha. for broadcasted crop. 40 to 50kg/ha. for drilling behind the gorru 4. • Tips for growing healthy nurseries: Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen(1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose • • • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% Ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery 5. Preparation of main field: Ten to fifteen days before transplantation plough the soil thoroughly and

submerge in 5-10cm standing water. Add 2-3 t/acre of green manure and incorporate it by puddling. Then level the soil perfectly. In soils, having more than 8.5 pH apply 100-150 kg zypsum/acre.

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Four to five leaf stage , uproot the nursery , trim the tips of seedlings and transplant, by leaving 20 cm alley ways for every 2 meters in the following way.

Duration of the variety

Spacing

Number of hills per square meter

Long duration (150 days and more) Medium duration ( 135 days ) Short duration (125 days )

20 x 15 cm 15 x 15 cm 15 x 10 cm

33 44 66

Control the weeds by hand weeding twice . Apply weedicide ( Butaclore 1.0l or Anilophos 500ml or Pritilaclore 500ml etc., ) with in weak days in standing water. Drain out the field 24hrs before and top dress with urea at tillering , panicle initiation stage. Add potash also at panicle initiation stage. In soils of excessive percolation use neem coated urea or tar coated urea. Maintain 2-5 cm water throughout the growing season. Control rat menace with poison bait viz., Aluminium phosphate or Bromodiolen on community basis. Prevent pre-harvest sprouting in cyclones. Immerse panicles in 2% common salt solution (20g in one liter of water ). MANAGEMENT OF OVERAGED SEEDLINGS : Age of seedlings and varieties1. 2. 3. Long duration Medium duration Short duration up to 60 days Samba mahsuri, Swarna

up to 50 days Surekha, Warangal samba, Polasa prabha up to 40 days Ramappa, Jagityalasannalu, Nellore sannalu

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

X @

Indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) specific to the state Collection and incorporation of green matter ( Calatrophus, sunhemp, glyricidia, neem leaf, pongamia etc.,) before transplantation to enrich soil fertility and reduce the harmfull effects of soil inhibiting micro-organisms.

@ @

Use of neam products for reducing the effect of BPH. Oddu (Artificial bund ) across agentle basin slope with or without weir to control and make the water to stay at one place.

@ @

Sheap/goat penning for insitu nutrient management. Application of FYM to build the productivity/nutrient status of the soil.

@

Bueshening leads to green manuring. Criss cross ploughing in a standing rice crop of 30-50 days after seeding when 10-15 cm depth of water stands in the fields. This is followed by laddering and seedling re-distribution. Some times weeding is also takenup. This improves water retension, aeration, nutrient uptake, reduces insect pests, improves tillering and plant vigour and reduces competition.

XI a) b) c)

Byproducts / extended use of rice specific to the state : Use and consumption Market value Milling products:Rice husk,rice bran, broken rice, rice floor, rice milk, rice pudding, rice starch, rice

paper,brown rice, white rice, raw rice, paraboiling rice d) Rice based food products:Rice starch, rice used in bewerage making, rice glue, rice cakes, rice

venegre, rice soymilk

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

XII XIII

Rice and commerce (exports and revenue generation ) Special development programmes in rice sector of the state The National Food Security Mission for rice and pulses launched as a centrally sponcered scheme

funded by Central Government. In Andhra Pradesh NFSM on rice is being implemented since rabi 2007-2008. The main aim is to increase production through area expansion and productivity enhancement on

sustainable basis so as to ensure food security. Pattern of assistance for components of NFSM are INM, IPM,HYV/Hybrids, hybrid seed production, demonstrations on SRI, supply of cono weeders, markers, popularization of modern equipment etc., V a) Status of rice production technologies SRI: System of rice intensification method of cultivation has sensitized the farmer on lesser use of seed/ acre and use of less water for rice cultivation. This programme was intensively popularized by the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh by extending subsidies on rotary weeders and markers which are the kee components for implementation of SRI. Farmers realized higher yields also but due to difficulty in running the rotary weeders the method is not spreading horizontally. This system needs to be targeted only under wells where water control is feasible. There is an urgent need for designing the power weeders/ weeders that can work in paddy fields with very less drudgery

b)

Hybrid rice: Farmers have realized the advantages of growing hybrid rice and the area is slowly increasing particularly in rabi season. The spread of hybrids are low due to lack of hybrids having medium slender grain without aroma with good cooking quality attributes in different maturity groups. 80% of hybrid rice seed is produced in Andhra Praesh.

c)

Aerobic rice / conservation agriculture: Aerobic rice/traditional agricultural is practiced in some of the tribal areas in primitive way. Efforts are underway to develop production technology for popularization and adoption by farmers.

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d)

Biotechnological intervations / golden rice: Improved Samba mahsuri, resistant to bacterial leaf blight, developed by biotechnological procedures is under demonstrations and is being popularized in areas where BLB is a problem. Swarna sub-1 is another outcome from MAS and it is getting popular in submergence areas in the place of swarna. Golden rice is still in research stage at DRR, Hyderabad.

e)

IPM/ IDM: This is widely adopted by the farmers due to publicity through polam body , NFSM, programmes. IPM components are practiced in one or the other way i.e., seeds treatment, alleys formation, keeping field bunds neatly and other components.

f)

INM : Priority is given to this aspect by supply of green manure seeds under subsidy programme. Most of the farmers are adopting this technology. Any other: Programme on agricultural implements,

XV

Organisations: State Department of Agriculture, Agricultural University, AP State Seed Development

Corporation, National Seed Corporation, Electricity, Banking, irrigation Department, Directorate of rice research, ICRISAT and others XVI Constraints in rice production : Biotic and abiotic constraints are limiting the rice production in Andhrapradesh. Different constraints operating are presented here under. a) i. Biotic stresses: Insects : The insect pests attacking the rice crop are BPH, gallmidge, stemborer, cutworm, leaf folder, Gandhi bug and rice hispa. New and emerging pests are panicle mite and thrips. Brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is a major pest of rice particularly in coastal Andhrapradesh. But in the recent past it has spread through out the state. In adition to BPH, White backed plant hoppers (WBPH) incidence also observed and they are occurring in mixed population and causing sever damage (hopper burn) to the rice crop. Losses due to the incidence of this pest was reported to be 10 to 100%. Gallmidge (Orseola oryzae) is an important pest of Telangana region and also North coastal districts. Its damage results in to formation of galls(silver shoots with out panicles).

Losses due to the pest was reported to be to the tune of 10 to 70%. In the begening biotype-1 prevailed but due to continuous growing of biotype-1 resistant varieties new biotypes have eveloved i.e., biotype-3 in Northern Telangana zone, biotype-4 in North Coastal Zone and biotype-4m in Central Telangana districts.

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Stem borer ( Scirphophaga incertulas) a major pest of rabi season but also occurs in kharif season. Its damage manifests in the form of dead heart at tillering phase and white ear at grain filling stage. Yield loss due to this pest was reported to be 10 to 50%. Leaf folder (Naphalocrosis medinalis) incidence will be seen in shade areas and also in fields where more nitrogenous fertilizers were applied. Its intensity is more under humid climate at boot leaf stage. Larva after hatching from the egg folds the leaves longitudinally and feeds within. In case of severe infestation the leaf margins and tips dryup. Rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera) is a minor pest but some times attains status of a major pest. Both adults and grubs feed on leaves. In severe epidemics, leaves dry up and the crop gives scorched appearance. Gundhi bug (Leptocorisa oratorius and L. acuta) some times appears in epidemic form and causes severe loss. The adults and nymphs suck milk from the developing grains and results formation of black spot and illfilled as wellas chaffy grains. In the recent past panicle mite (Staenotarsonemus spinki) has attained has an important pest particularly in telangana region in kharif season and in rabi in coastal Andhra Pradesh. Panicle mite causes paralle rust like streaks near the leaf mid rib and brown to black discolouration on leaf sheath of boot leaf. Microscopic mites suck the sap from the developing panicles, eat pollen. Desication of pollen grains leads to spikelet sterility,partial filling of grains and due to scraping discolouration of grains takes place which fetches less price in the market and such grain results in to more brokens at the time of milling. Rice thrips(Stenchaetothrips biformis) is a minor pest and occurs in rainfed rice and also in early transplanted rice crop. Both nymphs and adults suck sap from leaves causing initially yellowish streaks on leaves, later the leaves curl longitudinally from the margins inwards leading to sharply pointed tips resembling that of needles, which finally wither. Infestation at panicle stage causes illfilled grains or sterility. Diseases : Blast (Pyricularia oryza) is one of the important disease of rice and it appears at nursery as well as main field. It appears as leaf blast, nodal blast and neck blast .In Andhra Pradesh the disease occurs both in kharif as well as in rabi seasons. Another important disease is sheath blight(Rhizoctonia solani) . The disease reduces the vigour of the plant increases the percentage of empty grains in the panicle and also results in to ill filled grains. Under high intensity disease spreads up to flag leaf resulting in to death of the plant.
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Sheath rot(Sarocladium oryzae) attacks the rice crop during heading to maturity stages affecting uppermost leaf sheath enclosing the young panicle. Due to this panicle emergence is partly or completely arrested. Most of the grains on the panicle become discoloured , partially filled or chaffy. Rice tungro virus regularly occurs in Nellore tract . Affected plants are stunted, number of tillers reduced and leaves become light yellow to orange from tip downwards. Infected plants have delayed flowering, panicles are small or not completely exerted and become mostly chaffy or partially filled grains often covered with dark brown specks. The disease is caused by rice tungro virus(RTV).The disease is transmitted by Green Leaf Hopper(GLH). Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae) disease symptoms start as water soaked stripes along the margins of the upper parts of the leaf blade. The lesions enlarge in length and width with wavy margins and turn yellow within few days. In sever cases grains also gets affected and results in sever yield loss. Other important diseases are false smut, stem rot brown spot and bacterial leaf streak. iii Nematodes : Nematodes are tiny creatures which measure less than one m.m. They enter the tissue and make small holes which will form entries to other harmfull organisms. White tip nematode or Leaf nematode (Aphelenchoides besseyi ) carried through seed. Adult lays eggs in the space available between the kernel and husk. After hatching young ones enters in to the growing whoral and suck the sap. Due to incidence the leaf become bronzed appearance and top leaf gets wrinkled. Due to infestation, plants gets dwarfened with poor tillering. Under severe infestation, grains become chaffy. Stem Nematode (Ditylenchus angustatus): This nematode suck the sap from the tender and growing tips and also developing panicle. They will appear in clusters in middle of the panicle and boot leaf as a result wrinkling of lemma and palea takes place at on emergence of panicle. Nematode effect is severe at 8-10 days old seedling stage and again at panicle emergence stage. At the time of harvest these nematodes become white cottony or wool like structures and enter the soil and become dormant. Again they will enter the rice stems when they are planted in the next season. Root not Nematode (Hirschmanniella oryzae): Nematode attacks the root system, as a result spindle shaped nots are formed on roots which will inter fear with absorption of nutrients. 10 to 12 days after attack of root system leaves will turn to yellow or bronzing from leaf edges to mid rib will takes. Attack of more number of nematodes leads to stunting of plants, tillers gets withered. Losses due to attack of this nematode is high.

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

iv

Rodents : From sowing to sale of the paddy rats cause enormous loss. Their population increases after

the floods or natural calamities. In nursery rats eats seeds and seedlings. In transplanted fields they cut the tillers at 45 degree angle above the water surface. They eat stems and growing tips. Rats become very active from tillering to harvesting stage by cutting panicles and taking them to rat holes. Panicles at milky stage and soft dough stage are more palatable to them. They spoil the field bunds by making holes. Rats continue to damage after harvest on paddy shieves, threshing floors, storage godowns and in houses. Estimated loss to paddy in East godavary is 10-45 percent, West godavary 15-90 percent, Krishna 1042 percent, Guntur 8- 34 percent and in Nellore it is reported to be 2-10 percent. In houses and storage godowns it is 2.5 percent. In Tellahamsa variety the reported loss was 18 percent, Surekha 7 percent, Sambamahsuri and Rasi 3 percent and in Dhanya laxmi it was 19 percent. iv. Weeds: Losses caused by the weeds are reduction in yield,loss of nutrients from the soil, poor quality of produce, serve as alternate hosts for pests and diseases, compete for water and finally increases the cost of cultivation. Estimated yield losses due to weeds in lowlands is 10-30%while it is 40- 60%in case of rainfed rice In upland rice, weeds that infest are mostly grassy weeds such as Cynadon rotundus, Echinocholoa colona and Panicum spp. Among the broad- leaved weeds Eclipta alba, Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Acalypha indica and Tridax procumbens are frequent. In transplanted fields , Echinocholoa colona, E. crusgalli, Paspalum distichum, Cyperus iria and other broad- leaved infest the crop. In Krishna- Godavari delta, Ipomia carnea and water hyacinth infest the crop heavily. b) Abiotic stresses : Important abiotic factors reducing the rice crop yields are drought, water logging,

temperature, cold, zinc deficiency, salinity etc., i) Temperature : In Andhra Pradesh higher temperatures affect the rice crop grown during rabi and

Edagaru seasons. Higher temperatures causes protracted flowering, drying/dedication of anthers/ pollen grains which leads to spikelet sterility (chaffy grains). It also leads to the formation of ill filled grains. ii) Cold : Cold injury has been identified as one of the major abiotic constraint limiting the yield potential of rabi rice. In Telangana low temperature varies from 8o C – 16oC from December to firs fortnight of February during which rabi rice will be in vegetative phase. The common effects of cold injury during vegetative phase will be low germination, slow growth of seedlings , leaf yellowing , stunted growth characterized by reduced height and tillering. Temperature below 18oC from primordial intiation to maturity phase adversely affects
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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

the anthesis and pollination resulting in to delayed heading, incomplete panicle exertion, protracted flowering and spikelet sterility (complete/ partial) etc., as a result there will be reduction in yield. The effect of cold is directly proportion to severity and duration of cold period. It also leads in to increase in duration of the crop. High humidity coupled with low temperature before flowerings results in spikelet sterility. A temperature of 12o C in January at primordial initiation coupled with high nitrogen resulted in 50-80% spikelet sterility and severe loss in yields during 1980’s.Varietal differences have been observed for cold injury (Kulkarni et al. 1989). iii) Drought: In Andhra Pradesh about 5.6 percent of rice area is under rainfed rice. Even the irrigated rice depends up on filling up of tanks with rain water and availability of water in canals depends on the rainfall received. The State has experienced drought many a time in the past. The important drought years in the past are 1968, 1972, 1977, 1979, 1985, 1987, 1997, 2002, 2003 and 2004. Based on the intensity of drought and its occurrence during critical stages of crop growth period , there will be change in loss of crop yields. iv) Water logging : Water logged condition is mostly experienced in Coastal Andhra Pradesh in Kharif

season. Due to water logged conditions there will be poor drainage which leads to poor tillering, incidence of BPH, sheath blight, blast etc., as a result there will be a heavy loss in yields. An estimated area of 1.1 m Ha suffers from drainage congestion and water logging in Krishna- Godavari delta. In new command areas, 60,000 ha under Sriramsagar, 33,000 ha under NSP canal, 1,14,000 ha under NSP right canal and 30,000 Ha under Tungabhadra are water logged. v) Sodic : vi) Saline problems : About 6.3 lakh ha. of land is affected by salinity in Andhra Pradesh. It is estimated that salt affected soils reduce yield by 40-50 percent.Salinity is increasing every year in irrigated rice areas due to lack of drainage facilities. Though technology for reclamation of salt affected soils is available, there is no desired achievement. Reclamation using soil amendments needs community approach and co-ordination by irrigation engineers, State Department of Agriculture and farmers. Soils contains free Na and other salts(Ca, Mg), chlorides and sulphates. show extensive white grayish white salt depositions on surface in dry season. Soil pH less than 8.5, electrical conductivity less than 4 ds/ m2 and exchangeable Na% less than 15.

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

c)

Institutional constraints: Non availability of sufficient budget and staff for effective and successful

implementation of different schemes formulated for desired improvement in the Department. Insuffient funds for mobility for execution of different programmes being implemental. At research stations non availability of sufficient land for experiments, particularly for basic seed production. Dependency on farmers fields may leads to severl purity problems in due course of time. Lack of sufficient scientific as well as supporting staff, mobility, well developed lands, lack of co-ordination between different departments and allied departments. c) Socio- economic constraints: Still many farm families are illiterate/ have low level of literacy, as a

result there is a less scope for knowing the developments in agriculture. They cultivate other crops also along with rice crop which leads to divertion of concentration in attending the required operations. Many number of times, timely availability of farm labour poses threat for cultivation of this crop. Low investment capacity of farmers and non-availability of sufficient timely credit is another important constraint. XVII. Economics of rice production in the state:

XVIII.

Strategies and modern techniques to enhance rice production: Following strategies are being adopted for increasing the productivity and observing 4% annual

agricultural growth. @ Farming situation based and market oriented crop planning.Emphasis may be given on a cropping system approach rather than a single crop approach. @ Soil test based fertilizer application. Propagation of location specific crop production technologies in different agroclimatic zones. @ Soil health management through vermicompost, green manuring, application of gypsum, zinc sulphate etc., @ Reduced cost of production by education the farmers on improved crop management practices like INM, IPM, Post harvest technology, Water management, Polambadi.

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@

Ensuring supply of quality inputs. Replacement of low potential/ pest susceptible old varieties by new high yielding varieties with high yield potential. Encourage hybrid rice cultivation in suitable areas by conducting demonstrations and making seed available to the farmers.

@ @

Capacity building of extension staff and farmers. Providing Farm implements and farm machinery for improving efficiency in farm operations and cost of cultivation.

@ @ @ @ @ XIX.

Provide access to the information by the farmers. Management of natural resources and farming systems approach. Weather based forewarming of pest and diseases and timely control. Promote value addition and export oriented agriculture. Access to credit. Status of seed production of major varieties/ agencies involved, demand and supply : Major agencies involved in seed production are A.P State Seed Development Corporation, National

Seed Corporation, Department of Agriculture Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Private Companies and NGO organizations. Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University is involved in Breeder seed production and Foundation seed production to some extent. During 2009-2010, 7294 q of breeder seed was produced against the target of 4237 q. Major varieties under breeder seed production are Samba mahsuri (2877), Cottondora sannalu (2179), Vijetha (616), Warangal sannalu (4967), Warangal samba (49), Erramallelu (60), Surekha (27), Jagtyala sannalu (203), I.R-64 (137), Sona mahsuri (132), Polasa prabha (86), RNR 10754 (200), RGL-2537 (60) NLR 33892 (47) and others . Major varieties under foundation seed production during 2009-2010 were samba mahsuri (2767 q) cotton dura sannalu (927 q) Vijatha (286 q) Amara (382 q), RG:-2537 (219 q) Nelluru mahsuir (898 q), NLR33892 (465 q), Swarna (76 a) etc.

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There are 25 seed Farms in the State and implementing Foundation seed Production Programme with a concept to meet the foundation seed requirement of seed village programme. During 2007-2008, from 569 ha. 28450 q of foundation seed was produced. XX. Modern agricultural implements used in rice production :Combined harvesters, Transplanters (in

popularization stage),rotary weeders, tractor drawn leveling blade, power tillers,laser guided levelers(in popularization stage), threshers, harvesters, combined harvesters, serrated sickles, wetland leveler ect., XXI. Conclusion and way forward : In Andhra Pradesh, rice production has been increased by three folds

due to developments in production technologies and untiring efforts of farming community. Still there is a difference between the potential yields and realized yields. New approaches and paradigm shifts are needed in rice research to enhance the production and productivity to meet the future demand. Rapid advances in molecular biology and biotechnology offers scope to utilize the gene technologies for facing the future problems. In addition to the conventional approaches, research efforts are to be intensified to harness the new technologies for enhancing production, productivity and nutritional qualities of rice. There is no scope for increase of area under rice. Hence, there is a need to increase per unit area of production. With the available as well as the technology to be generated in future and using the strengths (Availability of good varieties and hybrids, strong research base, rice farming is easy and rice has good internal and external market) and opportunities available in A.P weaknesses and threats existing in different agro-climatic zones can be overcome and production can be increased not only to meet the state requirement but can export to earn . XXII. Future thrust in rice production technologies : To meet the future demand of rice and to make rice

farming more remunerative, there is a need to increase per unit area of production by adopting appropriate production technologies. Based on the realized yields identify the areas as low, medium and high productive areas. Our efforts should be to enhance the yields from low to medium, medium to high and high to further high. Future thurst areas are 1. a) b) 2. a) Genetic enhancement of yield and strengthening of quality seed production. Enhancing production and productivity through hybrid rice. Stabilizing yield through molecular breeding. Enhancement of resource use efficiency with emphasis on water. Water saving and yield enhancing strategies.
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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

b)

Improving input use efficiency and soil health in rice and rice based cropping systems and enhancing productivity.

c) 3. 4. 5.

Enhancement of rice productivity and value addition through mechanization. Bio-intensive integrated pest management (IPM, IDM, IWM ). Development of tools and machines for increasing efficiency and reducing drudgery. Facilitating technology transfer utilizing Information and Communication Technologies for accelerated dissemination of technologies.

Table -1: Area production and productivity of rice in A.P (2009-10 – 1956-57)

S. No

Year

Area (‘000 Production ha) (‘0000 t) 1332.0 1326.0 1329.3 960.1 895.3 732.9 1139.0 12458.1 10638.0 11878.0 8510.0

Yield (kg/ha) 3340 3330 3230 3110 3000 2590 2970 2936 2710 2812 2431

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

2009-2010 2008-2009 2007-2008 2006-2007 2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004 2002-2003 2001-2002 2000-01 1999-2000 1998-1999 1997-1998

3930 3979 4104 3086 2975 2822 3825 4243 4014 4316 3500

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

1996-1997 1995-1996 1994-1995 1993-1994 1992-1993 1991-1992 1990-1991 1989-1990 1988-1989 1987-1988 1986-1987 1985-1986 1984-1985 1983-1984 1982-1983 1981-1982 1980-1981 1979-1980 1978-1979 1977-1978

4011 3692 3997 3485 3524 3854 3953 4144 4129 3138 3378 3363 3418 4067 3558 3743 3521 3392 3897 3581

10488.0 9014.0 9649.0 9397.0 8792.0 9249.0 9654.0 9959.0 10621.0 7087.1 6591.4 7613.5 6909.1 8790.7 7671.3 7867.8 7011.4 6306.9 7432.1 5604.6

2615 2498 2414 2696 2495 2400 2442 2403 2572 2258 1951 2264 2021 2161 2156 2102 1991 1859 1907 1565

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RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

1976-1977 1975-1976 1974-1975 1973-1974 1972-1973 1971-1972 1970-1971 1969-1970 1968-1969 1967-1968 1966-1967 1965-1966 1964-1965 1963-1964 1962-1963 1961-1962 1960-1961 1959-1960 1958-1959 1957-1958

3496 3893 3554 3377 2927 3041 3522 3469 2850 3398 3375 3138 3460 3505 3475 3395 2956 3080 3009 2833

4929.7 6451.2 5700.3 5583.2 4256.4 4717.1 4786.4 4329.7 3508.4 4673.6 4415.1 3961.1 5006.8 4343.0 4243.5 4515.1 3660.5 3835.6 3764.8 3345.9

1410 1657 1604 1653 1454 1551 1359 1248 1231 1375 1308 1262 1447 1239 1221 1330 1238 1245 1251 1181

Page | 31

For more Information contact: Visit Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217

RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

54

1956-1957

2929

3406.9

1163

Table-2: Ecosystem wise rice cultivation in Andhra Pradesh Ecosystem Remarks Irrigated transplantedEcosystem More than 85% of rice is grown under different sources of irrigation under puddle condition. Rice is transplanted by random planting method where plant population is inadequate

Rainfed low land Eco-system

Around 10% of rice cultivated in high rainfall areas of Bhadrachalem, Eturnagaram and in some parts of North coastal districts in under this situation. Dry nursery in raised with the onset of monsoon and transplanted on a well prepared field when there is a heavy rain. Field is bunded so that the rain water from upper areas gets accumulated in the field and the crop resembles as if it is grown as a transplanted crop. Some times after dry sowing, the field is

converted to wet cultivation as and when water is available. This practice is common in Vishakhapatnam and Srikakulam district.

Rainfed Eco system

Around 5% of area is under rainfed rice in Telangana, North coastal and parts of Nellore districts under this system, some times crop is intercropped with Redgram/hibiscus

Page | 32

For more Information contact: Visit Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217

RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Table-3: Popular and high yielding varieties grown in Andhra Pradesh Sl. No 1 Nortern Telangana Zone BPT-5204, JGL-384, JGL-1798, Surekha, Kavya, (NTZ) WGL-32100, WGL-14, MTU-1001, MTU-1010, Swarna, Erramallelu, IR-64 Zone Varieties grown

2

Central (CTZ)

Telangana

Zone BPT-5204,

WGL-14,

WGL-32100,

Swarna,

Surekha,

Kavya,

Bhadrakali, MTU-1001, MTU-1010, IR-64, Erramallelu, JGL-384, JGL-1798

3

Southern Telangana Zone RNR-M-7, Sagar samba, Kavya, BPT-5204, WGL-14, (STZ) WGL-32100, JGL-384, JGL-1798, MTU-1010, MTU-1001, Swarna, Tellahamsa, Erramallelu, IR-64

4

Southern Zone (SZ)

NLR+33892, NLR-145, BPT-5204, JGL-384, JGL-1798, Tikkana, MTU1010, MTU-1001, NLR-34449

5

Krishna Zone (KZ)

MTU-2077, MTU-1001, MTU-1061, MTU-1064, BPT-5204, Bapatla Sannalu, MTU-1010, JGL-384, JGL-1798

6

Godavari Zone (GZ)

Swarna, MTU-1001, MTU-1010, MTU-1061, MTU-1064, PLA-1100, BPT-5204, IR-64, JGL-1798

Page | 33

For more Information contact: Visit Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217

RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

7

North Coastal Zone (NCZ)

Srikakulam, Sannual, Swarna, Vasundara, Sonamahsuri, MTU-1001, MTU-1010, IR-64

8

Scarce rainfall zone (SRZ)

BPT-5204, Sonamahsuri, Kavya, JGL-384, JGL-1798

9

High altitude tribal zone Srikakulam sannalu, Swarna, Pushkala, Vasundara, (HATZ) 1001, MTU-1010

MTU-

Table 4: List of local germplasm having special features (Nutritional medicinal, pest, diseases etc) S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name of local germplasm line Godavari isukalu Chittimutyalu Kichidi sambar (HR-35) Kakirekkalu Molagolukulu Akkulu Rajhamsa Amritsari Tallavadlu Bail vadly Akasvari Eswarakora Special feature Short bold aromatic rice Short, Aromatic rice Excellent cooking quality and taste Long grained scented rice with black husk Long slender grain with good cooking quality Quality grain Drought tolerant rain fed condition Droudht, rainfed D rought, rainfed Gallmidge resistance, redkernel

Page | 34

For more Information contact: Visit Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217

RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Sethhsadi Ghama Ghamalu Telladlu Royyapottu Chinthapuvvu Nallaregativodlu Neeru Gummadi

Very early, 70 days Scented and quality grain Very early, 70 days Scented with quality grain Rich in nutritive value( Iron) Rich in nutritive value(Iron) 150 days and grows tall as the water level increases

Table-5: Area under high yielding varieties in Andhra Pradesh (2008-2009) . No Variety Kharif area (ha) % kharif area Super fine varieties 1 2 3 BPT-5204-Samba Mahsuir BPT-3291-Sona Mahsuri MTU-1010-Cottondora Sannalu 4 5 6 7 8 WGL-48684-Kavya WGL-20471-Erramallelu JGL-1798-Jagtial sannalu Nellore Molagolokulu IR-64 4869 3480 70536 82900 48970 0.17 0.12 2.48 2.92 1.72 0 2320 36564 84047 127235 0.00 0.15 2.32 5.34 8.08 4869 5800 107100 166947 176205 0.11 0.13 2.42 3.78 3.99 933108 99749 384111 32.82 3.51 13.51 94122 10468 795775 5.98 0.66 50.55 1027230 110217 1179886 23.25 2.50 26.71 of Rabi (ha) area % rabi area of Total area (ha) % of total area

Page | 35

For more Information contact: Visit Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217

RICE IN ANDHRA PRADESH

9 Total

Other varieties

14064 1641787

0.49 57.75

0 1150531

0.00 73.09

14064 2792318

0.32 63.21

Fine varietie 1 2 3 4 5 Total Common varieties 1 5 6 7 8 9 Total Jaya RPW 6-17 (Phalguna) IET-1444 (Rasi) Tellahamsa Yerramallelu Other varieties 3261 4777 4100 16972 0 353179 382289 0.11 0.17 0.14 0.60 0.00 12.42 13.45 0 0 4810 38811 5352 126243 175216 0.00 0.00 0.31 2.47 0.34 8.02 11.13 3261 4777 8910 55783 5352 479422 557505 0.07 0.11 0.20 1.26 0.12 10.85 12.62 MTU-1001-Vijetha MTU-7029-Swarna MTU-2067-Chaitanya MTU-2077-Krishnaveni Other MTU-varieties 170842 471800 25572 29291 121515 81900 6.01 16.59 0.90 1.03 4.27 28.80 101890 6581 0 4846 135106 248423 6.47 0.42 0.00 0.31 8.58 15.78 272732 478381 25572 34137 256621 1067443 6.17 10.83 0.58 0.77 5.81 24.17

Page | 36

For more Information contact: Visit Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217

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