Right To Privacy - Consti2

Published on 5 days ago | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 0 | Comments: 0 | Views: 64
of x
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

 

Republic Republ ic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BANC  G.  G.R. No. 12!"# $ul% 2&' 1((" B)AS *. OP)E' petitione+' ,s. RUBEN -. TORRES' A)EAN-ER AGU/RRE' 0ECTOR /))ANUEA' C/E)/TO 0AB/TO' ROBERT BARBERS' CARMENC/TA REO-/CA' CESAR SAR/NO' RENATO A)ENC/A' TOMAS P. A*R/CA' 0EA- O* T0E NAT/ONA) COMPUTER CENTER an C0A/RMAN O* T0E COMM/SS/ON ON AU-/T' +esponents.  PUNO' $.3  The petition at ba+ is a co44enable e5o+t on the pa+t pa+t of Senato+ Blas *. Ople to p+e,ent p+e,ent the sh+in6in7 of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' 8hich the +e,e+e M+. M+. $ustice B+aneis consie+e as 9the 4ost co4p+ehensi,e of +i7hts an the +i7ht 4ost ,alue b% ci,ili:e 4en.9 1 Petitione+ Petitione+ Ople p+a%s that 8e in,aliate A4inist+ati,e O+e+ No. &;" entitle 9Aoption of a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence Refe+ence S%ste49 on t8o i4po+tant constitutional 7+ouns' ,i:3 one' it is a usu+pation of the po8e+ of Con7+ess to le7islate' an t8o' it i4pe+4issibl% int+ues on ou+ citi:en+%=s p+otecte :one of  p+i,ac%. >e 7+ant the petition fo+ the +i7hts sou7ht to be ,inicate b% the petitione+ nee st+on7e+ ba++ie+s ba++ie+s a7ainst fu+the+ e+osion. A.O. No. &;" 8as issue b% P+esient *iel . Ra4os On -ece4be+ 12' 1((! an +eas as follo8s3 A-OPT/ON O* A NAT/ONA) COMPUTER/?E/-ENT/*/CAT/ON RE*ERENCE [email protected] >0EREAS' the+e is a nee to p+o,ie *ili *ilipino pino citi:ens an fo+ei7n +esien +esients ts 8ith the facilit% to con,enientl% t+ansact business 8ith basic se+,ice an social secu+it% p+o,ie+s an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent inst+u4entaliti inst+u4entalities es >0EREAS' this 8ill +eui+e a co4pute+i:e s%ste4 to p+ope+l% an ecientl% ientif% pe+sons see6in7 basic se+,ices on social secu+it% an +euce' if not totall% e+aicate f+auulent t+ansactions an 4is+ep+esentations 4is+ep+esentations >0EREAS' a conce+te an collabo+ati collabo+ati,e ,e e5o+t a4on7 the ,a+ious basic se+,ices an social secu+it% p+o,iin7 a7encies an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent int+u4entalities is +eui+e to achie,e such a s%ste4 NO>' T0ERE*ORE' /' */-E) . RAMOS' P+esient of the Republic of the Philippines' b% ,i+tue of the po8e+s ,este in 4e b% la8' o he+eb% i+ect the follo8in73 Sec. 1. Establish4ent of a Na National tional Co4pote+i:e Co4pote+i:e /enti<cation R Refe+ence efe+ence S% S%ste4. ste4. A ecent+ali:e ecent+ali:e  /enti<cation Refe+ence S%ste4 a4on7 the 6e% basic se+,ices an social secu+it% p+o,ie+s is he+eb% establishe. Refe+ence Sec. 2. /nte+ /nte+DA7enc% DA7enc% Coo+inatin7 Coo+inatin7 Co44ittee. An /nte+ /nte+DA7enc% DA7enc% Coo+ Coo+inatin7 inatin7 Co44ittee /AC /ACCF CF to +a8Dup the i4ple4entin7 7uielines an o,e+see the i4ple4entation of the S%ste4 is he+eb% c+eate' chai+e b% the Eecuti,e Sec+eta+%'' 8ith the follo8in7 as 4e4be+s3 Sec+eta+% 0ea' P+esiential Mana7e4ent Sta5  Sec+eta+%'' National Econo4ic -e,elop4ent Autho+it% Sec+eta+% Sec+eta+%'' -epa+t4ent of the /nte+io+ an )ocal Go,e+n4ent Sec+eta+% Sec+eta+%'' -epa+t4ent of 0ealth Sec+eta+% A4inist+ato+' A4inist+a to+' Go,e+n4ent Se+,ice /nsu+ance S%ste4' A4inist+ato+' A4inist+a to+' Social Secu+it% S%ste4' A4inist+ato+' A4inist+a to+' National Statistics Oce Mana7in7 -i+ecto+' National Co4pute+ Cente+. Sec. &. Sec+eta+i Sec+eta+iat. at. The National Co4pute+ C Cente+ ente+ NCCF is he+ he+eb% eb% esi7nate as sec+ sec+eta+iat eta+iat to the /AC /ACC C an as such shall p+o,ie a4inist+ati,e a4inist+ati,e an technical suppo+t to the /ACC. Sec. H. )in6a7e A4on7 A7enc A7encies. ies. The Population Population Ref Refe+ence e+ence Nu4be+ PRN PRNFF 7ene+ate b% the NSO shall shall se+,e as the co44on +efe+ence +efe+ence nu4be+ to establish a lin6a7e a4on7 conce+ne a7encies. The /ACC Sec+eta+i Sec+eta+iat at shall coo+inate 8ith the i5e+ent Social Secu+it% an Se+,ices A7encies to establish the stana+s in the use of Bio4et+ics Technolo7% Technolo7% an in co4pute+ application esi7ns of thei+ +especti,e s%ste4s. Sec. #. Conuct of /nfo+ /nfo+4ation 4ation -isse4i -isse4ination nation Ca4pai7n. The O Oce ce of the P+ P+ess ess Sec+eta+ Sec+eta+%' %' in coo+ination coo+ination 8ith the National Oce Oce' ' the GS/S an SSS as lea a7encies othe+ conce+ne a7encies une+ta6e 4assi,e t+iD4eiaStatistics info+4ation info+4ation isse4ination ca4pai7n to eucate anan +aise public a8a+eness on theshall i4po+tance anause of the PRN an the Social Secu+it% /enti<cation Refe+ Refe+ence. ence. Sec. !. *unin7. The ffuns uns necessa+% fo fo++ the i4ple4entation of the s%ste4 shall be sou+ce sou+ce f+o4 the +especti,e +especti,e bu7ets of the conce+ne a7encies.

 

Sec. . Sub4ission of R Re7ula+ e7ula+ R Repo+ts. epo+ts. The NSO' GS/S an SSS shall shall sub4it +e7ula+ +epo+ts to the Oce Oce of the P+esient P+esi ent th+ou7h the /ACC' on the status of i4ple4entation of this une+ta6in7. Sec. ". E5ecti,it%. This A4inist+ati,e O+e+ shall ta6 ta6e e e5ect i44eiatel% i44eiatel%.. -ONE in the Cit% of Manila' this 12th a% of -ece4be+ in the %ea+ of Ou+ )o+' Nineteen 0un+e an Ninet%DSi. SG-.F */-E) . RAMOS A.O.. No. &;" 8as publishe in fou+ ne8spape+s of 7ene+al ci+culatio A.O ci+culation n on $anua+% 22' 1(( an $anua+% 2&' 1((. On  $anua+% 2H' 1((' 1((' petitione+ <le <le  the instant petition a7ainst ++esponents' esponents' then E Eecuti,e ecuti,e Sec+eta+% Sec+eta+% Ruben To++e o++es s an the heas of the 7o,e+n4ent a7encies' 8ho as 4e4be+s of the /nte+DA7enc% Coo+inatin7 Coo+inatin7 Co44ittee' a+e cha+7e 8ith the i4ple4entation of A.O. No. &;". On Ap+il "' 1((' 8e issue a te4po+a+% +est+ainin7 o+e+ enIoinin7 its i4ple4entation. Petitione++ contens3 Petitione A. T0E E EST STAB) AB)/SN /SNMEN MENT T O* A N NA AT/O T/ONA) NA) C COMP OMPUTE UTER/? R/?EE- //-ENT ENT/*/ /*/CA CAT/O T/ON N RE* RE*ER ERENC ENCE E [email protected] [email protected] REJU/R REJU/RES ES A )EG/S)AT/E ACT. T0E /SSUANCE O* A.O. NO. &;" [email protected] T0E PRES/-ENT O* T0E REPUB)/C O* T0E P0/)/PP/NES /S'  T0ERE*ORE' AN AN UNCONST/TU UNCONST/TUT/ONA) T/ONA) USURP USURPAT AT/ON /ON O* T0E )EG/S)A )EG/S)AT/E T/E PO>ERS O* T T0E 0E CONGRESS O* T0E T0E REPUB)/C O* T0E P0/)/PP/NES. B. T0E A APPR PPROPR OPR/A /AT/ T/ON ON O* O* PUB PUB)/C )/C * *UNUN-S SB [email protected] @ T0E PRES PRES/-E /-ENT NT * *OR OR T T0E 0E /M /MP)E P)EMEN MENT TAT/O T/ON N O* A A.O .O.. NO NO.. &; &;" " /S AN AN UNCONST/TUT/ONA) USURPAT/ON O* T0E EC)US/E R/G0T O* CONGRESS TO APPROPR/ATE PUB)/C *UN-S *OR EPEN-/TURE. C. T0E //MP) MP)EME EMENT NTA AT/O T/ON N O* A A.O .O.. NO NO.. &; &;" " /NS /NS//-/OU /OUS) S)@ @ )A )[email protected] @S T0E T0E GR GROU OUNN->OR >ORK K *O *OR R A [email protected] [email protected] STEM M >0 >0/C0 /C0 > >/)) /)) /O)ATE /O)A TE T0E B/)) O* R/G0TS ENS0R/NE- /N T0E CONST/TUT/ON. 2 Responents counte+Da+7ue3 A.

T0E /NS /NST TANT PET PET/T/ /T/ON ON /S NOT A $UST/ $UST/C/ C/AB) AB)E E CASE CASE AS >OU >OU))- >ARR ARRANT ANT A $$U-/ U-/C/ C/A) A) RE RE/E> /E>

B. A. A.O. O. NO NO. &;" L1( L1((! (! >AS >AS /S /SSUE SUE- >/ >/T0/ T0/N N T0E E EEC ECUT UT/E /E A ANN- A-M A-M/N/ /N/STR STRA AT/ T/E E PO>ER PO>ERS S O* T T0E 0E PR PRES/ ES/-E -ENT NT >/T0OUT ENCROAC0/NG ON T0E )EG/S)AT/E PO>ERS O* CONGRESS C. T0E * *UNUN-S S NEC NECESS ESSAR [email protected] @ *O *OR R T0 T0E E /MP /MP)EM )EMENT ENTA AT/O T/ON N O* T T0E 0E //-ENT ENT/*/ /*/CA CAT/O T/ON N RE* RE*ER ERENC ENCE E [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] BE SOURCE- *ROM T0E BU-GETS O* T0E CONCERNE- AGENC/ES -.

A. A.O. O. NO. NO. & &;" ;" L1((! L1((! PROT PROTECT ECTS S AN AN //NN-// //-UA -UA)=S )=S /NT /NTERE EREST ST /N PR/ PR/[email protected] [email protected] &

>e no8 +esol,e. / As is usual in constitutional liti7ation' +esponents +aise the th+eshol issues +elatin7 +elatin7 to the stanin7 to sue of the petitione+ an the Iusticiabili Iusticiabilit% t% of the case at ba+. Mo+e speci<call speci<call%' %' +esponents a,e+ that petitione+ has no le7al inte+est to uphol an that the i4ple4entin7 +ules of A.O. A.O. No. &;" ha,e %et to be p+o4ul7ate.  These sub4issions sub4issions o not ese+,e ou+ s% s%4pathetic 4pathetic ea+. ea+. Petitione+ Opl Ople e is a istin7uishe 4e 4e4be+ 4be+ of ou+ Senate. As a Senato+' petitione+ is possesse of the +euisite stanin7 to b+in7 suit +aisin7 the issue that the issuance of A.O. No. &;" is a usu+pation of le7islati,e po8e+ po8e+.. H As tapa%e+ an 4e4be+ of the Go,e+n4ent Se+,ice /nsu+ance S%ste4 GS/SF' petitione+ can also i4pu7n the le7alit% of the 4isali7n4ent of public funs an the 4isuse of GS/S funs to i4ple4ent A.O. No. &;". #  The +ipeness fo+ aIuication of the P Petition etition at ba+ is not a5ecte a5ecte b% the fact that the i4ple4e i4ple4entin7 ntin7 +ules of A.O. A.O. No. &;" ha,e %et to be p+o4ul7ate. Petitione+ Ople assails A.O. A.O. No. &;" as in,ali pe+ se an as in<+4e on its face. 0is action is not p+e4atu+e fo+ the +ules %et to be p+o4ul7ate cannot cu+e its fatal efects. Mo+eo,e+' the +esponents the4sel,es ha,e sta+te the i4ple4entation of A.O A.O.. No. &;" 8ithout 8aitin7 fo+ the +ules. As ea+l% as $anua+% 1(' 1((' +esponent +esponent Social Secu+it% S%ste4 SSSF cause the publication of a notice to bi fo+ the 4anufactu+e of the National /enti<cation /-F ca+. ! Responent Eecuti,e Sec+eta+% To++es has publicl% announce that +ep+esentati,es f+o4 the GS/S an the SSS ha,e co4plete the 7uielines fo+ the national ienti<cation s%ste4.  All si7nals f+o4 the +esponents sho8 thei+ uns8e+,in7 8ill to i4ple4ent A.O. No. &;" an 8e nee not 8ait fo+ the fo+4alit% of the +ules to pass Iu74ent on its constitutionalit% constitutionalit%.. /n this li7ht' the issente+s insistence that 8e ti7hten the +ule on stanin7 is not a co44enable stance as its +esult 8oul be to th+ottle an i4po+tant constitutional p+inciple p+inciple an a funa4ental +i7ht. // >e no8 co4e to the co+e issues. Petition Petitione+ e+ clai4s that A.O. No. &;" is not a 4e+e a4inist+ati,e o+e+ but a la8 an hence' be%on the po8e+ of the P+esient P+esient to issue. 0e alle7es that A.O. No. &;" establishes establishes a s%ste4 of ienti<cation that is allDenco4passin7 in scope' a5ects the life an libe+t% of e,e+% *ilipi *ilipino no citi:en an fo+ei7n +esie +esient' nt' an 4o+e pa+ticula+l%' ,iolates thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac%. Petitione Petitione+=s +=s seulous fo+the thee4a+cation Eecuti, Eecuti,e e not to bet8een t+espass the on the la84a6in7 o4ain of to Con7+ess is an the une+stanable. The conce+n blu++in7 of line po8e+ of the )e7islatu+e 4a6e la8s po8e+ of the Eecuti,e to eecute eecute la8s 8ill istu+b thei+ elicate balance of po8e+ an cannot be allo8e. 0ence' the e ee+cise e+cise b% one b+anch of 7o,e+n4ent of po8e+ belon7in7 to anothe+ 8ill be 7i,en a st+icte+ sc+utin% b% this Cou+t.  The line that elineates elineates )e7islati,e )e7islati,e an Eecuti,e po8e po8e++ is not inistinc inistinct. t. )e7islati,e po8e po8e++ is 9the autho+it% autho+it%'' une+ the Constitution' to 4a6e la8s' an to alte+ an +epeal the4.9 " The Constitution' as the 8ill of the people in thei+ o+i7inal' so,e+ei7n so,e+ei 7n an unli4ite capacit%' has ,este this po8e+ in the Con7+ess of the Philippines. ( The 7+ant of le7islati,e

 

po8e+ to Con7+ess is b+oa' 7ene+al an co4p+ehens co4p+ehensi,e. i,e. 1; The le7islati,e bo% possesses plena+% po8e+ fo+ all pu+poses of ci,il 7o,e+n4ent. 11 An% po8e+' ee4e to be le7islati,e b% usa7e an t+aition' is necessa+il% possesse b% Con7+ess' unless the Constitution has lo7e it else8he+e. 12 /n <ne' ecept as li4ite b% the Constitution' eithe+ ep+essl% ep+ essl% o+ i4pliel%' le7islati,e po8e+ e4b+aces all subIects an etens to 4atte+s of 7ene+al conce+n o+ co44on inte+est. 1& >hile Con7+ess is ,este 8ith the po8e+ to enact la8s' the P+esient eecut eecutes es the la8s. 1H The eecuti,e po8e+ is ,este in the P+esients. 1# /t is 7ene+all% e<ne as the po8e+ to enfo+ce an a4iniste+ the la8s. 1! /t is the po8e+ of ca++%in7 the la8s into p+actical ope+ation an enfo+cin7 thei+ ue obse+,ance. 1 As hea of the Eecuti,e -epa+t4ent' the P+esient is the Chief Eecuti,e. Eecuti,e. 0e +ep+esents +ep+esents the 7o,e+n4ent as a 8hole an sees to it that all la8s a+e enfo+ce b% the ocials an e4plo%ees of his epa+t4ent. 1" 0e has cont+ol o,e+ the e eecuti,e ecuti,e epa+t4ent' bu+eaus an oces. This 4eans that he has the autho+it% to assu4e i+ectl% the functions of the eecuti,e epa+t4ent' bu+eau an oce o+ inte+fe+e 8ith the isc+etion of its ocials. 1( Co+olla+% to the po8e+ of cont+ol' the P+esient P+esient also has the ut% of supe+,isin7 the enfo+ce4ent of la8s fo+ the 4aintenance of 7ene+al peace an public o+e+. o+e+. Thus' he is 7+ante a4inist+ati,e po8e+ o,e+ bu+eaus an oces une+ his cont+ol to enable hi4 to ischa+7e his uties e5ecti,el%. 2; A4inist+ati,e po8e+ is conce+ne 8ith the 8o+6 of appl%in7 policies an enfo+cin7 o+e+s as ete+4ine b% p+ope+ A4inist+ati,e 7o,e+n4ental o+7ans. o+7ans. 21 /t enables the P+esient to < a unifo+4 stana+ of a4inist+ati,e ecienc% an chec6 the ocial conuct of his a7ents. 22 To this en' he can issue a4inist+ati,e o+e+s' +ules an +e7ulations. P+escinin7 P+esc inin7 f+o4 these p+ecepts' 8e hol that A.O. No. &;" in,ol,es a subIect that is not app+op+iat app+op+iate e to be co,e+e b% an a4inist+ati,e o+e+. An a4inist+ati,e o+e+ is3 Sec. &. A4inist+ati A4inist+ati,e ,e O+e+s.  Act Acts s of the P+esient 8hich +el +elate ate to pa+ticula+ aspects of 7o,e+n4ental 7o,e+n4ental ope+ation in pu+suance of his uties as a4inist+ati,e hea shall be p+o4ul7ate in a4inist+ati,e o+e+s. 2& An a4inist+ati,e o+e+ is an o+inance issue b% the P+esient 8hich +elates to speci<c aspects in the a4inist+ati,e ope+ation of 7o,e+n4ent. /t 4ust be in ha+4on% 8ith the la8 an shoul be fo+ the sole pu+pose of i4ple4entin7 the la8 an ca++%in7 out the le7islati,e polic%. 2H >e +eIect the a+7u4ent that A.O. No. &;" i4ple4ents the le7islati,e polic% of the A4inist+ati,e A4inist+ati,e Coe of 1(". The Coe is a 7ene+al la8 an 9inco+po+ates in a uni<e ocu4ent the 4aIo+ st+uctu+al' functional an p+oceu+al p+inciples of 7o,e+nance.9 2# an 9e4boies chan7es in a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e st+uctu+e an p+oceu+es p+oceu+es esi7ne to se+,e the people.9 2! The Coe is i,ie into se,en F Boo6s3 Boo6 / eals 8ith So,e+ei7nt% an Gene+al A4inist+ation' Boo6 // 8ith the -ist+ibution of Po8e+s of the th+ee b+anches of Go,e+n4ent' Boo6 /// on the Oce of the P+esient' Boo6 / on the Eecuti,e B+anch' Boo6  on Constitutional Co44issions' Boo6 / on National Go,e+n4ent Bu7etin7' an Boo6 // on A4inist+ati,e P+oceu+e. P+oceu+e. These Boo6s contain p+o,isi p+o,isions ons on the o+7ani:ati o+7ani:ation' on' po8e+s an 7ene+al a4inist+ation a4inist+atio n of the eecuti,e' le7islati, le7islati,e e an Iuicial b+anches of 7o,e+n4ent' the o+7ani:ation an a4inist+ation of  epa+t4ents' bu+eaus an oces une+ the eecuti,e b+anch' the o+7ani:ation an functions of the Constitutional Co44issions an othe+ constitutional constitutional boies' the +ules on the national 7o,e+n4ent bu7et' as 8ell as 7uieline fo+ the e ee+cise e+cise b% a4inist+ati,e a7encies of uasiDle7islati,e an uasiDIuicial po8e+s. The Coe co,e+s both the inte+nal a4inist+ation a4inist+atio n of 7o,e+n4ent' i.e' inte+nal o+7ani:ation' pe+sonnel an +ec+uit4ent' supe+,ision an iscipline' an the e5ects of the functions pe+fo+4e b% a4inist+ati,e ocials ocials on p+i,ate ini,iuals o+ pa+ties outsie 7o,e+n4ent. 2 /t cannot be si4plistica si4plisticall% ll% a+7ue that A.O. No. &;" 4e+el% i4ple4ents the A4inist+ati A4inist+ati,e ,e Coe of 1(". /t establishes fo+ the <+st ti4e a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence Refe+ence S%ste4. Such a S%ste4 +eui+es a elicate aIust4ent of ,a+ious contenin7 state policies  the p+i4ac% of national secu+it%' the etent of p+i,ac% inte+est a7ainst ossie+D7athe+in7 ossie+D7athe+in7 b% 7o,e+n4ent' the choice of policies' etc. /nee' the issent of M+ M+.. $ustice Meno:a states that the A.O. No. &;" in,ol,es the allDi4po+tant f+eeo4 f+eeo4 of thou7ht. As sai a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e o+e+ +ee<nes the pa+a4ete+s of so4e basic +i7hts of ou+ citi:en+% ,isDaD,is ,isDaD,is the State as 8ell as the line that sepa+ates the a4inist+ati,e po8e+ of the P+esient to 4a6e +ules an the le7islati,e po8e+ of Con7+ess' it ou7ht to be e,ient that it eals 8ith a subIect that shoul be co,e+e b% la8. No+ is it co++ect to a+7ue as the issente+s o that A.-. No. &;" is not a la8 because it confe+s no +i7ht' i4poses no ut%' a5o+s no p+octection' an c+eates no oce. Une+ A.O. No. &;"' a citi:en cannot t+ansact business 8ith 7o,e+n4ent a7encies eli,e+in7 basic se+,ices to the people 8ithout the conte4plate ienti<cation ca+. No citi:en 8ill +efuse to 7et this ienti<cation ca+ fo+ no one can a,oi ealin7 8ith 7o,e+n4ent. /t is thus clea+ as a%li7ht that 8ithout the /-' a citi:en 8ill ha,e icult% ee+cisin7 ee+cisin7 his +i7hts an enIo%in7 his p+i,ile7es. Gi,en this +ealit%' the contention that A.O. No. &;" 7i,es no +i7ht an i4poses no ut% cannot stan. A7ain' 8ith ue +espect' the issentin7 opinions unul% epan the li4its of a4inist+ati,e le7islation an conseuentl% e+oes the plena+% po8e+ of Con7+ess to 4a6e la8s. This is cont+a+% to the establishe app+oach e<nin7 the t+aitional li4its of a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e le7islation. As 8ell state b% *ishe+ *ishe+33 9. . . Man% +e7ulations ho8e,e+' bea+ i+ectl% on the public. /t is he+e that a4inist+ati,e le7islation 4ust he +est+icte in its scope an application. Re7ulations Re7ul ations a+e not suppose to be a substitute fo+ the 7ene+al polic%D4a6in7 that Con7+ess enacts in the fo+4 of a public la8. la8. Althou7h a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e +e7ulations a+e entitle to +espect' the autho+it% to p+esc+ibe +ules an +e7ulations is not an inepenent sou+ce of po8e+ to 4a6e la8s.9 2" /// Assu4in7' a+7ueno' that A.O. A.O. No. &;" nee not be the subIect of a la8' still it cannot pass constitutional 4uste+ as an a4inist+ati,e a4inist+ati, e le7islation because faciall% it ,iolates the +i7ht to p+i,ac%. p+i,ac%. The essence of p+i,ac% is the 9+i7ht to be let alone.9 2( /n the 1(!# case of G+is8ol ,. Connecticut' &; the Unite States Sup+e4e Cou+t 7a,e 4o+e substance to the +i7ht p+i,ac% +ule that the +i7ht has a constitutional /t hel that the+e is&1 a +i7ht 8hich canofbe foun 8hen 8ithinitthe penu4b+as of the *i+st' Thi+' *ou+th'founation. * *ifth ifth an Ninth A4en4ents' ,i:3 of p+i,ac% Speci<c 7ua+antees in the Bill of Ri7hts ha,e penu4b+as fo+4e b% e4anations f+o4 these 7ua+antees that help 7i,e the4 life an substance . . . ,a+ious 7ua+antees c+eate :ones of p+i,ac%. The +i7ht of association containe in the penu4b+a of the *i+st A4en4ent is one' as 8e ha,e seen. The Thi+ A4en4ent in its p+ohibition a7ainst the ua+te+in7 of solie+s 9in an% house9 in ti4e of peace 8ithout the consent of the o8ne+ is anothe+ facet of that p+i,ac%.  The *ou+th *ou+th A4en4ent eplic eplicitl% itl% a+4s tthe he ==+i7ht of the people to be sec secu+e u+e in thei+ pe+sons' pe+sons' houses an e5ects'

 

a7ainst un+easonable sea+ches an sei:u+es.9 The *ifth A4en4ent in its SelfD/nc+i4ination SelfD/nc+i4ination Clause enables the citi:en to c+eate a :one of p+i,ac% 8hich 7o,e+n4ent 4a% not fo+ce hi4 to su++ene+ to his et+i4ent. The Ninth A4en4ent p+o,ies33 9The enu4e+ation in the Constitution' of ce+tain +i7hts' shall not be const+ue to en% o+ ispa+a7e othe+s p+o,ies +etaine b% the people.9 /n the 1(!" case of Mo+fe ,. Mutuc' &2 8e aopte the G+is8ol +ulin7 that the+e is a constitutional +i7ht to p+i,ac%. Spea6in7 th+u M+. $ustice' late+ Chief $ustice' En+iue *e+nano' 8e hel3 





 The G+is8ol case in,aliate a Co Connecticut nnecticut statute 8hich 4a 4ae e the use of cont+ace cont+acepti,es pti,es a c+i4inal o5 o5ence ence on the 7+oun of its a4ountin7 to an unconstitutional in,asion of the +i7ht of p+i,ac% of 4a++ie pe+sons +i7htfull% it st+esse 9a +elationship l%in7 8ithin the :one of p+i,ac% c+eate b% se,e+al funa4ental constitutional 7ua+antees.9 /t has 8ie+ i4plications thou7h. The constitutional +i7ht to p+i,ac% has co4e into its o8n. So it is li6e8ise li6e8ise in ou+ Iu+isiction. The +i7ht to p+i,ac% as such is acco+e +eco7nition inepenentl% of its ienti<cation 8ith libe+t% in itself' it is full% ese+,in7 of constitutional p+otection. The lan7ua7e of P+of P+of.. E4e+son is pa+ticula+l% pa+ticula+l % apt3 9The concept of li4ite 7o,e+n4ent has al8a%s inclue the iea that 7o,e+n4enta 7o,e+n4entall po8e+s stop sho+t of ce+tain int+usions into the pe+sonal life of the citi:en. This is inee one of the basic istinctions bet8een absolute an li4ite 7o,e+n4ent. Ulti4ate an pe+,asi,e cont+ol cont+ol of the ini,iual' in all aspects of his life' is the hall4a+6 of the absolute state. /n cont+ast' a s%ste4 of li4ite 7o,e+n4ent safe7ua+s a p+i,ate secto+' 8hich belon7s to the ini,iual' <+4l% istin7uishin7 it f+o4 the public secto+' 8hich the state can cont+ol. P+otection of this p+i,ate secto+  p+otection' in othe+ 8o+s' of the i7nit% an inte7+it% of the ini,iual  has beco4e inc+easin7l inc+easin7l% % i4po+tant as 4oe+n societ% has e,elope. All the fo+ces of a technolo7ical a7e  inust+iali:ation' u+bani:ation' an o+7ani:ation o+7ani:ati on  ope+ate to na++o8 the a+ea of p+i,ac% an facilitate int+usion into it. /n 4oe+n te+4s' the capacit% to 4aintain an suppo+t this encla,e of p+i,ate life 4a+6s the i5e+ence bet8een a e4oc+atic an a totalita+ian societ%.9 /nee' if 8e eten ou+ Iuicial 7a:e 8e 8ill <n that the +i7ht of p+i,ac% is +eco7ni:e an ensh+ine in se,e+al p+o,isions of ou+ Constitution. && /t is ep+essl% p+o,isions ep+essl% +eco7ni:e in section & 1F of the Bill of Ri7hts3 Sec. &. 1F The p+i,ac p+i,ac% % of co44unicati co44unication on an co++e co++esponence sponence shall be in,iol in,iolable able ecept ecept upon la8ful o+e+ o off the cou+t' o+ 8hen public safet% o+ o+e+ +eui+es othe+8ise as p+esc+ibe b% la8. Othe+ facets of the +i7ht to p+i,ac% a+e p+otecta in ,a+ious p+o,isi p+o,isions ons of the Bill of Ri7hts' ,i:3 &H Sec. 1. No pe+son shall be ep+ ep+i,e i,e of life' libe libe+t%' +t%' o+ p+ope+ p+ope+t% t% 8ithout ue p+oc p+ocess ess of la8' no+ sha shall ll an% pe+son be enie the eual p+otection of the la8s. Sec. 2. The +i7ht of the people to be se secu+e cu+e in thei+ pe+sons' pe+sons' houses pape+s' an e5 e5ects ects a7ainst un+easonable un+easonable sea+ches an sei:u+es of 8hate,e+ natu+e an fo+ an% pu+pose shall be in,iolable' an no sea+ch 8a++ant o+ 8a++ant of a++est a++e st shall issue ece ecept pt upon p+obable cause to be ete+4ine pe+sonall% b% the Iu7e afte+ ea4ination ea4ination une+ oath o+ a+4ation a+4ation of the co4plainant an the 8itnesses he 4a% p+ouce' an pa+ticula+l% esc+ibin7 the place to be sea+che an the pe+sons o+ thin7s to be sei:e. 





Sec. !. The libe+t% of abo aboe e an of chan7in7 the sa4e 8i 8ithin thin the li4its p+e p+esc+ibe sc+ibe b% la8 shal shalll not be i4pai+e i4pai+e  ecept upon la8ful o+e+ of the cou+t. Neithe+ shall the +i7ht to t+a,el be i4pai+e ec ecept ept in the inte+est of national secu+it% secu+it%'' public safet%' o+ public health as 4a% be p+o,ie b% la8 la8.. 





Sec. ". The +i7ht of the people' inc incluin7 luin7 those e4plo%e in the the public an p+i,ate secto+s' secto+s' to fo+4 uni unions' ons' associations' associatio ns' o+ societies fo+ pu+poses not cont+a+% to la8 shall not be ab+i7e. Se Sec. c. 1. 1.

No pe pe+s +son on shal shalll be be co4p co4pel elle le  tto ob be e a 8itn 8itnes ess sa a7a 7ain inst st hi hi4s 4sel elff.

?ones of p+i,ac% a+e li6e8ise +eco7ni:e +eco7ni:e an p+otecte in ou+ la8s. The Ci,il Coe p+o,ies that 9Le,e+% pe+son shall +espect the i7nit%' pe+sonalit%' p+i,ac% p+i,ac% an peace of 4in of his nei7hbo+s an othe+ pe+sons9 an punishes as actionable to+ts se,e+al acts b% a pe+son of 4elin7 an p+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+ anothe+.. &# /t also hols a public oce+ o+ e4plo%ee o+ an% p+i,ate ini,iual liable fo+ a4a7es fo+ an% ,iolation of the +i7hts an libe+ties of anothe+ pe+son' &! an +eco7ni:es the p+i,ac% of lette+s an othe+ p+i,ate co44unications. & The Re,ise Penal Coe 4a6es a c+i4e the ,iolation of sec+ets b% an oce+' &" the +e,elation of t+ae an inust+ial sec+ets' &( an t+espass to 8ellin7. H; /n,asion of p+i,ac% is an o5ense in special la8s li6e the AntiD> AntiD>i+etappin7 i+etappin7 )a8' H1 the Sec+ec% of Ban6 -eposits Act H2 an the /ntellectual P+ope+t% P+ope+t% Coe. H& The Rules of Cou+t on p+i,ile7e co44unication li6e8ise +eco7ni:e the p+i,ac% of ce+tain info+4ation. HH Unli6e the issente+s' 8e p+escin f+o4 the p+e4ise that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is a funa4ental +i7ht 7ua+antee b% the Unli6e Constitution' hence' it is the bu+en of 7o,e+n4ent to sho8 that A.O. No No.. &;" is Iusti<e b% so4e co4pellin7 state inte+est an that it is na++o8l% +a8n. A.O. A.O. No. &;" is p+eicate p+eicate  on t8o consie+ations3 1F the nee to p+o,ies ou+ citi:ens an fo+ei7ne+s 8ith the facilit% to con,enientl% t+ansact business 8ith basic se+,ice an social secu+it% p+o,ie+s p+o,ie+ s an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent inst+u4entalities an 2F the nee to +euce' if not totall% e+aicate' f+auulent t+ansactions an 4is+ep+esentations 4is+ep+esentations b% pe+sons see6in7 basic se+,ices. /t is ebatable 8hethe+ these inte+ests a+e co4pellin7 enou7h to 8a++ant the issuance of A.O. No. &;". But 8hat is not a+7uable is the b+oaness' the ,a7ueness' the o,e+b+eath of A.O. No. &;" 8hich if i4ple4ente 8ill put ou+ people=s +i7ht to p+i,ac% in clea+ an p+esent an7e+ an7e+..  The hea+t of A.O. A.O. No. &;" li lies es in its Section H 8hi 8hich ch p+o,ie p+o,ies s fo+ a Popul Population ation Refe Refe+ence +ence Nu4be+ PRN PRNFF as a 9co44on +efe+ence +efe+ ence nu4be+ to establish a lin6a7e a4on7 conce+ne a7encies9 th+ou7h the use of 9Bio4et+ics T Technolo7%9 echnolo7%9 an 9co4pute+ application esi7ns.9 Bio4et+% o+ bio4et+ics is 9the science of the applicatin of statistical 4ethos to biolo7ical facts a 4athe4atical anal%sis of biolo7ical ata.9 H# The te+4 9bio4et+ics 9bio4et+ics99 has e,ol,e into a b+oa cate7o+% of technolo7ies 8hich p+o,ie

 

p+ecise con<+4ation con<+4ation of an ini,iual=s ientit% th+ou7h the use of the ini,iual=s o8n ph%siolo7ica ph%siolo7icall an beha,io+al cha+acte+istics. cha+acte+is tics. H! A ph%siolo7ical cha+acte+istic is a +elati, +elati,el% el% stable ph%sical cha+acte+ist cha+acte+istic ic such as a <n7e+p+int' +etinal scan' han 7eo4et+% o+ facial featu+es. A beha,io+al cha+acte+istic cha+acte+istic is inuence b% the ini,iual=s pe+sonalit% an inclues ,oice p+int' si7natu+e an 6e%st+o6e. 6e%st+o6e. H Most bio4et+ic ien<cation s%ste4s use a ca+ o+ pe+sonal ienti<catin nu4be+ P/NF fo+ initial ienti<cation. The bio4et+ic 4easu+e4ent is use to ,e+if% that the ini,iual holin7 the ca+ o+ ente+in7 the P/N is the le7iti4ate o8ne+ of the ca+ o+ P/N. H" A 4ost co44on fo+4 of biolo7ical encoin7 is <n7e+Dscannin7 8he+e technolo7% technolo7% scans a <n7e+tip an tu+ns the uniue patte+n the+ein into an ini,iual nu4be+ 8hich is calle a bioc+%pt. The bioc+%pt is sto+e in co4pute+ ata ban6s H( an beco4es a 4eans of ientif%in7 an ini,iual usin7 a se+,ice. This technolo7% +eui+es one=s <n7e+tip to be scanne e,e+% ti4e se+,ice o+ access is p+o,ie. #; Anothe+ 4etho is the +etinal scan. Retinal Retinal scan technolo7% e4plo%s optical technolo7% to 4ap the capilla+% patte+n of the +etina of the e%e. This technolo7% p+ouces a uniue p+int si4ila+ to a <n7e+ p+int. #1 Anothe+ bio4et+ic 4etho is 6no8n as the 9a+ti<cial nose.9 This e,ice che4ica che4icall% ll% anal%:es the uniue co4bination of substances ec+ete ec+ete f+o4 the s6in of people. #2 The latest on the list of bio4et+ic achie,e4ents is the the+4o7+a4. Scientists ha,e foun that b% ta6in7 pictu+es of a face usin7 inf+aD+e ca4e+as' a uniue heat ist+ibution patte+n is seen. The i5e+ent ensities of bone' s6in' fat an bloo ,essels all cont+ibute to the ini,iual=s pe+sonal 9heat si7natu+e.9 #& /n the last fe8 ecaes' technolo7% has p+o7+esse at a 7allopin7 +ate. So4e science <ctions a+e no8 science facts.  T  Toa%' oa%' bio4et+ics is no lon7e+ li4ite to the us use e of <n7e+p+int to ientif ientif% % an ini,iual. /t is a ne8 science that uses ,a+ious technolo7ies in encoin7 an% an all biolo7ical cha+acte+istics cha+acte+istics of an ini,iual fo+ ienti<cation. /t is note8o+th% that A.O. No. &;" oes not state 8hat speci<c biolo7ical cha+acte+istics an 8hat pa+ticula+ bio4et+ics technolo7% shall be use to ientif% people 8ho 8ill see6 its co,e+a7e. Consie+in7 the banuest of options a,ailable to the i4ple4ento+s of A.O. No. &;"' the fea+ that it th+eatens the +i7ht to p+i,ac% of ou+ people is not 7+ounless. A.O.. No. &;" shoul also +aise ou+ antennas fo+ a fu+the+ loo6 8ill sho8 that it oes not state 8hethe+ encoin7 of ata A.O is li4ite to biolo7ical info+4ation alone fo+ ienti<cation pu+poses. /n fact' the Solicito+ Gene+al clai4s that the aoption of the /enti<cation Refe+ence S%ste4 8ill cont+ibute to the 97ene+ation of population ata fo+ e,elop4ent plannin7.9 #H This is an a4ission that the PRN 8ill not be use solel% fo+ ienti<cation but the 7ene+ation of othe+ ata 8ith +e4ote +elation to the a,o8e pu+poses of A.O. No. &;". Clea+l%' the ine<niteness of A.O. No. &;" can 7i,e the 7o,e+n4ent the +o,in7 autho+it% to sto+e an +et+ie,e info+4ation fo+ a pu+pose othe+ than the ienti<cation of the ini,iual th+ou7h his PRN.  The potential fo+ 4isuse 4isuse of the ata to be 7athe+ 7athe+e e une+ A.O A.O.. No. &;" canno cannott be una+pla%e as the isse issente+s nte+s o. Pu+suant to sai a4inist+ati,e o+e+' an ini,iual 4ust p+esent his PRN e,e+%ti4e he eals 8ith a 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% to a,ail of basic se+,ices an secu+it% secu+it%.. 0is t+ansactions 8ith the 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% 8ill necessa+il% be +eco+e +eco+ e  8hethe+ it be in the co4pute+ o+ in the ocu4enta+% <le of the a7enc%. a7enc%. The ini,iual=s <le 4a% inclue his t+ansactions fo+ loan a,ail4ents' inco4e ta +etu+ns' state4ent of assets an liabilities' +ei4bu+se4ents fo+ 4eication' hospitali:ation' hospitali:ation' etc. The 4o+e f+euent the use of the PRN' the bette+ the chance of builin7 a hu7e fo+4iable fo+4iabl e info+4atin base th+ou7h the elect+o elect+onic nic lin6a7e of the <les. ## The ata 4a% be 7athe+e fo+ 7ainful an useful 7o,e+n4ent pu+poses but the eistence of this ,ast +ese+,oi+ of pe+sonal info+4ation constitutes a co,e+t in,itation to 4isuse' a te4ptation that 4a% be too 7+eat fo+ so4e of ou+ autho+ities to +esist. #! >e can e,en 7+ant' a+7ueno' that the co4pute+ ata <le 8ill be li4ite to the na4e' a+ess an othe+ basic pe+sonal info4ation about the ini,iual. # E,en that hospitable assu4ption 8ill not sa,e A.O. No. &;" f+o4 constitutional in<+4it% in<+4it% fo+ a7ain sai o+e+ oes not tell us in clea+ an cate7o+ical te+4s ho8 these info+4ati info+4ation on 7athe+e shall he hanle. /t oes not p+o,ie 8ho shall cont+ol cont+ol an access the ata' une+ 8hat ci+cu4stances an fo+ 8hat pu+pose. These facto+s a+e essential to safe7ua+ the p+i,ac% an 7ua+ant% the inte7+it% of the info+4at info+4ation. ion. #" >ell to note' the co4pute+ lin6a7e 7i,es othe+ 7o,e+n4ent a7encies access to the info+4ati info+4ation. on. @et' @et' the+e a+e no cont+ols to 7ua+ a7ainst lea6a7e of info+4ation. >hen the access coe of the cont+ol p+o7+a4s of the pa+ticula+ co4pute+ s%ste4 is b+o6en' b+o6en' an int+ue+' 8ithout fea+ of sanction o+ penalt%' can 4a6e use of the ata fo+ 8hate,e+ pu+pose' o+ 8o+se' 4anipulate the ata sto+e 8ithin the s%ste4. #( /t is plain an 8e hol that A.O. No. &;" falls sho+t of assu+in7 that pe+sonal info+4a info+4ation tion 8hich 8ill be 7athe+e about ou+ people 8ill onl% be p+ocesse p+ocesse fo+ uneui,ocall% speci<e pu+poses. !; The lac6 of p+ope+ safe7ua+s in this +e7a+ of A.O. No. &;" 4a% inte+fe+e 8ith the ini,iual=s libe+t% of aboe an t+a,el b% enablin7 autho+ities to t+ac6 o8n his 4o,e4ent it 4a% also enable unsc+upulous pe+sons to access con<ential info+4ation an ci+cu4,ent the +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination selfDinc+i4ination it 4a% pa,e the 8a% fo+ 9<shin7 epeitions9 b% 7o,e+n4ent autho+ities an e,ae the +i7ht a7ainst un+easonable sea+ches sea+ches an sei:u+es. !1 The possibilities of abuse an 4isuse of the PRN' bio4et+ics an co4pute+ technolo7% a+e accentuate 8hen 8e consie+ that the ini,iual lac6s cont+ol o,e+ 8hat can be +ea o+ place on his /-' 4uch less ,e+if% the co++ectness of the ata encoe. !2 The% th+eaten the ,e+% abuses that the Bill of Ri7hts see6s to p+e,ent. !&  The abilit% of sophisticate sophisticate ata cente+ to 7 7ene+ate ene+ate a co4p+ehensi,e co4p+ehensi,e c+aleDtoD7+a, c+aleDtoD7+a,e e ossie+ on an ini, ini,iual iual an t+ans4it it o,e+ a national net8o+6 is one of the 4ost 7+aphic th+eats of the co4pute+ +e,olution. !H The co4pute+ is capable of p+oucin7 a co4p+ehensi,e ossie+ on ini,iuals out of info+4ation 7i,en at i5e+ent ti4es an fo+ ,a+ie pu+poses. !# /t can continue ain7 to the sto+e ata an 6eepin7 the info+4ation up to ate. Ret+ie,al of sto+e ate is si4ple. >hen info+4ation of a p+i,ile7e cha+acte+ <ns its 8a% into the co4pute+' it can be et+acte to7ethe+ 8ith othe+ ata on the subIect. !! Once et+acte' the info+4ati info+4ation on is putt% in the hans of an% pe+son. The en of p+i,ac% be7ins.  Thou7h A.O. A.O. No. &;" is unoubtel% not na++ na++o8l% o8l% +a8n' the iss issentin7 entin7 opinions 8oul is4iss is4iss its an7e+ to the +i +i7ht 7ht to p+i,ac% as speculati,e an h%pothetical. A7ain' 8e cannot countenance such a laibac6 postu+e. The Cou+t 8ill not be t+ue to its +ole as the ulti4ate 7ua+ian of the people=s libe+t% if it 8oul not i44eiatel% s4othe+ the spa+6s that enan7e+ thei+ +i7hts but 8oul +athe+ 8ait fo+ the <+e that coul consu4e the4. >e +eIect +eIect the a+7u4ent of the Solicito+ Gene+al that an ini,iual has a +easonable epectation epectation of p+i,ac% 8ith +e7a+ +e7a+  to the Natioal /- an the use of bio4et+ics technolo7% as it stans on uic6san. The +easonableness of a pe+son=s epectation of p+i,ac% epens on a t8oDpa+t test3 1F 8hethe+ b% his conuct' the ini,iual has ehibite an epectation of p+i,ac% an 2F 8hethe+ this epectation is one that societ% +eco7ni:e +eco7ni:es s as +easonable. ! The factual ci+cu4stances ci+cu4s tances of the case ete+4ines the +easonableness of the epectation. !" 0o8e,e+' othe+ facto+s' such as custo4s' ph%sical su++ounin7s su++ounin7s an p+actices of a pa+ticula+ acti,it%' 4a% se+,e to c+eate o+ i4inish this epectation.

 

!( The use of bio4et+ics an co4pute+ technolo7% in A.O. No. &;" oes not assu+e the ini,iual of a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%. ; As technolo7% a,ances' the le,el of +easonabl% epecte p+i,ac% ec+eases. 1 The 4easu+e of p+otection 7+ante b% the +easonable epecta epectation tion i4inishes as +ele,ant technolo7% beco4es 4o+e 8iel% accepte. 2 The secu+it% of the co4pute+ ata <le epens not onl% on the ph%sical inaccessibilit% of the <le but also on the a,ances in ha+8a+e an soft8a+e co4pute+ technolo7%. A.O. No. &;" is so 8iel% +a8n that a 4ini4u4 stana+ fo+ a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%' +e7a+less of technolo7% use' cannot be infe++ infe++e e f+o4 its p+o,isions.  The +ules an +e7ulations +e7ulations to be b% the /A /ACC CC cannot +e4e +e4e% % this fatal efec efect. t. Rules an ++e7ulations e7ulations 4e+el% 4e+el% i4ple4ent the polic% of the la8 o+ o+e+. On its face' A.O. No. 7i,es the /ACC ,i+tuall% infette+e isc+etion to ete+4ine the 4etes an bouns of the /- S%ste4. No+ o %ou+ p+esent la8s p+,ie aeuate safe7ua+s fo+ a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%. Co44on8ealth Act. No. #(1 penali:es the isclosu+e b% an% pe+son of ata fu+nishe b% the ini,iual to the NSO 8ith i4p+ison4ent an <ne. & Republic Act. No. 11!1 p+ohibits public isclosu+e isclosu+e of SSS e4plo%4ent +eco+ +eco+s s an +epo+ts. H These la8s' ho8e,e+' appl% to +eco+s an ata 8ith the NSO an the SSS. /t is not clea+ 8hethe+ the% 4a% be applie to ata 8ith the othe+ 7o,e+n4ent a7encies fo+4in7 pa+t of the National /- S%ste4. The nee to cla+if% the penal aspect of A.O. No. &;" is anothe+ +eason 8h% its enact4ent shoul be 7i,en to Con7+ess. Net' the Solicito+ Gene+al u+7es us to ,aliate A.O A.O.. No. &;"=s ab+i74ent of the +i7ht of p+i,ac% b% usin7 the +ational +elationship +elatio nship test. # 0e st+esse that the pu+poses of A.O. No. &;" a+e3 a+e3 1F to st+ea4line an spee up the i4ple4entation of basic 7o,e+n4ent se+,ices' 2F e+aicate f+au b% a,oiin7 uplication of se+,ices' an &F 7ene+ate population ata fo+ e,elop4ent plannin7. 0e coclues that these pu+poses Iustif% the incu+sions into the +i7ht to p+i,ac% fo+ the 4eans a+e +ationall% +elate +elate to the en. ! >e a+e not i4p+esse b% the a+7u4ent. /n Mo+fe ,. ,. Mutuc'  8e uphel the constitutional constitutionalit% it% of R.A. &;1(' the AntiD G+aft an Co++upt P+actices Act' as a ,ali police po8e+ 4easu+e. >e ecla+e ecla+e that the la8' in co4pellin7 a public oce+ to 4a6e an annual +epo+t isclosin7 his assets an liabilities' his sou+ces of inco4e an epenses' i not inf+in7e on the ini,iual=s +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.. The la8 8as enacte to p+o4ote 4o+alit% in public a4inist+ation b% cu+tailin7 an 4ini4i:in7 the oppo+tunities fo+ ocial co++uption co++uption an 4aintainin7 a stana+ of honest% in the public se+,ice. "  The sa4e ci+cu4stances ci+cu4stances o not obtai obtain n in the case at ba+. ba+. *o+ one' R R.A. .A. &;1( is a statute' not an a4inist+ati,e a4inist+ati,e o+e+. o+e+. Seconl%' R.A. &;1( itself is sucientl% etaile. The la8 is clea+ on 8hat p+actices 8e+e p+ohibite an penali:e' an it 8as na++o8l% +a8n +a8n to a,oi abuses. /N the case at ba+' A.O. No. &;" 4a% ha,e been i4pelle b% a 8o+th% pu+pose' but' it cannot pass constitutional sc+utin% fo+ it is not na++o8l% +a8n. An 8e no8 ho that 8hen the inte7+it% of a funa4ental +i7ht is at sta6e' this cou+t 8ill 7i,e the challen7e la8' a4inist+ati,e o+e+' +ule o+ +e7ulation a st+icte+ sc+utin%. /t 8ill not o fo+ the autho+ities to in,o6e the p+esu4ption of +e7ula+it% in the pe+fo+4ance of ocial uties. No+ is it enou7h fo+ the autho+ities to p+o,e that thei+ act is not i++ational fo+ a basic +i7ht can be i4inishe' if not efeate' e,en 8hen the 7o,e+n4ent oes not act i++ationa i++ationall% ll%.. The% 4ust satisfacto+ satisfacto+il% il% sho8 the p+esence of co4pellin7 state inte+ests an that the la8' +ule o+ +e7ulation is na++o8l% +a8n to p+eclue abuses. This app+oach is e4ane b% the 1(" Constitution 8hose enti+e 4at+i is esi7ne to p+otect hu4an +i7hts an to p+e,ent autho+ita+ianis4. autho+ita+ia nis4. /n case of oubt' the least 8e can o is to lean to8a+s the stance that 8ill not put in an7e+ the +i7hts p+otecte b% the Constitutions.  The case of >halen >halen ,. ,. Roe ( cite b% the Solicit Solicito+ o+ Gene+al is also o o5Dline. 5Dline. /n >halen' the Unit Unite e States Sup+e4e Cou+t Cou+t 8as p+esente 8ith the uestion of 8hethe+ the State of Ne8 @o+6 coul 6eep a cent+ali:e co4pute+ +eco+ of the na4es an a+esses of all pe+sons 8ho obtaine ce+tain +u7s pu+suant to a octo+=s p+esc+iption. p+esc+iption. The Ne8 @o+6 @o+6 State Cont+olle Substance Act of 1(2 +eui+e ph%sicians to ientif% pa+ties obtainin7 p+esc+iption +u7s enu4e+ate in the statute' i.e.' +u7s 8ith a +eco7ni:e 4eical use but 8ith a potential fo+ abuse' so that the na4es an a+esses of the patients can be +eco+e in a cent+ali:e co4pute+ <le of the State -epa+t4ent of 0ealth. The plainti5s' 8ho 8e+e patients an octo+s' clai4e that so4e people 4i7ht ecline necessa+% 4eication because of thei+ fea+ that the co4pute+i:e ata 4a% be +eail% a,ailable a,ailable an open to public isclosu+e isclosu+e an that once isclose' it 4a% sti74ati:e the4 as +u7 aicts. "; The plainti5s alle7e that the statute in,ae a constitutionall% p+otecte :one of p+i,ac%' i.e.' the ini,iual inte+est in a,oiin7 isclosu+e of pe+sonal 4atte+s' an the inte+est in inepenence in 4a6in7 ce+tain 6ins of i4po+tant ecisions. The U.S. Sup+e4e Cou+t hel that 8hile an ini,iual=s inte+est in a,oiin7 isclosue+ of pe+sonal 4atte+ is an aspect of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' the statute i not pose a 7+ie,ous th+eat to establish a constitutional ,iolation. ,iolation. The Cou+t foun that the statute 8as necessa+% to ai in the enfo+ce4ent enfo+ce4 ent of la8s esi7ne to 4ini4i:e the 4isuse of an7e+ous +u7s. The patientDienti<cati patientDienti<cation on +eui+e4ent 8as a p+ouct of an o+e+l% an +ational le7islati,e ecision 4ae upon +eco444enation b% a speciall% appointe co44ission 8hich hel etensi,e hea+in7s on the 4atte+. 4atte+. Mo+eo,e+' the statute 8as na++o8l% +a8n an containe nu4e+ous safe7ua+s safe7ua+s a7ainst inisc+i4inate isclosu+e. The statute lai o8n the p+oceu+e an +eui+e4ents fo+ the 7athe+in7' sto+a7e an +et+ie,al of the info+4atin. /t ebu4e+ate 8ho 8e+e autho+i:e to access the ata. /t also p+ohibite public isclosu+e of the ata b% i4posin7 penalties fo+ its ,iolation. /n ,ie8 of these safe7ua+s' the inf+in7e4ent of the patients= +i7ht to p+i,ac% 8as Iusti<e b% a ,ali ee+cise of police po8e+. As 8e iscusse abo,e' A.O. No. &;" lac6s these ,ital safe7ua+s. E,en 8hile 8e st+i6e o8n A.O. A.O. No. &;"' 8e spell out in neon that the Cou+t is not pe+ se a7ains the use of co4pute+s to accu4ulate' sto+e' p+ocess' +et,ie,e an t+ans4it ata to i4p+o,e ou+ bu+eauc+ac%. Co4pute+s 8o+6 8one+s to achie,e the ecienc% 8hich both 7o,e+n4ent an p+i,ate inust+% see6. Man% info+4ation s%ste4 in i5e+ent count+ies 4a6e use of the co4pute+ to facilitate i4po+tant social obIecti,e' such as bette+ la8 enfo+ce4ent' faste+ eli,e+% of public se+,ices' 4o+e ecient 4ana7e4ent of c+eit an insu+ance p+o7+a4s' i4p+o, i4p+o,e4ent e4ent of teleco44unications teleco44unic ations an st+ea4li st+ea4linin7 nin7 of <nancial acti,ities. "1 Use 8isel%' ata sto+e in the co4pute+ coul help 7oo a4inist+ation b% 4a6in7 accu+ate an co4p+ehensi co4p+ehensi,e ,e info+4ation fo+ those 8ho ha,e to f+a4e polic% an 4a6e 6e% ecisions. ecisions. "2 The bene<ts of the co4pute+ has +e,olutioni:e info+4ation technolo7%. /t e,elope the inte+net' "& int+ouce the concept c%be+space "H all an the info+4ation the ini,iual' a+4e onl% 8ith histo pe+sonal co4pute+' 4a%ofsu+f an sea+ch 6ins an classes supe+hi7h8a% of info+4at info+4ation ion 8he+e f+o4 lib+a+ies an atabases connecte the net. /n no unce+tain te+4s' 8e also une+sco+e that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% oes not ba+ all incu+sions into ini,iual p+i,ac% p+i,ac%..  The +i7ht is not intene intene to stie scienti<c an tec technolo7ical hnolo7ical a,ance4 a,ance4ents ents that enhance public se+,ice se+,ice an the co44on 7oo. /t 4e+el% +eui+es that the la8 be na++o8l% focuse "# an a co4pellin7 inte+est Iustif% such int+usions. "! /nt+usions into the +i7ht 4ust be acco4panie b% p+ope+ safe7ua+s an 8ellDe<ne stana+s to p+e,ent

 

unconstitutional in,asions. >e >e +eite+ate that an% la8 o+ o+e+ that in,aes ini,iual p+i,ac% 8ill be subIecte b% this Cou+t to st+ict sc+utin%. The +eason fo+ this stance 8as lai o8n in Mo+fe ,. Mutuc' to 8it3  The concept of li4ite li4ite 7o,e+n4ent has al al8a%s 8a%s inclue the ie iea a that 7o,e+n4ental po8 po8e+s e+s stop sho+t of ce+tain ce+tain int+usions into the pe+sonal life of the citi:en. This is inee one of the basic isctinctions bet8een absolute an li4ite 7o,e+n4ent. 7o,e+n4ent. Ulti4ate an pe+,asi,e cont+ol of the ini,iual' in all aspects of his life' is the hall4a+6 of the absolute state. /n cont+ast' a s%ste4 of li4ite 7o,e+n4ent safe7ua+s a p+i,ate secto+' 8hich belon7s to the ini,iual' <+4l% istin7uishin7 it f+o4 the public secto+' 8hich the state can cont+ol. P+ot P+otection ection of this p+i,ate secto+  p+otection' p+otecti on' in othe+ 8o+s' of the i7nit% an inte7+it% of the ini,iual  has beco4e inc+easi inc+easin7l% n7l% i4po+tant as 4oe+n societ% has e,elope. All the fo+ces fo+ces of a technolo7ical a7e  inust+iali:ati inust+iali:ation' on' u+bani:ation' an o+7ani:ation o+7ani:ation  ope+ate to na++o8 the a+ea of p+i,ac% an facilitate int+usion into it. /n 4oe+n te+4s' the capacit% to 4aintain an suppo+t this encla,e of p+i,ate life 4a+6s the i5e+ence bet8een a e4oc+atic an a totalita+ian societ%. " /  The +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac% is one of the 4ost th+ th+eatene eatene +i7hts of 4an li li,in7 ,in7 in a 4ass societ% societ%.. The th+eats e4anate f+o4 f+o4 ,a+ious sou+ces  7o,e+n4ents' Iou+nalists' Iou+nalists' e4plo%e+s' social scientists' etc. "" /n th case at ba+' the th+eat co4es f+o4 the eecuti,e b+anch of 7o,e+n4ent 8hich b% issuin7 A.O. No. &;" p+essu+es the people to su++ene+ thei+ p+i,ac% b% 7i,in7 info+4ation about the4sel,es on the p+ete p+etett that it 8ill facilitate eli,e+% of basic se+,ices. Gi,en the +eco+D6eepin7 +eco+ D6eepin7 po8e+ of the co4pute+' onl% the ini5e+ent fail to pe+cei, pe+cei,e e the an7e+ that A.O. No. &;" 7i,es the 7o,e+n4ent the po8e+ to co4pile a e,astatin7 ossie+ a7ainst unsuspectin7 citi:ens. /t is ti4el% to ta6e note of the 8ellD8o+e 8ellD8o+ e 8a+nin7 of Kal,in' $+.' 9the istu+bin7 +esult coul be that e,e+%one 8ill li,e bu+ene b% an une+asable +eco+ +eco+  of his past an his li4itations. /n a 8a%' the th+eat is that because of its +eco+D6eepin7' +eco+D6eepin7' the societ% 8ill ha,e lost its beni7n capacit% to fo+7et.9 "( Obli,ious to this counsel' the issents still sa% 8e shoul not be too uic6 in labellin7 the +i7ht to p+i,ac% as a funa4ental +i7ht. >e close 8ith the state4ent that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% 8as not en7+a,e in ou+ Constitution fo+ atte+%. /N /E> >0EREO*' the petition is 7+ante an A4inis+ati A4inis+ati,e ,e O+e+ No. &;" entitle 9Aoption of a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence Refe+ence S%ste49 ecla+e null an ,oi fo+ bein7 unconstitutional unconstitutional.. SO OR-ERE-.

  Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BAN G.R. No. 1H&H;

Octobe+ 1' 2;;!

/N T0E MATTER O* T0E PET/T/ON *OR /SSUANCE O* >R/T O* 0ABEAS CORPUS O* CAM/)O ). SAB/O' petitione+'  $. ERM/N ERM/N ERNEST )OU/E R. M/GUE)' M/GUE)' petitio petitione+ ne+D+elato D+elato+' +' ,s. 0ONORAB)E SENATOR R/C0AR- GOR-ON' in his capacit% as Chai+4an' an the 0ONORAB)E MEMBERS O* T0E COMM/TTEE ON GOERNMENT CORPORAT/ONS AN- PUB)/C ENTERPR/SES an T0E COMM/TTEE ON PUB)/C SER/CES of the Senate' 0ONORAB)E SENATOR $UAN PONCEDENR/)E' in his ocial capacit% as Me4be+' 0ONORAB)E MANUE) /))AR' Senate P+esient' SENATE SERGEANTD ATDARMS' an the SENATE O* T0E P0/)/PP/NES' +esponents.  DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD  G.R. No. 1H&1"

Octobe+ 1' 2;;!

PRES/-ENT/A) COMM/SS/ON ON GOO- GOERNMENT PCGGF an CAM/)O ). SAB/O' Chai+4an' NARC/SO S. NAR/O' R/CAR-O M. ABCE-E' TERESO ). $A/ER an N/CAS/O A. CONT/' Co44issione+s' MANUE) AN-A) an $U)/O $A)AN-ON/' PCGG no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' petitione+s' ,s. R/C0AR- GOR-ON' in his capacit% as Chai+4an' an MEMBERS O* T0E COMM/TTEE ON GOERNMENT CORPORAT/ONS AN- PUB)/C ENTERPR/SES' MEMBERS O* T0E COMM/TTEE ON PUB)/C SER/CES' SENATOR $UAN PONCEDENR/)E' in his capacit% as 4e4be+ of both sai Co44ittees' MANUE) /))AR' Senate P+esient' T0E SENATE SERGEANTDATDARMS' an SENATE O* T0E P0/)/PP/NES' +esponents.  DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD  G.R. No. 1H1

Octobe+ 1' 2;;!

P0/)COMSAT 0O)-/NGS CORPORAT/ONS' P0/)/P G. BRO-ETT' )U/S K. )OK/N' $R.' ROBERTO . SAN $OSE' -E)*/N P. ANGCAO' ROBERTO ). ABA-' A)MA KR/ST/NA A)OBBA' an [email protected] TAN' petitione+s' ,s. SENATE COMM/TTEE ON GOERNMENT CORPORAT/ONS an PUB)/C ENTERPR/SES' its MEMBERS an C0A/RMAN' the 0ONORAB)E SENATOR R/C0AR- GOR-ON an SENATE COMM/TTEE ON PUB)/C SER/CES' its Me4be+s an Chai+4an' the 0ONORAB)E SENATOR  $OKER P. ARRO [email protected]' @O' +espon +esponents. ents. -EC/S/ON

SAN-OA)DGUT/ERRE?' $.3  T8o  T8o ecae ecaes s a7o' on * *eb+ua+% eb+ua+% 2" 2"'' 1("!' fo+ fo+4e+ 4e+ P+ P+esient esient Co+ Co+a:on a:on C. A Auino uino inst installe alle he+ +e7i4e b% issuin7 E Eecuti,e ecuti,e O+ O+e+ e+ E.O E.O.F .F No. 1'1 c+eatin7 the P+esiential Co44ission on Goo Go,e+n4ent PCGGF. She ent+uste upon this Co44ission the he+culean tas6 of +eco,e+in7 the illD7otten 8ealth accu4ulate b% the epose P+esient *e+inan E. Ma+cos' his fa4il%' +elati,es' subo+inates an close associates.2 Section H bF of E.O. No. 1 p+o,ies that3 9No 4e4be+ o+ sta5 of the Co44ission shall be +eui+e to testif% o+

 

p+ouce e,ience in an% Iuicial' le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7 conce+nin7 4atte+s 8ithin its ocial co7ni:ance.9 Appa+entl%' the pu+pose is to ensu+e PCGG=s unha4pe+e pe+fo+4ance of its tas6.&  Toa%'  Toa%' the co constitutiona nstitutionalit% lit% of Secti Section on HbF is bei bein7 n7 uestio uestione ne on the 7+oun that it t+a4ples t+a4ples upon the Senate=s po po8e+ 8e+ to con conuct uct le7islati,e inui+% une+ A+ticle /' Section 21 of the 1(" Constitution' 8hich +eas3  The Senate Senate o+ the 0 0ouse ouse of R Rep+ese ep+esentati,es ntati,es o+ a an% n% of its ++especti,e especti,e c co44ittees o44ittees 4a% conuct in inui+ies ui+ies in ai of le le7islation 7islation iin n acco+ance 8ith its ul% publishe +ules of p+oceu+e. The +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte.  The facts a+e a+e uni unispute. spute. On *eb+ua+% 2;' 2;;!' Senato+ Mi+ia4 -efenso+ Santia7o int+ouce Philippine Senate Resolution No. H## Senate Res. No. H##F'H 9i+ectin7 an inui+% in ai of le7islation on the ano4alous losses incu++e b% the Philippines O,e+seas Teleco44unications Co+po+ation POTCF' Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation P0/)COMSATF' an P0/)COMSAT 0olin7s Co+po+ation P0CF ue to the alle7e i4p+op+ieties in thei+ ope+ations b% thei+ +especti,e Boa+ of -i+ecto+s.9  The pe+tinent pe+tinent po+tio po+tions ns of the R Resolutio esolution n +ea3 >0EREAS' in the last ua+te+ of 2;;#' the +ep+esentation an ente+tain4ent epense of the P0C s6%+oc6ete to PH.& 4illion' as co4pa+e to the p+e,ious %ea+=s 4e+e P1;! thousan >0EREAS' so4e boa+ 4e4be+s establishe 8holl% o8ne P0C subsiia+% calle Teleco44unications Cente+' /nc. TC/F' 8he+e P0C funs a+e alle7el% siphone in 1" 4onths' o,e+ P& 4illion ha been alle7el% a,ance to TC/ 8ithout an% accountabilit% +epo+t 7i,en to P0C an P0/)COMSAT >0EREAS' the Philippine Sta+' in its 12 *eb+ua+% 2;;2 issue +epo+te that the eecuti,e co44ittee of Philco4sat has p+ecipitatel% +elease P2!# 4illion an 7+ante P12# 4illion loan to a +elati,e of an eecuti,e co44ittee 4e4be+ to ate the+e ha,e been no pa%4ents 7i,en' subIectin7 the co4pan% to an esti4ate inte+est inco4e loss of P11.2# 4illion in 2;;H >0EREAS' the+e is an u+7ent nee to p+otect the inte+est of the Republic of the Philippines in the P0C' P0/)COMSAT' an POTC f+o4 an% ano4alous t+ansaction' an to conse+,e o+ sal,a7e an% +e4ainin7 ,alue of the 7o,e+n4ent=s euit% position in these co+po+ations f+o4 an% abuses of po8e+ one b% thei+ +especti,e boa+ of i+ecto+s >0ERE*ORE' be it +esol,e that the p+ope+ Senate Co44ittee shall conuct an inui+% in ai of le7islation' on the ano4alous losses incu++e b% the Philippine O,e+seas Teleco44unications Co+po+ation POTCF' Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation P0/)COMSATF' an Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ations P0CF ue to the alle7e i4p+op+ieties in the ope+ations b% thei+ +especti,e boa+ of i+ecto+s. Aopte. S7F M/R/AM -E*ENSOR SANT/AGO On the sa4e ate' *eb+ua+% 2;' 2;;!' Senate Res. No. H## 8as sub4itte to the Senate an +efe++e to the Co44ittee on Accountabilit% of Public Oce+s an /n,esti7ations an Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices. 0o8e,e+' on Ma+ch 2"' 2;;!' upon 4otion of Senato+ *+ancis N. Pan7ilinan' it 8as t+ansfe++e to the Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises.# On Ma% "' 2;;!' Chief of Sta5 Rio C. /nocencio' une+ the autho+it% of Senato+ Richa+ $. Go+on' 8+ote Chai+4an Ca4ilo ). Sabio of the PCGG' one of the he+ein petitione+s' in,itin7 hi4 to be one of the +esou+ce pe+sons in the public 4eetin7 Iointl% conucte b% the Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices. The pu+pose of the public 4eetin7 8as to elibe+ate on Senate Res. No. H##.! On Ma% (' 2;;!' Chai+4an Sabio ecline the in,itation because of p+io+ co44it4ent. At the sa4e ti4e' he in,o6e Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 ea+lie+ uote. On Au7ust 1;' 2;;!' Senato+ Go+on issue a Subpoena A Testi<canu4'" app+o,e b% Senate P+esient Manuel illa+' +eui+in7 Chai+4an Sabio an PCGG Co44issione+s Rica+o Abcee' Nicasio Conti' Te+eso $a,ie+ an Na+ciso Na+io to appea+ in the public hea+in7 scheule on Au7ust 2&' 2;;! an testif% on 8hat the% 6no8 +elati,e to the 4atte+s speci<e in Senate Res. No. H##. Si4ila+ subpoenae 8e+e issue a7ainst the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' na4el%3 Benito . A+aneta' Philip $. B+oett' En+iue ). )ocsin' Manuel -. Anal' Robe+to ). Aba' )uis K. )o6in' $+.' $ulio $. $alanoni' Robe+to . San $ose' -el<n P. An7cao' Al4a K+istina Alloba an $ohnn% Tan.( A7ain' Chai+4an Sabio +efuse to appea+. /n his lette+ to Senato+ Go+on ate Au7ust 1"' 2;;!' he +eite+ate his ea+lie+ position' in,o6in7 Section HbF of E.O. No. 1. On the othe+ han' the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation +elie on the position pape+ the% p+e,iousl% <le' 8hich +aise issues on the p+op+iet% of le7islati,e inui+%.  The+eafte+' Chi  The+eafte+' Chief ef of Sta5 M Ma. a. Ca+is Ca+issa sa O. C Coscolluel oscolluela' a' une+ the the autho+i autho+it% t% of Senato+ Go+on Go+on'' sent anothe+ anothe+ notice1 notice1; ; to Chai+ Chai+4an 4an Sabio +eui+in7 hi4 to appea+ an testif% on the sa4e subIect 4atte+ set on Septe4be+ !' 2;;!. The notice 8as issue 9une+ the sa4e autho+it% of the Subpoena A Testi<canu4 p+e,iousl% se+,e upon hi4F last 1! Au7ust 2;;!.9 Once 4o+e' Chai+4an Sabio i not co4pl% 8ith the notice. 0e sent a lette+11 ate Septe4be+ H' 2;;! to Senato+ Go+on +eite+atin7 his +eason fo+ eclinin7 to appea+ in the public hea+in7.  This p+o4pte p+o4pte Sen Senato+ ato+ Go+ Go+on on to issue an O+e O+e++ ate Se Septe4be+ pte4be+ ' 2; 2;;! ;! +eui +eui+in7 +in7 Chai Chai+4an +4an Sa Sabio bio an C Co44ission o44issione+s e+s Abcee' Abcee' Conti' $a,ie+ an Na+io to sho8 cause 8h% the% shoul not be cite in conte4pt of the Senate. On Septe4be+ 11' 2;;!' the% sub4itte to the Senate thei+ Co4pliance an Eplanation'12 8hich pa+tl% +eas3 -oubtless' the+e a+e lauable intentions of the subIect inui+% in ai of le7islation. But the +ule of la8 +eui+es that e,en the best intentions 4ust be ca++ie out 8ithin the pa+a4ete+s of the Constitution an the la8. e+il%' lauable pu+poses 4ust be ca++ie out b% le7al 4ethos. B+illantes' $+.' et al. ,. Co44ission on Elections' En Banc LG.R. No. 1!&1(&' $une 1#' 2;;HF On this sco+e' Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 shoul not be i7no+e as it eplicitl% p+o,ies3 No 4e4be+ o+ sta5 of the Co44ission shall be +eui+e to testif% o+ p+ouce e,ience in an% Iuicial le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7 conce+nin7 4atte+s 8ithin its ocial co7ni:ance. >ith all ue +espect' Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 constitutes a li4itation on the po8e+ of le7islati,e inui+%' an a +eco7nition b% the State of the nee to p+o,ie p+otection to the PCGG in o+e+ to ensu+e the unha4pe+e pe+fo+4ance of its uties une+ its cha+te+. E.O. No. 1 is a la8' Section HbF of 8hich ha not been a4ene' +epeale o+ +e,ise in an% 8a%.  To  To sa% the le least' ast' it 8oul 8oul  +eui+ +eui+e e both 0ouse 0ouses s of Con7+ Con7+ess ess an P P+esien +esiential tial <at to a4en a4en o+ ++epeal epeal the p p+o,isio +o,ision n in cont+o,e+s% cont+o,e+s%. Until then' it stans to be +especte as pa+t of the le7al s%ste4 in this Iu+isiction. As hel in People ,. ene+acion' G.R. Nos. 11(("D""'

 

Octobe+ 12' 1((#3 Obeience to the +ule of la8 fo+4s the be+oc6 of ou+ s%ste4 of Iustice. /f Iu7es' une+ the 7uise of +eli7ious o+ political beliefs 8e+e allo8e to +oa4 un+est+icte be%on bouna+ies 8ithin 8hich the% a+e +eui+e b% la8 to ee+cise the uties of thei+ oce' then la8 beco4es 4eanin7less. A 7o,e+n4ent of la8s' not of 4en eclues the ee+cise of b+oa isc+etiona+% po8e+s b% those actin7 une+ its autho+it%. Une+ this s%ste4' Iu7es a+e 7uie b% the Rule of )a8' an ou7ht to =p+otect an enfo+ce it 8ithout fea+ o+ fa,o+'= H LAct of Athens 1(##F +esist enc+oach4ents b% 7o,e+n4ents' political pa+ties' o+ e,en the inte+fe+ence of thei+ o8n pe+sonal beliefs.F  Rele,antl%' Chai+4an Sabio=s lette+ to Sen. Go+on ate Au7ust 1(' 2;;! pointe out that the ano4alous t+ansactions +efe++e to in the P.S. Resolution No. H## a+e subIect of penin7 cases befo+e the +e7ula+ cou+ts' the Sani7anba%an an the Sup+e4e Cou+t Penin7 cases inclue3 a. Sa4uel -i,ina ,. Manuel Nieto' $+.' et al.' CADG.R. No. "(1;2 b. Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation ,. Manuel Nieto' et al. c. Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation ,. Manuel -. Anal' Ci,il Case No. ;!D;(#' RTC' B+anch !1' Ma6ati Cit% . Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation ,. P0/)COMSAT 0olin7s Co+po+ation' et al.' Ci,il Case No. ;HD1;H(F fo+ 8hich +eason the% 4a% not be able to testif% the+eon une+ the p+inciple of sub Iuice. The lauable obIecti,es of the PCGG=s functions' +eco7ni:e in se,e+al cases ecie b% the Sup+e4e Cou+t' of the PCGG 8ill be put to nau7ht if its +eco,e+% e5o+ts 8ill be unul% i4pee b% a le7islati,e in,esti7ation of cases that a+e al+ea% penin7 befo+e the Sani7anba%an an t+ial cou+ts. /n Ben7:on ,. Senate Blue Ribbon Co44ittee' 2;& SCRA !' "H L1((1F the 0ono+able Sup+e4e Cou+t hel3 9LThe issues sou7ht to be in,esti7ate b% the +esponent Co44ittee is one o,e+ 8hich Iu+isiction ha been acui+e b% the Sani7anba%an. /n sho+t' the issue has been p+eDe4pte b% that cou+t. To allo8 the +esponent Co44ittee to conuct its o8n in,esti7ation of an issue al+ea% befo+e the Sani7aba%an 8oul not onl% pose the possibilit% of conictin7 Iu74ents bet8een a le7islati,e co44ittee an a Iuicial t+ibunal' but if the Co44ittee=s Iu74ent 8e+e to be +eache befo+e that of the Sani7anba%an' the possibilit% of its inuence bein7 4ae to bea+ on the ulti4ate Iu74ent of the Sani7anba%an can not be iscounte.  /T /S /N /E> O* T0E *OREGO/NG CONS/-ERAT/ONS that the Co44ission ecie not to atten the Senate inui+% to testif% an p+ouce e,ience the+eat. Uncon,ince 8ith the abo,e Co4pliance an Eplanation' the Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an the Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices issue an O+e+1& i+ectin7 MaIo+ Gene+al $ose BalaIaia Ret.F' Senate Se+7eantDAtDA+4s' to place Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s une+ a++est fo+ conte4pt of the Senate. The O+e+ bea+s the app+o,al of Senate P+esient illa+ an the 4aIo+it% of the Co44ittees= 4e4be+s. On Septe4be+ 12' 2;;!' at a+oun 1;3H# a.4.' MaIo+ Gene+al BalaIaia a++este Chai+4an Sabio in his oce at /RC Builin7' No. "2 E-SA' Manalu%on7 Cit% an b+ou7ht hi4 to the Senate p+e4ises 8he+e he 8as etaine. 0ence' Chai+4an Sabio <le 8ith this Cou+t a petition fo+ habeas co+pus a7ainst the Senate Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices' thei+ Chai+4en' Senato+s Richa+ Go+on an $o6e+ P. A++o%o an Me4be+s.  The case 8as oc6 oc6ete ete as G.R G.R.. No. 1H& 1H&H;. H;. Chai+4an Sabio' Co44issione+s Abcee' Conti' Na+io' an $a,ie+' an the PCGG=s no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' Manuel Anal an $ulio $alanoni' li6e8ise <le a petition fo+ ce+tio+a+i an p+ohibition a7ainst the sa4e +esponents' an also a7ainst Senate P+esient Manuel illa+' Senato+ $uan Ponce En+ile' the Se+7eantDatDA+4s' an the enti+e Senate. The case 8as oc6ete as G.R. No. 1H&1". Mean8hile' Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation an its oce+s an i+ecto+s' na4el%3 Philip G. B+oett' )uis K. )o6in' $+.' Robe+to . San  $ose' -el<n -el<n P. An7cao' R Robe+to obe+to ). A Aba' ba' Al4a K K+istina +istina Alo Alobba bba an $$ohnn% ohnn% Tan <le a petition fo+ ce+tio+a ce+tio+a+i +i an p+ p+ohibition ohibition a7ainst the Senate Co44ittees on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an Public Se+,ices' thei+ Chai+4en' Senato+s Go+on an A++o%o' an Me4be+s. The case 8as oc6ete as G.R. No. 1H1. /n G.R. No. 1H&H; fo+ habeas co+pusF an G.R. No. 1H&1" fo+ ce+tio+a+i an p+ohibitionF Chai+4an Sabio' Co44issione+s Abcee' Conti' Na+io' an $a,ie+ an the PCGG=s no4inees Anal an $alanoni alle7e3 <+st' +esponent Senate Co44ittees is+e7a+e Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 8ithout an% Iusti<able +eason secon' the inui+ies conucte b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e not in ai of le7islation thi+' the inui+ies 8e+e conucte in the absence of ul% publishe Senate Rules of P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies in Ai of )e7islation an fou+th' +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e not ,este 8ith the po8e+ of conte4pt. /n G.R. No. 1H1' petitione+s Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation an its i+ecto+s an oce+s alle7e3 <+st' +esponent Senate Co44ittees ha,e no Iu+isiction o,e+ the subIect 4atte+ state in Senate Res. No. H## secon' the sa4e inui+% is not in acco+ance 8ith the Senate=s Rules P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies Ai of )e7islation thi+'inui+% the subpoenae theRes. ini,iual petitione+s a+e ,oi fo+ ha,in7 beenofissue 8ithout autho+it% fou+th' in the conuct of le7islati,e pu+suanta7ainst to Senate No. H## constitutes unue enc+oach4ent b% +esponents into Iusticiable cont+o,e+sies o,e+ 8hich se,e+al cou+ts an t+ibunals ha,e al+ea% acui+e Iu+isiction an <fth' the subpoenae ,iolate petitione+s= +i7hts to p+i,ac% an a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination. /n thei+ Consoliate Co44ent' the abo,eDna4e +esponents counte+e3 <+st' the issues +aise in the petitions in,ol,e political uestions o,e+ 8hich this Cou+t has no Iu+isiction secon' Section HbF has been +epeale b% the Constitution thi+' +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e ,este 8ith conte4pt po8e+ fou+th' Senate=s Rules of P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies in Ai of )e7islation ha,e been ul% publishe <fth' +esponents ha,e not ,iolate an% ci,il +i7ht of the ini,iual petitione+s' such as thei+ aF +i7ht to p+i,ac% an bF +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination an sith' the inui+% oes not constitute unue enc+oach4ent into Iusticiable cont+o,e+sies. -u+in7 the o+al a+7u4ents hel on Septe4be+ 21' 2;;!' the pa+ties 8e+e i+ecte to sub4it si4ultaneousl% thei+ +especti,e 4e4o+ana 8ithin a nonDetenible pe+io of <fteen 1#F a%s f+o4 ate. /n the 4eanti4e' pe+ a7+ee4ent of the pa+ties' petitione+ Chai+4an Sabio 8as allo8e to 7o ho4e. Thus' his petition fo+ habeas co+pus has beco4e 4oot. The pa+ties also a7+ee that the se+,ice of the a++est 8a++ants issue a7ainst all petitione+s an the p+oceein7s befo+e the +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e suspene u+in7 the penenc% of the instant cases.1H C+ucial to the +esolution of the p+esent petitions is the funa4ental issue of 8hethe+ Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 is +epeale b% the 1(" Constitution. On this lone issue hin7es the 4e+it of the contention of Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s that thei+ +efusal to appea+ befo+e +esponent Senate Co44ittees is Iusti<e. >ith the +esolution of this issue' all the othe+ issues +aise b% the pa+ties ha,e beco4e inconseuential. Pe+che on one a+4 of the scale of Iustice is A+ticle /' Section 21 of the 1(" Constitution 7+antin7 +esponent Senate Co44ittees the po8e+ of le7islati,e inui+%. /t +eas3  The Senate Senate o+ the 0 0ouse ouse of R Rep+ese ep+esentati,es ntati,es o+ a an% n% of its ++especti,e especti,e c co44ittees o44ittees 4a% conuct in inui+ies ui+ies in ai of le le7islation 7islation iin n acco+ance 8ith its ul% publishe +ules of p+oceu+e. The +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte.

 

On the othe+ a+4 of the scale is Section HbF of E.O. No.1 li4itin7 such po8e+ of le7islati,e inui+% b% ee4ptin7 all PCGG 4e4be+s o+ sta5 f+o4 testif%in7 in an% Iuicial' le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7' thus3 No 4e4be+ o+ sta5 of the Co44ission shall be +eui+e to testif% o+ p+ouce e,ience in an% Iuicial' le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7 conce+nin7 4atte+s 8ithin its ocial co7ni:ance.  To  To ete+4 ete+4ine ine 8hethe 8hethe++ the+e e eists ists a clea clea++ an une uneui,ocal ui,ocal ++epu7nanc% epu7nanc% bet8een the t8o uote uote  p+o,isi p+o,isions ons that 8a++ants 8a++ants a ecla+ation that Section HbF has been +epeale b% the 1(" Constitution' a b+ief consie+ation of the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+% is i4pe+ati,e.  The Con7+ess= Con7+ess= po po8e+ 8e+ of in inui+% ui+% has be been en +eco +eco7ni:e 7ni:e in ffo+ei7n o+ei7n Iu+isictions Iu+isictions lon7 befo+e befo+e it ++eache eache ou ou++ sho+e sho+es s th+ou7 th+ou7h h McG+ain ,. -au7he+t%'1# cite in A+nault ,. Na:a+eno.1! /n those ea+lie+ a%s' A4e+ican cou+ts consie+e the po8e+ of inui+% as inhe+ent in the po8e+ to le7islate. The 1"!H case of B+i77s ,. MacKella+1 eplains the b+eath an basis of the po8e+' thus3 >he+e no constitutional li4itation o+ +est+iction eists' it is co4petent fo+ eithe+ of the t8o boies co4posin7 the le7islatu+e to o' in thei+ sepa+ate capacit%' 8hate,e+ 4a% be essential to enable the4 to le7islate./t is 8ellDestablishe p+inciple of this pa+lia4enta+% la8' that eithe+ house 4a% institute an% in,esti7ation ha,in7 +efe+ence to its o8n o+7ani:ation' the conuct o+ uali<cation of its 4e4be+s' its p+oceein7s' +i7hts' o+ p+i,ile7es o+ an% 4atte+ a5ectin7 the public inte+est upon 8hich it 4a% be i4po+tant that it shoul ha,e eact info+4ation' an in +espect to 8hich it 8oul be co4petent fo+ it to le7islate. The +i7ht to pass la8s' necessa+il% i4plies the +i7ht to obtain info+4ation upon an% 4atte+ 8hich 4a% beco4e the subIect of a la8. /t is essential to the full an intelli7ent ee+cise of the le7islati,e function./n A4e+ican le7islatu+es the in,esti7ation of public 4atte+s befo+e co44ittees' p+eli4ina+% to le7islation' o+ 8ith the ,ie8 of a,isin7 the house appointin7 the co44ittee is' as a pa+lia4enta+% usa7e' 8ell establishe as it is in En7lan' an the +i7ht of eithe+ house to co4pel 8itnesses to appea+ an testif% befo+e its co44ittee' an to punish fo+ isobeience has been f+euentl% enfo+ce.The +i7ht of inui+%' / thin6' etens to othe+ 4atte+s' in +espect to 8hich it 4a% be necessa+%' o+ 4a% be ee4e a,isable to appl% fo+ le7islati,e ai. Re4a+6abl%' in A+nault' this Cou+t ahe+e to a si4ila+ theo+%. Citin7 McG+ain' it +eco7ni:e that the po8e+ of inui+% is 9an essential an app+op+iate auilia+% to the le7islati,e function'9 thus3 Althou7h the+e is no p+o,ision in the 9Constitution ep+essl% in,estin7 eithe+ 0ouse of Con7+ess 8ith po8e+ to 4a6e in,esti7ations an eact testi4on% to the en that it 4a% ee+cise its le7islati,e functions a,isel% an e5ecti,el%' such po8e+ is so fa+ inciental to the le7islati,e function as to be i4plie. /n othe+ 8o+s' the po8e+ of inui+% Q 8ith p+ocess to enfo+ce it Q is an essential an app+op+iate auilia+% to the le7islati,e function. A le7islati,e bo% cannot le7islate 8isel% o+ e5ecti,el% in the absence of info+4ation +espectin7 the conitions 8hich the le7islation is intene to a5ect o+ chan7e an 8he+e the le7islation bo% oes not itself possess the +euisite info+4ation Q 8hich is not inf+euentl% t+ue Q +ecou+se 4ust be ha to othe+s 8ho possess it.9 -ispellin7 an% oubt as to the Philippine Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%' p+o,isions on such po8e+ 4ae thei+ 4aien appea+ance in A+ticle ///' Section 12 of the 1(& Constitution.1" Then ca4e the 1(" Constitution inco+po+atin7 the p+esent A+ticle /' Section 12. >hat 8as the+efo+e i4plicit une+ the 1(&# Constitution' as inuence b% A4e+ican Iu+isp+uence' beca4e eplicit une+ the 1(& an 1(" Constitutions.1( Notabl%' the 1(" Constitution +eco7ni:es the po8e+ of in,esti7ation' not Iust of Con7+ess' but also of 9an% of its co44ittee.9 This is si7ni<cant because it constitutes a i+ect confe++al of in,esti7ato+% po8e+ upon the co44ittees an it 4eans that the 4echanis4s 8hich the 0ouses can ta6e in o+e+ to e5ecti,el% pe+fo+4 its in,esti7ati,e function a+e also a,ailable to the co44ittees.2; /t can be sai that the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+% has 7aine 4o+e soli eistence an epansi,e const+ual. The Cou+t=s hi7h +e7a+ to such po8e+ is +ene+e 4o+e e,ient in Senate ,. E+4ita'21 8he+e it cate7o+icall% +ule that 9the po8e+ of inui+% is b+oa enou7h to co,e+ ocials of the eecuti,e b+anch.9 e+il%' the Cou+t +einfo+ce the oct+ine in A+nault that 9the ope+ation of 7o,e+n4ent' bein7 a le7iti4ate subIect fo+ le7islation' is a p+ope+ subIect fo+ in,esti7ation9 an that 9the po8e+ of inui+% is coDetensi,e 8ith the po8e+ to le7islate.9 Consie+in7 these Iu+isp+uential inst+uctions' 8e <n Section HbF i+ectl% +epu7nant 8ith A+ticle /' Section 21. Section HbF ee4pts the PCGG 4e4be+s an sta5 f+o4 the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%. This cannot be countenance. No8he+e in the Constitution is an% p+o,ision 7+antin7 such ee4ption. The Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%' bein7 b+oa' enco4passes e,e+%thin7 that conce+ns the a4inist+ation of eistin7 la8s as 8ell as p+opose o+ possibl% neee statutes.22 /t e,en etens 9to 7o,e+n4ent a7encies c+eate b% Con7+ess an oce+s 8hose positions a+e 8ithin the po8e+ of Con7+ess to +e7ulate o+ e,en abolish.92& PCGG belon7s to this class. Ce+tainl%' a 4e+e p+o,ision of la8 cannot pose a li4itation to the b+oa po8e+ of Con7+ess' in the absence of an% constitutional basis. *u+the+4o+e' Section HbF is also inconsistent 8ith A+ticle /' Section 1 of the Constitution statin7 that3 9Public oce is a public t+ust. Public oce+s an e4plo%ees 4ust at all ti4es be accountable to the people' se+,e the4 8ith ut4ost +esponsibilit%' inte7+it%' lo%alt%' an ecienc%' act 8ith pat+iotis4 an Iustice' an lea 4oest li,es.9  The p+o,ision p+o,ision p+ p+esuppose esupposes s that since a an n incu4be incu4bent nt of a publ public ic oce iis s in,este 8i 8ith th ce+tain p po8e+s o8e+s an an  cha+7 cha+7e e 8ith ce+ ce+tain tain uties pe+tinent to so,e+ei7nt%' the po8e+s so ele7ate to the oce+ a+e hel in t+ust fo+ the people an a+e to be ee+cise in behalf of the 7o,e+n4ent o+ of all citi:ens 8ho 4a% nee the inte+,ention of the oce+s. Such t+ust etens to all 4atte+s 8ithin the +an7e of uties pe+tainin7 to the oce. /n othe+ 8o+s' public oce+s a+e but the se+,ants of the people' an not thei+ +ule+s.2H Section HbF' bein7 in the natu+e of an i44unit%' is inconsistent 8ith the p+inciple of public accountabilit%. /t places the PCGG 4e4be+s an sta5 be%on the +each of cou+ts' Con7+ess an othe+ a4inist+ati,e boies. /nstea of encou+a7in7 public accountabilit%' the sa4e p+o,ision onl% institutionali:es i++esponsibilit% an nonDaccountabilit%. /n P+esiential Co44ission on Goo Go,e+n4ent ,. Pea'2# $ustice *lo+entino P. *eliciano cha+acte+i:e as 9obite+9 the po+tion of the 4aIo+it% opinion ba++in7' on the basis of Sections HaF an bF of E.O. No. 1' a ci,il case fo+ a4a7es <le a7ainst the PCGG an its Co44issione+s. 0e elouentl% opine3  The abo,e abo,e une+sco une+sco+e +e po po+tions +tions a+ a+e' e' it is +e +espectfull% spectfull% su sub4itte' b4itte' cle clea+l% a+l% obite obite++. /t is i4po+t i4po+tant ant to 4a6 4a6e e clea+ tha thatt the Cou+t is not he+ he+e e inte+p+etin7' 4uch less upholin7 as ,ali an constitutional' the lite+al te+4s of Section H aF' bF of Eecuti,e O+e+ No.1. /f Section H aF 8e+e 7i,en its lite+al i4po+t as i44uni:in7 the PCGG o+ an% 4e4be+ the+eof f+o4 ci,il liabilit% 9fo+ an%thin7 one o+ o4itte in the ischa+7e of the tas6 conte4plate b% this O+e+'9 the constitutionalit% of Section H aF 8oul' in 4% sub4ission' be open to 4ost se+ious oubt. *o+ so ,ie8e' Section H aF 8oul institutionali:e the i++esponsibilit% an nonDaccountabilit% of 4e4be+s an sta5 of the PCGG' a notion that is clea+l% +epu7nant to both the 1(& an 1(" Constitution an a p+i,ile7e status not clai4e b% an% othe+ ocial of the Republic une+ the 1(" Constitution.   .  /t 8oul see4 constitutionall% o5ensi,e to suppose that a 4e4be+ o+ sta5 4e4be+ of the PCGG coul not be +eui+e to testif% befo+e the Sani7anba%an o+ that such 4e4be+s 8e+e ee4pte f+o4 co4pl%in7 8ith o+e+s of this Cou+t. Cha,e: ,. Sani7anba%an2! +eite+ates the sa4e ,ie8. /nee' Section HbF has been f+o8ne upon b% this Cou+t e,en befo+e the <lin7 of the p+esent petitions. Co+olla+il%' Section HbF also +uns counte+ to the follo8in7 constitutional p+o,isions ensu+in7 the people=s access to info+4ation3

 

A+ticle //' Section 2" SubIect to +easonable conitions p+esc+ibe b% la8' the State aopts an i4ple4ents a polic% of full public isclosu+e of all its t+ansactions in,ol,in7 public inte+est. A+ticle ///' Section   The +i7ht +i7ht of the peop people le to info info+4ation +4ation on 4atte+s o off public co conce+n nce+n sha shall ll be +e +eco7ni:e co7ni:e.. Access to ocial ++eco+s' eco+s' an to oc ocu4ents' u4ents' an pape+s pe+tainin7 to ocial acts' t+ansactions' o+ ecisions' as 8ell as to 7o,e+n4ent +esea+ch ata use as basis fo+ polic% e,elop4ent' shall be a5o+e the citi:en' subIect to such li4itations as 4a% be p+o,ie b% la8.  These t8in t8in p+o,i p+o,isions sions of the C Constitution onstitution se see6 e6 to p+ p+o4ote o4ote t+a t+anspa+en nspa+enc% c% in polic%D4a6in polic%D4a6in7 7 an in the ope+atio ope+ations ns of the 7o 7o,e+n4e ,e+n4ent' nt' as 8ell as p+o,ie the people sucient info+4ation to enable the4 to ee+cise e5ecti,el% thei+ constitutional +i7hts. A+4e 8ith the +i7ht info+4ation' citi:ens can pa+ticipate in public iscussions leain7 to the fo+4ulation of 7o,e+n4ent policies an thei+ e5ecti,e i4ple4entation. /n al4onte ,. Bel4onte' $+.2 the Cou+t eplaine that an info+4e citi:en+% is essential to the eistence an p+ope+ functionin7 of an% e4oc+ac%' thus3 An essential ele4ent of these f+eeo4s is to 6eep open a continuin7 ialo7ue o+ p+ocess of co44unication bet8een the 7o,e+n4ent an the people. /t is in the inte+est of the State that the channels fo+ f+ee political iscussion be 4aintaine to the en that the 7o,e+n4ent 4a% pe+cei,e an be +esponsi,e to the people=s 8ill. @et' this open ialo7ue can be e5ecti,e onl% to the etent that the citi:en+% is info+4e an thus able to fo+4ulate its 8ill intelli7entl%. Onl% 8hen the pa+ticipants in the iscussion a+e a8a+e of the issues an ha,e access to info+4ation +elatin7 the+eto can such bea+ f+uit. Conseuentl%' the conuct of inui+ies in ai of le7islation is not onl% intene to bene<t Con7+ess but also the citi:en+%. The people a+e euall% conce+ne 8ith this p+oceein7 an ha,e the +i7ht to pa+ticipate the+ein in o+e+ to p+otect thei+ inte+ests. The etent of thei+ pa+ticipation 8ill la+7el% epen on the info+4ation 7athe+e an 4ae 6no8n to the4. /n othe+ 8o+s' the +i7ht to info+4ation +eall% 7oes hanDinDhan 8ith the constitutional policies of full public isclosu+e an honest% in the public se+,ice. /t is 4eant to enhance the 8ienin7 +ole of the citi:en+% in 7o,e+n4ental ecisionD4a6in7 as 8ell as in chec6in7 abuse in the 7o,e+n4ent.2" The cases of Taaa ,. Tu,e+a2( an )e7aspi ,. Ci,il Se+,ice Co44ission&; ha,e +eco7ni:e a citi:en=s inte+est an pe+sonalit% to enfo+ce a public ut% an to b+in7 an action to co4pel public ocials an e4plo%ees to pe+fo+4 that ut%. Section HbF li4its o+ obst+ucts the po8e+ of Con7+ess to secu+e f+o4 PCGG 4e4be+s an sta5 info+4ation an othe+ ata in ai of its po8e+ to le7islate. A7ain' this 4ust not be countenance. /n Senate ,. E+4ita'&1 this Cou+t st+esse3  To  To the ete etent nt that in,esti in,esti7ations 7ations in a ai i of le7i le7islation slation a+ a+e e 7ene+al 7ene+all% l% conuct conucte e in publ public' ic' ho8e,e ho8e,e+' +' an% e eecuti,e ecuti,e issua issuance nce tenin7 tenin7 to unul% li4it isclosu+es of info+4ation in such in,esti7ations necessa+il% ep+i,es the people of info+4ation 8hich' bein7 p+esu4e to be in ai of le7islation' is p+esu4e to be a 4atte+ of public conce+n. The citi:ens a+e the+eb% enie access to info+4ation 8hich the% can use in fo+4ulatin7 thei+ o8n opinions on the 4atte+ befo+e Con7+ess Q opinions 8hich the% can then co44unicate to thei+ +ep+esentati,es an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent ocials th+ou7h the ,a+ious le7al 4eans allo8e b% thei+ f+eeo4 of ep+ession. A statute 4a% be ecla+e unconstitutional because it is not 8ithin the le7islati,e po8e+ to enact o+ it c+eates o+ establishes 4ethos o+ fo+4s that inf+in7e constitutional p+inciples o+ its pu+pose o+ e5ect ,iolates the Constitution o+ its basic p+inciples.&2 As sho8n in the abo,e iscussion' Section HbF is inconsistent 8ith A+ticle /' Section 21 Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%F' A+ticle /' Section 1 p+inciple of public accountabilit%F' A+ticle //' Section 2" polic% of full isclosu+eF an A+ticle ///' Section  +i7ht to public info+4ationF. Si7ni<cantl%' A+ticle ///' Section & of the Constitution p+o,ies3 All eistin7 la8s' ec+ees' eecuti,e o+e+s' p+ocla4ations' lette+s of inst+uctions' an othe+ eecuti,e issuances not inconsistent 8ith this Constitution shall +e4ain ope+ati,e until a4ene' +epeale' o+ +e,o6e.  The clea+ clea+ i4po+t o off this p+o p+o,ision ,ision is th that at all e eistin7 istin7 la8s la8s'' eec eecuti,e uti,e o+e o+e+s' +s' p+oc p+ocla4ations' la4ations' lette+s of iinst+uctions nst+uctions a an n othe+ eecuti,e eecuti,e issuances inconsistent o+ +epu7nant to the Constitution a+e +epeale.  $u+isp+uence is ++eplete  $u+isp+uence eplete 8ith ecisions iin,aliati n,aliatin7 n7 la8s' ec+ees' ec+ees' e eecuti,e ecuti,e o o+e+s' +e+s' p p+ocla4 +ocla4ations' ations' lett lette+s e+s of inst+u inst+uctions ctions an othe+ eecuti,e issuances inconsistent 8ith the Constitution. /n Pelae: ,. Auito+ Gene+al'&& the Cou+t consie+e +epeale Section !" of the Re,ise A4inist+ati,e Coe of 1(1 autho+i:in7 the Eecuti,e to chan7e the seat of the 7o,e+n4ent of an% subi,ision of local 7o,e+n4ents' upon the app+o,al of the 1(&# Constitution. Section !" 8as aIu7e inco4patible an inconsistent 8ith the Constitutional 7+ant of li4ite eecuti,e supe+,ision o,e+ local 7o,e+n4ents. /n /sla4ic -a=8ah Council of the Philippines' /nc.' ,. Oce of the Eecuti,e Sec+eta+%'&H the Cou+t ecla+e Eecuti,e O+e+ No. H!' entitle 9Autho+i:in7 the Oce on Musli4 A5ai+s to Une+ta6e Philippine 0alal Ce+ti<cation'9 ,oi fo+ enc+oachin7 on the +eli7ious f+eeo4 of Musli4s. /n The P+o,ince of Batan7as ,. Ro4ulo'&# the Cou+t ecla+e so4e p+o,isions of the Gene+al App+op+iations Acts of 1(((' 2;;; an 2;;1 unconstitutional fo+ ,iolatin7 the Constitutional p+ecept on local autono4%. An in Ople ,. To++es'&! the Cou+t li6e8ise ecla+e unconstitutional A4inist+ati,e O+e+ No. &;"' entitle 9Aoption of a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence S%ste4'9 fo+ bein7 ,iolati,e of the +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+otecte b% the Constitution.  These -ecisions' -ecisions' a an n 4an% othe othe+s' +s' hi7hli hi7hli7ht 7ht that the C Constitution onstitution iis s the hi7he hi7hest st la8 of the lan. /t is 9the basic an pa+a pa+a4ount 4ount la8 to 8hich all othe+ la8s 4ust confo+4 an to 8hich all pe+sons' incluin7 the hi7hest ocials of the lan' 4ust efe+. No act shall be ,ali' ho8e,e+ noble its intentions' if it conicts 8ith the Constitution.9& Conseuentl%' this Cou+t has no +ecou+se but to ecla+e Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 +epeale b% the 1(" Constitution. Si7ni<cantl%' u+in7 the o+al a+7u4ents on Septe4be+ 21' 2;;!' Chai+4an Sabio a4itte that shoul this Cou+t +ule that Section HbF is unconstitutional o+ that it oes not appl% to the Senate' he 8ill ans8e+ the uestions of the Senato+s' thus3 C0/E* $UST/CE PANGAN/BAN3 O6a%. No8' if the Sup+e4e Cou+t +ules that Sec. HbF is unconstitutional o+ that it oes not appl% to the Senate' 8ill %ou ans8e+ the uestions of the Senato+s C0A/RMAN SAB/O3  @ou+  @ou+ 0ono 0ono+' +' 4% fathe fathe++ 8as a Iu Iu7e' 7e' ie be bein7 in7 a Iu Iu7e. 7e. / 8as h he+e e+e in the Sup+e4 Sup+e4e e Cou+t as Chief of Sta Sta5 5 of $ustice *e+ *e+ia. ia. / 8oul e<nitel% hono+ the Sup+e4e Cou+t an the +ule of la8. C0/E* $UST/CE PANGAN/BAN3  @ou  @ou 8ill a ans8e+ ns8e+ the  uestions uestions of the Senato Senato+s +s if 8e sa sa% % that C0A/RMAN SAB/O3  @es'  @es' @ @ou+ ou+ 0ono 0ono++. That is the la8 al+ al+ea% ea% as fa+ as / a4 co conce+ne nce+ne. .

 

>ith his a4ission' Chai+4an Sabio is not full% con,ince that he an his Co44issione+s a+e shiele f+o4 testif%in7 befo+e +esponent Senate Co44ittees b% Section HbF of E.O. No. 1. /n e5ect' his a+7u4ent that the sai p+o,ision ee4pts hi4 an his coD +esponent Co44issione+s f+o4 testif%in7 befo+e +esponent Senate Co44ittees conce+nin7 Senate Res. No. H## utte+l% lac6s 4e+it. /ncientall%' an a+7u4ent +epeate b% Chai+4an Sabio is that +esponent Senate Co44ittees ha,e no po8e+ to punish hi4 an his Co44issione+s fo+ conte4pt of the Senate.  The a+7u4ent a+7u4ent is 4i 4isleain7. sleain7. A+ticle /' Section 21 p+o,ies3  The Senate Senate o+ the 0 0ouse ouse of R Rep+ese ep+esentati,es ntati,es o+ a an% n% of its ++especti,e especti,e c co44ittees o44ittees 4a% conuct in inui+ies ui+ies in ai of le le7islation 7islation iin n acco+ance 8ith its ul% publishe +ules of p+oceu+e. The +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte. /t 4ust be st+esse that the O+e+ of A++est fo+ 9conte4pt of Senate Co44ittees an the Philippine Senate9 8as app+o,e b% Senate P+esient illa+ an si7ne b% <fteen 1#F Senato+s. *+o4 this' it can be conclue that the O+e+ is une+ the autho+it%' not onl% of the +esponent Senate Co44ittees' but of the enti+e Senate. At an% +ate' A+ticle /' Section 21 7+ants the po8e+ of inui+% not onl% to the Senate an the 0ouse of Rep+esentati,es' but also to an% of thei+ +especti,e co44ittees. Clea+l%' the+e is a i+ect confe++al of po8e+ to the co44ittees. *athe+ Be+nas' in his Co44enta+% on the 1(" Constitution' co++ectl% pointe out its si7ni<cance3 /t shoul also be note that the Constitution eplicitl% +eco7ni:es the po8e+ of in,esti7ation not Iust of Con7+ess but also of 9an% of its co44ittees.9 This is si7ni<cant because it constitutes a i+ect confe++al of in,esti7ato+% po8e+ upon the co44ittees an it 4eans that the 4eans 8hich the 0ouses can ta6e in o+e+ to e5ecti,el% pe+fo+4 its in,esti7ati,e function a+e also a,ailable to the Co44ittees.&"  This is a +eason +easonable able concl conclusion. usion. T The he confe+ confe++al +al of the lle7islati,e e7islati,e p po8e+ o8e+ of iinui+% nui+% upo upon n an% co44ittee co44ittee of Co Con7+ess n7+ess 4u 4ust st ca++% 8 8ith ith it all po8e+s necessa+% an p+ope+ fo+ its e5ecti,e ischa+7e. Othe+8ise' A+ticle /' Section 21 8ill be 4eanin7less. The inispensabilit% an usefulness of the po8e+ of conte4pt in a le7islati,e inui+% is une+sco+e in a catena of cases' fo+ei7n an local. /n the 1"21 case of Ane+son ,. -unn'&( the function of the 0ouses of Con7+ess 8ith +espect to the conte4pt po8e+ 8as li6ene to that of a cou+t' thus3 But the cou+t in its +easonin7 7oes be%on this' an thou7h the 7+ouns of the ecision a+e not ,e+% clea+l% state' 8e ta6e the4 to be3 that the+e is in so4e cases a po8e+ in each 0ouse of Con7+ess to punish fo+ conte4pt that this po8e+ is analo7ous to that ee+cise b% cou+ts of Iustice' an that it bein7 the 8ell establishe oct+ine that 8hen it appea+s that a p+isone+ is hel une+ the o+e+ of a cou+t of 7ene+al Iu+isiction fo+ a conte4pt of its autho+it%' no othe+ cou+t 8ill ischa+7e the p+isone+ o+ 4a6e fu+the+ inui+% into the cause of his co44it4ent. That this is the 7ene+al +uleas +e7a+s the +elation of one cou+t to anothe+ 4ust be concee. /n McG+ain'H; the U.S. Sup+e4e Cou+t hel3 9Epe+ience has sho8n that 4e+e +euests fo+ such info+4ation a+e often una,ailin7' an also that info+4ation 8hich is ,oluntee+e is not al8a%s accu+ate o+ co4plete so so4e 4eans of co4pulsion is essential to obtain 8hat is neee.9 The Cou+t' in A+nault ,. Na:a+eno'H1 sustaine the Con7+ess= po8e+ of conte4pt on the basis of this obse+,ation. /n A+nault ,. Bala7tas'H2 the Cou+t fu+the+ eplaine that the conte4pt po8e+ of Con7+ess is foune upon +eason an polic% an that the po8e+ of inui+% 8ill not be co4plete if fo+ e,e+% contu4acious act' Con7+ess has to +eso+t to Iuicial inte+fe+ence' thus3  The p+inciple p+inciple that C Con7+ess on7+ess o+ an% of its boies h has as the po8 po8e+ e+ to punis punish h +ecal +ecalcit+ant cit+ant 8it 8itnesses nesses is foune foune upon +eason an polic% polic%. Sai po8e+ 4ust be consie+e i4plie o+ inciental to the ee+cise of le7islati,e po8e+. 0o8 coul a le7islati,e bo% obtain the 6no8le7e an info+4ation on 8hich to base intene le7islation if it cannot +eui+e an co4pel the isclosu+e of such 6no8le7e an info+4ation if it is i4potent to punish a e<ance of its po8e+ an autho+it% >hen the f+a4e+s of the Constitution aopte the p+inciple of sepa+ation of po8e+s' 4a6in7 each b+anch sup+e4e 8ithin the +eal4 of its +especti,e autho+it%' it 4ust ha,e intene each epa+t4ent=s autho+it% to be full an co4plete' inepenentl% of the othe+=s autho+it% o+ po8e+. An ho8 coul the autho+it% an po8e+ beco4e co4plete if fo+ e,e+% act of +efusal' e,e+% act of e<ance' e,e+% act of contu4ac% a7ainst it' the le7islati,e bo% 4ust +eso+t to the Iuicial epa+t4ent fo+ the app+op+iate +e4e%' because it is i4potent b% itself to punish o+ eal the+e8ith' 8ith the a5+onts co44itte a7ainst its autho+it% o+ i7nit%.H& /n Ne7+os O+iental // Elect+ic Coope+ati,e' /nc. ,. San77unian7 Panlun7so of -u4a7uete'HH the Cou+t cha+acte+i:e conte4pt po8e+ as a 4atte+ of selfDp+ese+,ation' thus3  The ee+cise ee+cise b% th the e le7isla le7islatu+e tu+e of the conte4pt p po8e+ o8e+ is a 4 4atte+ atte+ of sel selfDp+ fDp+ese+,atio ese+,ation n as that b+anch b+anch of the 7o,e+n4 7o,e+n4ent ent ,este 8ith 8ith the le7islati,e po8e+' inepenentl% of the Iuicial b+anch' asse+ts its autho+it% an punishes conte4pts the+eof. The conte4pt po8e+ of the le7islatu+e is' the+efo+e' sui 7ene+is   . Mean8hile' 8ith +espect to G.R. No. 1H1' the petition of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation an its i+ecto+s an oce+s' this Cou+t hols that the +esponent Senate Co44ittees= inui+% oes not ,iolate thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% an +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination. One i4po+tant li4itation on the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+% is that 9the +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte.9 This is Iust anothe+ 8a% of sa%in7 that the po8e+ of inui+% 4ust be 9subIect to the li4itations place b% the Constitution on 7o,e+n4ent action.9 As hel in Ba+enblatt ,. Unite States'H# 9the Con7+ess' in co44on 8ith all the othe+ b+anches of  the Go,e+n4ent' 4ust ee+cise its po8e+s subIect to the li4itations place b% the Constitution on 7o,e+n4ental action' 4o+e pa+ticula+l% in the contet of this case' the +ele,ant li4itations of the Bill of Ri7hts.9 *i+st is the +i7ht to p+i,ac%. ?ones of p+i,ac% a+e +eco7ni:e an p+otecte in ou+ la8s.H! >ithin these :ones' an% fo+4 of int+usion is i4pe+4issible unless ecuse b% la8 an in acco+ance 8ith custo4a+% le7al p+ocess. The 4eticulous +e7a+ 8e acco+ to these :ones a+ises not onl% f+o4 ou+ con,iction that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is a 9constitutional +i7ht9 an 9the +i7ht 4ost ,alue b% ci,ili:e 4en'9H but also f+o4 ou+ ahe+ence to the Uni,e+sal -ecla+ation of 0u4an Ri7hts 8hich 4anates that' 9no one shall be subIecte to a+bit+a+% inte+fe+ence 8ith his p+i,ac%9 an 9e,e+%one has the +i7ht to the p+otection of the la8 a7ainst such inte+fe+ence o+ attac6s.9H" Ou+ Bill of a Ri7hts' ensh+ine A+ticle /// of the Constitution' p+o,ies at leastho8 t8o4uch' 7ua+antees thatan eplicitl% c+eate :onesabout of p+i,ac%. hi7hli7hts pe+son=s 9+i7ht toinbe let alone9 o+ the 9+i7ht to ete+4ine 8hat' to 8ho4 8hen info+4ation hi4self/t shall be isclose.9H( Section 2 7ua+antees 9the +i7ht of the people to be secu+e in thei+ pe+sons' houses' pape+s an e5ects a7ainst un+easonable sea+ches an sei:u+es of 8hate,e+ natu+e an fo+ an% pu+pose.9 Section & +ene+s in,iolable the 9p+i,ac% of co44unication an co++esponence9 an fu+the+ cautions that 9an% e,ience obtaine in ,iolation of this o+ the p+ecein7 section shall be ina4issible fo+ an% pu+pose in an% p+oceein7.9 /n e,aluatin7 a clai4 fo+ ,iolation of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' a cou+t 4ust ete+4ine 8hethe+ a pe+son has ehibite a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% an' if so' 8hethe+ that epectation has been ,iolate b% un+easonable 7o,e+n4ent int+usion.#; Appl%in7 this

 

ete+4ination to these cases' the i4po+tant inui+ies a+e3 <+st' i the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation ehibit a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% an secon' i the 7o,e+n4ent ,iolate such epectation  The ans8e+s ans8e+s a+e in the ne7a ne7ati,e. ti,e. Pe Petitione+s titione+s 8 8e+e e+e in,i in,ite te in the Se Senate=s nate=s publi public c hea+in7 to elibe elibe+ate +ate on Se Senate nate R Res. es. No. H# H##' #' pa+ticula+l% 9on the ano4alous losses incu++e b% the Philippine O,e+seas Teleco44unications Co+po+ation POTCF' Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation P0/)COMSATF' an Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ations P0CF ue to the alle7e i4p+op+ieties in the ope+ations b% thei+ +especti,e boa+ of i+ecto+s.9 Ob,iousl%' the inui+% focus on petitione+s= acts co44itte in the ischa+7e of thei+ uties as oce+s an i+ecto+s of the sai co+po+ations' pa+ticula+l% Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation. Conseuentl%' the% ha,e no +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% o,e+ 4atte+s in,ol,in7 thei+ oces in a co+po+ation 8he+e the 7o,e+n4ent has inte+est. Ce+tainl%' such 4atte+s a+e of public conce+n an o,e+ 8hich the people ha,e the +i7ht to info+4ation.  This 7oes 7oes to sho8 tha thatt the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is n not ot absolute 8he+e the+e is a an n o,e++ o,e++iin7 iin7 co4 co4pellin7 pellin7 stat state e inte+est. inte+est. /n Mo+fe ,. Mutuc'#1 the Cou+t' in line 8ith >halen ,. Roe'#2 e4plo%e the +ational basis +elationship test 8hen it hel that the+e 8as no inf+in7e4ent of the ini,iual=s +i7ht to p+i,ac% as the +eui+e4ent to isclosu+e info+4ation is fo+ a ,ali pu+pose' i.e.' to cu+tail an 4ini4i:e the oppo+tunities fo+ ocial co++uption' 4aintain a stana+ of honest% in public se+,ice' an p+o4ote 4o+alit% in public a4inist+ation.#& /n al4onte ,. Bel4onte'#H the Cou+t +e4a+6e that as public <7u+es' the Me4be+s of the fo+4e+ Batasan7 Pa4bansa enIo% a 4o+e li4ite +i7ht to p+i,ac% as co4pa+e to o+ina+% ini,iuals' an thei+ actions a+e subIect to close+ sc+utin%. Ta6in7 this into consie+ation' the Cou+t +ule that the +i7ht of the people to access info+4ation on 4atte+s of public conce+n p+e,ails o,e+ the +i7ht to p+i,ac% of <nancial t+ansactions. Une+ the p+esent ci+cu4stances' the alle7e ano4alies in the P0/)COMSAT' P0C an POTC' +an7in7 in 4illions of pesos' an the conspi+ato+ial pa+ticipation of the PCGG an its ocials a+e co4pellin7 +easons fo+ the Senate to eact ,ital info+4ation f+o4 the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ations' as 8ell as f+o4 Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s to ai it in c+aftin7 the necessa+% le7islation to p+e,ent co++uption an fo+4ulate +e4eial 4easu+es an polic% ete+4ination +e7a+in7 PCGG=s ecac%.  The+e bein7 no ++easonabl easonable e epect epectation ation of p+i p+i,ac% ,ac% on the p pa+t a+t of those i+ecto i+ecto+s +s an o oce+s ce+s o,e+ the subIect co,e+e co,e+e  b% Senate R Res. es. No. H##' it follo8s that thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% has not been ,iolate b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees. Anent the +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination' it 4ust be e4phasi:e that this +i7ht 4a%be in,o6e b% the sai i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation onl% 8hen the inc+i4inatin7 uestion is bein7 as6e' since the% ha,e no 8a% of 6no8in7 in a,ance the natu+e o+ e5ect of the uestions to be as6e of the4.9## That this +i7ht 4a% possibl% be ,iolate o+ abuse is no 7+oun fo+ en%in7 +esponent Senate Co44ittees thei+ po8e+ of inui+%. The consolation is that 8hen this po8e+ is abuse' such issue 4a% be p+esente befo+e the cou+ts. At this Iunctu+e' 8hat is i4po+tant is that +esponent Senate Co44ittees ha,e sucient Rules to 7uie the4 8hen the +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination is in,o6e. Sec. 1( +eas3 Sec. 1(. P+i,ile7e A7ainst SelfD/nc+i4ination A 8itness can in,o6e his +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination onl% 8hen a uestion tens to elicit an ans8e+ that 8ill inc+i4inate hi4 is p+opoune to hi4. 0o8e,e+' he 4a% o5e+ to ans8e+ an% uestion in an eecuti,e session. No pe+son can +efuse to testif% o+ be place une+ oath o+ a+4ation o+ ans8e+ uestions befo+e an inc+i4inato+% uestion is as6e. 0is in,ocation of such +i7ht oes not b% itself ecuse hi4 f+o4 his ut% to 7i,e testi4on%. /n such a case' the Co44ittee' b% a 4aIo+it% ,ote of the 4e4be+s p+esent the+e bein7 a uo+u4' shall ete+4ine 8hethe+ the +i7ht has been p+ope+l% in,o6e. /f the Co44ittee ecies othe+8ise' it shall +esu4e its in,esti7ation an the uestion o+ uestions p+e,iousl% +efuse to be ans8e+e shall be +epeate to the 8itness. /f the latte+ continues to +efuse to ans8e+ the uestion' the Co44ittee 4a% punish hi4 fo+ conte4pt fo+ contu4acious conuct.  The sa4e i+ecto i+ecto+s +s an oce+s oce+s conte conten n that the Se Senate nate is ba+ ba++e +e f+ f+o4 o4 inui+ inui+in7 in7 into tthe he sa4e issue issues s bein7 li liti7ate ti7ate befo befo+e +e the C Cou+t ou+t of Appeals an the Sani7anba%an. Suce it to state that the Senate Rules of P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies in Ai of )e7islation p+o,ie that the <lin7 o+ penenc% of an% p+osecution of c+i4inal o+ a4inist+ati,e action shoul not stop o+ abate an% inui+% to ca++% out a le7islati,e pu+pose. )et it be st+esse at this point that so lon7 as the constitutional +i7hts of 8itnesses' li6e Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s' 8ill be +especte b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees' it thei+ ut% to coope+ate 8ith the4 in thei+ e5o+ts to obtain the facts neee fo+ intelli7ent le7islati,e action. The un+e4ittin7 obli7ation of e,e+% citi:en is to +espon to subpoenae' to +espect the i7nit% of the Con7+ess an its Co44ittees' an to testif% full% 8ith +espect to 4atte+s 8ithin the +eal4 of p+ope+ in,esti7ation. /n <ne' PCGG Chai+4an Ca4ilo Sabio an Co44issione+s Rica+o Abcee' Na+ciso Na+io' Nicasio Conti' an Te+eso $a,ie+ an Manuel Anal an $ulio $alanoni' PCGG=s no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' as 8ell as its i+ecto+s an oce+s' 4ust co4pl% 8ith the Subpoenae A Testi<canu4 issue b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees i+ectin7 the4 to appea+ an testif% in public hea+in7s +elati,e to Senate Resolution No. H##. >0ERE*ORE' the petition in G.R. No. 1H&H; fo+ habeas co+pus is -/SM/SSE-' fo+ bein7 4oot. The petitions in G.R Nos. 1H&1" an 1H1 a+e li6e8ise -/SM/SSE-. Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 is ecla+e REPEA)E- b% the 1(" Constitution. Responent Senate Co44ittees= po8e+ of inui+% +elati,e to Senate Resolution H## is uphel. PCGG Chai+4an Ca4ilo ). Sabio an Co44issione+s Rica+o Abcee' Na+ciso Na+io' Nicasio Conti an Te+eso $a,ie+ an Manuel Anal an $ulio $alanoni' PCGG=s no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' as 8ell as its i+ecto+s an oce+s' petitione+s in G.R. No. 1H1' a+e o+e+e to co4pl% 8ith the Subpoenae A Testi<canu4 issue b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees i+ectin7 the4 to appea+ an testif% in public hea+in7s +elati,e to Senate Resolution No. H##. SO OR-ERE-. Pan7aniban' C.$.' Puno' Juisu4bin7' @na+esDSantia7o' Ca+pio' Aust+iaDMa+tine:' Co+ona' Ca+pio Mo+ales' CalleIo' S+.' A:cuna' ChicoD Na:a+io' Tin7a' Ga+cia' an elasco' $$.' concu+.

 Republic of the Philippines Sup+e4e Cou+t

 

Manila   EN BANC   /N T0E MATTER O* T0E PET/T/ON *OR T0E >R/T O* AMPARO AN- 0ABEAS -ATA /N *AOR O* NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   Petitione+'   D ,e+sus D   G)OR/A MACAPAGA)[email protected]' GEN. /CTOR S. /BRA-O' P-G $ESUS AME ERSO?A' )T. GEN. -E)*/N BANG/T' MA$. GEN. NESTOR ?. OC0OA' PCSUPT. AMETO G. TO)ENT/NO' PSSUPT. $U-E >. SANTOS' CO). REM/G/O M. -E ERA' an oce+ na4e MATUT/NA' )T. CO). M/NA' CA)OG' GEORGE PA)ACPAC une+ the na4e [email protected]'V ANTON/O CRU?' A)->/N BONGV PAS/CO)AN an /NCENT CA))AGAN'   Responents. G.R. No. 1(1";#    D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D /N T0E MATTER O* T0E PET/T/ON *OR T0E >R/T O* AMPARO AN- 0ABEAS -ATA /N *AOR O* NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   PO)/CE -/R. GEN. $ESUS A. ERSO?A' PSSUPT. $U-E >. SANTOS' BGEN. REMEG/O M. -E ERA' 1ST )T. [email protected] S. MATUT/NA' )T. CO). )AURENCE E. M/NA' ANTON/O C. CRU?' A)->/N C. PAS/ PAS/CO)AN CO)AN an /CENTE A. CA))AGAN'   Petitione+s'   D ,e+sus D  

NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   Responent. G.R. No. 1(&1!;   P+o4ul7ate3 No,e4be+ 1#' 2;11    D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D   -EC/S/ON SERENO' $.3 Befo+e this Cou+t a+e t8o consoliate cases' na4el%' 1F Petition fo+ Pa+tial Re, Re,ie8 ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i ate 2; Ap+il 2;1; G.R. No. 1(1";#F' an 2F Petition fo+ Re,ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i ate 1( Au7ust 2;1; G.R. No. 1(&1!;F.L1 Both Petitions assail the 12 Ap+il 2;1; -ecision of the Cou+t of Appeals' the ispositi,e po+tion of 8hich +eas3   >0ERE*ORE' the petition fo+ 8+it of a4pa+o an 8+it of habeas ata is GRANTE-.   Responents Respo nents Gen. icto+ S. /b+ao' )t. Gen. -el<n Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Nesto+ ?. Ochoa' PCSupt. A4eto G. Tolentino' PSSupt.  $ue >. >. Santos' Col. R Re4i7io e4i7io M. -e  e+a' e+a' )t. Col. )au+ )au+ence ence E. Mina an 1)t 1)t.. R%an S. Ma Matutina' tutina' o+ thei+ ++eplace4ents eplace4ents in the thei+ i+ ocial posts if the% ha,e al+ea% ,acate the sa4e' a+e OR-ERE- to fu+nish this Cou+t 8ithin <,e #F a%s f+o4 notice of this ecision' ocial o+ unocial +epo+ts pe+tainin7 to petitione+ Q co,e+in7 but not li4ite to intelli7ence +epo+ts' ope+ation +epo+ts an p+o,ost 4a+shal +epo+ts +epo+ts p+io+ to' u+in7 an subseuent to Septe4be+ !' 2;;( Q 4ae b% the #th /nfant+% -i,ision' Philippine A+4%' its i ts b+anches an subsiia+ies' incluin7 the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' Philippine A+4%. A+4%.    The abo,eDna4e abo,eDna4e +esponents a+e also -/RE -/RECTECTE- to +ef+ain f+ f+o4 o4 usin7 the sa sai i +epo+ts in an% t+ t+ansaction ansaction o+ o ope+ation pe+ation of the 4ilita+%. Necessa+il%' the afo+eDna4e +esponents a+e OR-ERE- to epun7e f+o4 the +eco+s of the 4ilita+% all ocu4ents ha,in7 an% +efe+ence to petitione+.   )i6e8ise' the afo+eDna4e +esponents' as 8ell as +esponents Police -i+ecto+ Gene+al $esus A4e e e+so:a' +so:a' Antonio C+u:' Al8in Pasicolan an icente Calla7an a+e -/RECTE- to ensu+e that no fu+the+ ,iolation of petitione+Ws +i7hts to life' l ife' libe+t% an secu+it% is co44itte a7ainst the latte+ o+ an% 4e4be+ of his fa4il%.    The petition is -/SM/SSE-/SM/SSE- 8ith +espect tto o P+esie P+esient nt Glo+ia Macapa7alDA++o%o Macapa7alDA++o%o on a account ccount of he+ p p+esiential +esiential i44unit% f+ f+o4 o4 suit. Si4ila+l%' the petition is -/SM/SSE- 8ith +espect to +esponent +esponents s Calo7 an Geo+7e Palacp Palacpac ac o+ 0a++% fo+ lac6 of 4e+it.   Petitione+Ws Petitione +Ws p+a%e+ fo+ iissuance ssuance of a te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+ an inspection o+e+ is -EN/E-. No+iel Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue:F Ro+i7ue:F is petitione+ in G.R. No. 1(1";# an +esponent in G.R. No. 1(&1!;. 0e is a 4e4be+ of Al%ansa -a7iti Mannalon /ti Ca7a%an Ka7i4un7anF' a peasant o+7ani:ation aliate 8ith Kilusan7 Ma7bubu6i n7 Pilipinas KMPF. On the othe+ han' Glo+ia Macapa7alDA++o%o fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%oF' Police -i+ecto+ Gene+al P-G.F $esus A. e+:osa' Police Senio+ Supe+intenent PSSupt.F $ue >. Santos' B+i7aie+ Gene+al B+i7. Gen.F Re4e7io M. -e e+a' *i+st )ieutenant 1st )t.F R%an R%a n S. Matutina' )ieutenant Colonel )t. Col.F )au+ence E. Mina' Antonio C. C+u: C+u:F' Al8in C. Pasicolan Pasico PasicolanF lanF an icente A. Calla7an Calla7anF a+e +esponents +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# an petitione+s in G.R. No. 1(&1!;. At the ti4e the e,ents +ele,ant to the p+esent Petitions occu++e' fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o 8as the P+esient of the Philippines. P-G. e+:osa' PSSupt. Santos' B+i7. Gen. -e e e+a' +a' 1st )t. Matutina an )t. Col. Mina 8e+e oce+s of the Philippine National Police PNPF. C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an 8e+e Special /n,esti7ato+s of the Co44ission on 0u4an Ri7hts C0RF in Re7ion //. Anteceent *acts Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : clai4s that the 4ilita+% ta77e KMP as an ene4% of the State une+ the Oplan Banta% )a%a' 4a6in7 iits ts 4e4be+s ta+7ets of et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances.L2   On ! Septe4be+ 2;;(' at #3;; p.4.' Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : ha Iust +eache Ba+an7a% Tapel' Ca7a%an onboa+ a t+ic%cle +i,en b% 0e+4ie Antonio Ca+los Ca+losF' 8hen fou+ 4en fo+cibl% too6 hi4 an fo+ce hi4 into a ca+. /nsie the ,ehicle 8e+e se,e+al 4en in ci,ilian clothes' one of 8ho4 8as 8 as holin7 a .H# calibe+ pistol. Subseuentl%' th+ee 4o+e pe+sons a++i,e' an one of the4 ca++ie a 7un at his sie. T8o 4en boa+e the ca+' 8hile the othe+s +oe on the t+ic%cle.L&  The 4en tie the hans hans of Ro Ro+i7ue:' +i7ue:' o+e+ o+e+e e hi4 to lie on his sto4a sto4ach' ch' sat on his bac bac6 6 an sta+te pun punchin7 chin7 hi4. The

ca+ t+a,elle to8a+s the i+ection of Sta. Te+esita Te+esita Mission an 4o,e a+oun the a+ea until about 23;; a.4. -u+in7 the +i,e'

 

the 4en fo+ce Ro+i7ue: to confess to bein7 a 4e4be+ of the Ne8 PeopleWs A+4% NP NPAF' AF' but he +e4aine silent. The ca+ then ente+e a place that appea+e appea+e to be a 4il 4ilita+% ita+% ca4p. The+e 8e+e solie+s all o,e+ the a+ea' an the+e 8as a banne+ 8ith the 8o+ B+a,oV B+a,oV 8+itten on it. Ro+i7ue: late+ on lea+ne that the ca4p belon7e to the 1th /nfant+% Battalion of the Philippine A+4%.LH Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : 8as b+ou7ht to a canteen' 8he+e si 4en conf+onte hi4' o+e+in7 hi4 to confess to his 4e4be+ship in the NPA. -ue to his ehaustion' he unintentionall% fell asleep. As a +esult' the 4en hit hi4 on the hea to 8a6e hi4 up. Afte+ the inte++o7ation' inte++o 7ation' t8o of the 4en 7ua+e hi4' but i not allo8 hi4 to sleep.L# /n the 4o+nin7 of  Septe4be+ 2;;(' the 4en tie the hans of Ro+i7ue:' blinfole hi4 an 4ae hi4 boa+ a ,ehicle. >hile the% 8e+e in t+ansit' the solie+s +epeatel% hit hi4 in the hea an th+eatene to 6ill hi4. >hen the ca+ stoppe afte+ about ten 4inutes' the solie+s b+ou7ht hi4 to a +oo4' +e4o,e his bli blinfol' nfol' an fo+ce hi4 to confess to bein7 a 4e4be+ of the NPA. -u+in7 the inte++o7ation inte++o7ation'' the solie+s +epeate +epeatel% l% hit hi4 on the hea. The+eafte+ The+eafte+'' he 8as etaine insie the +oo4 fo+ the enti+e a% a%.. The solie+s tie his sto4ach to a papa7' an 7a,e hi4 +ice an ,ian. *ea+in7 that the foo 4i7ht be poisone' he +efuse to eat an%thin7. 0e slept on the papa7 8hile bein7 tie to it at the 8aist.L! On " Septe4be+ 2;;(' the 4en fo+ce fo+ce Ro+i7ue: into a ,eh ,ehicle' icle' 8hich b+ou7ht the4 to Bu7e% an Mission. >hile passin7 houses alon7 the 8a%' 8a%' the 4en as6e hi4 if his contacts li,e in those house houses. s. >hen he faile to ans8e+' a solie+ pointe a 7un to his hea an th+eatene to 6ill hi4 an his fa4il% fa4il%.. Because he +e4aine silent' the solie+s beat hi4 an tie hi4 up. The ,ehicle +etu+ne +etu+ne  to the 4ilita+% ca4p at past 13;; p.4.' 8he+e he 8as a7ain subIecte subIecte to tactical inte++o7ation inte++o 7ation about the location of an NPA ca4p an his alle7e NPA co4+aes. 0e su5e+e incessant 4aulin7 e,e+% ti4e he faile to ans8e+.L At a8n on ( Septe4be+ 2;;(' solie+s a+4e 8ith +ies too6 Ro+i7ue: an 4ae hi4 thei+ 7uie on thei+ 8a% to an NPA ca4p in Bi+ao. Acco4pan%in7 the4 8as a 4an na4e 0a++%' 8ho' acco+in7 to the solie+s' 8as an NPA 4e4be+ 8ho ha su++ene+e to the 4ilita+%. 0a++% pointe to Ro+i7ue: an calle calle  hi4 a 4e4be+ of the NPA. 0e also hea+ 0a++% tell the solie+s that the latte+ 6ne8 the a+ea 8ell an 8as acuainte 8ith a 4an na4e El,is. The solie+s loae Ro+i7ue: into a 4ilita+% t+uc6 an +o,e to Tabba6' Bu7e% Bu7e%.. >hile he 8as 8al6in7 8ith the solie+s' he notice a solie+ 8ith the na4e ta7 Matutina'V 8ho appea+e to be an ocial because the othe+ solie+s a+esse hi4 as si+.VL" Upon +eachin7 Bi+ao on foot' the solie+s loo6e fo+ an 8as able to locate a ce+tain El,is an tol hi4 that Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: ha ienti<e his 8he+eabouts location. The solie+s fo+ce Ro+i7ue: to con,ince El,is to isclose the location of the NPA ca4p. The% b+ou7ht the t8o to the 4ountains' 8he+e both 8e+e th+eatene th+eatene 8ith eath. >hen the solie+s punche El,is' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : tol the4 that he 8oul +e,eal the location of the NPA ca4p if the% let El,is 7o ho4e. The% <nall% +elease El,is a+oun &3;; p.4. that a%. The solie+s an Ro+i7ue: spent the net th+ee ni7hts in the 4ountains.L( On 12 Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s a7ain hit Ro+i7ue: an fo+ce hi4 to ientif% the location of the NPA ca4p. 0e 8as blinfole an 8a+ne to 7et +ea% because the% 8oul beat hi4 up a7ain in the 4ilita+% ca4p. Upon a++i,al the+ein' the% b+ou7ht hi4 to the sa4e +oo4 8he+e he ha <+st been etaine' an t8o solie+s 4aule hi4 a7ain. The% +epeatel% punche an 6ic6e hi4. /n the afte+noon' afte+noon' the% let hi4 +est an 7a,e hi4 an Alaan tablet. The+eafte+' he fell asleep ue to o,e+Dfati7ue o,e+ Dfati7ue an et+e4e bo% pain. The solie+s' ho8e,e+' hit hi4 a7ain. Afte+ 7i,in7 hi4 a pen an a piece of pape+' the% o+e+e o+e+ e hi4 to 8+ite o8n his +euest fo+ +ice f+o4 the people. >hen he +efuse' the solie+s 4alt+eate hi4 once 4o+e.L1; On 1& Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s fo+ce Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : to si7n ocu4ents ecla+in7 that he ha su++ene+e in an encounte+ in Cu4ao' an that the solie+s i not shoot hi4 because he beca4e a 4ilita+% asset in Ma% Ma%.. >hen he +efuse to si7n the ocu4ent' he +ecei,e anothe+ anothe+ beatin7. Thus' he 8as co4pelle to si7n' but i so usin7 a i5e+ent si7natu+e si7natu+e to sho8 that he 8as 4e+ 4e+el% el% coe+ce.L11  The solie+s sho8e Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue: photo7 photo7+aphs +aphs of i5e+en i5e+entt pe+sons an as6 as6e e hi4 if he 6ne8 the 4en appe appea+in7 a+in7 the+e the+ein. in. >hen he tol the4 that he i not +eco7ni:e the ini,iuals on the photos' the solie+s inst+ucte hi4 to 8+ite 8 +ite o8n the na4e of his school an o+7ani:ation' but he ecline. The solie+s then 8+ote so4ethin7 on the pape+' 4a6in7 it appea+ that he 8as the one 8ho ha 8+itten it' an fo+ce hi4 to si7n the ocu4ent. The solie+s too6 photo7+aphs of hi4 8hile he 8as si7nin7. Afte+8a+s' Afte+8a+s' the solie+s fo+ce hi4 o8n' hel his hans' an sat on his feet. 0e i not onl% +ecei,e anothe+ beatin7' but 8as also elect+ocute. The to+tu+e laste fo+ about an hou+.L12 At 113;; p.4. on 1# Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s b+ou7ht Ro+i7ue: to a 4ilita+% ope+ation in the 4ountains' 8he+e he sa8 Matutina a7ain. The% all spent the ni7ht the+e.L1& /n the 4o+nin7 of 1! Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s an Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: sta+te thei+ escent. >hen the% stoppe' the solie+s too6 his photo7+aph an as6e hi4 to na4e the location of the NPA ca4p. The+eafte The+eafte+' +' the% all +etu+ne +etu+ne  to the 4ilita+% ca4p. The solie+s as6e hi4 to ta6e a bath an 8ea+ a 8hite polo shi+t hane to hi4. 0e 8as then b+ou7ht to the En+ile Meical Cente+' 8he+e -+. $uliet Ra4il -+. -+. Ra4ilF ea4ine hi4.L1H >hen the octo+ as6e hi4 8h% he ha b+uises an contusions' he lie an tol he+ that he sustaine the4 8hen he slippe' as he notice a solie+ obse+,in7 hi4. -+. Ra4ilWs 4eical ce+ti<cate inicate that he su5e+e f+o4 fou+ he4ato4as in the epi7ast+ic a+ea' chest an ste+nu4.L1# Bac6 at the ca4p' the solie+s let Ro+i7ue: eat 8ith se,e+al 4ilita+% ocials an too6 pictu+es of hi4 8hile he 8as eatin7 8ith the4. The% also as6e hi4 to point to a 4ap in f+ont of hi4 an a7ain too6 his photo7+aph. )ate+' )ate+' the% tol hi4 that he 8oul <nall% see his 4othe+ 4othe+.. L1! Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : 8as b+ou7ht to anothe+ 4ili 4ilita+% ta+% ca4p' 8he+e he 8as o+e+ o+e+e e to si7n a piece of pape+ statin7 that he 8as a su++ene+ee su++en e+ee an 8as ne,e+ beaten up. Sca+e an espe+ate to en his o+eal' he si7ne the pape+ an 8as 8a+ne not to +epo+t an%thin7 to the 4eia.L1 A+oun !3;; a.4. on 1 Septe4be+ Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s inst+ucte petitione+ petitione+ to ta6e a bath. The% 7a,e hi4 a pai+ of  Ieans an pe+fu4e. pe+fu4e. >hile he 8as ha,in7 b+ b+ea6fast' ea6fast' the t8o so solie+s lie+s 7ua+in7 hi4 ++epeatel% epeatel% +e4 +e4ine ine hi4 not to isclos isclose e to the 4eia his epe+ience in the ca4p an to sa% instea that he ha su++ene+ su++ene+e e to the 4ilita+% 4ilita+%.L1" .L1" At (3;; a.4. on the sa4e a%' the 4othe+ an the b+othe+ of Ro+i7ue: a++i,e su++oune b% se,e+al 4en. 0is 4othe+' >il4a Ro+i7ue: >il4aF' tal6e tal6e to )t. Col. Mina. Ro+i7ue: hea+ one of the solie+s tell >il4a that he ha su++ene+e to the 4ilita+% an ha lon7 been its asset. 0is b+othe+' Roel Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: RoelF' info+4e hi4 that the 4en acco4pan%in7 the4 8e+e f+o4 the C0R' na4el%' Pasicolan' C+u: an Calla7an. Upon seein7 Ro+i7ue:' C+u: inst+uct inst+ucte e hi4 to lift up his shi+t' an one of the C0R e4plo%ees too6 photo7+aphs of his b+uises.L1( A solie+ t+ie to con,ince >il4a to let Ro+i7ue: sta% in the ca4p fo+ anothe+ t8o 8ee6s to supposel% p+e,ent the NPA f+o4 ta6in7 +e,en7e on hi4. Responent Calo7 also app+oache Ro+i7ue: an Roel an as6e the4 to beco4e 4ilita+% assets. Roel +efuse +efuse an insiste that the% ta6e Ro+i7ue: ho4e to Manila. A7ain' the solie+s +e4ine the4 to +ef+ain f+o4 facin7 the 4eia. The solie+s also tol the4 that the latte+ 8ill be ta6en to the T Tu7ue7a+ao u7ue7a+ao Ai+po+t an 7ua+e until the% +eache ho4e.L2; Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : an his fa4il% 4isse thei+ i7ht. Subseuentl%' the solie+s acco4panie the4 to the C0R oce' 8he+e Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : 8as 4ae to si7n an aa,it statin7 that he 8as neithe+ abucte no+ to+tu+e. to+tu+e. Af+ai an espe+at espe+ate e to +etu+n ho4e' he 8as fo+ce to si7n the ocu4ent. C+u: a,ise hi4 not to <le a case a7ainst his abucto+s because the% ha al+ea% f+ee hi4. The C0R pe+sonnel then le hi4 an his fa4il% to the C0R To To%ota %ota T Ta4a+a8 a4a+a8 * se+,ice ,ehicle. 0e notice that a ,ehicle 8ith solie+s on boa+ follo8e the4.L21  The Ta4a+a8 * pulle o,e+ an +esponent 1st 1st )t. Matutina boa boa+e +e the ,ehicle ,ehicle.. Upon +each +eachin7 in7 a 4all in /sabela' Ro+i7ue:' Ro+i7ue :' his fa4il%' Calla7an' 1st )t. Matutina an t8o othe+ solie+s t+ansfe++e to an o+an7e T To%ota o%ota Re,o 8ith plate nu4be+ >TG #(. Upon +eachin7 the bouna+% of Nue,a EciIa an Nue,a isca%a' 1st )t. Matutina ali7hte an calle Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : to a ine+ ine+.. A ce+tain Alan app+oache Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: an hane hi4 a cellphone 8ith a S/M ca+. The latte+ an his fa4il% then left an +esu4e thei+ Iou+ne% bac6 ho4e.L22 Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : +eache his house in Sta. Ana' Manila at &3;; a.4. on 1" Septe4be+ 2;1;. Calla7an an t8o solie+s 8ent

insie the house' an too6 photo7+aphs an a ,ieo foota7e the+eof the+eof.. The solie+s eplaine that the photos an ,ieos 8oul 8 oul

 

se+,e as e,ience of the fact that Ro+i7ue: an his fa4il% 8e+e able to a++i,e ho4e safel% safel%.. -espite Ro+i7ue:Ws e5o+ts to conf+ont the solie+s about thei+ acts' the% still continue an onl% left thi+t% 4inutes late+ late+.L2& .L2& On 1( Septe4be+ 2;;(' -+. Re7inalo Pa4u7as' a ph%sician t+aine b% the /nte+national Co44ittee on To+tu+e an Rehabilitation' Reha bilitation' ea4ine Ro+i7ue: an issue a Meical Ce+ti<cate statin7 that the latte+ ha been a ,icti4 of to+tu+e.L2H   A+oun 3;; a.4. on & No,e4be+ 2;1;' Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : an his 7i+lf+ien' Aileen 0a:el Robles' notice that se,e+al suspiciousDloo6in7 4en follo8e the4 at the Met+o Rail T+ansit MRTF' in the st+eets an on a Ieepne%.L2#   On  -e -ece4be+ ce4be+ 2;;(' Ro+i7ue: <le befo+e this Cou+t a P Petition etition fo+ the >+it of A4pa+o an Petition fo+ the >+it of 0abeas -ata 8ith P+a%e+s fo+ P+otection O+e+s' /nspection of Place' an P+ouction of -ocu4ents an Pe+sonal Pe+sonal P+ope+ties ate 2 -ece4be+ 2;;(.L2! The petition 8as <le a7ainst fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o' Gen. /b+ao' P-G. e+so:a' )t. Gen. Ban7it' MaIo+ Gene+al MaI. Gen.F Nesto+ ?. Ochoa' PCSupt. Tolentino' Tolentino' PSSupt. Santos' Col. -e e+a' 1st )t. Matutina' Calo7' Geo+7e Palacpac Palacpac PalacpacF' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an. The petition p+a%e fo+ the follo8in7 +eliefs3 a. The issuance of the 8+it of a4pa+o o+e+in7 +esponent +esponents s to esist f+o4 ,iolatin7 Ro+i7 Ro+i7ue:Ws ue:Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% sec u+it%.. b. The issuance of an o+e+ to enIoin +esponen +esponents ts f+o4 oin7 ha+4 to o+ app+oac app+oachin7 hin7 Ro+i7ue:' his fa4il% an his 8itnesses. c. Allo8in7 the inspection of the etention a+eas of the 0eaua+te+s of B+a,o Co.' #th /nfant+% -i,ision' Ma7uin7' Gon:a7a' Ca7a%an an anothe+ place nea+ 8he+e Ro+i7ue: 8as b+ou7ht. . O+e+in7 +esponen +esponents ts to p+ouce ocu4ents sub4itte to the4 +e7a+in7 an% +epo+t on Ro+ Ro+i7ue:' i7ue:' incluin7 ope+ation +epo+ts an p+o,ost 4a+shall +epo+ts of the #th /nfant+% -i,ision' the Special Ope+ations G+oup of the A+4e *o+ces of the Philippines A*PF' p+io+ to' on an subseuent to ! Septe4be+ 2;;(. e. O+e+in7 +eco+s pe+tinent o+ in an% 8a% connecte to Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue:' :' 8hich a+e in the custo% of +esponen +esponents' ts' to be epun7e' isabuse' an fo+e,e+ ba++e f+o4 bein7 use.L2 On 1# -ece4be+ 2;;(' 8e 7+ante the +especti,e 8+its afte+ <nin7 that the petition sucientl% alle7e that Ro+i7ue: ha been abucte' to+tu+e an late+ +elease b% 4e4be+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion of the Philippine A+4% A+4%.L2" .L2" >e li6e8ise o+e+e o+e+ e +esponents the+ein to <le a ,e+i<e +etu+n on the 8+its on o+ befo+e 22 -ece4be+ 2;;( an to co44ent on the petition on o+ befo+e H $anua+% 2;1;.L2( *inall%' 8e i+ecte the Cou+t of Appeals to hea+ the petition on H $anua+% 2;1; an ecie on the case 8ithin 1; a%s afte+ its sub4ission fo+ ecision.L&; -u+in7 the initial hea+in7 on H $anua+% 2;1;' the Cou+t of Appeals +eui+e the pa+ties to sub4it aa,its an othe+ pieces of e,ience at the net scheule hea+in7 on 2 $anua+% 2;1;.L&1   On " $anua+% 2;1;' +esponent +esponents s the+ein' th+ou7h the Oce of the Solicito+ Gene+al OSGF' <le thei+ Retu+ Retu+n n of the >+it' 8hich 8as li6e8ise consie+e as thei+ co44ent on the petition.L&2 /n thei+ Retu+n' Retu+n' +esponents the+ein alle7e that Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : ha su++ene+e to the 4ilita+% on 2" Ma% 2;;( afte+ he ha been put une+ su+,eillance an ienti<e as Ka PepitoV Pepito V b% fo+4e+ +ebels.L&& Acco+in7 to his 4il 4ilita+% ita+% hanle+s' Co+po+al Cpl.F Roel B. Cabaccan an Cpl. $ulius P. Na,a++o' Ro+i7ue: 8as a fo+4e+ 4e4be+ of the NPA ope+atin7 in Ca7a%an alle%.L&H >antin7 to bolt f+o4 the NPA' he tol Cpl. Cabaccan an Cpl. Na,a++o that he 8oul help the 4ilita+% 4ili ta+% in echan7e fo+ his p+otection. p+otection. L&# Upon his ,olunta+% su++ene+ su++ene+ on 2" Ma% 2;;(' Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : 8as 4ae to si7n an Oath of )o%alt% an an A7entWs A7+ee4entCont+act' A7+ee4ent Cont+act' sho8in7 his 8illin7ness to +etu+n to societ% an beco4e a 4ilita+% asset.L&! Since then' he acte as a ouble a7ent' +etu+nin7 to the NPA to 7athe+ info+4ation.L& 0o8e,e+' he fea+e that his NPA co4+aes 8e+e be7innin7 to suspect hi4 of bein7 an in<lt+ato+.L&" in<lt+ato+.L&" Thus' 8ith his 6no8le7e an consent' the solie+s planne to sta7e a sha4 abuction to e+ase an% suspicion about hi4 bein7 a ouble a7ent.L&( 0ence' the abuction subIect of the instant petition 8as conucte.L conucte.LH; H;   Mean8hile' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an <le a Consoliate Retu+ Retu+n n of the >+it ate 1# $anua+% 2;1;'LH1 alle7in7 that the% ha ee+cise et+ao+ina+% et+ao+ina+% ili7ence in locatin7 Ro+i7ue:' facilitatin7 his safe tu+no,e+ to his fa4il% an secu+in7 thei+ Iou+ne% bac6 ho4e to Manila. Mo+e speci<call%' the% alle7e that' on 1! Septe4be+ 2;;(' afte+ >il4a sou7ht thei+ assistance in asce+tainin7 the 8he+eabouts of he+ son' C+u: 4ae phone calls to the 4ilita+% an la8 enfo+ce4ent a7encies to ete+4ine his location.LH2 C+u: 8as able to spea6 8ith )t. Col. Mina' 8ho con<+4e that Ro+i7ue: 8as in thei+ custo% custo%.. LH& This info+4ation 8as t+ans4itte to C0R Re7ional -i+ecto+ Att%. $i44% P. Bali7a. 0e' in tu+n' o+e+e C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an to acco4pan% >il4a to the 1th /nfant+% -i,ision.LHH >hen the C0R oce+s' alon7 8ith >il4a an Roel' a++i,e at the 1th /nfant+% Battalion at Masin' Alcala' Ca7a%an' B+i7ae Co44ane+ Col. e e+a an Battalion Co44ane+ )t. Col. Mina Mi na alle7e that Ro+i7ue: ha beco4e one of thei+ assets' as e,ience b% the Su44a+% on the Su++ene+ of No+iel Ro+i7ue: an the latte+Ws Cont+act as A7ent.LH# The C0R oce+s obse+,e his casual an co+ial e4eano+ 8ith the solie+s.LH! /n an% case' C+u: as6e hi4 to +aise his shi+t to see if he ha been subIecte to an% 4alt+eat4ent. 4alt+eat4ent. C+u: an Pasicolan i not see an% t+aces of to+tu+e. The+eaf The+eafte+' te+' Ro+i7ue: 8as +elease to his fa4il%' an the% 8e+e 4ae to si7n a ce+ti<cation to this e5ect. -u+in7 the si7nin7 of the ocu4ent' he+ein C0R oce+s i not 8itness an% th+eat' inti4iation o+ fo+ce e4plo%e a7ainst Ro+i7ue: o+ his fa4il% fa4il%.. LH -u+in7 thei+ Iou+ne% bac6 to the ho4e of Ro+i7ue:' the C0R oce+s obse+,e that he 8as ,e+% 4uch at ease 8ith his 4ilita+% esco+ts' especiall% 8ith 1st )t. Matutina.LH" Neithe+ 8as the+e an% fo+ce o+ inti4iation 8hen the solie+s too6 pictu+es of his house' as the ta6in7 of photo7+aphs 8as pe+fo+4e 8ith >il4aWs consent.LH( -u+in7 the hea+in7 on 2 $anua+% 2;1;' the pa+ties a7+ee to <le aitional aa,its an position pape+s an to ha,e the case consie+e sub4itte fo+ ecision afte+ the <lin7 of these pleain7s.L#;   On 12 Ap+il 2;1;' the Cou+t of Appeals +ene+e +ene+e  its assaile -ecision.L#1 Subseuentl%' on 2" Ap+il 2;1;' +esponen +esponents ts the+ein <le thei+ Motion fo+ Reconsie+ation.L#2 Befo+e Befo+e the Cou+t of Appeals coul +esol,e this Motion fo+ Reconsie+ation' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : <le the instant Petition fo+ Pa+tial Re Re,ie8 ,ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i G.R. No. 1(1";#F' +aisin7 the follo8in7 assi7n4ent of e++o+s3   a. The Cou+t of Appeals e++e in not 7+antin7 the /nte+i4 Relief fo+ te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+ o+e+..   b. The Cou+t of Appeals e++e in sa%in73 0Fo8e,e+' 7i,en the natu+e of the 8+it of a4pa+o' 8hich has the e5ect of enIoinin7 the co44ission b% +esponents of ,iolation to petitione+Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%' the safet% of petitione+ is ensu+e 8ith the issuance i ssuance of the 8+it' e,en in the absence of an o+e+ p+e,entin7 +esponent f+o4 app+oachin7 app+oachin7 petitione+ petitione+.V .V   c. The Cou+t of Appeals e++e in not <nin7 that +esponent Glo+ia Macapa7al A++o%o ha co44an +esponsibil +esponsibilit% it%.. L#&   On the othe+ han' +esponents +esponents the+ein' in thei+ Co44ent ate &; $ul% 2;1;' a,e++e a,e++e3 3   a. The Cou+t of Appeals p+ope+l% +oppe then P+esient Glo+ia Macapa7al A++o%o as a pa+t%D+es pa+t%D+esponent' ponent' as she 4a% not be sue in an% case u+in7 he+ tenu+e of oce o+ actual incu4benc% incu4benc%..   b. Petitione Petitione++ ha not p+esente an% aeuate an co4petent e,ience' 4uch less substantial e,ience' to establish his clai4 that public +esponents ha ,iolate' 8e+e ,iolatin7 o+ th+eatenin7 th+eatenin7 to ,iolate his +i7hts to life' l ife' libe+t% an secu+it%' as 8ell as his +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.. 0ence' he 8as not entitle to the p+i,ile7e of the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata o+

 

to the co++esponin7 inte+i4 +eliefs i.e. inspection o+e+' p+ouction o+e+ an te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+F p+o,ie une+ the +ule on the 8+it of a4pa+o an the +ule on the 8+it of habeas ata.L#H   On 1( Au7ust 2;1;' P-G. e+:os e+:osa' a' PSSupt. Santos' BGen. -e e e+a' +a' 1st )t. Matutina' )t. Col. Mina' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an <le a Petition fo+ Re,ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i' see6in7 the +e,e+sal +e,e+sal of the 12 Ap+il 2;1; -ecision of the Cou+t of Appeals. L## The% alle7e that Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: :Q   0as not p+esente an% aeuate an co4petent e,ience' 4ust less substantial e,ience' to establish his clai4 that petitione+s ha,e ,iolate' a+e ,iolatin7 o+ th+eatenin7 th+eatenin7 8ith ,iolation his +i7hts to life' li fe' libe+t% an secu+it%' as 8ell as his +i7ht to p+i,ac% hence' he is not entitle to the p+i,ile7e of the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata an thei+ co++esponin7 inte+i4 +eliefs i.e.' inspection o+e+' p+ouction o+e+ an te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+F p+o,ie une+ the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o an the Rule on the >+it of 0abeas -ata.L#!   /n asce+tainin7 8hethe+ the Cou+t of Appeals co44itte +e,e+sible e++o+ in issuin7 its assaile -ecision an Resolution' the follo8in7 issues 4ust be +esol,e3 /. >hethe+ the inte+i4 +eliefs p+a%e fo+ b% Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : 4a% be 7+ante afte+ the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata ha,e al+ea% been issue in his fa,o+. //. >hethe+ fo+4e+ P+esien P+esientt A++o%o shoul be +oppe as a +esponent on the basis of the p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit. ///. >hethe+ the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% can be use in a4pa+o an habeas ata cases. /. /. >hethe+ the +i7hts to life' libe+t% an p+ope+t% of Ro+i7ue: 8e+e ,iolate ,iolate  o+ th+eatene b% +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";#. At the outset' it 4ust be e4phasi:e that the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata 8e+e p+o4ul7ate to ensu+e the p+otection of the peopleWs +i7hts to life' libe+t% an secu+it% secu+it%.L# .L# The +ules on these 8+its 8e+e iissue ssue in li7ht of the ala+4in7 p+e,alence of et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances.L#" The Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o too6 e5ect on 2H Octobe+ 2;;'L#( an the Rule on the >+it of 0abeas -ata on 2 *eb+ua+% 2;;".L!;  The 8+it of a4pa+o a4pa+o is an et+a et+ao+ina+% o+ina+% an inepe inepenent nent +e4e% tha thatt p+o,ies +a +api pi Iuicial +elief' as it pa+t pa+ta6es a6es of a s su44a+% u44a+% p+oceein7 that +eui+es +eui+es onl% substantial e,ience to 4a6e the app+op+iate inte+i4 an pe+4anent +eliefs a,ailable to the petitione+.L!1 petitione+ .L!1 /t is not an action to ete+4ine c+i4inal 7uilt +eui+in7 p+oof be%on +easonable oubt' o+ liabilit% fo+ a4a7es +eui+in7 p+epone+ance p+epone+ance of e,ience' o+ a4inist+ati,e +esponsibilit% +eui+in7 substantial substantial e,ience that 8il 8illl +eui+e full an ehausti,e p+oceein7s.L!2 p+oceein7s.L!2 Rathe+' it se+,es both p+e,enti,e an cu+ati,e +oles in a+essin7 the p+oble4 of et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances.L!& /t is p+e,enti,e in that it b+ea6s the epectation of i4punit% in the co44ission of these o5enses' an it is cu+ati,e in that it facilitates the subseuent punish4ent of pe+pet+ato+s pe+pet+ato+s b% ine,itabl% leain7 to subseuent in,esti7ation an action.L!H Mean8hile' the 8+it of habeas ata p+o,ies a Iuicial +e4e% to p+otect a pe+sonWs +i7ht to cont+ol info+4ation +e7a+in7 oneself' pa+ticula+l% in instances 8he+e such info+4ation is bein7 collecte th+ou7h unla8ful 4eans in o+e+ to achie,e unla8ful ens.L!# As an inepenent an su44a+% +e4e% to p+otect the +i7ht to p+i,ac% Q especiall% the +i7ht to info+4ationall p+i,ac%L!! Q the p+oceein7s fo+ the issuance of the 8+it of habeas ata oes not entail an% <nin7 of c+i4inal' info+4ationa ci,il o+ a4inist+ati,e culpabilit%. culpabilit%. /f the alle7ations in the petition a+e p+o,en th+ou7h substantial e,ience' then the Cou+t 4a% aF 7+ant access to the atabase o+ info+4ation bF enIoin the act co4plaine of o+ cF in case the atabase o+ info+4ation contains e++oneous e++oneous ata o+ info+4ation' o+e+ its eletion' est+uction o+ +ecti<cat +ecti<cation.L! ion.L!

*i+st issue3 G+ant of inte+i4 +eliefs /n the petition in G.R. No. 1(1";#' Ro+i7ue: p+a%s fo+ the issuance of a te4po+a+% p+otec p+otection tion o+e+ o+e+.. /t 4ust be une+sco+e that this inte+i4 +elief is onl% a,ailable befo+e <nal Iu74ent. Section 1H of the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o clea+l% p+o,ies3   /nte+i4 Reliefs. Q Upon <lin7 of the petition o+ at an%ti4e befo+e <nal Iu74ent' the cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e 4a% 7+ant an% of the follo8in7 +eliefs3    T  Te4po+a+% e4po+a+% P+ P+otection otection O+ O+e+ e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e' upon 4otion o+ 4otu p+op+io' p+op+io' 4a% o+e+ tthat hat the petitione petitione++ o+ the a77+ie,e pa+t% an an% 4e4be+ of the i44eiate fa4il% be p+otecte in a 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% o+ b% an acc+eite pe+son o+ p+i,ate institution capable of 6eepin7 an secu+in7 thei+ safet%. /f the petitione+ is an o+7ani:ation' association o+ institution +efe++e +efe++e to in Section &cF of this Rule' the p+otection 4a% be etene to the oce+s in,ol,e.    The Sup+e4e Cou+t Cou+t shall acc+e acc+eit it the pe+sons a an n p+i,ate institutions that shall eten eten te4po+a+% p+ p+otection otection to the petitione+ o+ the a77+ie,e pa+t% an an% 4e4be+ of the i44eiate fa4il%' in acco+ance 8ith 7uielines 8hich it shall issue.    The acc+eite acc+eite pe+sons an p+ p+i,ate i,ate institutions sha shall ll co4pl% 8ith the +ules an conitions conitions that 4a% be i4pose b% the cou+t' cou+t'  Iustice o+ Iu7e.   aF /nspection O+e+ O+e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e' upon ,e+i<e 4otion an afte+ ue hea+in7' 4a% o+e+ an% pe+son in possession o+ cont+ol of a esi7nate lan o+ othe+ p+ope+t%' to pe+4it ent+% ffo+ o+ the pu+pose of inspectin7' 4easu+in7' su+,e%in7' o+ photo7+aphin7 the p+ope+t% o+ an% +ele,ant obIect o+ ope+ation the+eo the+eon. n.    The 4otion shall state state in etail the place o o++ places to be ins inspecte. pecte. /t shall be suppo+ suppo+te te b% aa,its o+ testi4onies of 8itnesses ha,in7 pe+sonal 6no8le7e of the enfo+ce isappea+ance o+ 8he+eabouts of the a77+ie,e pa+t% pa+t%.. /f the 4otion is oppose on the 7+oun of national secu+it% o+ of the p+i,ile7e natu+e of the info+4ation' the cou+t' Iustice o+  Iu7e 4a% conuct conuct a hea+in7 in cha4be cha4be+s +s to ete+ ete+4ine 4ine the 4e+it of the op opposition. position.    The 4o,ant 4ust sho8 sho8 that the inspection inspection o+e+ is ne necessa+% cessa+% to esta establish blish the +i7ht of the a7 a77+ie,e 7+ie,e pa+t% alle7e tto o be th+eatene th+eate ne o+ ,iolate.    The inspection o+e+ o+e+ shall specif% the pe+son o+ pe+so pe+sons ns autho+i:e to 4a6e the inspe inspection ction an the a ate' te' ti4e' place an 4anne+ of 4a6in7 the inspection an 4a% p+esc+ibe othe+ conitions to p+otect p+otect the constitutional +i7hts of all pa+ties. The o+e+ shall epi+e <,e #F a%s afte+ the ate of its issuance' unless etene fo+ Iusti<able +easons.   bF P+ouct P+ouction ion O+e+ O+e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice' o+ Iu7e' upon ,e+i<e 4otion an afte+ ue hea+in7' 4a% o+e+ an% pe+son in possession' custo% o+ cont+ol of an% esi7nate ocu4ents' pape+s' boo6s' accounts' lette+s' photo7+a photo7+aphs' phs' obIects o+ tan7ible thin7s' o+ obIects in i7iti:e o+ elect+onic fo+4' 8hich constitute o+ contain e,ience +ele,ant to the petition o+ the +etu+n' +etu+ n' to p+ouce an pe+4it thei+ inspection' cop%in7 o+ photo7+aphin7 b% o+ on behalf of the 4o,ant.    The 4otion 4a% be oppose oppose on the 7+ 7+oun oun of nationa nationall secu+it% o+ of the p p+i,ile7e +i,ile7e natu+e o off the info+4ation' in 8hich case the cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e 4a% conuct a hea+in7 in cha4be+s to ete+4ine the 4e+it of the opposition.

 

 

 The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e shall p+es p+esc+ibe c+ibe othe+ con conitions itions to p+o p+otect tect the const constitutional itutional +i7hts of a all ll the pa+ties.   cF >itness P+ote P+otection ction O+e+ O+e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e' upon 4otion o+ 4otu p+op+io' 4a% +efe+ the 8itnesses to the -epa+t4ent of $ustice fo+ a4ission to the >itness P+otection' Secu+it% an Bene<t P+o7+a4' pu+suant to Republic Act No. !("1.    The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e 4a% also ++efe+ efe+ the 8itnesses to othe+ 7o,e+ 7o,e+n4ent n4ent a7encies' o+ tto o acc+eite acc+eite pe+sons o+ p+i,a p+i,ate te institutions capable of 6eepin7 an secu+in7 thei+ safet%. safet%. E4phasis supplieF   >e hel in @ano ,. Sanche:L!" that Lthese p+o,isional +eliefs a+e intene to assist the cou+t befo+e it a++i,es at a Iuicious ete+4ination ete+4inatio n of the a4pa+o petition.V Bein7 inte+i4 +eliefs' the% can onl% be 7+ante befo+e a <nal aIuication of the case is 4ae. /n an% case' it 4ust be une+sco+e that the p+i,ile7e of the 8+it of a4pa+o' once 7+ante' necessa+il% entails the p+otection p+otect ion of the a77+ie,e pa+t% pa+t%.. Thus' since 8e 7+ant petitione+ the p+i,ile7e of the 8+it of a4pa+o' the+e is no nee to issue a te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+ inepenentl% of the fo+4e+. The o+e+ +est+ictin7 +esponents f+o4 7oin7 nea+ Ro+i7ue: is subsu4e une+ the p+i,ile7e of the 8+it.   Secon issue3 P+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit /t bea+s st+essin7 that since the+e is no ete+4ination of a4inist+ati,e' ci,il o+ c+i4inal liabilit% in a4pa+o an habeas ata p+oceein7s'' cou+ts can onl% 7o as fa+ as asce+tainin7 +espons p+oceein7s +esponsibilit% ibilit% o+ accountabilit% fo+ the enfo+ce isappea+ance o+ et+aIuicial 6illin7. As 8e hel in Ra:on ,. Ta7itis3L!(   /t oes not ete+4ine 7uilt no+ pinpoint c+i4inal culpabilit% fo+ the isappea+ance +athe+' it ete+4ines +esponsibilit%' o+ at least accountabilit%' fo+ the enfo+ce isappea+ance fo+ pu+poses of i4posin7 the app+op+iate +e4eies to a+ess the isappea+ance.. Responsibilit% +efe+s to the etent the acto+s ha,e been establishe b% substantial e,ience to ha,e isappea+ance pa+ticipate in 8hate,e+ 8a%' b% action o+ o4ission' in an enfo+ce isappea+ance isappea+ance'' as a 4easu+e of the +e4eies this Cou+t shall c+aft' a4on7 the4' the i+ecti,e to <le the app+op+iate c+i4inal an ci,il cases a7ainst the +esponsible pa+ties in the p+ope+ cou+ts. Accountabilit%' Accountabilit%' on the othe+ han' +efe+s to the 4easu+e of +e4eies that shoul be a+esse to those 8ho ehibite in,ol,e4ent in the enfo+ce isappea+ance isappea+ance 8ithout b+in7in7 the le,el of thei+ co4plicit% to the le,el of +esponsibilit% e<ne abo,e o+ 8ho a+e i4pute 8ith 8i th 6no8le7e +elatin7 to the enfo+ce isappea+ance an 8ho ca++% the bu+en of isclosu+e o+ those 8ho ca++%' but ha,e faile to ischa+7e' the bu+en of et+ao+ et+ao+ina+% ina+% ili7ence in the in,esti7ation of the enfo+ce isappea+ance. /n all these cases' the issuance of the >+it of A4pa+o is Iusti<e b% ou+ p+i4a+% 7oal of a+essin7 the isappea+ance' so that the life li fe of the ,icti4 is p+ese+,e an his libe+t% an secu+it% a+e +esto+e.L; E4phasis supplie.F    Thus' in the case at ba+' the Cou+ Cou+tt of Appeals' in its -ecision -ecisionL1 L1 foun +e +esponents sponents in G.R G.R.. No. 1(1";# Q 8ith the e eception ception of Calo7' Palacpac o+ 0a++% Q to be accountable fo+ the ,iolations of Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue:Ws :Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% co44itte b% the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision -i ,ision of the Philippine Phili ppine A+4%. A+4%. L2 The Cou+t of Appeals is4isse the petition 8ith +espect to fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o on account of he+ p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit. Ro+i7ue: contens' thou7h' that she shoul +e4ain a +esponent in this case to enable the cou+ts to ete+4ine 8hethe+ she is +esponsible o+ accountable the+efo+. the+efo+. /n this +e7a+' it 4ust be cla+i<e that the Cou+t of AppealsW +ationale fo+ +oppin7 he+ f+o4 the list of +esponents no lon7e+ stans since he+ p+esiential i44unit% is li4ite onl% to he+ incu4benc% incu4benc%.. /n Est+aa ,. -esie+to'L& 8e cla+i<e the oct+ine that a nonDsittin7 P+es P+esient ient oes not enIo% i44unit% f+o4 suit' e,en fo+ acts co44itte u+in7 the latte+Ws tenu+e. >e e4phasi:e ou+ +ulin7 the+ein that cou+ts shoul loo6 8ith isfa,o+ upon the p+esiential p+i,ile7e of i44unit%' especiall% 8hen it i4pees the sea+ch fo+ t+uth o+ i4pai+s the ,inication of a +i7ht' to 8it3   >e +eIect LEst+aaWs a+7u4ent that he cannot be p+osecute fo+ the +eason that he 4ust <+st be con,icte in the i4peach4ent p+oceein7s. p+oceein7s. The i4peach4ent t+ial of petitione+ Est+aa 8as abo+te b% the 8al6out of the p+osecuto+s an b% the e,ents that le to his loss of the p+esienc% p+esienc%.. /nee' on * *eb+ua+% eb+ua+% ' 2;;1' the Senate passe Senate Resolution No. "& Reco7ni:in7 Reco7ni:in7 that the /4peach4ent Cou+t is *unc *unctus tus Ocio.V Since the /4peach4ent Cou+t is no8 functus ocio' it is untenable fo+ petitione+ to e4an that he shoul <+st be i4peache an then con,icte befo+e he can be p+osecute. The plea if 7+ante' 8oul put a pe+petual ba+ a7ainst his p+osecution. Such a sub4ission has nothin7 to co44en itself fo+ it 8ill place hi4 in a bette+ situation than a nonDsittin7 P+es P+esient ient 8ho has not been subIecte to i4peach4ent p+oceein7s an %et can be the obIect of a c+i4inal p+osecut p+osecution. ion. T To o be su+e' the ebates in i n the Constitutional Co44ission 4a6e it clea+ that 8hen i4peach4ent p+oceein7s p+oceein7s ha,e beco4e 4oot ue to the +esi7nation of the P+esient P+esient'' the p+ope+ c+i4inal an ci,il cases 4a% al+ea% be <le a7ainst hi4' ,i:3        M+ M+.. Auino. On anothe+ point' if an i4peach4ent p+oceein7 has been <le a7ainst the P+esient' fo+ ea4ple' an the P+esient P+esie nt +esi7ns befo+e Iu74ent of con,iction has been +ene+e b% the i4peach4ent cou+t o+ b% the bo%' ho8 oes it a5ect the i4peach4ent p+oceein7 >ill it be necessa+il% +oppe   M+ M+.. Ro4ulo. /f 8e ecie the pu+pose of i4peach4ent to +e4o,e one f+o4 oce' then his +esi7nation 8oul +ene+ the case 4oot an acae4ic. 0o8e,e+' as the p+o,ision sa%s' the c+i4inal an ci,il aspects of it 4a% continue in the o+ina+% cou+ts.V    This is in acco+ 8ith 8ith ou+ +ulin7 in /n Re3 Re3 Satu+nino Be Be+4ue: +4ue: that in incu4bent cu4bent P+e P+esients sients a+e i44une f+o4 suit o+ f+ f+o4 o4 bein7 b+ou7ht to cou+t u+in7 the pe+io of thei+ incu4benc% an tenu+eV but not be%on.    >e no8 co4e to the scope of i44unit% that can be clai4e b% petitione+ as a nonDsittin7 P+e P+esient. sient. The cases <le a7ainst petitione+ Est+aa a+e c+i4inal in cha+acte+. cha+acte+. The% in,ol,e plune+' b+ibe+% an 7+aft an co++uption. B% no st+etch of the i4a7ination can these c+i4es' especiall% plune+ 8hich 8 hich ca++ies the eath penalt%' be co,e+e b% the alle7e 4antle of i44unit% of a nonDsittin7 p+esient. Pe Petitione+ titione+ cannot cite an% ecision of this Cou+t licensin7 the P+esient to co44it c+i4inal acts an 8+appin7 hi4 8ith postDtenu+e i44unit% f+o4 liabilit%. liabilit%. /t 8ill be ano4alous to hol that i44unit% is an inoculation f+o4 liabilit% fo+ unla8ful acts an o4issions. The +ule is that unla8ful acts of public ocials a+e not acts of the State an the oce+ 8ho acts ille7all% is not actin7 as such but stans in the sa4e footin7 as an% othe+ t+espasse+ t+espasse+..   /nee' a c+itical +eain7 of cu++ent lite+atu+e on eecuti,e i44unit% 8ill +e,eal a Iuicial isinclination to epan the p+i,ile7e especiall% 8hen it i4pees the sea+ch fo+ t+uth o+ i4pai+s the ,inication of a +i7ht. /n the 1(H case of US ,. Nion' US P+esient P+esie nt Richa+ Nion' a sittin7 P+esient' 8as subpoenae to p+ouce ce+tain +eco+in7s an ocu4ents +elatin7 to his con,e+sations 8ith ais an a,ise+s. Se,en a,ise+s of P+esient Nion=s associates 8e+e facin7 cha+7es of conspi+ac% to obst+uct Iustice an othe+ o5enses 8hich 8e+e co44itte in a bu+7la+% of the -e4oc+atic National 0eaua+te+s in >ashin7ton=s >a shin7ton=s >ate+7ate >ate+7ate 0otel u+in7 the 1(2 p+esiential ca4pai7n. P+esient Nion hi4self 8as na4e an uninicte coD conspi+ato+. P+esient Nion 4o,e to uash the subpoena on the 7+oun' a4on7 othe+s' that the P+esient 8as not subIect to Iuicial p+ocess an that he shoul <+st be i4peache an +e4o,e f+o4 oce befo+e he coul be 4ae a4enable to  Iuicial p+oceein7s. p+oceein7s. The clai4 8as +e +eIecte Iecte b% the US Sup+e4e Sup+e4e Cou+t. /t co conclue nclue that  8hen 8hen the 7+oun 7+oun  fo+ asse+tin7

p+i,ile7e as to subpoenae 4ate+ials sou7ht fo+ use in a c+i4inal t+ial is base onl% on the 7ene+ali:e inte+est in

 

con<entialit%' it cannot p+e,ail p+e,ail o,e+ the funa4ental e4ans of ue p+ocess of la8 in the fai+ a4inist+ation of c+i4inal  Iustice.V /n the 1("2 case of Nio Nion n ,. *it:7e *it:7e+al' +al' the US Sup+e Sup+e4e 4e Cou+t fu+the+ he hel l that the i44unit% of the P+esie P+esient nt f+o4 ci,il a4a7es co,e+s onl% ocial acts.V Recentl%' the US Sup+e4e Cou+t ha the occasion to +eite+ate this oct+ine in the case of Clinton ,. $ones 8he+e it hel that the US P+esient=s i44unit% f+o4 suits fo+ 4one% a4a7es a+isin7 out of thei+ ocial acts is inapplicable to unocial conuct.LH E4phasis supplieF   *u+the+' *u+th e+' in ou+ Resolut Resolution ion in Est+aa ,. -esie+to'L# 8e +eite+ate that the p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit eists onl% in concu++ence 8ith the p+esientWs incu4benc%3   Petitione++ stubbo+nl% clin7s to the contention that he is entitle to absolute i44unit% f+o4 suit. 0 Petitione 0is is a+7u4ents a+e 4e+el% +ec%cle an 8e nee not p+olon7 the lon7e,it% of the ebate on the subIect. /n ou+ -ecision' 8e ehausti,el% t+ace the o+i7in of eecuti,e i44unit% in ou+ Iu+isiction an its bens an tu+ns up to the p+esent ti4e. >e hel that 7i,en the intent of the 1(" Constitution to b+eathe life to the polic% that a public oce is a public t+ust' the petitione+' as a nonDsittin7 P+esient' P+esie nt' cannot clai4 eecuti,e i44unit% fo+ his alle7e c+i4inal acts co44itte 8hile a sittin7 P+esient. Petitione Petitione+=s +=s +ehashe a+7u4ents a+7u4ents incluin7 thei+ thinl% is7uise ne8 spins a+e base on the +eIecte contention that he is still P+esient' albeit' a P+esient on lea,e. 0is stance that his i44unit% co,e+s his enti+e te+4 of oce o+ until $une &;' 2;;H is+e7a+s the +ealit% that he has +elinuishe the p+esienc% an the+e is no8 a ne8 e Iu+e P+esient. Petitione++ 7oes a step fu+the+ an a,e+s that e,en a nonDsittin7 P+esient enIo%s i44unit% f+o4 suit u+in7 his te+4 of oce. Petitione 0e butt+esses his position 8ith the elibe+ations of the Constitutional Co44ission' ,i:3   M+. Sua+e:. Than6 %ou.    The last uestion is 8ith +efe+ence +efe+ence to the Co44ittee=s o4ittin7 o4ittin7 in the +aft p+oposal p+oposal the i44unit% p+ p+o,ision o,ision fo+ the P+esient. P+esie nt. / a7+ee 8ith Co44issione+ Nolleo that the Co44ittee i ,e+% 8 8ell ell in st+i6in7 out this secon sentence' at the ,e+% least' of the o+i7inal p+o,ision on i44unit% f+o4 suit une+ the 1(& Constitution. But 8oul the Co44ittee 4e4be+s not a7+ee to a +esto+ation of at least the <+st sentence that the p+esient shall be i44une f+o4 suit u+in7 his tenu+e' consie+in7 that if 8e o not p+o,ie hi4 that 6in of an i44unit%' he 4i7ht be spenin7 all his ti4e facin7 liti7ations' as the P+esientDinDeile P+esie ntDinDeile in 0a8aii is no8 facin7 liti7ations al4ost ail%   *+. Be+nas3    The +eason fo+ the o4ission is that 8e consie+ it une+s une+stoo too in p+ese p+esent nt Iu+isp+uence tha thatt u+in7 his tenu+ tenu+e e he is i44une f+o4 suit.   M+. Sua+e:3   So the+e is no nee to ep+ess it he+e.   *+. Be+nas3    The+e is no nee. nee. /t 8as that 8a% befo befo+e. +e. The onl% inno,a inno,ation tion 4ae b% the 1(& C Constitution onstitution 8as to 4a6e that e eplicit plicit an to a othe+ thin7s.   M+. Sua+e:3   On the une+stanin7' / 8ill not p+ess fo+ an% 4o+e ue+%' 4aa4 P+esient.   / than6 the Co44issione+ fo+ the cla+i<cation.V   Petitione+' Petitione +' ho8e,e+' fails to istin7uish bet8een te+4 an tenu+e. The te+4 4eans the ti4e u+in7 8hich the oce+ 4a% clai4 to hol the oce as of +i7ht' an <es the inte+,al afte+ 8hich the se,e+al incu4bents shall succee one anothe+ anothe+.. The tenu+e +ep+esents +ep+esents the te+4 u+in7 8hich the incu4bent actuall% hols oce. The tenu+e 4a% be sho+te+ than the te+4 fo+ +easons 8ithin o+ be%on the po8e+ of the incu4bent. *+o4 the elibe+ations' the intent of the f+a4e+s is clea+ that the i44unit% of the p+esient f+o4 suit is concu++ent onl% 8ith his tenu+e an not his te+4.L! E4phasis supplieF   Appl%in7 the fo+e7oin7 +ationale to the case at ba+' it is clea+ that fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o cannot use the p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit to shiel he+self f+o4 Iuicial sc+utin% that 8oul assess 8hethe+' 8ithin the contet of a4pa+o p+oceein7s'' she 8as +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ the abuction of Ro+i7ue p+oceein7s Ro+i7ue:. :.  Thi+ issue3 Co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa a4pa+o +o p+oc p+oceein7s eein7s  To  To att+ibute ++esponsibilit% esponsibilit% o+ acco accountabilit% untabilit% to fo+4e+ fo+4e+ P+esient A+ A++o%o' +o%o' R Ro+i7ue: o+i7ue: conte contens ns that the o oct+ine ct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% be applie. As 8e eplaine in Rub+ico , ,.. A++o%o'L co44an +esponsibilit% pe+tains to the +esponsibilit% +esponsibilit% of co44ane+s fo+ c+i4es co44itte b% subo+inate 4e4be+s of the a+4e fo+ces o+ othe+ pe+sons subIect to thei+ cont+ol in inte+nationall 8a+s o+ o4estic conict.VL" Althou7h o+i7inall% use fo+ asce+tainin7 c+i4inal co4plicit%' the co44an inte+nationa +esponsibilit% oct+ine has also foun application in ci,il cases fo+ hu4an +i7hts abuses.L( /n the Unite States' fo+ ea4ple' co44an +esponsibilit% 8as use in *o+ ,. Ga+cia an Ro4a7o:a ,. Ga+cia Q ci,il actions <le une+ the Alien To+t Clai4s Act an the To+tu+e To+tu+e icti4 P+otection Act.L"; This e,elop4ent in the use of co44an +esponsibilit% in ci,il p+oceein7s sho8s that the application of this oct+ine has been libe+all% etene e,en to cases not c+i4inal in natu+e. Thus' it is ou+ ,ie8 that co44an +esponsibilit% +esponsibilit% 4a% li6e8ise <n application in p+oceein7s see6in7 the p+i,ile7e of the 8+i 8+itt of a4pa+o. As 8e hel in Rub+ico3   /t 4a% plausibl% be contene that co44an +esponsibilit%' as le7al basis to hol 4ilita+%police co44ane+s liable fo+ f o+ et+aD le7al 6illin7s' enfo+ce isappea+ances' o+ th+eats' 4a% be 4ae applicable to this Iu+isiction on the theo+% that the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine no8 constitutes a p+inciple of inte+national la8 o+ custo4a+% inte+nationa inte+nationall la8 in acco+ance 8ith the inco+po+ation clause of the Constitution.      /f co44an +esponsibilit% 8e+e to be in,o6e an applie to these p+oceein7s' it shoul' at 4ost' be onl% to ete+4ine the autho+ 8ho' at the <+st instance' is accountable fo+' an has the ut% to a+ess' the isappea+ance an ha+ass4ents co4plaine of' so as to enable the Cou+t to e,ise +e4eial 4easu+es that 4a% be app+op+iate une+ the p+e4ises to p+otect +i7hts co,e+e b% the 8+it of a4pa+o. As inti4ate ea+lie+' ho8e,e+' the ete+4ination shoul not be pu+sue to < c+i4inal liabilit% on +esponents p+epa+ato+% to c+i4inal p+osecution' o+ as a p+elue to a4inist+ati,e isciplina+% p+oceein7s une+ eistin7 a4inist+ati,e issuances' if the+e be an% an%.L"1 .L"1 E4phasis supplie.F P+ecisel% P+ecise l% in the case at ba+' the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% be use to ete+4ine 8hethe+ +esponents a+e accountable fo+ an ha,e the ut% to a+ess the abuction of Ro+i7ue: in o+e+ to enable the cou+ts to e,ise +e4eial accountable 4easu+es to p+otect his +i7hts. Clea+l%' nothin7 p+eclues this Cou+t f+o4 appl%in7 the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% in

 

a4pa+o p+oceein7s p+oceein7s to asce+tain +esponsibilit% an accountabilit% in et+aIuicial 6illin7s 6illi n7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances. /n this +e7a+' the Sepa+ate Opinion of $ustice Conchita Ca+pioDMo+ales in Rub+ico is 8o+th notin7' thus3 +e7a+'    That p+oceein7s p+oceein7s une+ the R Rule ule on the > >+it +it of A4pa+o  o o not ete+ ete+4ine 4ine c+i4inal' ci,il o+ a4inist+at a4inist+ati,e i,e liabilit% shoul not abate the applicabilit% of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit%. Ta6in7 Sec+eta+% of National -efense ,. Manalo an Ra:on ,.  Ta7itis  Ta7itis in p+ope+ c contet' ontet' the% o not p+eclue the application o off the oct+ine of c co44an o44an +espon +esponsibilit% sibilit% to A4pa+o ca cases. ses.   Manalo 8as actuall% e4phatic on the i4po+tance of the +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son an its conte4po+a+% si7ni<cation as a 7ua+antee of p+otection of oneWs +i7hts b% the 7o,e+n4ent. /t fu+the+ state that p+otection inclues conuctin7 e5ecti,e in,esti7ations' o+7ani:ation o+7ani:ation of the 7o,e+n4ent appa+atu appa+atus s to eten p+otection to ,icti4s of et+ale7al 6illin7s o+ enfo+ce isappea+ances' isappea+ance s' o+ th+eats the+eof' ano+ thei+ fa4ilies' an b+in7in7 o5ene+s to the ba+ of Iustice.    Ta7itis'  Ta7itis' on the othe othe++ han' cannot be 4o+e cat cate7o+ical e7o+ical on the app application' lication' at least in p+ p+inciple' inciple' of the oct+in oct+ine e of co44an +esponsibilit%3   Gi,en thei+ 4anates' the PNP an PNPDC/-G ocials an 4e4be+s 8e+e the ones 8ho 8e+e +e4iss in thei+ uties 8hen the 7o,e+n4ent co4pletel% faile to ee+ ee+cise cise the et+ao+ et+ao+ina+% ina+% ili7ence that the A4pa+o Rule +eui+es. >e hol these o+7ani:ations accountable accountable th+ou7h thei+ incu4bent Chiefs 8ho' une+ this -ecision' shall ca++% the pe+sonal +esponsibilit% of seein7 to it that et+ao+ et+ao+ina+% ina+% ili7ence' in the 4anne+ the A4pa+o Rule +eui+es' is applie in a+essin7 the enfo+ce isappea+ance of Ta7itis.   Neithe+ oes Republic Act No. ("#1 e4asculate the applicabilit% of the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine to A4pa+o cases. The sho+t title of the la8 is the Philippine Act on C+i4es A7ainst /nte+national 0u4anita+ian )a8' Genocie' an Othe+ C+i4es A7ainst 0u4anit%.V 0u4anit%.V Ob,iousl%' it shoul' as it i' onl% t+eat of supe+io+ +esponsibilit% as a 7+oun fo+ c+i4inal +esponsibilit% fo+ the c+i4es co,e+e. Such li4ite t+eat4ent' ho8e,e+' is 4e+el% in 6eepin7 8ith the statuteWs pu+pose an not intene to +ule out the application of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% to othe+ app+op+iate cases.   /nee' one can i4a7ine the innu4e+able an7e+s of insulatin7 hi7hD+an6in7 4ilita+% an police oce+s f+o4 the co,e+a7e of +eliefs a,ailable une+ the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o. The eplicit aoption of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% in the p+esent case 8ill onl% b+in7 Manalo an T Ta7itis a7itis to thei+ lo7ical conclusion.   /n <ne' / sub4it that the Cou+t shoul ta6e this oppo+tunit% to state 8hat the la8 ou7ht to be if it t+ul% 8ants to 4a6e the >+it of A4pa+o an e5ecti,e +e4e% fo+ ,icti4s of et+ale7al 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances o+ th+eats the+eof the+eof.. >hile the+e is a 7enuine ea+th of e,ience to hol +esponents Gen. 0e+4o7enes Espe+on an P-i+. Gen. A,elino Ra:on accountable une+ the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine' the ponenciaWs hesitant application of the oct+ine itself i tself is +eplete 8ith i4plications abho++ent abho++ent to the +ationale behin the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o. A4pa+o.L"2 L"2 E4phasis supplie.F  This Sepa+ate Opinion Opinion 8as +eite+a +eite+ate te in the +ece +ecentl% ntl% ecie case of Bo Boac ac ,. ,. Caapan'L"& li6 li6e8ise e8ise penne b% $ust $ustice ice Ca+pioD Mo+ales' 8he+ein this Cou+t +ule3   Rub+ico cate7o+icall% cate7o+icall% enies the application of co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa+o cases to ete+4ine c+i4inal liabilit% liabilit%.. The Cou+t 4aintains its ahe+ence to this p+onounce4ent as fa+ as a4pa+o cases a+e conce+ne. Rub+ico' ho8e,e+' +eco7ni:es +eco7ni:es a p+eli4ina+% %et li4ite application of co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa+o cases to instances of  ete+4inin7 the +esponsible o+ accountable ini,iuals o+ entities that a+e ut%Dboun to abate an% t+ans7+ess t+ans7+ession ion on the life' libe+t% o+ secu+it% of the a77+ie,e pa+t%. /f co44an +esponsibilit% 8e+e to be in,o6e an applie to these p+oceein7s' it shoul' at 4ost' be onl% to ete+4ine the autho+ 8ho' at the <+st instance' is accountable fo+' an has the ut% to a+ess' the isappea+ance an ha+ass4ents co4plaine of' so as to enable the Cou+t to e,ise +e4eial 4easu+es that 4a% be app+op+iate une+ the p+e4ises to p+otect +i7hts co,e+e b% the 8+it of a4pa+o. As inti4ate ea+lie+' ho8e,e+' the ete+4ination shoul not be pu+sue to < c+i4inal liabilit% on +esponents p+epa+ato+% to c+i4inal p+osecution' o+ as a p+elue to a4inist+ati,e isciplina+% p+oceein7s une+ eistin7 a4inist+ati,e issuances' if the+e be an%.  /n othe+ 8o+s' co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% be loosel% applie in a4pa+o cases in o+e+ to ientif% those accountable ini,iuals that ha,e the po8e+ to e5ecti,el% i4ple4ent 8hate,e+ p+ocesses an a4pa+o cou+t 8oul iissue. ssue. /n such application' the a4pa+o cou+t oes not i4pute c+i4inal +esponsibilit% but 4e+el% pinpoint the supe+io+s it consie+s to be in the best position to p+otect the +i7hts of the a77+ie,e pa+t%. Such ienti<cation of the +esponsible an accountable supe+io+s 4a% 8ell be a p+eli4ina+% ete+4ination of c+i4inal liabilit% 8hich' of cou+se' is still subIect to fu+the+ in,esti7ation b% the app+op+iate 7o,e+n4ent 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% a7enc%.. E4phasis supplie.F As ea+lie+ pointe out' a4pa+o p+oceein7s ete+4ine aF +esponsibilit%' o+ the etent the acto+s ha,e been establishe b% substantial e,ience to ha,e pa+ticipate in 8hate,e+ 8a%' b% action o+ o4ission' in an enfo+ce isappea isappea+ance' +ance' an bF accountabilit%' accountab ilit%' o+ the 4easu+e of +e4eies that shoul be a+esse a+esse  to those iF 8ho ehibite in,ol,e4ent in the enfo+ce isappea+ance 8ithout b+in7in7 the le,el of thei+ co4plicit% to the le,el of +esponsibilit% e<ne abo,e o+ iiF 8ho a+e i4pute 8ith 6no8le7e +elatin7 to the enfo+ce isappea+ance an 8ho ca++% the bu+en of isclosu+e o+ iiiF those 8ho ca++%' but ha,e faile to ischa+7e' the bu+en of et+ao+ina+% ili7ence in the in,esti7ation of the enfo+ce isappea+ance. isappea+ance.  Thus' althou7h the+e the+e is no ete ete+4ination +4ination of c+i4inal' c ci,il i,il o+ a4inist+ati,e liabilities' the oct+ine oct+ine of co44an co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% ne,e+theless be applie to asce+tain +esponsibilit% an accountabilit% 8ithin these fo+e7oin7 e<nitions. a. Co44an +esponsibilit% of the P+esie P+esient nt 0a,in7 establishe the applicabilit% of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa+o p+oceein7s' p+oceein7s' it 4ust no8 be +esol,e 8hethe+ the p+esient' as co44ane+DinDchief co44ane+DinDchief of the 4ili 4ilita+%' ta+%' can be hel +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce enfo+ce isappea+ances isappea+ances.. >e +ule in the a+4a a+4ati,e. ti,e.  To  To hol so4eone liab liable le une+ the oct+in oct+ine e of co44an +esponsibilit%' +esponsibilit%' the follo8in7 ele4e ele4ents nts 4ust obtain3 a. the eistence of a supe+io+ supe+io+Dsubo+inate Dsubo+inate +elationship bet8een the accuse as supe+io+ an the pe+pet+ato+ of the c+i4e as his subo+inate subo+inate b. the supe+io+ 6ne8 o+ ha +eason to 6no8 that the c+i4e 8as about to be o+ ha been co44itte an c. the supe+io+ faile to ta6e the necessa+% an +easona +easonable ble 4easu+es to p+e,ent the c+i4inal acts o+ punish the pe+pet+ato+s the+eof.L"H  The p+esient' p+esient' bein7 the co44ane co44ane+DinDc +DinDchief hief of all a+4e fo+ fo+ces'L"# ces'L"# necessa+il% necessa+il% possesses co cont+ol nt+ol o,e+ the 4ilita+% that uali<es hi4 as a supe+io+ 8ithin the pu+,ie8 of the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine. L"! On the issue of 6no8le7e' it 4ust be pointe out that althou7h inte+national inte+national t+ibunals appl% a st+ict stana+ of 6no8le7e' i.e.' actual 6no8le7e' such 4a% nonetheless be establishe th+ou7h ci+cu4stantial ci+cu4stantial e,ience.L" /n the Phili Philippines' ppines' a 4o+e libe+al ,ie8 is aopte an supe+io+s 4a% be cha+7e 8ith const+ucti,e 6no8le7e. This ,ie8 is butt+ess butt+esse e b% the enact4ent of Eecuti,e O+e+ No. 22!' othe+8ise 6no8n as the /nstitutionali:ation of the -oct+ine of XCo44an Responsibilit%W in all Go,e+n4ent Oces' pa+ticula+l% pa+ticula+l% at all )e,els of Co44an in the Philippine National Police an othe+ )a8 Enfo+ce4ent A7encies E.O. 22!F.L"" Une+ E.O. 22!' a 7o,e+n4ent ocial 4a% be hel liable fo+ ne7lect of ut% une+ the oct+ine of

co44an +esponsibilit% +esponsibilit% if he has 6no8le7e that a c+i4e o+ o5ense shall be co44itte' is bein7 co44itte' o+ has been

 

co44itte b% his subo+inates' o+ b% othe+s 8ithin his a+ea of +esponsibilit% an' espite such 6no8le7e' he i not ta6e p+e,enti,e o+ co++ecti,e co++ecti,e action eithe+ befo+e' u+in7' o+ i44eiatel% afte+ its co44ission.L"( Kno8le7e of the co44ission of i++e7ula+ities' c+i4es o+ o5enses is p+esu4e 8hen aF the acts a+e 8iesp+ea 8ithin the 7o,e+n4ent ocialWs a+ea of  Iu+isiction bF the the acts ha,e been ++epeatel% epeatel% o+ ++e7ula+l% e7ula+l% co44itte 8ithin his a a+ea +ea of +e +esponsibilit% sponsibilit% o+ cF 4e4be 4e4be+s +s of his i44eiate sta5 o+ oce pe+sonnel a+e in,ol,e.L(; Mean8hile' as to the issue of failu+e to p+e,ent o+ punish' it iis s i4po+tant to note that as the co44ane+DinDchief co44ane+DinDchief of the a+4e fo+ces' the p+esient has the po8e+ to e5ecti,el% co44an' cont+ol an iscipline the 4ilita+%.L(1 4ilita+%.L(1 b. Respo Responsibilit% nsibilit% o+ accountabilit% of fo+4e+ P+esient P+esient A++o%o  The net uestion uestion that 4ust be ta tac6le c6le is 8hethe+ R Ro+i7ue: o+i7ue: has p+ p+o,en o,en th+ou7h substantial e,ience that fo+4e+ P+esient P+esient A++o%o is +esponsible +esponsible o+ accounta accountable ble fo+ his abuction. >e +ule in the ne7at ne7ati,e. i,e. Ro+i7ue: ancho+s his a+7u4ent on a 7ene+al alle7ation that on the basis of the Melo Co44issionV an the Alston Repo+t'V +esponents +espone nts in G.R. No. 1(1";# al+ea% ha 6no8le7e of an info+4ation on' an shoul ha,e 6no8n that a cli4ate of enfo+ce isappea+ances isappea+ances ha been pe+pet+ate on 4e4be+s of the NPA.L NPA.L(2 (2 >ithout e,en attachin7' o+ at the ,e+% least' uotin7 these +epo+ts' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue: contens that the Melo Repo Repo+t +t points to +o7ue 4ili 4ilita+% ta+% 4en as the pe+pet+ato+s pe+pet+ato+s.. >hile the Alston Repo+t states that the+e is a polic% allo8in7 all o8in7 enfo+ce isappea+ances isappea+ances an pins the bla4e on the P+esient' 8e o not auto4aticall% i4pute +esponsibilit% to fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o A++o%o fo+ each an e,e+% count of fo+cible isappea+anc isappea+ance.L(& e.L(& Asie f+o4 Ro+i7ue:Ws Ro+i7ue:Ws 7ene+al a,e+4ents' the+e is no piece of e,ience that coul establish he+ +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit% fo+ his abuction. Neithe+ 8as the+e e,en a clea+ atte4pt to sho8 that she shoul ha,e 6no8n about the ,iolation of his +i7ht to life' libe+t% o+ secu+it%' o+ that she ha faile to in,esti7ate' punish o+ p+e,ent it. *ou+th issue3 Responsibilit% o+ accountabilit% of +esponent +esponents s in G.R. No. 1(1";#  The oct+ine of totalit% totalit% of e,ience in a a4pa+o 4pa+o cases 8 8as as <+st lai o8n in th this is Cou+tWs +ulin7 in R Ra:on'L(H a:on'L(H to 8it3    The fai+ an p+ope+ p+ope+ +ule' to ou+ 4in' is to consie+ all the pieces of e,ience auce auce in thei+ totalit%' totalit%' an to cons consie+ ie+ an% e,ience othe+8ise ina4issible une+ ou+ usual +ules to be a4issible if it is consistent 8ith the a4issible e,ience auce. /n othe+ 8o+s' 8e +euce ou+ +ules to the 4ost basic test of +eason Q i.e.' to the +ele,ance of the e,ience to the issue at han an its consistenc% 8ith all othe+ pieces of auce e,ience. Thus' e,en hea+sa% e,ience can be a4itte if it satis<es this basic 4ini4u4 4i ni4u4 test.L(# E4phasis supplie.F   /n the case at ba+' 8e <n no +eason to epa+t f+o4 the factual <nin7s of the Cou+t of Appeals' the sa4e bein7 suppo+te b% substantial e,ience. A ca+eful ea4ination of the +eco+s of this case +e,eals that the totalit% of the e,ience auce b% Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : inubitabl% p+o,e the +esponsibilit% an accountabilit% of so4e +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# fo+ ,iolatin7 ,i olatin7 his +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%.   a. The totalit% of e,ience p+o,e b% substantial e,ience the +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit% of +esponent +esponents s fo+ the ,iolation of o+ th+eat to Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%. Afte+ a ca+eful ea4ination of the +eco+s of these cases' 8e a+e con,ince that the Cou+t of Appeals co++ectl% foun sucient e,ience p+o,in7 that the solie+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision of the 4ilita+% abucte Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : on ! Septe4be+ 2;;(' an etaine an to+tu+e hi4 until 1 Septe4be+ 2;;(. Ro+i7ue:Ws Ro+i7ue :Ws Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate H -ece4be+ 2;;( 8as a 4eticulous an st+ai7htfo+8a+ account of his ho++i<c o+eal 8ith the 4ilita+%' etailin7 the 4anne+ in 8hich he 8as captu+e an 4alt+eate 4alt+eate on account of his suspecte 4e4be+ship in the NPA.L(! 0is na++ation of his su5e+in7 inclue an ehausti,e esc+iption of his ph%sical su++ounin7s' su++ounin7s' pe+sonal ci+cu4stances ci+cu4stances an pe+cei,e obse+,ations. 0e li6e8ise positi,el% ienti<e +esponent +esponents s 1st )t. Matutina an )t. Col. Mina to be p+esent u+in7 his abuction' etention an to+tu+e'L( an +esponent +esponents s C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an as the C0R +ep+esentati,es +ep+es entati,es 8ho appea+e u+in7 his +elease.L(" Mo+e pa+ticula+l%' the fact of Ro+i7ue:Ws abuction 8as co++obo+ate co++obo+ate b% Ca+los in his Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate 1! Septe4be+ 2;;('L(( 8he+ein he +ecounte +ecounte  in etail the ci+cu4sta ci+cu4stances nces su++ounin7 the ,icti4Ws captu+e. As +e7a+s the alle7ation of to+tu+e' the +especti,e Ce+ti<cations of -+. Ra4il an -+. Pa4u7as ,aliate the ph%sical 4alt+eat4entt Ro+i7ue: su5e+e in the hans of the solie+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision. Acco+in7 to 4alt+eat4en the Ce+ti<cation ate 12 Octobe+ 2;;( eecute b% -+. Ra4il'L1;; she ea4ine Ro+i7ue: in the Alfonso Ponce En+ile Me4o+ial -ist+ict 0ospital on 1! Septe4be+ 2;;( an a++i,e at the follo8in7 <nin7s3   *ACE D 1;c4 heale sca+ face +i7ht sie D 2c4 heale sca+ +i7ht e%eb+o8 late+al a+eaF D 2c4 heale sca+ +i7ht e%e b+o8 4eian a+eaF D Hc4  2c4 he4ato4a ante+io+ chest at the ste+nal a+ea +i7ht sie D &c4  2c4 he4ato4a ste+nal a+ea left sie D !c4  1c4 he4ato4a f+o4 epi7ast+ic a+ea to ant. chest left sie D !c4  1c4 he4ato4a f+o4 epi7ast+ic a+ea to ant. chest +i7ht sie D Multiple heale +ashes b+o8nish iscolo+ationF both fo+ea+4 D Multiple heale +ashes b+o8nish iscolo+ationF D both le7 a+4 D hip a+ealu4ba+ a+eaL1;1   -+ -+.. Pa4u7as pe+fo+4e a sepa+ate 4eical ea4ination of Ro+i7ue: on 1( Septe4be+ 2;;(' the +esults of 8hich con<+4e that the inIu+ies su5e+e b% the latte+ 8e+e inicte th+ou7h to+tu+e. -+. -+. Pa4u7as thus issue a Meical Repo+t ate 2& Septe4be+ 2;;('L1;2 eplicitl% statin7 that Ro+i7ue: ha been to+tu+e u+in7 his etention b% the 4ilita+%' to 8it3   . /nte+p+etation of *inin7s    The abo,e ph%sical ph%sical an ps%cholo7ical <n <nin7s in7s sustaine b% the the subIect a+e ++elate elate to the to to+tu+e +tu+e an illDt+ illDt+eat4ent eat4ent one tto o hi4. The 4ultiple ci+cula+ b+o8n to a+6 b+o8n spots foun on both le7s an a+4s 8e+e ue to the insect bites that he sustaine 8hen he 8as fo+ce to Ioin t8ice in the 4ilita+% 4ili ta+% ope+ations. The ab+asions coul also be ue to the conitions +elate u+in7 4ilita+% ope+ations. The 4ultiple pinDpoint bloo spots foun on his left ea+ is a +esult of an un6no8n obIect place insie his left l eft ea+ ea+.. The a+eas of tene+nes tene+ness s he felt u+in7 the ph%sical ea4ination 8e+e ue to the o,e+8hel4in7 punchin7 an 6ic6in7 on his bo% bo%.. The occasional icult% of sleepin7 is a s%4pto4 epe+ience sicF b% the subIect as a +esult of the ps%cholo7ical t+au4a he encounte+e u+in7 his etention.   /. Conclusions an Reco Reco44enations 44enations    The ph%sical inIu+ies an ps%cholo7ical t+au4a su5e+e b% the s subIect ubIect a+e se secona+% cona+% to the tto+tu+e o+tu+e an illDt+eat4ent on one e to hi4 8hile in etention fo+ about 11 a%s. The ph%sical inIu+ies sustaine b% the subIect' of 8hich the a7e is co4patible 8ith the alle7e ate of iniction sicF.L1;& E4phasis supplie.F

 

 

/n assessin7 the 8ei7ht of the Ce+ti<cations' the Cou+t of Appeals co++ectl% +elie on the 4eical <nin7 that the inI inIu+ies u+ies su5e+e b% Ro+i7ue: 4atche his account of the 4alt+eat4ent inicte on hi4 b% the solie+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision of the Philippine A+4% A+4%.. *u+the+' the 6in of inIu+ies he sustaine sho8e that he coul not ha,e sustaine the4 f+o4 4e+el% fallin7' thus 4a6in7 +esponentsW clai4 hi7hl% i4plausible. -espite these 4eical <nin7s that o,e+8hel4in7l% suppo+te an lent c+eibilit% to the alle7ations of Ro+i7ue: in his Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa%' +esponents +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# still stubbo+nl% clun7 to thei+ a+7u4ent that he 8as neithe+ abucte no+ etaine. Rathe+' Rathe+' the% clai4e that he 8as a ouble a7ent' 8hose +elationship 8ith the 4ilita+% 8as at all ti4es con7enial. This contention cannot be sustaine' as it is fa+ +e4o,e f+o4 o+ina+% hu4an epe+ience. /f it 8e+e t+ue that Ro+i7ue: 4aintaine a4icable +elations 8ith the 4ilita+%' then he shoul ha,e unhesitatin7l% assu+e his fa4il% on 1 Septe4be+ 2;;( that he 8as a4on7 f+iens. /nstea' he ,i7o+ousl% pleae 8ith the4 to 7et hi4 out of the 4ilita+% facilit%. facilit%. /n fact' in the Si Sinu4paan7 nu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate H -ece4be+ 2;;(L1;H >il4a eecu eecute' te' she 4ae the follo8in7 a,e+4ents3   1". Na nan7 Ma6ita 6o an7 a6in7 ana6 a% na6a+a4a4 a6o a6o sa 6an%a n7 a8a ahil sa 4u6ha s%an7 pa7o at 4ala6i an7 6an%an7 ipina%at.   1(. Na ni%a6ap 6o s%a at sa a4in7 pa76a6a%a6ap a% binulun7an n%a a6o na 8a7 6o s%an7 ii8an sa lu7a+ na i%on i %on        2&. Na sinabihan a6o n7 47a sunalo na 6un7 p8ee a8 a% 4ai8an 4una n7 ala8an7 lin77o sa 6a4po a6o at si No+iel pa+a a8 4at+ain pa si No+iel sa loob n7 6a4po   2H. Na hini a6o pu4a%a7 na 4ai8an an7 a6in7 ana6        &&. Na sa 6asalu6u 6asalu6uhan' han' han77an7 n7a%on a% na7Daalala pa a6o sa paa sicF sa 6ali7tasan n7 a4in7 buon7 pa4il%a' lalo l alo na 6a% No+iel L1;#   Also' Roel 4ae the follo8in7 suppo+tin7 a,e+4ents in his Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate & -ece4be+ 2;;(3L1;!   2H. Na nan7 4a6ita 6o si No+iel' hini s%a 4a6ala6a n7 i+etso' hinan7Dhina s%a' 4ala6i an7 ipina%at at nanlalali4 an7 47a 4ata   2#. Na nan7 4a6ita 6o an7 a6in7 6apati a% na6a+a4a4 a6o n7 a8a ahil na6ilala 6o s%an7 4asi7la at 4asa%ahin   2!. Na ilan7 4inuto lan7 a% binulu7an n%a a6o n7 Ku%a' ilabas 4o a6o ito' papata%in nila a6o.V   2. Na sinabihan 6a4i ni )t. Col. Mina na ba6a p8een7 4ai8an pa n7 al8an7 lin77o an7 a6in7 6apati sa 6anila pa+a +a8 4aDt+ain s%a.   2". Na hini 6a4i pu4a%a7 n7 a6in7 nana% L1;   Mo+eo,e+'' the Cou+t of Appeals li6e8ise aptl% pointe out the illo7ical' if Mo+eo,e+ i f not out+i7htl% cont+aicto+%' contention of +esponents +espone nts in G.R. No. 1(1";# that 8hile Ro+i7ue: ha co4plaine of his ehaustion f+o4 his acti,ities as a 4e4be+ of the CPPDNPA' CPPDNP A' he ne,e+theless 8illi 8illin7l% n7l% ,oluntee+e to +etu+n to his life in the NPA to beco4e a oubleDa7ent fo+ the 4ilita+%. 4ilita+%. The lo8e+ cou+t +ule in this 4anne+3   /n the Retu+n of the >+it' +esponent A*P 4e4be+s alle7e that petitione+ con<e to his 4ilita+% hanle+' Cpl. Na,a++o' that petitione+ coul no lon7e+ stan the ha+ships he epe+ience in the 8ile+ness' an that he 8ante to beco4e an o+ina+% citi:en a7ain because of the e4pt% p+o4ises of the CPPDNPA. 0o8e,e+' in the sa4e Retu+n' +esponents state that petitione+ a7+ee to beco4e a ouble a7ent fo+ the 4ilita+% an 8ante to +eDente+ the CPPDNPA CPPDNPA'' so that he coul 7et info+4ation +e7a+in7 +e7a+ in7 the 4o,e4ent i+ectl% f+o4 the sou+ce. /f petitione+ 8as ti+e of life in the 8ile+ness an esi+e to beco4e an o+ina+% citi:en a7ain' it e<es lo7ic l o7ic that he 8oul a7+ee to beco4e an une+co,e+ a7ent an 8o+6 alon7sie solie+s in the 4ountains Q o+ the 8ile+ness he +eas Q to locate the hieout of his alle7e NPA co4+aes.L1 co4+aes.L1;" ;" E4phasis supplie.F   *u+the+4o+e' *u+th e+4o+e' the appellate cou+t also p+ope+l% +ule that asie f+o4 the abuction' etention an to+tu+e of Ro+i7ue:' +esponents' +espone nts' speci<call% 1st )t. Matutina' ha ,iolate an th+eatene the fo+4e+Ws +i7ht to secu+it% 8hen the% 4ae a ,isual +eco+in7 +eco+ in7 of his house' as 8ell as the photos of his +elati,es' to 8it3   /n the ,ieos ta6en b% the solie+s Q one of 8ho4 8 ho4 8as +esponent Matutina Q in the house of petitione+ on Septe4be+ 1"' 2;;(' the solie+s e,en 8ent as fa+ as ta6in7 ,ieos of the photos of petitione+Ws +elati,es hun7 on the 8all of the house' as 8ell as ,ieos of the inne+4ost pa+t of the house. This Cou+t notes that 1)t. Matutina' b% ta6in7 the sai ,ieos' i not 4e+el% inten to 4a6e p+oofs of the safe a++i,al of petitione+ an his fa4il% in thei+ ho4e. 1)t. Matutina also esi+e to instill fea+ in the 4ins of petitione+ an his fa4il% b% sho8in7 the4 that the sanctit% of thei+ ho4e' f+o4 then on' 8ill not be f+ee f+o4 the 8atchful e%es of the 4ilita+%' pe+4anentl% captu+e th+ou7h the 4eiu4 of a see4in7l% innocuous cellhpone ,ieo ca4e+a. The Cou+t cannot Q an 8ill not Q conone such act' as it int+ues into the ,e+% co+e of petitione+Ws +i7ht to secu+it% 7ua+antee b% the funa4ental la8 la8.L1;( .L1;( E4phasis supplie.F    Ta6en  Ta6en in thei+ to totalit%' talit%' the pieces of e e,ience ,ience auce b% Ro+i7ue:' Ro+i7ue:' as 8ell as tthe he cont+aicto+% cont+aicto+% efenses p+e p+esente sente b% +esponents +espone nts in G.R. No. 1(1";#' 7i,e c+eence to his clai4 that he ha been abucte' etaine an to+tu+e b% solie+s belon7in7 to the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision of the 4ilita+%. 4ilita+%. /t 4ust be pointe out' ho8e,e+' that as to +esponents +esponents C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an' the+e 8as no substantial e,ience to sho8 that the% ,iolate' o+ th+eatene th+eatene  8ith ,iolation' Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%. secu+it%. -espite the ea+th of e,ience to sho8 the C0R oce+sW +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit%' this Cou+t nonetheless e4phasi:es its c+iticis4 as +e7a+s thei+ capacit% to +eco7ni:e to+tu+e o+ an% si4ila+ fo+4 of abuse. The C0R' bein7 constitutionall% 4anate to p+otect hu4an +i7hts an in,esti7ate ,iolations the+eof'L11; shoul ensu+e that its oce+s a+e 8ellDeuippe to +espon e5ecti,el% to an a+ess hu4an +i7hts ,iolations. The actuations of +esponents un4ista6abl% sho8e thei+ insucient co4petence in facilitatin7 an ensu+in7 the safe +elease of Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : afte+ his o+eal. b. The failu+e to conuct a fai+ an e5ect in,esti7ation a4o a4ounte unte to a ,iolation of o+ th+eat tto o Ro Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7ue:Ws +i7hts tto o life' libe+t% an secu+it%.  The Rule on on the >+ >+it it of A4pa+o e eplicitl% plicitl% states that the ,iolation of o+ th+ th+eat eat to the +i7ht tto o life' libe+t% an secu+ secu+it% it% 4a% be cause b% eithe+ an act o+ an o4ission of a public ocial.L111 Mo+eo,e+' Mo+eo,e+' in the contet of a4pa+o

 

p+oceein7s'' +esponsibilit% 4a% +efe+ to the pa+ticipation of the +esponents' b% action o+ o4ission' in enfo+ce p+oceein7s isappea+ance.L112 Accountabilit%' on the othe+ han' 4a% attach to +esponents 8ho a+e i4pute 8ith 6no8le7e +elatin7 isappea+ance.L112 to the enfo+ce isappea+ance an 8ho ca++% the bu+en of isclosu+e o+ those 8ho ca++%' but ha,e faile to ischa+7e' the bu+en of et+ao+ina+% ili7ence in the in,esti7ation of the enfo+ce isappea+ance.L11& /n this +e7a+' 8e e4phasi:e ou+ +ulin7 in Sec+eta+% of National -efense ,. ManaloL11H that the +i7ht to secu+it% of a pe+son inclues the positi,e obli7ation of the 7o,e+n4ent to ensu+e the obse+,ance of the ut% to in,esti7ate' ,i:3  Thi+' the +i7ht to to secu+it% of pe+so pe+son n is a 7ua+ante 7ua+antee e of p+otect p+otection ion of one=s +i7hts b% tthe he 7o,e+n4ent 7o,e+n4ent.. /n the conte contet t of the 8+it of A4pa+o' this +i7ht is built into the 7ua+antees of the +i7ht to life l ife an libe+t% une+ A+ticle ///' Section 1 of the 1(" Constitution an the +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son as f+eeo4 f+o4 th+eat an 7ua+antee of boil% an ps%cholo7ical inte7+it%F une+ A+ticle ///' Section 2. The +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son in this thi+ sense is a co+olla+% of the polic% that the State 7ua+antees full +espect fo+ hu4an +i7htsV une+ A+ticle //' Section 11 of the 1(" Constitution. As the 7o,e+n4ent is the chief  7ua+anto+ of o+e+ an secu+it%' the Constitutional 7ua+antee of the +i7hts to life' libe+t% an secu+it% of pe+son is +ene+e +ene+e  ine5ecti,e if 7o,e+n4ent oes not a5o+ p+otection to these +i7hts especiall% 8hen the% a+e une+ th+eat. P+otection inclues conuctin7 e5ecti,e in,esti7ations' o+7ani:ation of the 7o,e+n4ent appa+atus to eten p+otection to ,icti4s of et+ale7al 6illin7s o+ enfo+ce isappea+ances o+ th+eats the+eofF ano+ thei+ fa4ilies' an b+in7in7 o5ene+s to the ba+ of IIustice. ustice. The /nte+DA4e+ican /nte+ DA4e+ican Cou+t of 0u4an Ri7hts st+esse the i4po+tance of in,esti7ation in the e elasue: lasue: Ro+i7ue: Case' ,i:3 The ut% to in,esti7ateF 4ust be une+ta6en in a se+ious 4anne+ an not as a 4e+e fo+4alit% p+eo+ p+eo+aine aine to be ine5ecti,e. An in,esti7ation 4ust ha,e an obIecti,e an be assu4e b% the State as its o8n le7al ut%' not as a step ta6en b% p+i,ate inte+ests that epens upon the initiati,e of the ,icti4 o+ his fa4il% o+ upon thei+ o5e+ of p+oof' 8ithout an e5ecti,e sea+ch fo+ the t+uth b% the 7o,e+n4ent.        Si4ila+l%' the Eu+opean Cou+t of 0u4an Ri7hts EC0RF has inte+p+ete the +i7ht to secu+it%V not onl% as p+ohibitin7 the State f+o4 a+bit+a+il% ep+i,in7 libe+t%' but i4posin7 a positi,e ut% on the State to a5o+ p+otect p+otection ion of the +i7ht to libe+t% libe+t%.. The EC0R inte+p+ete the +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+sonV une+ A+ticle #1F of the Eu+opean Con,ent Con,ention ion of 0u4an Ri7hts in the leain7 case on isappea+ance of pe+sons' Ku+t ,. Tu+6e%. /n this case' the clai4ant=s son ha been a++este b% state autho+ities an ha not been seen since. The fa4il%=s +euests fo+ info+4ation an in,esti7ation +e7a+ +e7a+in7 in7 his 8he+eabout 8he+eabouts s p+o,e futile. The clai4ant su77este that this 8as a ,iolation of he+ son=s +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son. The EC0R +ule' ,i:3   ... an% ep+i,ation of libe+t% 4ust not onl% ha,e been e5ecte in confo+4it% 8ith the substanti,e an p+oceu+al p+oceu+al +ules of national la8 but 4ust euall% be in 6eepin7 8ith the ,e+% pu+pose of A+ticle #' na4el% to p+otect the ini,iual f+o4 a+bit+a+iness... 0a,in7 assu4e cont+ol o,e+ that ini,iual it is incu4bent on the autho+ities to account fo+ his o+ he+ 8he+eabouts. 8he+eabout s. *o+ this +eason' A+ticle # 4ust be seen as +eui+in7 the autho+ities to ta6e e5ecti,e 4easu+es to safe7ua+ a7ainst the +is6 of isappea+ance an to conuct a p+o4pt e5ecti,e in,esti7ation into an a+7uable clai4 that a pe+son has been ta6en into custo% an has not been seen since.L11# E4phasis supplieF   /n the instant case' this Cou+t +ules that +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# a+e +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ the ,iolation of Ro+i7ue:Ws Ro+i7ue :Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% on account of thei+ abIect failu+e to conuct a fai+ an e5ecti,e ocial in,esti7ation of his o+eal in the hans of the 4il 4ilita+% ita+%.. Responents Gen. /b+ao' P-G. e+:os e+:osa' a' )t. Gen. Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Ochoa' Col. -e e+a an )t. Col. Mina onl% conucte a pe+functo+% in,esti7ation' ee+tin7 no e5o+ts to ta6e Ra4i+e:Ws account of the e,ents into consie+ation. Rathe+' these +esponents solel% +elie on the +epo+ts an na++ation of the 4ilita+%.  The +ulin7 of the appellate appellate cou+t 4ust be e4phasi:e3   /n this case' +esponents /b+ao' e+:osa' Ban7it' Tolentino' Santos' -e e+a' an Mina a+e accountable' fo+ 8hile the% 8e+e cha+7e 8ith the in,esti7ation of the subIect incient' the in,esti7ation the% conucte ano+ +elie on is supe+<cial an oneDsie. The +eco+s isclose that the 4ilita+%' in in,esti7atin7 the incient co4plaine of' epene on the Co4p+ehensi,e Co4p+ehen si,e Repo+t of No+iel Ro+i7ue: YPepito p+epa+ p+epa+e e b% 1)t. $ohnn% Calub fo+ the Co44anin7 Oce+ of the #;1st /nfant+% B+i7ae' #th /nfant+% -i,ision' Philippine Phili ppine A+4%. A+4%. Such +epo+t' ho8e,e+' is 4e+el% base on the na++ation of the 4ilita+%. 4ilita+%. No e5o+ts 8e+e une+ta6en to solicit petitione+Ws ,e+sion of the subIect incient an no 8itnesses 8e+e uestione +e7a+in7 the alle7e abuction of petitione+.   Responent Respo nent P-G e+:osa' as Chief of the PNP' is accountable because Section 2H of Republic Act No. !(#' othe+8ise 6no8n as the PNP )a8'V speci<es the PNP as the 7o,e+n4ent 7o,e+n4ental al oce 8ith the 4anate to in,esti7ate an p+e,ent c+i4es' e5ect the a++est of c+i4inal o5ene+s' b+in7 o5ene+s to Iustice an assist in thei+ p+osecution.V /n this case' P-G e+:osa faile to o+e+ the police to conuct the necessa+% in,esti7ation to un4as6 the 4%ste+% su++ounin7 petitione+Ws abuction an isappea+ance.. /nstea' P-G e+:osa isclai4s accountabilit% b% 4e+el% statin7 that petitione+ has no cause of action a7ainst isappea+ance hi4. Palpable' ho8e,e+' is the lac6 l ac6 of an% e5o+t on the pa+t of P-G e+:osa to e5ecti,el% an a77+essi,el% in,esti7ate the ,iolations of petitione+Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% b% 4e4be+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' 1th /nfant+% -i,ision' Philippine A+4%.L11! A+4%.L11! E4phasis supplie.F   Clea+l%' the absence of a fai+ an e5ecti,e ocial in,esti7ation into the clai4s of Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue: ,iolate his +i7ht to secu+it%' fo+ 8hich +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# 4ust be hel +esponsible o+ accountable. Ne,e+theless' it 4ust be cla+i<e cl a+i<e that Ro+i7ue: 8as unable to establish an% +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit% on the pa+t of +esponents PCSupt. Tolentino' PSSupt. Santos' Calo7 an Palacpac. Responent PCSupt. Tolentino ha al+ea% +eti+e 8hen the abuction an to+tu+e of Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: 8as pe+pet+ate pe+pet+ate'' 8hil 8hile e PSSupt. Santos ha al+ea% been +eassi7ne an t+ansfe++e to the National Capital Re7ional Police Oce si 4onths befo+e the subIect incient occu++e. Mean8hile' no sucient alle7ations 8e+e 4aintaine a7ainst +esponents Calo7 an Palacpa Palacpac. c. *+o4 all the fo+e7oin7' 8e +ule that Ro+i7ue: 8as successful in p+o,in7 th+ou7h substantial e,ience that +esponents Gen. /b+ao' P-G. e+:osa' e+:osa' )t. Gen. Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Ochoa' B+i7. Gen. -e e+a' 1st )t. Matutina' an )t. Col. Mina 8e+e +esponsible an accountable accountable fo+ the ,iolation of Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7hts to life' libe+t% l ibe+t% an secu+it% on the basis of aF his abuction' etention an to+tu+e f+o4 f+o4 ! Septe4be+ to 1 Septe4be+ 2;;(' an bF the llac6 ac6 of an% fai+ an e5ecti,e ocial in,esti7ation as to his alle7ations. Thus' the p+i,ile7e of the 8+its 8 +its of a4pa+o an habeas ata 4ust be 7+ante in his fa,o+. As a +esult' the+e is no lon7e+ an% nee to issue a te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+' as the p+i,ile7e of these 8+its al+ea% has the e5ect of enIoinin7 +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# f+o4 ,iolatin7 his +i7hts to life' libe+t% an secu+it% secu+it%.. /t is also clea+ cl ea+ f+o4 the abo,e iscussion that espite aF 4aintainin7 fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o A++o%o in the list of +esponent +esponents s in G.R. No. 1(1";#' an bF allo8in7 the application of the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine to a4pa+o an habeas ata p+oceein7s' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : faile to p+o,e th+ou7h substantial e,ience that fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o 8as +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ the ,iolation of his +i7hts to life' libe+t% li be+t% an p+ope+t%. 0e li6e8ise faile to p+o,e th+ou7h substantial e,ience the accoun accountabilit% tabilit% o+ +esponsibilit% of +esponents MaI. Gen. Ochoa' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an. >0ERE*ORE' 8e +esol,e to GRANT the Petition fo+ Pa+tial Re,ie8 in G.R. No. 1(1";# an [email protected] the Petition fo+ Re,ie8 in G.R. No. 1(&1!;. The -ecision of the Cou+t of Appeals is he+eb% A**/RME- >/T0 MO-/*/CA MO-/*/CAT/ON. T/ON.  The case is is4isse 8ith +espect +espect to ++esponents esponents fo+ fo+4e+ 4e+ P+es P+esient ient Glo+ia Macapa7alDA++o%o' Macapa7alDA++o%o' PCSupt. PCSupt. A4eto G. Tolentino' an PSSupt. $ue >. Santos' Calo7' Geo+7e Palacpac' Palacpac' Antonio C+u:' Al8in Pasicolan an icent Calla7an fo+ lac6 of 4e+it.  This Cou+t i+ects i+ects the Oce of the O4bus4an O O4bus4anF 4bus4anF an the -epa+t4ent of $us $ustice tice -O$F to ta ta6e 6e the app+ app+op+iate op+iate

action 8ith +espect to an% possible liabilit% o+ liabilities' 8ithin thei+ +especti,e le7al co4petenc co4petence' e' that 4a% ha,e been

 

incu++e incu++e  b% +esponent +esponents s Gen. icto+ /b+ao' P-G. $esus e+:osa' e+:osa' )t. Gen. -el<n Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Nesto+ Ochoa' B+i7. Gen. Re4e7io -e e+a' e+a' 1st )t. R%an Matutina' an )t. Col. )au+ence Mina. The O4bus4an an the -O$ a+e o+e+e to sub4it to this Cou+t the +esults of thei+ action 8ithin a pe+io of si 4onths f+o4 +eceipt of this -ecision. /n the e,ent that he+ein +esponents no lon7e+ occup% thei+ +especti,e posts' the i+ecti,es 4anate in this -ecision an in the Cou+t of Appeals a+e enfo+ceable a7ainst the incu4bent ocials holin7 the +ele,ant positions. *ailu+e *ailu+e to co4pl% 8ith the fo+e7oin7 shall constitute conte4pt of cou+t.   SO OR-ERE-.  

G.R. No. 1(&!' $une 2!' 2;1& SPOUSES B/)) AN- /CTOR/A 0/NG' Petitione+s' ,. A)EAN-ER [email protected]' SR. AN- A))AN [email protected]' Responents. -EC/S/ON -E) CAST/))O' $.3 The concept of libe+t% 8oul be e4asculate if it oes not li6e8ise co4pel +espect fo+ LoneWs pe+sonalit% as a uniue ini,iual 8hose clai4 to p+i,ac% an LnonDinte+fe+ence e4ans +espect.V1  This Petition Petition fo+ Re,i Re,ie8 e8 on Ce+tio+a+i2 Ce+tio+a+i2 un une+ e+ R Rule ule H# of the Rules Rules of Cou+ Cou+tt assails the $ul% 1;' 2;; -ecision& an the Septe4be+ Septe4be+ 11' 2;; ResolutionH of the Cou+t of Appeals CAF in CADG.R. CEBDSP No. ;1H&. *actual Anteceents

 

On Au7ust 2&' 2;;#' petitione+Dspouses Bill an icto+ia 0in7 <le 8ith the Re7ional T+ial Cou+t RTCF of Manaue Cit% a Co4plaint# fo+ /nIunction an -a4a7es 8ith p+a%e+ fo+ issuance of a >+it of P+eli4ina+% Manato+% /nIunctionTe4po+a+% Rest+ainin7 O+e+ TROF' oc6ete as Ci,il Case MAND#22& an +aZe to B+anch 2"' a7ainst +esponents Aleane+ Choachu%' S+. an Allan Choachu%. Petitione+s alle7e that the% a+e the +e7iste+e o8ne+s of a pa+cel of lan )ot 1(;;DBF co,e+e b% T+ansfe+ Ce+ti<cate of Title TCTF No. H2"1 situate in Ba+an7a% Basa6' Cit% of Manaue' Cebu! that +esponents a+e the o8ne+s of Alo -e,elop4ent [ Resou+ces' /nc. AloF locate at )ots 1(;1 an 1(;;DC' aIacent to the p+ope+t% of petitione+s that +esponents const+ucte an autoD+epai+ shop builin7 Alo Goo%ea+ Se+,itecF on )ot 1(;;DC that in Ap+il 2;;#' Alo <le a case a7ainst petitione+s fo+ /nIunction an -a4a7es 8ith >+it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunctionTRO' oc6ete as Ci,il Case No. MAND#12#" that in that case' Alo clai4e that petitione+s 8e+e const+uctin7 a fence 8ithout a ,ali pe+4it an that the sai const+uction 8oul est+o% the 8all of its builin7' 8hich is aIacent to petitione+sW p+ope+t%( that the cou+t' in that case' enie AloWs application fo+ p+eli4ina+% inIunction fo+ failu+e to substantiate its alle7ations1; that' in o+e+ to 7et e,ience to suppo+t the sai case' +esponents on $une 1&' 2;;# ille7all% setDup an installe on the builin7 of Alo Goo%ea+ Se+,itec t8o ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as facin7 petitione+sW p+ope+t%11 that +esponents' th+ou7h thei+ e4plo%ees an 8ithout the consent of petitione+s' also too6 pictu+es of petitione+sW onD7oin7 const+uction12 const+uction1 2 an that the acts of ++esponents esponents ,iolate petitione+sW petitione+s W +i7ht to p+i,ac%.1& Thus' petitione+s p+a%e that +esponents be o+e+e to +e4o,e the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as an enIoine f+o4 conuctin7 ille7al su+,eillance.1H /n thei+ Ans8e+ 8ith Counte+clai4'1# +esponents clai4e that the% i not install the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as'1! no+ i the% o+e+ thei+ e4plo%ees to ta6e pictu+es of petitione+sW const+uction.1 The% also cla+i<e that the% a+e not the o8ne+s of Alo but a+e 4e+e stoc6hole+s.1" Rulin7 of the Re7ional T+ial Cou+t On Octobe+ 1"' 2;;#' the RTC RTC issue an O+e+1( 7+antin7 the application fo+ a TRO. TRO. The ispositi,e po+tion of the sai O+e+ +eas3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% >0ERE*ORE' the application fo+ a LTe4po+a+% LRest+ainin7 LRest+ain in7 LO+e+ o+ a L>+it of LP+eli4ina+% L/nIun L/nIunction ction is 7+ante. Upon the <lin7 an app+o,al of a bon b% Lpetitione+s' 8hich the Cou+t sets at P#;';;;.;;' let a L>+it of LP+eli4ina+% L/nIunction issue a7ainst the L+esponents Aleane+ Choachu%' S+. an Allan Choachu%. The% a+e he+eb% i+ecte to i44eiatel% +e4o,e the +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a that the% installe at the left sie of thei+ builin7 o,e+loo6in7 the sie of Lpetitione+sW lot an to t+ansfe+ an ope+ate it else8he+e at the bac6 8he+e Lpetitione+sW p+ope+t% can no lon7e+ be ,ie8e 8ithin a istance of about 2D& 4ete+s f+o4 the left co+ne+ of Alo Se+,itec' facin7 the +oa. /T /S SO OR-ERE-.2; Responents 4o,e fo+ a +econsie+ation21 but the RTC enie the sa4e in its O+e+22 ate *eb+ua+% !' 2;;!.2&  Thus3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a  Thus3c+ala,,online la8lib+a+% +% >0ERE*ORE' the Motion fo+ Reconsie+ation is he+eb% -EN/E- fo+ lac6 of 4e+it. /ssue a L>+it of LP+eli4ina+% L/nIunction in consonance 8ith the O+e+ ate 1" Octobe+ 2;;#. /T /S SO OR-ERE-.2Hnac+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% A77+ie,e' +esponents <le 8ith the CA a Petition fo+ Ce+tio+a+i2# une+ Rule !# of the Rules of Cou+t 8ith application fo+ a TRO ano+ >+it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunction. Rulin7 of the Cou+t of Appeals On $ul% 1;' 2;;' the CA issue its -ecision2! 7+antin7 the Petition fo+ Ce+tio+a+i. The CA +ule that the > >+it +it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunction 8as issue 8ith 7+a,e abuse of isc+etion because petitione+s faile to sho8 a clea+ an un4ista6able +i7ht to an inIuncti,e 8+it.2  The CA eplaine eplaine that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% of ++esience esience une+ A+ticle A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Co Coe e 8as no nott ,iolate si since nce the p+ p+ope+t% ope+t% subIect of the cont+o,e+s% is not use as a +esience.2" The CA also sai that since +esponents a+e not the o8ne+s of the builin7' the% coul not ha,e installe ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as.2( The% a+e 4e+e stoc6hole+s of Alo' 8hich has a sepa+ate Iu+iical pe+sonalit%.&; Thus' the% a+e not the p+ope+ pa+ties.&1 The fallo +eas3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% +eas3c+ala,,onlin ela8lib+a+% >0ERE*ORE' in ,ie8 of the fo+e7oin7 p+e4ises' Iu74ent is he+eb% +ene+e b% us GRANT/NG the petition <le in this case. The assaile o+e+s ate Octobe+ 1"' 2;;# an *eb+ua+% !' 2;;! issue b% the +esponent Iu7e a+e he+eb% ANNU))E- an SET AS/-E. SO OR-ERE-.&2nac+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% /ssues 0ence' this +ecou+se b% petitione+s a+7uin7 that3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% /.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T ANNU))E- AN- SET AS/-E AS/-E T0E O OR-ERS R-ERS O* T T0E 0E LR LRTC TC -A -ATETE- 1" OCTOBER 2;;# AN- ! *[email protected] 2;;! 0O)-/NG T0AT [email protected] >ERE /SSUE- >/T0 GRAE ABUSE O* -/SCRET/ON. //.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T RU)E- T0A T0AT T PET/T PET/T/ONER /ONER SPO SPOUSES USES 0/NG A ARE RE NOT E ENT/T)ENT/T)E- T TO O T0E >R >R/T /T O* PRE)/M/[email protected] /N$UNCT/ON ON T0E GROUN- T0AT T0ERE /S NO /O)AT/ON O* T0E/R CONST/TUT/ONA) AN- C//) R/G0T TO PR/[email protected] -ESP/TE T0E *ACTUA) */N-/NGS LO* T0E RTC' >0/C0 RESPON-ENTS [email protected] *A/)E- TO RE*UTE' T0AT T0E /))EGA))@ /NSTA))E- SURE/))ANCE CAMERAS O* RESPON-ENTS C0OAC0LU@ >OU)- CAPTURE T0E PR/ATE ACT//T/ES O* PET/T/ONER SPOUSES 0/NG' T0E/R C0/)-REN AN- EMP)[email protected] ///.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T RU)E- T0A T0AT T S/NCE T T0E 0E O>NER O* T0E BU/ BU/)-/NG )-/NG /S A) A)-O -O -EE)OPMENT AN- RESOURCES' /NC. T0EN TO SUE RESPON-ENTS [email protected] CONST/TUTELS A PURPORTE-)@ UN>ARRANTEP/ERC/NG O* T0E CORPORATE E/). /.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T /GNORE- T T0E 0E SER/O SER/OUS US *ORMA *ORMA) ) -E*/C/ENC -E*/C/ENC/ES /ES O* BO BOT0 T0 T0E PE PET/T/ON T/T/ON AN- T0E MOT/ON *OR RECONS/-ERAT/ON -ATE- 1# MARC0 2;;! O* RESPON-ENTLS C0OAC0LU@ AN- GAE    T0EM -UE COURSE AN- CONS/-ERAT/ON.&& Essentiall%' the issues boil o8n to 1F 8hethe+ the+e is a ,iolation of petitione+sW +i7ht to p+i,ac%' an 2F 8hethe+ +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to this suit.

 

Petitione+sW A+7u4ents Petitione+s insist that the% a+e entitle to the issuance of a >+it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunction because +esponentsW installation of a stationa+% ca4e+a i+ectl% facin7 petitione+sW p+ope+t% an a +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a co,e+in7 a si7ni<cant po+tion of the sa4e p+ope+t% constitutes a ,iolation of petitione+sW petitione+s W +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.&H .&H Petitione+s cite A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe' 8hich enIoins pe+sons f+o4 p+%in7 into the p+i,ate li,es of othe+s.&# Althou7h the sai p+o,ision pe+tains to the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esience' petitione+s opine that it inclues business oces' citin7 P+ofesso+ A+tu+o M. Tolentino.&! Thus' e,en assu4in7 a+7ueno that petitione+sW p+ope+t% is use fo+ business' it is still co,e+e b% the sai p+o,ision.& As to 8hethe+ +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to i4plea in this case' petitione+s clai4 that +esponents an Alo a+e one an the sa4e' an that +esponents onl% 8ant to hie behin AloWs co+po+ate <ction.&" The% point out that if +esponents a+e not the +eal o8ne+s of the builin7' 8he+e the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as 8e+e installe' then the% ha no business consentin7 to the ocula+ inspection conucte b% the cou+t.&( ResponentsW A+7u4ents Responents' on the othe+ han' echo the +ulin7 of the CA that petitione+s cannot in,o6e thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% since the p+ope+t% in,ol,e is not use as a +esience.H; Responents 4aintain that the% ha nothin7 to o 8ith the installation of the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as as these 8e+e installe b% Alo' the +e7iste+e o8ne+ of the builin7'H1 as aitional secu+it% fo+ its builin7. H2 0ence' the% 8e+e 8+on7full% i4pleae in this case.H& Ou+ Rulin7  The Petition Petition is 4e 4e+ito+ious +ito+ious..  The +i7ht +i7ht to p+i,ac% is the +i7ht to be let alo alone. ne.  The +i7ht +i7ht to p+i,ac% is ensh+ine ensh+ine  in ou+ C Constitution onstitutionHH HH an in ou+ ou+ la8s. /t is e<ne as the +i7 +i7ht ht to be f+ f+ee ee f+o f+o4 4 un8a+ un8a++ante +ante eploitation of oneWs pe+son o+ f+o4 int+usion into oneWs p+i,ate acti,ities in such a 8a% as to cause hu4iliation to a pe+sonWs o+ina+% sensibilities.VH# sensibilities. VH# /t is the +i7ht of an ini,iual to be f+ee f+o4 un8a+ un8a++ante +ante publicit%' o+ to li,e 8ithout un8a++ante inte+fe+ence b% the public in 4atte+s in 8hich the public is not necessa+il% conce+ne.VH! Si4pl% put' the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is the +i7ht to be let alone.VH  The Bill of of Ri7hts 7 7ua+antees ua+antees th the e people peopleWs Ws +i7ht to p+ p+i,ac% i,ac% an p p+otects +otects the the4 4 a7ain a7ainst st the StateWs ab abuse use of po8e po8e++. /n this ++e7a+' e7a+' the State +eco7ni:es the +i7ht of the people to be secu+e in thei+ houses. No one' not e,en the State' e ecept cept in case of o,e++iin7 social nee an then onl% une+ the st+in7ent p+oceu+al safe7ua+s'V can istu+b the4 in the p+i,ac% of thei+ ho4es.H"  The +i7ht +i7ht to p+i,ac% une+ A+tic A+ticle le 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe co,e+s business oces 8he+e the public a+e eclue the+ef+o4 an onl% ce+tain ini,iuals a+e allo8e to ente+. A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe' on the othe+ han' p+otects an ini,iualWs +i7ht to p+i,ac% an p+o,ies a le7al +e4e% a7ainst abuses that 4a% be co44itte a7ainst hi4 b% othe+ ini,iuals. /t states3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% states3c+ala,,onlinela8l ib+a+% A+t. 2!. E,e+% pe+son shall +espect the i7nit%' pe+sonalit%' p+i,ac% an peace of 4in of his nei7hbo+s an othe+ pe+sons. The follo8in7 an si4ila+ acts' thou7h the% 4a% not constitute a c+i4inal o5ense' shall p+ouce a cause of action fo+ a4a7es' p+e,ention an othe+ +elief3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% 1F P+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esiencechan+obles,i+tuala8li +esiencechan+obles,i+tuala8lib+a+% b+a+%   This p+o,ision p+o,ision ++eco7ni:es eco7ni:es th that at a 4anW 4anWs s house is hi his s castle' 8he 8he+e +e his ++i7ht i7ht to p+i, p+i,ac% ac% canno cannott be enie o+ e,en ++est+icte est+icte b% o othe+s. the+s. /t inclues an% act of int+usion into' peepin7 o+ pee+in7 inuisiti,el% into the +esience of anothe+ 8ithout the consent of the latte+.VH(  The ph+ase ph+ase p+%in7 in into to the p+i,a p+i,ac% c% of anoth anothe+Ws e+Ws +esi +esience'V ence'V ho ho8e,e+' 8e,e+' o oes es not 4ea 4ean n that onl% the +esien +esience ce is entitle entitle to p+i,ac p+i,ac% %. As eluciate b% Ci,il la8 epe+t A+tu+o M. Tolentino3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% Ou+ Coe speci<call% 4entions p+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esience.V This oes not 4ean' ho8e,e+' that onl% the +esience is entitle to p+i,ac%' because the la8 co,e+s also si4ila+ acts.V A business oce is entitle to the sa4e p+i,ac% 8hen the public is eclue eclue the+ef+o4 an onl% such ini,iuals as a+e allo8e to ente+ 4a% co4e in.   #; E4phasis supplieF  Thus' an ini,iual ini,iualWs Ws +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac% une une++ A+ticle 2 2!1F !1F of the Ci Ci,il ,il Coe s shoul houl not be con<ne tto o his house o+ +esie +esience nce as it 4a 4a% % eten to places 8he+e he has the +i7ht to eclue the public o+ en% the4 access. The ph+ase p+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esience'V the+efo+e' co,e+s places' locations' o+ e,en situations 8hich an ini,iual consie+s as p+i,ate. An as lon7 as his +i7ht is +eco7ni:e b% societ%' othe+ ini,iuals 4a% not inf+in7e on his +i7ht to p+i,ac%. p+i,ac%. The CA' the+efo+e' e++e in li4itin7 the application of A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe onl% to +esiences.  The +easona +easonable ble epe epectation ctation of p+ p+i,ac%V i,ac%V test is use to ete+4ine 8hethe+ the+e is a ,iolation of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%. /n asce+tainin7 8hethe+ the+e is a ,iolation of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' cou+ts use the +easonable +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%V test. test . This test ete+4ines 8hethe+ a pe+son has a +easonable +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% an 8hethe+ the epectation has been ,iolate.#1 /n Ople ,. ,.  To++e  To++es'#2 s'#2 8e enunciate enunciate that  the the +easo +easonableness nableness of a pe+sonWs pe+sonWs epe epectation ctation of p+ p+i,ac% i,ac% epe epens ns on a t8 t8oDpa+t oDpa+t test3 1F 8 8hethe+' hethe+' b% h his is conuct' the ini,iual has ehibite an epectation of p+i,ac% an 2F this epectation is one that societ% +eco7ni:es as +easonable.V Custo4s' co44unit% no+4s' an p+actices 4a%' the+efo+e' li4it o+ eten an ini,iualWs +easonable e epectation pectation of p+i,ac%.V#& p+i,ac% .V#& 0ence' the +easonableness of a pe+sonWs epectation of p+i,ac% 4ust be ete+4ine on a caseDtoDcase basis since it epens on the factual ci+cu4stances su++ounin7 the case.#H /n this a% an a7e' ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as a+e installe p+acticall% e,e+%8he+e fo+ the p+otection an safet% of e,e+%one. The installation of these ca4e+as' ho8e,e+' shoul not co,e+ places 8he+e the+e is +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%' unless the consent of anothe+Ws the ini,iual' 8hoseo++i7ht to p+i,ac% be a5ecte' 8as obtaine. No+ shoul these ca4e+as be use p+% into Act the No. p+i,ac% of +esience business oce 8oul as it 8oul be no i5e+ent f+o4 ea,es+oppin7' 8hich is a c+i4e une+toRepublic H2;; o+ the AntiD>i+etappin7 )a8. /n this case' the RTC' in 7+antin7 the application fo+ P+eli4ina+% /nIunction' +ule that3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% Afte+ ca+eful consie+ation' the+e is basis to 7+ant the application fo+ a te4po+a+% +est+ainin7 o+e+. The ope+ation b% L+esponents of a +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a' e,en if it 8e+e 4ounte on thei+ builin7' ,iolate the +i7ht of p+i,ac% of Lpetitione+s' 8ho a+e the o8ne+s of the

 

aIacent lot. The ca4e+a oes not onl% focus on L+esponentsW p+ope+t% o+ the +oof of the facto+% at the bac6 Alo -e,elop4ent an Resou+ces' /nc.F but it actuall% spans th+ou7h a 7oo po+tion of Lthe lan of Lpetitione+s. Base on the ocula+ inspection' the Cou+t une+stans 8h% Lpetitione+ 0in7 8as so un%ielin7 in asse+tin7 that the +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a 8as set up elibe+atel% to 4onito+ the onLD7oin7 const+uction in his p+ope+t%. p+ope+t%. The 4onito+ sho8e onl% a po+tion of the +oof of the facto+% of LAlo. /f the pu+pose of L+esponents in settin7 up a ca4e+a at the bac6 is to secu+e the builin7 an facto+% p+e4ises' then the ca4e+a shoul +e,ol,e onl% to8a+s thei+ p+ope+ties at the bac6. LResponentsW ca4e+a cannot be 4ae to eten the ,ie8 to Lpetitione+sW lot. To allo8 the L+esponents to o that o,e+ the obIection of the Lpetitione+s 8oul ,iolate the +i7ht of Lpetitione+s Lpetitione+ s as p+ope+t% o8ne+s. The o8ne+ of a thin7 cannot 4a6e use the+eof in such a 4anne+ as to inIu+e the +i7hts of a thi+ pe+son.V##  The RTC' RTC' tthus' hus' consi consie+e e+e tha thatt petitione+ petitione+s s ha,e a  +easona +easonable ble epe epectation ctation of p p+i,ac%V +i,ac%V in th thei+ ei+ p+o p+ope+t%' pe+t%' 8heth 8hethe+ e+ the% use it as a business oce o+ as a +esience an that the installation of ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as i+ectl% facin7 petitione+sW p+ope+t% o+ co,e+in7 a si7ni<cant po+tion the+eof' 8ithout thei+ consent' is a clea+ ,iolation of thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.. As 8e see then' the issuance of a p+eli4ina+% inIunction 8as Iusti<e. >e nee not belabo+ that the issuance of a p+eli4ina+% p+eli4ina+% inIunction is isc+etiona+% on the pa+t of the cou+t ta6in7 co7ni:ance of the case an shoul not be inte+fe+e 8ith' unless the+e is 7+a,e abuse of isc+etion co44itte b% the cou+t.#! 0e+e' the+e is no inication of an% 7+a,e abuse of isc+etion. 0ence' the CA e++e e++e in <nin7 that petitione+s a+e not entitle to an inIuncti,e 8+it.  This b+in7s b+in7s us to the n net et uestio uestion3 n3 8hethe 8hethe++ +espon +esponents ents a+ a+e e the p+o p+ope+ pe+ pa+tie pa+ties s to this suit suit.. A +eal pa+t% efenant is one 8ho has a co++elati,e le7al obli7ation to +e+ess a 8+on7 one to the plainti5 b% +eason of the efenant=s act o+ o4ission 8hich ha ,iolate the le7al +i7ht of the fo+4e+. Section 2' Rule & of the Rules of Cou+t p+o,ies3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% SEC. 2. Pa+tiesDinDinte+est.  A +eal pa+t%DinDinte+est is the pa+t% 8ho stans to be bene<te o+ inIu+e b% the Iu74ent in the suit' o+ the pa+t% entitle to the a,ails of the suit. Unless othe+8ise autho+i:e b% la8 o+ these Rules' e,e+% action 4ust be p+osecute o+ efene in the na4e of the +eal pa+t%DinDinte+est. A +eal pa+t% efenant is one 8ho has a co++elati,e le7al obli7ation to +e+ess a 8+on7 one to the plainti5 b% +eason of the efenantWs act o+ o4ission 8hich ha ,iolate the le7al +i7ht of the fo+4e+.V# /n +ulin7 that +esponents a+e not the p+ope+ pa+ties' the CA +easone that since the% o not o8n the builin7' the% coul not ha,e installe the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as.#" Such +easonin7' ho8e,e+' is e++oneous. The fact that +esponents a+e a+e not the +e7iste+e o8ne+s of the builin7 oes not auto4aticall% 4ean that the% i not cause the installation of the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as. /n thei+ Co4plaint' petitione+s clai4e that +esponents installe the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as in o+e+ to <sh fo+ e,ience' 8hich coul be use a7ainst petitione+s in anothe+ case.#( -u+in7 the hea+in7 of the application fo+ P+eli4ina+% /nIunction' petitione+ Bill testi<e that 8hen +esponents installe the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as' he i44eiatel% b+oache his conce+ns but the% i not see4 to ca+e'!; an thus' he +epo+te the 4atte+ to the ba+an7a% fo+ 4eiation' an e,entuall%' <le a Co4plaint a7ainst +esponents befo+e the RTC.!1 RTC.!1 0e also a4itte that as ea+l% as 1((" the+e has al+ea% been a ispute bet8een his fa4il% fa4il % an the Choachu% fa4il% conce+nin7 the bouna+ies of thei+ +especti,e p+ope+ties.!2 >ith these factual ci+cu4stances in 4in' 8e belie,e that +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to be i4pleae. Mo+eo,e+' althou7h Alo has a Iu+iical pe+sonalit% sepa+ate an istinct f+o4 its stoc6hole+s' +eco+s sho8 that it is a fa4il%Do8ne co+po+ation 4ana7e b% the Choachu% fa4il%.!& Also uite tellin7 is the fact that +esponents' not8ithstanin7 thei+ clai4 that the% a+e not o8ne+s of the builin7' allo8e the cou+t to ente+ the co4poun of Alo an conuct an ocula+ inspection. The counsel fo+ +esponents e,en tou+e $u7e Ma+il%n )[email protected] insie the builin7 an ans8e+e all he+ uestions +e7a+in7 the setDup an installation of the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as.!H An 8hen +esponents 4o,e fo+ +econsie+ation of the O+e+ ate Octobe+ 1"' 2;;# of the RTC' one of the a+7u4ents the% +aise is that Alo 8oul su5e+ a4a7es if the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as a+e +e4o,e an t+ansfe++e.!# Noticeabl%' in these instances' the pe+sonalities of +esponents an Alo see4 to 4e+7e. All these ta6en to7ethe+ lea us to the ine,itable conclusion that +esponents a+e 4e+el% usin7 the co+po+ate <ction of Alo as a shiel to p+otect the4sel,es f+o4 this suit. /n ,ie8 of the fo+e7oin7' 8e <n that +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to this suit. >0ERE*ORE' the Petition is he+eb% GRANTE-. The -ecision ate $ul% 1;' 2;; an the R Resolution esolution ate Septe4be+ 11' 2;; of the Cou+t of Appeals in CADG.R. CEBDSP No. ;1H& a+e he+eb% REERSE- an SET AS/-E. The O+e+s ate Octobe+ 1"' 2;;# an *eb+ua+% !' 2;;L! of B+anch 2" of the Re7ional T+ial Cou+t of Manaue Cit% in Ci,il Case No. MAND#22& a+e he+eb% RE/NSTATE- an A**/RME-. SO OR-ERE-.

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close