Right To Privacy - Consti2

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Republic Republ ic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BANC  G.  G.R. No. 12!"# $ul% 2&' 1((" B)AS *. OP)E' petitione+' ,s. RUBEN -. TORRES' A)EAN-ER AGU/RRE' 0ECTOR /))ANUEA' C/E)/TO 0AB/TO' ROBERT BARBERS' CARMENC/TA REO-/CA' CESAR SAR/NO' RENATO A)ENC/A' TOMAS P. A*R/CA' 0EA- O* T0E NAT/ONA) COMPUTER CENTER an C0A/RMAN O* T0E COMM/SS/ON ON AU-/T' +esponents.  PUNO' $.3  The petition at ba+ is a co44enable e5o+t on the pa+t pa+t of Senato+ Blas *. Ople to p+e,ent p+e,ent the sh+in6in7 of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' 8hich the +e,e+e M+. M+. $ustice B+aneis consie+e as 9the 4ost co4p+ehensi,e of +i7hts an the +i7ht 4ost ,alue b% ci,ili:e 4en.9 1 Petitione+ Petitione+ Ople p+a%s that 8e in,aliate A4inist+ati,e O+e+ No. &;" entitle 9Aoption of a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence Refe+ence S%ste49 on t8o i4po+tant constitutional 7+ouns' ,i:3 one' it is a usu+pation of the po8e+ of Con7+ess to le7islate' an t8o' it i4pe+4issibl% int+ues on ou+ citi:en+%=s p+otecte :one of  p+i,ac%. >e 7+ant the petition fo+ the +i7hts sou7ht to be ,inicate b% the petitione+ nee st+on7e+ ba++ie+s ba++ie+s a7ainst fu+the+ e+osion. A.O. No. &;" 8as issue b% P+esient *iel . Ra4os On -ece4be+ 12' 1((! an +eas as follo8s3 A-OPT/ON O* A NAT/ONA) COMPUTER/?E/-ENT/*/CAT/ON RE*ERENCE [email protected] >0EREAS' the+e is a nee to p+o,ie *ili *ilipino pino citi:ens an fo+ei7n +esien +esients ts 8ith the facilit% to con,enientl% t+ansact business 8ith basic se+,ice an social secu+it% p+o,ie+s an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent inst+u4entaliti inst+u4entalities es >0EREAS' this 8ill +eui+e a co4pute+i:e s%ste4 to p+ope+l% an ecientl% ientif% pe+sons see6in7 basic se+,ices on social secu+it% an +euce' if not totall% e+aicate f+auulent t+ansactions an 4is+ep+esentations 4is+ep+esentations >0EREAS' a conce+te an collabo+ati collabo+ati,e ,e e5o+t a4on7 the ,a+ious basic se+,ices an social secu+it% p+o,iin7 a7encies an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent int+u4entalities is +eui+e to achie,e such a s%ste4 NO>' T0ERE*ORE' /' */-E) . RAMOS' P+esient of the Republic of the Philippines' b% ,i+tue of the po8e+s ,este in 4e b% la8' o he+eb% i+ect the follo8in73 Sec. 1. Establish4ent of a Na National tional Co4pote+i:e Co4pote+i:e /enti<cation R Refe+ence efe+ence S% S%ste4. ste4. A ecent+ali:e ecent+ali:e  /enti<cation Refe+ence S%ste4 a4on7 the 6e% basic se+,ices an social secu+it% p+o,ie+s is he+eb% establishe. Refe+ence Sec. 2. /nte+ /nte+DA7enc% DA7enc% Coo+inatin7 Coo+inatin7 Co44ittee. An /nte+ /nte+DA7enc% DA7enc% Coo+ Coo+inatin7 inatin7 Co44ittee /AC /ACCF CF to +a8Dup the i4ple4entin7 7uielines an o,e+see the i4ple4entation of the S%ste4 is he+eb% c+eate' chai+e b% the Eecuti,e Sec+eta+%'' 8ith the follo8in7 as 4e4be+s3 Sec+eta+% 0ea' P+esiential Mana7e4ent Sta5  Sec+eta+%'' National Econo4ic -e,elop4ent Autho+it% Sec+eta+% Sec+eta+%'' -epa+t4ent of the /nte+io+ an )ocal Go,e+n4ent Sec+eta+% Sec+eta+%'' -epa+t4ent of 0ealth Sec+eta+% A4inist+ato+' A4inist+a to+' Go,e+n4ent Se+,ice /nsu+ance S%ste4' A4inist+ato+' A4inist+a to+' Social Secu+it% S%ste4' A4inist+ato+' A4inist+a to+' National Statistics Oce Mana7in7 -i+ecto+' National Co4pute+ Cente+. Sec. &. Sec+eta+i Sec+eta+iat. at. The National Co4pute+ C Cente+ ente+ NCCF is he+ he+eb% eb% esi7nate as sec+ sec+eta+iat eta+iat to the /AC /ACC C an as such shall p+o,ie a4inist+ati,e a4inist+ati,e an technical suppo+t to the /ACC. Sec. H. )in6a7e A4on7 A7enc A7encies. ies. The Population Population Ref Refe+ence e+ence Nu4be+ PRN PRNFF 7ene+ate b% the NSO shall shall se+,e as the co44on +efe+ence +efe+ence nu4be+ to establish a lin6a7e a4on7 conce+ne a7encies. The /ACC Sec+eta+i Sec+eta+iat at shall coo+inate 8ith the i5e+ent Social Secu+it% an Se+,ices A7encies to establish the stana+s in the use of Bio4et+ics Technolo7% Technolo7% an in co4pute+ application esi7ns of thei+ +especti,e s%ste4s. Sec. #. Conuct of /nfo+ /nfo+4ation 4ation -isse4i -isse4ination nation Ca4pai7n. The O Oce ce of the P+ P+ess ess Sec+eta+ Sec+eta+%' %' in coo+ination coo+ination 8ith the National Oce Oce' ' the GS/S an SSS as lea a7encies othe+ conce+ne a7encies une+ta6e 4assi,e t+iD4eiaStatistics info+4ation info+4ation isse4ination ca4pai7n to eucate anan +aise public a8a+eness on theshall i4po+tance anause of the PRN an the Social Secu+it% /enti<cation Refe+ Refe+ence. ence. Sec. !. *unin7. The ffuns uns necessa+% fo fo++ the i4ple4entation of the s%ste4 shall be sou+ce sou+ce f+o4 the +especti,e +especti,e bu7ets of the conce+ne a7encies.


Sec. . Sub4ission of R Re7ula+ e7ula+ R Repo+ts. epo+ts. The NSO' GS/S an SSS shall shall sub4it +e7ula+ +epo+ts to the Oce Oce of the P+esient P+esi ent th+ou7h the /ACC' on the status of i4ple4entation of this une+ta6in7. Sec. ". E5ecti,it%. This A4inist+ati,e O+e+ shall ta6 ta6e e e5ect i44eiatel% i44eiatel%.. -ONE in the Cit% of Manila' this 12th a% of -ece4be+ in the %ea+ of Ou+ )o+' Nineteen 0un+e an Ninet%DSi. SG-.F */-E) . RAMOS A.O.. No. &;" 8as publishe in fou+ ne8spape+s of 7ene+al ci+culatio A.O ci+culation n on $anua+% 22' 1(( an $anua+% 2&' 1((. On  $anua+% 2H' 1((' 1((' petitione+ <le <le  the instant petition a7ainst ++esponents' esponents' then E Eecuti,e ecuti,e Sec+eta+% Sec+eta+% Ruben To++e o++es s an the heas of the 7o,e+n4ent a7encies' 8ho as 4e4be+s of the /nte+DA7enc% Coo+inatin7 Coo+inatin7 Co44ittee' a+e cha+7e 8ith the i4ple4entation of A.O. No. &;". On Ap+il "' 1((' 8e issue a te4po+a+% +est+ainin7 o+e+ enIoinin7 its i4ple4entation. Petitione++ contens3 Petitione A. T0E E EST STAB) AB)/SN /SNMEN MENT T O* A N NA AT/O T/ONA) NA) C COMP OMPUTE UTER/? R/?EE- //-ENT ENT/*/ /*/CA CAT/O T/ON N RE* RE*ER ERENC ENCE E [email protected] [email protected] REJU/R REJU/RES ES A )EG/S)AT/E ACT. T0E /SSUANCE O* A.O. NO. &;" [email protected] T0E PRES/-ENT O* T0E REPUB)/C O* T0E P0/)/PP/NES /S'  T0ERE*ORE' AN AN UNCONST/TU UNCONST/TUT/ONA) T/ONA) USURP USURPAT AT/ON /ON O* T0E )EG/S)A )EG/S)AT/E T/E PO>ERS O* T T0E 0E CONGRESS O* T0E T0E REPUB)/C O* T0E P0/)/PP/NES. B. T0E A APPR PPROPR OPR/A /AT/ T/ON ON O* O* PUB PUB)/C )/C * *UNUN-S SB [email protected] @ T0E PRES PRES/-E /-ENT NT * *OR OR T T0E 0E /M /MP)E P)EMEN MENT TAT/O T/ON N O* A A.O .O.. NO NO.. &; &;" " /S AN AN UNCONST/TUT/ONA) USURPAT/ON O* T0E EC)US/E R/G0T O* CONGRESS TO APPROPR/ATE PUB)/C *UN-S *OR EPEN-/TURE. C. T0E //MP) MP)EME EMENT NTA AT/O T/ON N O* A A.O .O.. NO NO.. &; &;" " /NS /NS//-/OU /OUS) S)@ @ )A )[email protected] @S T0E T0E GR GROU OUNN->OR >ORK K *O *OR R A [email protected] [email protected] STEM M >0 >0/C0 /C0 > >/)) /)) /O)ATE /O)A TE T0E B/)) O* R/G0TS ENS0R/NE- /N T0E CONST/TUT/ON. 2 Responents counte+Da+7ue3 A.


B. A. A.O. O. NO NO. &;" L1( L1((! (! >AS >AS /S /SSUE SUE- >/ >/T0/ T0/N N T0E E EEC ECUT UT/E /E A ANN- A-M A-M/N/ /N/STR STRA AT/ T/E E PO>ER PO>ERS S O* T T0E 0E PR PRES/ ES/-E -ENT NT >/T0OUT ENCROAC0/NG ON T0E )EG/S)AT/E PO>ERS O* CONGRESS C. T0E * *UNUN-S S NEC NECESS ESSAR [email protected] @ *O *OR R T0 T0E E /MP /MP)EM )EMENT ENTA AT/O T/ON N O* T T0E 0E //-ENT ENT/*/ /*/CA CAT/O T/ON N RE* RE*ER ERENC ENCE E [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] BE SOURCE- *ROM T0E BU-GETS O* T0E CONCERNE- AGENC/ES -.

A. A.O. O. NO. NO. & &;" ;" L1((! L1((! PROT PROTECT ECTS S AN AN //NN-// //-UA -UA)=S )=S /NT /NTERE EREST ST /N PR/ PR/[email protected] [email protected] &

>e no8 +esol,e. / As is usual in constitutional liti7ation' +esponents +aise the th+eshol issues +elatin7 +elatin7 to the stanin7 to sue of the petitione+ an the Iusticiabili Iusticiabilit% t% of the case at ba+. Mo+e speci<call speci<call%' %' +esponents a,e+ that petitione+ has no le7al inte+est to uphol an that the i4ple4entin7 +ules of A.O. A.O. No. &;" ha,e %et to be p+o4ul7ate.  These sub4issions sub4issions o not ese+,e ou+ s% s%4pathetic 4pathetic ea+. ea+. Petitione+ Opl Ople e is a istin7uishe 4e 4e4be+ 4be+ of ou+ Senate. As a Senato+' petitione+ is possesse of the +euisite stanin7 to b+in7 suit +aisin7 the issue that the issuance of A.O. No. &;" is a usu+pation of le7islati,e po8e+ po8e+.. H As tapa%e+ an 4e4be+ of the Go,e+n4ent Se+,ice /nsu+ance S%ste4 GS/SF' petitione+ can also i4pu7n the le7alit% of the 4isali7n4ent of public funs an the 4isuse of GS/S funs to i4ple4ent A.O. No. &;". #  The +ipeness fo+ aIuication of the P Petition etition at ba+ is not a5ecte a5ecte b% the fact that the i4ple4e i4ple4entin7 ntin7 +ules of A.O. A.O. No. &;" ha,e %et to be p+o4ul7ate. Petitione+ Ople assails A.O. A.O. No. &;" as in,ali pe+ se an as in<+4e on its face. 0is action is not p+e4atu+e fo+ the +ules %et to be p+o4ul7ate cannot cu+e its fatal efects. Mo+eo,e+' the +esponents the4sel,es ha,e sta+te the i4ple4entation of A.O A.O.. No. &;" 8ithout 8aitin7 fo+ the +ules. As ea+l% as $anua+% 1(' 1((' +esponent +esponent Social Secu+it% S%ste4 SSSF cause the publication of a notice to bi fo+ the 4anufactu+e of the National /enti<cation /-F ca+. ! Responent Eecuti,e Sec+eta+% To++es has publicl% announce that +ep+esentati,es f+o4 the GS/S an the SSS ha,e co4plete the 7uielines fo+ the national ienti<cation s%ste4.  All si7nals f+o4 the +esponents sho8 thei+ uns8e+,in7 8ill to i4ple4ent A.O. No. &;" an 8e nee not 8ait fo+ the fo+4alit% of the +ules to pass Iu74ent on its constitutionalit% constitutionalit%.. /n this li7ht' the issente+s insistence that 8e ti7hten the +ule on stanin7 is not a co44enable stance as its +esult 8oul be to th+ottle an i4po+tant constitutional p+inciple p+inciple an a funa4ental +i7ht. // >e no8 co4e to the co+e issues. Petition Petitione+ e+ clai4s that A.O. No. &;" is not a 4e+e a4inist+ati,e o+e+ but a la8 an hence' be%on the po8e+ of the P+esient P+esient to issue. 0e alle7es that A.O. No. &;" establishes establishes a s%ste4 of ienti<cation that is allDenco4passin7 in scope' a5ects the life an libe+t% of e,e+% *ilipi *ilipino no citi:en an fo+ei7n +esie +esient' nt' an 4o+e pa+ticula+l%' ,iolates thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac%. Petitione Petitione+=s +=s seulous fo+the thee4a+cation Eecuti, Eecuti,e e not to bet8een t+espass the on the la84a6in7 o4ain of to Con7+ess is an the une+stanable. The conce+n blu++in7 of line po8e+ of the )e7islatu+e 4a6e la8s po8e+ of the Eecuti,e to eecute eecute la8s 8ill istu+b thei+ elicate balance of po8e+ an cannot be allo8e. 0ence' the e ee+cise e+cise b% one b+anch of 7o,e+n4ent of po8e+ belon7in7 to anothe+ 8ill be 7i,en a st+icte+ sc+utin% b% this Cou+t.  The line that elineates elineates )e7islati,e )e7islati,e an Eecuti,e po8e po8e++ is not inistinc inistinct. t. )e7islati,e po8e po8e++ is 9the autho+it% autho+it%'' une+ the Constitution' to 4a6e la8s' an to alte+ an +epeal the4.9 " The Constitution' as the 8ill of the people in thei+ o+i7inal' so,e+ei7n so,e+ei 7n an unli4ite capacit%' has ,este this po8e+ in the Con7+ess of the Philippines. ( The 7+ant of le7islati,e


po8e+ to Con7+ess is b+oa' 7ene+al an co4p+ehens co4p+ehensi,e. i,e. 1; The le7islati,e bo% possesses plena+% po8e+ fo+ all pu+poses of ci,il 7o,e+n4ent. 11 An% po8e+' ee4e to be le7islati,e b% usa7e an t+aition' is necessa+il% possesse b% Con7+ess' unless the Constitution has lo7e it else8he+e. 12 /n <ne' ecept as li4ite b% the Constitution' eithe+ ep+essl% ep+ essl% o+ i4pliel%' le7islati,e po8e+ e4b+aces all subIects an etens to 4atte+s of 7ene+al conce+n o+ co44on inte+est. 1& >hile Con7+ess is ,este 8ith the po8e+ to enact la8s' the P+esient eecut eecutes es the la8s. 1H The eecuti,e po8e+ is ,este in the P+esients. 1# /t is 7ene+all% e<ne as the po8e+ to enfo+ce an a4iniste+ the la8s. 1! /t is the po8e+ of ca++%in7 the la8s into p+actical ope+ation an enfo+cin7 thei+ ue obse+,ance. 1 As hea of the Eecuti,e -epa+t4ent' the P+esient is the Chief Eecuti,e. Eecuti,e. 0e +ep+esents +ep+esents the 7o,e+n4ent as a 8hole an sees to it that all la8s a+e enfo+ce b% the ocials an e4plo%ees of his epa+t4ent. 1" 0e has cont+ol o,e+ the e eecuti,e ecuti,e epa+t4ent' bu+eaus an oces. This 4eans that he has the autho+it% to assu4e i+ectl% the functions of the eecuti,e epa+t4ent' bu+eau an oce o+ inte+fe+e 8ith the isc+etion of its ocials. 1( Co+olla+% to the po8e+ of cont+ol' the P+esient P+esient also has the ut% of supe+,isin7 the enfo+ce4ent of la8s fo+ the 4aintenance of 7ene+al peace an public o+e+. o+e+. Thus' he is 7+ante a4inist+ati,e po8e+ o,e+ bu+eaus an oces une+ his cont+ol to enable hi4 to ischa+7e his uties e5ecti,el%. 2; A4inist+ati,e po8e+ is conce+ne 8ith the 8o+6 of appl%in7 policies an enfo+cin7 o+e+s as ete+4ine b% p+ope+ A4inist+ati,e 7o,e+n4ental o+7ans. o+7ans. 21 /t enables the P+esient to < a unifo+4 stana+ of a4inist+ati,e ecienc% an chec6 the ocial conuct of his a7ents. 22 To this en' he can issue a4inist+ati,e o+e+s' +ules an +e7ulations. P+escinin7 P+esc inin7 f+o4 these p+ecepts' 8e hol that A.O. No. &;" in,ol,es a subIect that is not app+op+iat app+op+iate e to be co,e+e b% an a4inist+ati,e o+e+. An a4inist+ati,e o+e+ is3 Sec. &. A4inist+ati A4inist+ati,e ,e O+e+s.  Act Acts s of the P+esient 8hich +el +elate ate to pa+ticula+ aspects of 7o,e+n4ental 7o,e+n4ental ope+ation in pu+suance of his uties as a4inist+ati,e hea shall be p+o4ul7ate in a4inist+ati,e o+e+s. 2& An a4inist+ati,e o+e+ is an o+inance issue b% the P+esient 8hich +elates to speci<c aspects in the a4inist+ati,e ope+ation of 7o,e+n4ent. /t 4ust be in ha+4on% 8ith the la8 an shoul be fo+ the sole pu+pose of i4ple4entin7 the la8 an ca++%in7 out the le7islati,e polic%. 2H >e +eIect the a+7u4ent that A.O. No. &;" i4ple4ents the le7islati,e polic% of the A4inist+ati,e A4inist+ati,e Coe of 1(". The Coe is a 7ene+al la8 an 9inco+po+ates in a uni<e ocu4ent the 4aIo+ st+uctu+al' functional an p+oceu+al p+inciples of 7o,e+nance.9 2# an 9e4boies chan7es in a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e st+uctu+e an p+oceu+es p+oceu+es esi7ne to se+,e the people.9 2! The Coe is i,ie into se,en F Boo6s3 Boo6 / eals 8ith So,e+ei7nt% an Gene+al A4inist+ation' Boo6 // 8ith the -ist+ibution of Po8e+s of the th+ee b+anches of Go,e+n4ent' Boo6 /// on the Oce of the P+esient' Boo6 / on the Eecuti,e B+anch' Boo6  on Constitutional Co44issions' Boo6 / on National Go,e+n4ent Bu7etin7' an Boo6 // on A4inist+ati,e P+oceu+e. P+oceu+e. These Boo6s contain p+o,isi p+o,isions ons on the o+7ani:ati o+7ani:ation' on' po8e+s an 7ene+al a4inist+ation a4inist+atio n of the eecuti,e' le7islati, le7islati,e e an Iuicial b+anches of 7o,e+n4ent' the o+7ani:ation an a4inist+ation of  epa+t4ents' bu+eaus an oces une+ the eecuti,e b+anch' the o+7ani:ation an functions of the Constitutional Co44issions an othe+ constitutional constitutional boies' the +ules on the national 7o,e+n4ent bu7et' as 8ell as 7uieline fo+ the e ee+cise e+cise b% a4inist+ati,e a7encies of uasiDle7islati,e an uasiDIuicial po8e+s. The Coe co,e+s both the inte+nal a4inist+ation a4inist+atio n of 7o,e+n4ent' i.e' inte+nal o+7ani:ation' pe+sonnel an +ec+uit4ent' supe+,ision an iscipline' an the e5ects of the functions pe+fo+4e b% a4inist+ati,e ocials ocials on p+i,ate ini,iuals o+ pa+ties outsie 7o,e+n4ent. 2 /t cannot be si4plistica si4plisticall% ll% a+7ue that A.O. No. &;" 4e+el% i4ple4ents the A4inist+ati A4inist+ati,e ,e Coe of 1(". /t establishes fo+ the <+st ti4e a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence Refe+ence S%ste4. Such a S%ste4 +eui+es a elicate aIust4ent of ,a+ious contenin7 state policies  the p+i4ac% of national secu+it%' the etent of p+i,ac% inte+est a7ainst ossie+D7athe+in7 ossie+D7athe+in7 b% 7o,e+n4ent' the choice of policies' etc. /nee' the issent of M+ M+.. $ustice Meno:a states that the A.O. No. &;" in,ol,es the allDi4po+tant f+eeo4 f+eeo4 of thou7ht. As sai a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e o+e+ +ee<nes the pa+a4ete+s of so4e basic +i7hts of ou+ citi:en+% ,isDaD,is ,isDaD,is the State as 8ell as the line that sepa+ates the a4inist+ati,e po8e+ of the P+esient to 4a6e +ules an the le7islati,e po8e+ of Con7+ess' it ou7ht to be e,ient that it eals 8ith a subIect that shoul be co,e+e b% la8. No+ is it co++ect to a+7ue as the issente+s o that A.-. No. &;" is not a la8 because it confe+s no +i7ht' i4poses no ut%' a5o+s no p+octection' an c+eates no oce. Une+ A.O. No. &;"' a citi:en cannot t+ansact business 8ith 7o,e+n4ent a7encies eli,e+in7 basic se+,ices to the people 8ithout the conte4plate ienti<cation ca+. No citi:en 8ill +efuse to 7et this ienti<cation ca+ fo+ no one can a,oi ealin7 8ith 7o,e+n4ent. /t is thus clea+ as a%li7ht that 8ithout the /-' a citi:en 8ill ha,e icult% ee+cisin7 ee+cisin7 his +i7hts an enIo%in7 his p+i,ile7es. Gi,en this +ealit%' the contention that A.O. No. &;" 7i,es no +i7ht an i4poses no ut% cannot stan. A7ain' 8ith ue +espect' the issentin7 opinions unul% epan the li4its of a4inist+ati,e le7islation an conseuentl% e+oes the plena+% po8e+ of Con7+ess to 4a6e la8s. This is cont+a+% to the establishe app+oach e<nin7 the t+aitional li4its of a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e le7islation. As 8ell state b% *ishe+ *ishe+33 9. . . Man% +e7ulations ho8e,e+' bea+ i+ectl% on the public. /t is he+e that a4inist+ati,e le7islation 4ust he +est+icte in its scope an application. Re7ulations Re7ul ations a+e not suppose to be a substitute fo+ the 7ene+al polic%D4a6in7 that Con7+ess enacts in the fo+4 of a public la8. la8. Althou7h a4inist+ati, a4inist+ati,e e +e7ulations a+e entitle to +espect' the autho+it% to p+esc+ibe +ules an +e7ulations is not an inepenent sou+ce of po8e+ to 4a6e la8s.9 2" /// Assu4in7' a+7ueno' that A.O. A.O. No. &;" nee not be the subIect of a la8' still it cannot pass constitutional 4uste+ as an a4inist+ati,e a4inist+ati, e le7islation because faciall% it ,iolates the +i7ht to p+i,ac%. p+i,ac%. The essence of p+i,ac% is the 9+i7ht to be let alone.9 2( /n the 1(!# case of G+is8ol ,. Connecticut' &; the Unite States Sup+e4e Cou+t 7a,e 4o+e substance to the +i7ht p+i,ac% +ule that the +i7ht has a constitutional /t hel that the+e is&1 a +i7ht 8hich canofbe foun 8hen 8ithinitthe penu4b+as of the *i+st' Thi+' *ou+th'founation. * *ifth ifth an Ninth A4en4ents' ,i:3 of p+i,ac% Speci<c 7ua+antees in the Bill of Ri7hts ha,e penu4b+as fo+4e b% e4anations f+o4 these 7ua+antees that help 7i,e the4 life an substance . . . ,a+ious 7ua+antees c+eate :ones of p+i,ac%. The +i7ht of association containe in the penu4b+a of the *i+st A4en4ent is one' as 8e ha,e seen. The Thi+ A4en4ent in its p+ohibition a7ainst the ua+te+in7 of solie+s 9in an% house9 in ti4e of peace 8ithout the consent of the o8ne+ is anothe+ facet of that p+i,ac%.  The *ou+th *ou+th A4en4ent eplic eplicitl% itl% a+4s tthe he ==+i7ht of the people to be sec secu+e u+e in thei+ pe+sons' pe+sons' houses an e5ects'


a7ainst un+easonable sea+ches an sei:u+es.9 The *ifth A4en4ent in its SelfD/nc+i4ination SelfD/nc+i4ination Clause enables the citi:en to c+eate a :one of p+i,ac% 8hich 7o,e+n4ent 4a% not fo+ce hi4 to su++ene+ to his et+i4ent. The Ninth A4en4ent p+o,ies33 9The enu4e+ation in the Constitution' of ce+tain +i7hts' shall not be const+ue to en% o+ ispa+a7e othe+s p+o,ies +etaine b% the people.9 /n the 1(!" case of Mo+fe ,. Mutuc' &2 8e aopte the G+is8ol +ulin7 that the+e is a constitutional +i7ht to p+i,ac%. Spea6in7 th+u M+. $ustice' late+ Chief $ustice' En+iue *e+nano' 8e hel3 



 The G+is8ol case in,aliate a Co Connecticut nnecticut statute 8hich 4a 4ae e the use of cont+ace cont+acepti,es pti,es a c+i4inal o5 o5ence ence on the 7+oun of its a4ountin7 to an unconstitutional in,asion of the +i7ht of p+i,ac% of 4a++ie pe+sons +i7htfull% it st+esse 9a +elationship l%in7 8ithin the :one of p+i,ac% c+eate b% se,e+al funa4ental constitutional 7ua+antees.9 /t has 8ie+ i4plications thou7h. The constitutional +i7ht to p+i,ac% has co4e into its o8n. So it is li6e8ise li6e8ise in ou+ Iu+isiction. The +i7ht to p+i,ac% as such is acco+e +eco7nition inepenentl% of its ienti<cation 8ith libe+t% in itself' it is full% ese+,in7 of constitutional p+otection. The lan7ua7e of P+of P+of.. E4e+son is pa+ticula+l% pa+ticula+l % apt3 9The concept of li4ite 7o,e+n4ent has al8a%s inclue the iea that 7o,e+n4enta 7o,e+n4entall po8e+s stop sho+t of ce+tain int+usions into the pe+sonal life of the citi:en. This is inee one of the basic istinctions bet8een absolute an li4ite 7o,e+n4ent. Ulti4ate an pe+,asi,e cont+ol cont+ol of the ini,iual' in all aspects of his life' is the hall4a+6 of the absolute state. /n cont+ast' a s%ste4 of li4ite 7o,e+n4ent safe7ua+s a p+i,ate secto+' 8hich belon7s to the ini,iual' <+4l% istin7uishin7 it f+o4 the public secto+' 8hich the state can cont+ol. P+otection of this p+i,ate secto+  p+otection' in othe+ 8o+s' of the i7nit% an inte7+it% of the ini,iual  has beco4e inc+easin7l inc+easin7l% % i4po+tant as 4oe+n societ% has e,elope. All the fo+ces of a technolo7ical a7e  inust+iali:ation' u+bani:ation' an o+7ani:ation o+7ani:ati on  ope+ate to na++o8 the a+ea of p+i,ac% an facilitate int+usion into it. /n 4oe+n te+4s' the capacit% to 4aintain an suppo+t this encla,e of p+i,ate life 4a+6s the i5e+ence bet8een a e4oc+atic an a totalita+ian societ%.9 /nee' if 8e eten ou+ Iuicial 7a:e 8e 8ill <n that the +i7ht of p+i,ac% is +eco7ni:e an ensh+ine in se,e+al p+o,isions of ou+ Constitution. && /t is ep+essl% p+o,isions ep+essl% +eco7ni:e in section & 1F of the Bill of Ri7hts3 Sec. &. 1F The p+i,ac p+i,ac% % of co44unicati co44unication on an co++e co++esponence sponence shall be in,iol in,iolable able ecept ecept upon la8ful o+e+ o off the cou+t' o+ 8hen public safet% o+ o+e+ +eui+es othe+8ise as p+esc+ibe b% la8. Othe+ facets of the +i7ht to p+i,ac% a+e p+otecta in ,a+ious p+o,isi p+o,isions ons of the Bill of Ri7hts' ,i:3 &H Sec. 1. No pe+son shall be ep+ ep+i,e i,e of life' libe libe+t%' +t%' o+ p+ope+ p+ope+t% t% 8ithout ue p+oc p+ocess ess of la8' no+ sha shall ll an% pe+son be enie the eual p+otection of the la8s. Sec. 2. The +i7ht of the people to be se secu+e cu+e in thei+ pe+sons' pe+sons' houses pape+s' an e5 e5ects ects a7ainst un+easonable un+easonable sea+ches an sei:u+es of 8hate,e+ natu+e an fo+ an% pu+pose shall be in,iolable' an no sea+ch 8a++ant o+ 8a++ant of a++est a++e st shall issue ece ecept pt upon p+obable cause to be ete+4ine pe+sonall% b% the Iu7e afte+ ea4ination ea4ination une+ oath o+ a+4ation a+4ation of the co4plainant an the 8itnesses he 4a% p+ouce' an pa+ticula+l% esc+ibin7 the place to be sea+che an the pe+sons o+ thin7s to be sei:e. 



Sec. !. The libe+t% of abo aboe e an of chan7in7 the sa4e 8i 8ithin thin the li4its p+e p+esc+ibe sc+ibe b% la8 shal shalll not be i4pai+e i4pai+e  ecept upon la8ful o+e+ of the cou+t. Neithe+ shall the +i7ht to t+a,el be i4pai+e ec ecept ept in the inte+est of national secu+it% secu+it%'' public safet%' o+ public health as 4a% be p+o,ie b% la8 la8.. 



Sec. ". The +i7ht of the people' inc incluin7 luin7 those e4plo%e in the the public an p+i,ate secto+s' secto+s' to fo+4 uni unions' ons' associations' associatio ns' o+ societies fo+ pu+poses not cont+a+% to la8 shall not be ab+i7e. Se Sec. c. 1. 1.

No pe pe+s +son on shal shalll be be co4p co4pel elle le  tto ob be e a 8itn 8itnes ess sa a7a 7ain inst st hi hi4s 4sel elff.

?ones of p+i,ac% a+e li6e8ise +eco7ni:e +eco7ni:e an p+otecte in ou+ la8s. The Ci,il Coe p+o,ies that 9Le,e+% pe+son shall +espect the i7nit%' pe+sonalit%' p+i,ac% p+i,ac% an peace of 4in of his nei7hbo+s an othe+ pe+sons9 an punishes as actionable to+ts se,e+al acts b% a pe+son of 4elin7 an p+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+ anothe+.. &# /t also hols a public oce+ o+ e4plo%ee o+ an% p+i,ate ini,iual liable fo+ a4a7es fo+ an% ,iolation of the +i7hts an libe+ties of anothe+ pe+son' &! an +eco7ni:es the p+i,ac% of lette+s an othe+ p+i,ate co44unications. & The Re,ise Penal Coe 4a6es a c+i4e the ,iolation of sec+ets b% an oce+' &" the +e,elation of t+ae an inust+ial sec+ets' &( an t+espass to 8ellin7. H; /n,asion of p+i,ac% is an o5ense in special la8s li6e the AntiD> AntiD>i+etappin7 i+etappin7 )a8' H1 the Sec+ec% of Ban6 -eposits Act H2 an the /ntellectual P+ope+t% P+ope+t% Coe. H& The Rules of Cou+t on p+i,ile7e co44unication li6e8ise +eco7ni:e the p+i,ac% of ce+tain info+4ation. HH Unli6e the issente+s' 8e p+escin f+o4 the p+e4ise that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is a funa4ental +i7ht 7ua+antee b% the Unli6e Constitution' hence' it is the bu+en of 7o,e+n4ent to sho8 that A.O. No No.. &;" is Iusti<e b% so4e co4pellin7 state inte+est an that it is na++o8l% +a8n. A.O. A.O. No. &;" is p+eicate p+eicate  on t8o consie+ations3 1F the nee to p+o,ies ou+ citi:ens an fo+ei7ne+s 8ith the facilit% to con,enientl% t+ansact business 8ith basic se+,ice an social secu+it% p+o,ie+s p+o,ie+ s an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent inst+u4entalities an 2F the nee to +euce' if not totall% e+aicate' f+auulent t+ansactions an 4is+ep+esentations 4is+ep+esentations b% pe+sons see6in7 basic se+,ices. /t is ebatable 8hethe+ these inte+ests a+e co4pellin7 enou7h to 8a++ant the issuance of A.O. No. &;". But 8hat is not a+7uable is the b+oaness' the ,a7ueness' the o,e+b+eath of A.O. No. &;" 8hich if i4ple4ente 8ill put ou+ people=s +i7ht to p+i,ac% in clea+ an p+esent an7e+ an7e+..  The hea+t of A.O. A.O. No. &;" li lies es in its Section H 8hi 8hich ch p+o,ie p+o,ies s fo+ a Popul Population ation Refe Refe+ence +ence Nu4be+ PRN PRNFF as a 9co44on +efe+ence +efe+ ence nu4be+ to establish a lin6a7e a4on7 conce+ne a7encies9 th+ou7h the use of 9Bio4et+ics T Technolo7%9 echnolo7%9 an 9co4pute+ application esi7ns.9 Bio4et+% o+ bio4et+ics is 9the science of the applicatin of statistical 4ethos to biolo7ical facts a 4athe4atical anal%sis of biolo7ical ata.9 H# The te+4 9bio4et+ics 9bio4et+ics99 has e,ol,e into a b+oa cate7o+% of technolo7ies 8hich p+o,ie


p+ecise con<+4ation con<+4ation of an ini,iual=s ientit% th+ou7h the use of the ini,iual=s o8n ph%siolo7ica ph%siolo7icall an beha,io+al cha+acte+istics. cha+acte+is tics. H! A ph%siolo7ical cha+acte+istic is a +elati, +elati,el% el% stable ph%sical cha+acte+ist cha+acte+istic ic such as a <n7e+p+int' +etinal scan' han 7eo4et+% o+ facial featu+es. A beha,io+al cha+acte+istic cha+acte+istic is inuence b% the ini,iual=s pe+sonalit% an inclues ,oice p+int' si7natu+e an 6e%st+o6e. 6e%st+o6e. H Most bio4et+ic ien<cation s%ste4s use a ca+ o+ pe+sonal ienti<catin nu4be+ P/NF fo+ initial ienti<cation. The bio4et+ic 4easu+e4ent is use to ,e+if% that the ini,iual holin7 the ca+ o+ ente+in7 the P/N is the le7iti4ate o8ne+ of the ca+ o+ P/N. H" A 4ost co44on fo+4 of biolo7ical encoin7 is <n7e+Dscannin7 8he+e technolo7% technolo7% scans a <n7e+tip an tu+ns the uniue patte+n the+ein into an ini,iual nu4be+ 8hich is calle a bioc+%pt. The bioc+%pt is sto+e in co4pute+ ata ban6s H( an beco4es a 4eans of ientif%in7 an ini,iual usin7 a se+,ice. This technolo7% +eui+es one=s <n7e+tip to be scanne e,e+% ti4e se+,ice o+ access is p+o,ie. #; Anothe+ 4etho is the +etinal scan. Retinal Retinal scan technolo7% e4plo%s optical technolo7% to 4ap the capilla+% patte+n of the +etina of the e%e. This technolo7% p+ouces a uniue p+int si4ila+ to a <n7e+ p+int. #1 Anothe+ bio4et+ic 4etho is 6no8n as the 9a+ti<cial nose.9 This e,ice che4ica che4icall% ll% anal%:es the uniue co4bination of substances ec+ete ec+ete f+o4 the s6in of people. #2 The latest on the list of bio4et+ic achie,e4ents is the the+4o7+a4. Scientists ha,e foun that b% ta6in7 pictu+es of a face usin7 inf+aD+e ca4e+as' a uniue heat ist+ibution patte+n is seen. The i5e+ent ensities of bone' s6in' fat an bloo ,essels all cont+ibute to the ini,iual=s pe+sonal 9heat si7natu+e.9 #& /n the last fe8 ecaes' technolo7% has p+o7+esse at a 7allopin7 +ate. So4e science <ctions a+e no8 science facts.  T  Toa%' oa%' bio4et+ics is no lon7e+ li4ite to the us use e of <n7e+p+int to ientif ientif% % an ini,iual. /t is a ne8 science that uses ,a+ious technolo7ies in encoin7 an% an all biolo7ical cha+acte+istics cha+acte+istics of an ini,iual fo+ ienti<cation. /t is note8o+th% that A.O. No. &;" oes not state 8hat speci<c biolo7ical cha+acte+istics an 8hat pa+ticula+ bio4et+ics technolo7% shall be use to ientif% people 8ho 8ill see6 its co,e+a7e. Consie+in7 the banuest of options a,ailable to the i4ple4ento+s of A.O. No. &;"' the fea+ that it th+eatens the +i7ht to p+i,ac% of ou+ people is not 7+ounless. A.O.. No. &;" shoul also +aise ou+ antennas fo+ a fu+the+ loo6 8ill sho8 that it oes not state 8hethe+ encoin7 of ata A.O is li4ite to biolo7ical info+4ation alone fo+ ienti<cation pu+poses. /n fact' the Solicito+ Gene+al clai4s that the aoption of the /enti<cation Refe+ence S%ste4 8ill cont+ibute to the 97ene+ation of population ata fo+ e,elop4ent plannin7.9 #H This is an a4ission that the PRN 8ill not be use solel% fo+ ienti<cation but the 7ene+ation of othe+ ata 8ith +e4ote +elation to the a,o8e pu+poses of A.O. No. &;". Clea+l%' the ine<niteness of A.O. No. &;" can 7i,e the 7o,e+n4ent the +o,in7 autho+it% to sto+e an +et+ie,e info+4ation fo+ a pu+pose othe+ than the ienti<cation of the ini,iual th+ou7h his PRN.  The potential fo+ 4isuse 4isuse of the ata to be 7athe+ 7athe+e e une+ A.O A.O.. No. &;" canno cannott be una+pla%e as the isse issente+s nte+s o. Pu+suant to sai a4inist+ati,e o+e+' an ini,iual 4ust p+esent his PRN e,e+%ti4e he eals 8ith a 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% to a,ail of basic se+,ices an secu+it% secu+it%.. 0is t+ansactions 8ith the 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% 8ill necessa+il% be +eco+e +eco+ e  8hethe+ it be in the co4pute+ o+ in the ocu4enta+% <le of the a7enc%. a7enc%. The ini,iual=s <le 4a% inclue his t+ansactions fo+ loan a,ail4ents' inco4e ta +etu+ns' state4ent of assets an liabilities' +ei4bu+se4ents fo+ 4eication' hospitali:ation' hospitali:ation' etc. The 4o+e f+euent the use of the PRN' the bette+ the chance of builin7 a hu7e fo+4iable fo+4iabl e info+4atin base th+ou7h the elect+o elect+onic nic lin6a7e of the <les. ## The ata 4a% be 7athe+e fo+ 7ainful an useful 7o,e+n4ent pu+poses but the eistence of this ,ast +ese+,oi+ of pe+sonal info+4ation constitutes a co,e+t in,itation to 4isuse' a te4ptation that 4a% be too 7+eat fo+ so4e of ou+ autho+ities to +esist. #! >e can e,en 7+ant' a+7ueno' that the co4pute+ ata <le 8ill be li4ite to the na4e' a+ess an othe+ basic pe+sonal info4ation about the ini,iual. # E,en that hospitable assu4ption 8ill not sa,e A.O. No. &;" f+o4 constitutional in<+4it% in<+4it% fo+ a7ain sai o+e+ oes not tell us in clea+ an cate7o+ical te+4s ho8 these info+4ati info+4ation on 7athe+e shall he hanle. /t oes not p+o,ie 8ho shall cont+ol cont+ol an access the ata' une+ 8hat ci+cu4stances an fo+ 8hat pu+pose. These facto+s a+e essential to safe7ua+ the p+i,ac% an 7ua+ant% the inte7+it% of the info+4at info+4ation. ion. #" >ell to note' the co4pute+ lin6a7e 7i,es othe+ 7o,e+n4ent a7encies access to the info+4ati info+4ation. on. @et' @et' the+e a+e no cont+ols to 7ua+ a7ainst lea6a7e of info+4ation. >hen the access coe of the cont+ol p+o7+a4s of the pa+ticula+ co4pute+ s%ste4 is b+o6en' b+o6en' an int+ue+' 8ithout fea+ of sanction o+ penalt%' can 4a6e use of the ata fo+ 8hate,e+ pu+pose' o+ 8o+se' 4anipulate the ata sto+e 8ithin the s%ste4. #( /t is plain an 8e hol that A.O. No. &;" falls sho+t of assu+in7 that pe+sonal info+4a info+4ation tion 8hich 8ill be 7athe+e about ou+ people 8ill onl% be p+ocesse p+ocesse fo+ uneui,ocall% speci<e pu+poses. !; The lac6 of p+ope+ safe7ua+s in this +e7a+ of A.O. No. &;" 4a% inte+fe+e 8ith the ini,iual=s libe+t% of aboe an t+a,el b% enablin7 autho+ities to t+ac6 o8n his 4o,e4ent it 4a% also enable unsc+upulous pe+sons to access con<ential info+4ation an ci+cu4,ent the +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination selfDinc+i4ination it 4a% pa,e the 8a% fo+ 9<shin7 epeitions9 b% 7o,e+n4ent autho+ities an e,ae the +i7ht a7ainst un+easonable sea+ches sea+ches an sei:u+es. !1 The possibilities of abuse an 4isuse of the PRN' bio4et+ics an co4pute+ technolo7% a+e accentuate 8hen 8e consie+ that the ini,iual lac6s cont+ol o,e+ 8hat can be +ea o+ place on his /-' 4uch less ,e+if% the co++ectness of the ata encoe. !2 The% th+eaten the ,e+% abuses that the Bill of Ri7hts see6s to p+e,ent. !&  The abilit% of sophisticate sophisticate ata cente+ to 7 7ene+ate ene+ate a co4p+ehensi,e co4p+ehensi,e c+aleDtoD7+a, c+aleDtoD7+a,e e ossie+ on an ini, ini,iual iual an t+ans4it it o,e+ a national net8o+6 is one of the 4ost 7+aphic th+eats of the co4pute+ +e,olution. !H The co4pute+ is capable of p+oucin7 a co4p+ehensi,e ossie+ on ini,iuals out of info+4ation 7i,en at i5e+ent ti4es an fo+ ,a+ie pu+poses. !# /t can continue ain7 to the sto+e ata an 6eepin7 the info+4ation up to ate. Ret+ie,al of sto+e ate is si4ple. >hen info+4ation of a p+i,ile7e cha+acte+ <ns its 8a% into the co4pute+' it can be et+acte to7ethe+ 8ith othe+ ata on the subIect. !! Once et+acte' the info+4ati info+4ation on is putt% in the hans of an% pe+son. The en of p+i,ac% be7ins.  Thou7h A.O. A.O. No. &;" is unoubtel% not na++ na++o8l% o8l% +a8n' the iss issentin7 entin7 opinions 8oul is4iss is4iss its an7e+ to the +i +i7ht 7ht to p+i,ac% as speculati,e an h%pothetical. A7ain' 8e cannot countenance such a laibac6 postu+e. The Cou+t 8ill not be t+ue to its +ole as the ulti4ate 7ua+ian of the people=s libe+t% if it 8oul not i44eiatel% s4othe+ the spa+6s that enan7e+ thei+ +i7hts but 8oul +athe+ 8ait fo+ the <+e that coul consu4e the4. >e +eIect +eIect the a+7u4ent of the Solicito+ Gene+al that an ini,iual has a +easonable epectation epectation of p+i,ac% 8ith +e7a+ +e7a+  to the Natioal /- an the use of bio4et+ics technolo7% as it stans on uic6san. The +easonableness of a pe+son=s epectation of p+i,ac% epens on a t8oDpa+t test3 1F 8hethe+ b% his conuct' the ini,iual has ehibite an epectation of p+i,ac% an 2F 8hethe+ this epectation is one that societ% +eco7ni:e +eco7ni:es s as +easonable. ! The factual ci+cu4stances ci+cu4s tances of the case ete+4ines the +easonableness of the epectation. !" 0o8e,e+' othe+ facto+s' such as custo4s' ph%sical su++ounin7s su++ounin7s an p+actices of a pa+ticula+ acti,it%' 4a% se+,e to c+eate o+ i4inish this epectation.


!( The use of bio4et+ics an co4pute+ technolo7% in A.O. No. &;" oes not assu+e the ini,iual of a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%. ; As technolo7% a,ances' the le,el of +easonabl% epecte p+i,ac% ec+eases. 1 The 4easu+e of p+otection 7+ante b% the +easonable epecta epectation tion i4inishes as +ele,ant technolo7% beco4es 4o+e 8iel% accepte. 2 The secu+it% of the co4pute+ ata <le epens not onl% on the ph%sical inaccessibilit% of the <le but also on the a,ances in ha+8a+e an soft8a+e co4pute+ technolo7%. A.O. No. &;" is so 8iel% +a8n that a 4ini4u4 stana+ fo+ a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%' +e7a+less of technolo7% use' cannot be infe++ infe++e e f+o4 its p+o,isions.  The +ules an +e7ulations +e7ulations to be b% the /A /ACC CC cannot +e4e +e4e% % this fatal efec efect. t. Rules an ++e7ulations e7ulations 4e+el% 4e+el% i4ple4ent the polic% of the la8 o+ o+e+. On its face' A.O. No. 7i,es the /ACC ,i+tuall% infette+e isc+etion to ete+4ine the 4etes an bouns of the /- S%ste4. No+ o %ou+ p+esent la8s p+,ie aeuate safe7ua+s fo+ a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%. Co44on8ealth Act. No. #(1 penali:es the isclosu+e b% an% pe+son of ata fu+nishe b% the ini,iual to the NSO 8ith i4p+ison4ent an <ne. & Republic Act. No. 11!1 p+ohibits public isclosu+e isclosu+e of SSS e4plo%4ent +eco+ +eco+s s an +epo+ts. H These la8s' ho8e,e+' appl% to +eco+s an ata 8ith the NSO an the SSS. /t is not clea+ 8hethe+ the% 4a% be applie to ata 8ith the othe+ 7o,e+n4ent a7encies fo+4in7 pa+t of the National /- S%ste4. The nee to cla+if% the penal aspect of A.O. No. &;" is anothe+ +eason 8h% its enact4ent shoul be 7i,en to Con7+ess. Net' the Solicito+ Gene+al u+7es us to ,aliate A.O A.O.. No. &;"=s ab+i74ent of the +i7ht of p+i,ac% b% usin7 the +ational +elationship +elatio nship test. # 0e st+esse that the pu+poses of A.O. No. &;" a+e3 a+e3 1F to st+ea4line an spee up the i4ple4entation of basic 7o,e+n4ent se+,ices' 2F e+aicate f+au b% a,oiin7 uplication of se+,ices' an &F 7ene+ate population ata fo+ e,elop4ent plannin7. 0e coclues that these pu+poses Iustif% the incu+sions into the +i7ht to p+i,ac% fo+ the 4eans a+e +ationall% +elate +elate to the en. ! >e a+e not i4p+esse b% the a+7u4ent. /n Mo+fe ,. ,. Mutuc'  8e uphel the constitutional constitutionalit% it% of R.A. &;1(' the AntiD G+aft an Co++upt P+actices Act' as a ,ali police po8e+ 4easu+e. >e ecla+e ecla+e that the la8' in co4pellin7 a public oce+ to 4a6e an annual +epo+t isclosin7 his assets an liabilities' his sou+ces of inco4e an epenses' i not inf+in7e on the ini,iual=s +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.. The la8 8as enacte to p+o4ote 4o+alit% in public a4inist+ation b% cu+tailin7 an 4ini4i:in7 the oppo+tunities fo+ ocial co++uption co++uption an 4aintainin7 a stana+ of honest% in the public se+,ice. "  The sa4e ci+cu4stances ci+cu4stances o not obtai obtain n in the case at ba+. ba+. *o+ one' R R.A. .A. &;1( is a statute' not an a4inist+ati,e a4inist+ati,e o+e+. o+e+. Seconl%' R.A. &;1( itself is sucientl% etaile. The la8 is clea+ on 8hat p+actices 8e+e p+ohibite an penali:e' an it 8as na++o8l% +a8n +a8n to a,oi abuses. /N the case at ba+' A.O. No. &;" 4a% ha,e been i4pelle b% a 8o+th% pu+pose' but' it cannot pass constitutional sc+utin% fo+ it is not na++o8l% +a8n. An 8e no8 ho that 8hen the inte7+it% of a funa4ental +i7ht is at sta6e' this cou+t 8ill 7i,e the challen7e la8' a4inist+ati,e o+e+' +ule o+ +e7ulation a st+icte+ sc+utin%. /t 8ill not o fo+ the autho+ities to in,o6e the p+esu4ption of +e7ula+it% in the pe+fo+4ance of ocial uties. No+ is it enou7h fo+ the autho+ities to p+o,e that thei+ act is not i++ational fo+ a basic +i7ht can be i4inishe' if not efeate' e,en 8hen the 7o,e+n4ent oes not act i++ationa i++ationall% ll%.. The% 4ust satisfacto+ satisfacto+il% il% sho8 the p+esence of co4pellin7 state inte+ests an that the la8' +ule o+ +e7ulation is na++o8l% +a8n to p+eclue abuses. This app+oach is e4ane b% the 1(" Constitution 8hose enti+e 4at+i is esi7ne to p+otect hu4an +i7hts an to p+e,ent autho+ita+ianis4. autho+ita+ia nis4. /n case of oubt' the least 8e can o is to lean to8a+s the stance that 8ill not put in an7e+ the +i7hts p+otecte b% the Constitutions.  The case of >halen >halen ,. ,. Roe ( cite b% the Solicit Solicito+ o+ Gene+al is also o o5Dline. 5Dline. /n >halen' the Unit Unite e States Sup+e4e Cou+t Cou+t 8as p+esente 8ith the uestion of 8hethe+ the State of Ne8 @o+6 coul 6eep a cent+ali:e co4pute+ +eco+ of the na4es an a+esses of all pe+sons 8ho obtaine ce+tain +u7s pu+suant to a octo+=s p+esc+iption. p+esc+iption. The Ne8 @o+6 @o+6 State Cont+olle Substance Act of 1(2 +eui+e ph%sicians to ientif% pa+ties obtainin7 p+esc+iption +u7s enu4e+ate in the statute' i.e.' +u7s 8ith a +eco7ni:e 4eical use but 8ith a potential fo+ abuse' so that the na4es an a+esses of the patients can be +eco+e in a cent+ali:e co4pute+ <le of the State -epa+t4ent of 0ealth. The plainti5s' 8ho 8e+e patients an octo+s' clai4e that so4e people 4i7ht ecline necessa+% 4eication because of thei+ fea+ that the co4pute+i:e ata 4a% be +eail% a,ailable a,ailable an open to public isclosu+e isclosu+e an that once isclose' it 4a% sti74ati:e the4 as +u7 aicts. "; The plainti5s alle7e that the statute in,ae a constitutionall% p+otecte :one of p+i,ac%' i.e.' the ini,iual inte+est in a,oiin7 isclosu+e of pe+sonal 4atte+s' an the inte+est in inepenence in 4a6in7 ce+tain 6ins of i4po+tant ecisions. The U.S. Sup+e4e Cou+t hel that 8hile an ini,iual=s inte+est in a,oiin7 isclosue+ of pe+sonal 4atte+ is an aspect of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' the statute i not pose a 7+ie,ous th+eat to establish a constitutional ,iolation. ,iolation. The Cou+t foun that the statute 8as necessa+% to ai in the enfo+ce4ent enfo+ce4 ent of la8s esi7ne to 4ini4i:e the 4isuse of an7e+ous +u7s. The patientDienti<cati patientDienti<cation on +eui+e4ent 8as a p+ouct of an o+e+l% an +ational le7islati,e ecision 4ae upon +eco444enation b% a speciall% appointe co44ission 8hich hel etensi,e hea+in7s on the 4atte+. 4atte+. Mo+eo,e+' the statute 8as na++o8l% +a8n an containe nu4e+ous safe7ua+s safe7ua+s a7ainst inisc+i4inate isclosu+e. The statute lai o8n the p+oceu+e an +eui+e4ents fo+ the 7athe+in7' sto+a7e an +et+ie,al of the info+4atin. /t ebu4e+ate 8ho 8e+e autho+i:e to access the ata. /t also p+ohibite public isclosu+e of the ata b% i4posin7 penalties fo+ its ,iolation. /n ,ie8 of these safe7ua+s' the inf+in7e4ent of the patients= +i7ht to p+i,ac% 8as Iusti<e b% a ,ali ee+cise of police po8e+. As 8e iscusse abo,e' A.O. No. &;" lac6s these ,ital safe7ua+s. E,en 8hile 8e st+i6e o8n A.O. A.O. No. &;"' 8e spell out in neon that the Cou+t is not pe+ se a7ains the use of co4pute+s to accu4ulate' sto+e' p+ocess' +et,ie,e an t+ans4it ata to i4p+o,e ou+ bu+eauc+ac%. Co4pute+s 8o+6 8one+s to achie,e the ecienc% 8hich both 7o,e+n4ent an p+i,ate inust+% see6. Man% info+4ation s%ste4 in i5e+ent count+ies 4a6e use of the co4pute+ to facilitate i4po+tant social obIecti,e' such as bette+ la8 enfo+ce4ent' faste+ eli,e+% of public se+,ices' 4o+e ecient 4ana7e4ent of c+eit an insu+ance p+o7+a4s' i4p+o, i4p+o,e4ent e4ent of teleco44unications teleco44unic ations an st+ea4li st+ea4linin7 nin7 of <nancial acti,ities. "1 Use 8isel%' ata sto+e in the co4pute+ coul help 7oo a4inist+ation b% 4a6in7 accu+ate an co4p+ehensi co4p+ehensi,e ,e info+4ation fo+ those 8ho ha,e to f+a4e polic% an 4a6e 6e% ecisions. ecisions. "2 The bene<ts of the co4pute+ has +e,olutioni:e info+4ation technolo7%. /t e,elope the inte+net' "& int+ouce the concept c%be+space "H all an the info+4ation the ini,iual' a+4e onl% 8ith histo pe+sonal co4pute+' 4a%ofsu+f an sea+ch 6ins an classes supe+hi7h8a% of info+4at info+4ation ion 8he+e f+o4 lib+a+ies an atabases connecte the net. /n no unce+tain te+4s' 8e also une+sco+e that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% oes not ba+ all incu+sions into ini,iual p+i,ac% p+i,ac%..  The +i7ht is not intene intene to stie scienti<c an tec technolo7ical hnolo7ical a,ance4 a,ance4ents ents that enhance public se+,ice se+,ice an the co44on 7oo. /t 4e+el% +eui+es that the la8 be na++o8l% focuse "# an a co4pellin7 inte+est Iustif% such int+usions. "! /nt+usions into the +i7ht 4ust be acco4panie b% p+ope+ safe7ua+s an 8ellDe<ne stana+s to p+e,ent


unconstitutional in,asions. >e >e +eite+ate that an% la8 o+ o+e+ that in,aes ini,iual p+i,ac% 8ill be subIecte b% this Cou+t to st+ict sc+utin%. The +eason fo+ this stance 8as lai o8n in Mo+fe ,. Mutuc' to 8it3  The concept of li4ite li4ite 7o,e+n4ent has al al8a%s 8a%s inclue the ie iea a that 7o,e+n4ental po8 po8e+s e+s stop sho+t of ce+tain ce+tain int+usions into the pe+sonal life of the citi:en. This is inee one of the basic isctinctions bet8een absolute an li4ite 7o,e+n4ent. 7o,e+n4ent. Ulti4ate an pe+,asi,e cont+ol of the ini,iual' in all aspects of his life' is the hall4a+6 of the absolute state. /n cont+ast' a s%ste4 of li4ite 7o,e+n4ent safe7ua+s a p+i,ate secto+' 8hich belon7s to the ini,iual' <+4l% istin7uishin7 it f+o4 the public secto+' 8hich the state can cont+ol. P+ot P+otection ection of this p+i,ate secto+  p+otection' p+otecti on' in othe+ 8o+s' of the i7nit% an inte7+it% of the ini,iual  has beco4e inc+easi inc+easin7l% n7l% i4po+tant as 4oe+n societ% has e,elope. All the fo+ces fo+ces of a technolo7ical a7e  inust+iali:ati inust+iali:ation' on' u+bani:ation' an o+7ani:ation o+7ani:ation  ope+ate to na++o8 the a+ea of p+i,ac% an facilitate int+usion into it. /n 4oe+n te+4s' the capacit% to 4aintain an suppo+t this encla,e of p+i,ate life 4a+6s the i5e+ence bet8een a e4oc+atic an a totalita+ian societ%. " /  The +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac% is one of the 4ost th+ th+eatene eatene +i7hts of 4an li li,in7 ,in7 in a 4ass societ% societ%.. The th+eats e4anate f+o4 f+o4 ,a+ious sou+ces  7o,e+n4ents' Iou+nalists' Iou+nalists' e4plo%e+s' social scientists' etc. "" /n th case at ba+' the th+eat co4es f+o4 the eecuti,e b+anch of 7o,e+n4ent 8hich b% issuin7 A.O. No. &;" p+essu+es the people to su++ene+ thei+ p+i,ac% b% 7i,in7 info+4ation about the4sel,es on the p+ete p+etett that it 8ill facilitate eli,e+% of basic se+,ices. Gi,en the +eco+D6eepin7 +eco+ D6eepin7 po8e+ of the co4pute+' onl% the ini5e+ent fail to pe+cei, pe+cei,e e the an7e+ that A.O. No. &;" 7i,es the 7o,e+n4ent the po8e+ to co4pile a e,astatin7 ossie+ a7ainst unsuspectin7 citi:ens. /t is ti4el% to ta6e note of the 8ellD8o+e 8ellD8o+ e 8a+nin7 of Kal,in' $+.' 9the istu+bin7 +esult coul be that e,e+%one 8ill li,e bu+ene b% an une+asable +eco+ +eco+  of his past an his li4itations. /n a 8a%' the th+eat is that because of its +eco+D6eepin7' +eco+D6eepin7' the societ% 8ill ha,e lost its beni7n capacit% to fo+7et.9 "( Obli,ious to this counsel' the issents still sa% 8e shoul not be too uic6 in labellin7 the +i7ht to p+i,ac% as a funa4ental +i7ht. >e close 8ith the state4ent that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% 8as not en7+a,e in ou+ Constitution fo+ atte+%. /N /E> >0EREO*' the petition is 7+ante an A4inis+ati A4inis+ati,e ,e O+e+ No. &;" entitle 9Aoption of a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence Refe+ence S%ste49 ecla+e null an ,oi fo+ bein7 unconstitutional unconstitutional.. SO OR-ERE-.

  Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BAN G.R. No. 1H&H;

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PRES/-ENT/A) COMM/SS/ON ON GOO- GOERNMENT PCGGF an CAM/)O ). SAB/O' Chai+4an' NARC/SO S. NAR/O' R/CAR-O M. ABCE-E' TERESO ). $A/ER an N/CAS/O A. CONT/' Co44issione+s' MANUE) AN-A) an $U)/O $A)AN-ON/' PCGG no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' petitione+s' ,s. R/C0AR- GOR-ON' in his capacit% as Chai+4an' an MEMBERS O* T0E COMM/TTEE ON GOERNMENT CORPORAT/ONS AN- PUB)/C ENTERPR/SES' MEMBERS O* T0E COMM/TTEE ON PUB)/C SER/CES' SENATOR $UAN PONCEDENR/)E' in his capacit% as 4e4be+ of both sai Co44ittees' MANUE) /))AR' Senate P+esient' T0E SENATE SERGEANTDATDARMS' an SENATE O* T0E P0/)/PP/NES' +esponents.  DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD  G.R. No. 1H1

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P0/)COMSAT 0O)-/NGS CORPORAT/ONS' P0/)/P G. BRO-ETT' )U/S K. )OK/N' $R.' ROBERTO . SAN $OSE' -E)*/N P. ANGCAO' ROBERTO ). ABA-' A)MA KR/ST/NA A)OBBA' an [email protected] TAN' petitione+s' ,s. SENATE COMM/TTEE ON GOERNMENT CORPORAT/ONS an PUB)/C ENTERPR/SES' its MEMBERS an C0A/RMAN' the 0ONORAB)E SENATOR R/C0AR- GOR-ON an SENATE COMM/TTEE ON PUB)/C SER/CES' its Me4be+s an Chai+4an' the 0ONORAB)E SENATOR  $OKER P. ARRO [email protected]' @O' +espon +esponents. ents. -EC/S/ON

SAN-OA)DGUT/ERRE?' $.3  T8o  T8o ecae ecaes s a7o' on * *eb+ua+% eb+ua+% 2" 2"'' 1("!' fo+ fo+4e+ 4e+ P+ P+esient esient Co+ Co+a:on a:on C. A Auino uino inst installe alle he+ +e7i4e b% issuin7 E Eecuti,e ecuti,e O+ O+e+ e+ E.O E.O.F .F No. 1'1 c+eatin7 the P+esiential Co44ission on Goo Go,e+n4ent PCGGF. She ent+uste upon this Co44ission the he+culean tas6 of +eco,e+in7 the illD7otten 8ealth accu4ulate b% the epose P+esient *e+inan E. Ma+cos' his fa4il%' +elati,es' subo+inates an close associates.2 Section H bF of E.O. No. 1 p+o,ies that3 9No 4e4be+ o+ sta5 of the Co44ission shall be +eui+e to testif% o+


p+ouce e,ience in an% Iuicial' le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7 conce+nin7 4atte+s 8ithin its ocial co7ni:ance.9 Appa+entl%' the pu+pose is to ensu+e PCGG=s unha4pe+e pe+fo+4ance of its tas6.&  Toa%'  Toa%' the co constitutiona nstitutionalit% lit% of Secti Section on HbF is bei bein7 n7 uestio uestione ne on the 7+oun that it t+a4ples t+a4ples upon the Senate=s po po8e+ 8e+ to con conuct uct le7islati,e inui+% une+ A+ticle /' Section 21 of the 1(" Constitution' 8hich +eas3  The Senate Senate o+ the 0 0ouse ouse of R Rep+ese ep+esentati,es ntati,es o+ a an% n% of its ++especti,e especti,e c co44ittees o44ittees 4a% conuct in inui+ies ui+ies in ai of le le7islation 7islation iin n acco+ance 8ith its ul% publishe +ules of p+oceu+e. The +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte.  The facts a+e a+e uni unispute. spute. On *eb+ua+% 2;' 2;;!' Senato+ Mi+ia4 -efenso+ Santia7o int+ouce Philippine Senate Resolution No. H## Senate Res. No. H##F'H 9i+ectin7 an inui+% in ai of le7islation on the ano4alous losses incu++e b% the Philippines O,e+seas Teleco44unications Co+po+ation POTCF' Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation P0/)COMSATF' an P0/)COMSAT 0olin7s Co+po+ation P0CF ue to the alle7e i4p+op+ieties in thei+ ope+ations b% thei+ +especti,e Boa+ of -i+ecto+s.9  The pe+tinent pe+tinent po+tio po+tions ns of the R Resolutio esolution n +ea3 >0EREAS' in the last ua+te+ of 2;;#' the +ep+esentation an ente+tain4ent epense of the P0C s6%+oc6ete to PH.& 4illion' as co4pa+e to the p+e,ious %ea+=s 4e+e P1;! thousan >0EREAS' so4e boa+ 4e4be+s establishe 8holl% o8ne P0C subsiia+% calle Teleco44unications Cente+' /nc. TC/F' 8he+e P0C funs a+e alle7el% siphone in 1" 4onths' o,e+ P& 4illion ha been alle7el% a,ance to TC/ 8ithout an% accountabilit% +epo+t 7i,en to P0C an P0/)COMSAT >0EREAS' the Philippine Sta+' in its 12 *eb+ua+% 2;;2 issue +epo+te that the eecuti,e co44ittee of Philco4sat has p+ecipitatel% +elease P2!# 4illion an 7+ante P12# 4illion loan to a +elati,e of an eecuti,e co44ittee 4e4be+ to ate the+e ha,e been no pa%4ents 7i,en' subIectin7 the co4pan% to an esti4ate inte+est inco4e loss of P11.2# 4illion in 2;;H >0EREAS' the+e is an u+7ent nee to p+otect the inte+est of the Republic of the Philippines in the P0C' P0/)COMSAT' an POTC f+o4 an% ano4alous t+ansaction' an to conse+,e o+ sal,a7e an% +e4ainin7 ,alue of the 7o,e+n4ent=s euit% position in these co+po+ations f+o4 an% abuses of po8e+ one b% thei+ +especti,e boa+ of i+ecto+s >0ERE*ORE' be it +esol,e that the p+ope+ Senate Co44ittee shall conuct an inui+% in ai of le7islation' on the ano4alous losses incu++e b% the Philippine O,e+seas Teleco44unications Co+po+ation POTCF' Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation P0/)COMSATF' an Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ations P0CF ue to the alle7e i4p+op+ieties in the ope+ations b% thei+ +especti,e boa+ of i+ecto+s. Aopte. S7F M/R/AM -E*ENSOR SANT/AGO On the sa4e ate' *eb+ua+% 2;' 2;;!' Senate Res. No. H## 8as sub4itte to the Senate an +efe++e to the Co44ittee on Accountabilit% of Public Oce+s an /n,esti7ations an Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices. 0o8e,e+' on Ma+ch 2"' 2;;!' upon 4otion of Senato+ *+ancis N. Pan7ilinan' it 8as t+ansfe++e to the Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises.# On Ma% "' 2;;!' Chief of Sta5 Rio C. /nocencio' une+ the autho+it% of Senato+ Richa+ $. Go+on' 8+ote Chai+4an Ca4ilo ). Sabio of the PCGG' one of the he+ein petitione+s' in,itin7 hi4 to be one of the +esou+ce pe+sons in the public 4eetin7 Iointl% conucte b% the Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices. The pu+pose of the public 4eetin7 8as to elibe+ate on Senate Res. No. H##.! On Ma% (' 2;;!' Chai+4an Sabio ecline the in,itation because of p+io+ co44it4ent. At the sa4e ti4e' he in,o6e Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 ea+lie+ uote. On Au7ust 1;' 2;;!' Senato+ Go+on issue a Subpoena A Testi<canu4'" app+o,e b% Senate P+esient Manuel illa+' +eui+in7 Chai+4an Sabio an PCGG Co44issione+s Rica+o Abcee' Nicasio Conti' Te+eso $a,ie+ an Na+ciso Na+io to appea+ in the public hea+in7 scheule on Au7ust 2&' 2;;! an testif% on 8hat the% 6no8 +elati,e to the 4atte+s speci<e in Senate Res. No. H##. Si4ila+ subpoenae 8e+e issue a7ainst the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' na4el%3 Benito . A+aneta' Philip $. B+oett' En+iue ). )ocsin' Manuel -. Anal' Robe+to ). Aba' )uis K. )o6in' $+.' $ulio $. $alanoni' Robe+to . San $ose' -el<n P. An7cao' Al4a K+istina Alloba an $ohnn% Tan.( A7ain' Chai+4an Sabio +efuse to appea+. /n his lette+ to Senato+ Go+on ate Au7ust 1"' 2;;!' he +eite+ate his ea+lie+ position' in,o6in7 Section HbF of E.O. No. 1. On the othe+ han' the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation +elie on the position pape+ the% p+e,iousl% <le' 8hich +aise issues on the p+op+iet% of le7islati,e inui+%.  The+eafte+' Chi  The+eafte+' Chief ef of Sta5 M Ma. a. Ca+is Ca+issa sa O. C Coscolluel oscolluela' a' une+ the the autho+i autho+it% t% of Senato+ Go+on Go+on'' sent anothe+ anothe+ notice1 notice1; ; to Chai+ Chai+4an 4an Sabio +eui+in7 hi4 to appea+ an testif% on the sa4e subIect 4atte+ set on Septe4be+ !' 2;;!. The notice 8as issue 9une+ the sa4e autho+it% of the Subpoena A Testi<canu4 p+e,iousl% se+,e upon hi4F last 1! Au7ust 2;;!.9 Once 4o+e' Chai+4an Sabio i not co4pl% 8ith the notice. 0e sent a lette+11 ate Septe4be+ H' 2;;! to Senato+ Go+on +eite+atin7 his +eason fo+ eclinin7 to appea+ in the public hea+in7.  This p+o4pte p+o4pte Sen Senato+ ato+ Go+ Go+on on to issue an O+e O+e++ ate Se Septe4be+ pte4be+ ' 2; 2;;! ;! +eui +eui+in7 +in7 Chai Chai+4an +4an Sa Sabio bio an C Co44ission o44issione+s e+s Abcee' Abcee' Conti' $a,ie+ an Na+io to sho8 cause 8h% the% shoul not be cite in conte4pt of the Senate. On Septe4be+ 11' 2;;!' the% sub4itte to the Senate thei+ Co4pliance an Eplanation'12 8hich pa+tl% +eas3 -oubtless' the+e a+e lauable intentions of the subIect inui+% in ai of le7islation. But the +ule of la8 +eui+es that e,en the best intentions 4ust be ca++ie out 8ithin the pa+a4ete+s of the Constitution an the la8. e+il%' lauable pu+poses 4ust be ca++ie out b% le7al 4ethos. B+illantes' $+.' et al. ,. Co44ission on Elections' En Banc LG.R. No. 1!&1(&' $une 1#' 2;;HF On this sco+e' Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 shoul not be i7no+e as it eplicitl% p+o,ies3 No 4e4be+ o+ sta5 of the Co44ission shall be +eui+e to testif% o+ p+ouce e,ience in an% Iuicial le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7 conce+nin7 4atte+s 8ithin its ocial co7ni:ance. >ith all ue +espect' Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 constitutes a li4itation on the po8e+ of le7islati,e inui+%' an a +eco7nition b% the State of the nee to p+o,ie p+otection to the PCGG in o+e+ to ensu+e the unha4pe+e pe+fo+4ance of its uties une+ its cha+te+. E.O. No. 1 is a la8' Section HbF of 8hich ha not been a4ene' +epeale o+ +e,ise in an% 8a%.  To  To sa% the le least' ast' it 8oul 8oul  +eui+ +eui+e e both 0ouse 0ouses s of Con7+ Con7+ess ess an P P+esien +esiential tial <at to a4en a4en o+ ++epeal epeal the p p+o,isio +o,ision n in cont+o,e+s% cont+o,e+s%. Until then' it stans to be +especte as pa+t of the le7al s%ste4 in this Iu+isiction. As hel in People ,. ene+acion' G.R. Nos. 11(("D""'


Octobe+ 12' 1((#3 Obeience to the +ule of la8 fo+4s the be+oc6 of ou+ s%ste4 of Iustice. /f Iu7es' une+ the 7uise of +eli7ious o+ political beliefs 8e+e allo8e to +oa4 un+est+icte be%on bouna+ies 8ithin 8hich the% a+e +eui+e b% la8 to ee+cise the uties of thei+ oce' then la8 beco4es 4eanin7less. A 7o,e+n4ent of la8s' not of 4en eclues the ee+cise of b+oa isc+etiona+% po8e+s b% those actin7 une+ its autho+it%. Une+ this s%ste4' Iu7es a+e 7uie b% the Rule of )a8' an ou7ht to =p+otect an enfo+ce it 8ithout fea+ o+ fa,o+'= H LAct of Athens 1(##F +esist enc+oach4ents b% 7o,e+n4ents' political pa+ties' o+ e,en the inte+fe+ence of thei+ o8n pe+sonal beliefs.F  Rele,antl%' Chai+4an Sabio=s lette+ to Sen. Go+on ate Au7ust 1(' 2;;! pointe out that the ano4alous t+ansactions +efe++e to in the P.S. Resolution No. H## a+e subIect of penin7 cases befo+e the +e7ula+ cou+ts' the Sani7anba%an an the Sup+e4e Cou+t Penin7 cases inclue3 a. Sa4uel -i,ina ,. Manuel Nieto' $+.' et al.' CADG.R. No. "(1;2 b. Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation ,. Manuel Nieto' et al. c. Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation ,. Manuel -. Anal' Ci,il Case No. ;!D;(#' RTC' B+anch !1' Ma6ati Cit% . Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation ,. P0/)COMSAT 0olin7s Co+po+ation' et al.' Ci,il Case No. ;HD1;H(F fo+ 8hich +eason the% 4a% not be able to testif% the+eon une+ the p+inciple of sub Iuice. The lauable obIecti,es of the PCGG=s functions' +eco7ni:e in se,e+al cases ecie b% the Sup+e4e Cou+t' of the PCGG 8ill be put to nau7ht if its +eco,e+% e5o+ts 8ill be unul% i4pee b% a le7islati,e in,esti7ation of cases that a+e al+ea% penin7 befo+e the Sani7anba%an an t+ial cou+ts. /n Ben7:on ,. Senate Blue Ribbon Co44ittee' 2;& SCRA !' "H L1((1F the 0ono+able Sup+e4e Cou+t hel3 9LThe issues sou7ht to be in,esti7ate b% the +esponent Co44ittee is one o,e+ 8hich Iu+isiction ha been acui+e b% the Sani7anba%an. /n sho+t' the issue has been p+eDe4pte b% that cou+t. To allo8 the +esponent Co44ittee to conuct its o8n in,esti7ation of an issue al+ea% befo+e the Sani7aba%an 8oul not onl% pose the possibilit% of conictin7 Iu74ents bet8een a le7islati,e co44ittee an a Iuicial t+ibunal' but if the Co44ittee=s Iu74ent 8e+e to be +eache befo+e that of the Sani7anba%an' the possibilit% of its inuence bein7 4ae to bea+ on the ulti4ate Iu74ent of the Sani7anba%an can not be iscounte.  /T /S /N /E> O* T0E *OREGO/NG CONS/-ERAT/ONS that the Co44ission ecie not to atten the Senate inui+% to testif% an p+ouce e,ience the+eat. Uncon,ince 8ith the abo,e Co4pliance an Eplanation' the Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an the Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices issue an O+e+1& i+ectin7 MaIo+ Gene+al $ose BalaIaia Ret.F' Senate Se+7eantDAtDA+4s' to place Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s une+ a++est fo+ conte4pt of the Senate. The O+e+ bea+s the app+o,al of Senate P+esient illa+ an the 4aIo+it% of the Co44ittees= 4e4be+s. On Septe4be+ 12' 2;;!' at a+oun 1;3H# a.4.' MaIo+ Gene+al BalaIaia a++este Chai+4an Sabio in his oce at /RC Builin7' No. "2 E-SA' Manalu%on7 Cit% an b+ou7ht hi4 to the Senate p+e4ises 8he+e he 8as etaine. 0ence' Chai+4an Sabio <le 8ith this Cou+t a petition fo+ habeas co+pus a7ainst the Senate Co44ittee on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an Co44ittee on Public Se+,ices' thei+ Chai+4en' Senato+s Richa+ Go+on an $o6e+ P. A++o%o an Me4be+s.  The case 8as oc6 oc6ete ete as G.R G.R.. No. 1H& 1H&H;. H;. Chai+4an Sabio' Co44issione+s Abcee' Conti' Na+io' an $a,ie+' an the PCGG=s no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' Manuel Anal an $ulio $alanoni' li6e8ise <le a petition fo+ ce+tio+a+i an p+ohibition a7ainst the sa4e +esponents' an also a7ainst Senate P+esient Manuel illa+' Senato+ $uan Ponce En+ile' the Se+7eantDatDA+4s' an the enti+e Senate. The case 8as oc6ete as G.R. No. 1H&1". Mean8hile' Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation an its oce+s an i+ecto+s' na4el%3 Philip G. B+oett' )uis K. )o6in' $+.' Robe+to . San  $ose' -el<n -el<n P. An7cao' R Robe+to obe+to ). A Aba' ba' Al4a K K+istina +istina Alo Alobba bba an $$ohnn% ohnn% Tan <le a petition fo+ ce+tio+a ce+tio+a+i +i an p+ p+ohibition ohibition a7ainst the Senate Co44ittees on Go,e+n4ent Co+po+ations an Public Ente+p+ises an Public Se+,ices' thei+ Chai+4en' Senato+s Go+on an A++o%o' an Me4be+s. The case 8as oc6ete as G.R. No. 1H1. /n G.R. No. 1H&H; fo+ habeas co+pusF an G.R. No. 1H&1" fo+ ce+tio+a+i an p+ohibitionF Chai+4an Sabio' Co44issione+s Abcee' Conti' Na+io' an $a,ie+ an the PCGG=s no4inees Anal an $alanoni alle7e3 <+st' +esponent Senate Co44ittees is+e7a+e Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 8ithout an% Iusti<able +eason secon' the inui+ies conucte b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e not in ai of le7islation thi+' the inui+ies 8e+e conucte in the absence of ul% publishe Senate Rules of P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies in Ai of )e7islation an fou+th' +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e not ,este 8ith the po8e+ of conte4pt. /n G.R. No. 1H1' petitione+s Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation an its i+ecto+s an oce+s alle7e3 <+st' +esponent Senate Co44ittees ha,e no Iu+isiction o,e+ the subIect 4atte+ state in Senate Res. No. H## secon' the sa4e inui+% is not in acco+ance 8ith the Senate=s Rules P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies Ai of )e7islation thi+'inui+% the subpoenae theRes. ini,iual petitione+s a+e ,oi fo+ ha,in7 beenofissue 8ithout autho+it% fou+th' in the conuct of le7islati,e pu+suanta7ainst to Senate No. H## constitutes unue enc+oach4ent b% +esponents into Iusticiable cont+o,e+sies o,e+ 8hich se,e+al cou+ts an t+ibunals ha,e al+ea% acui+e Iu+isiction an <fth' the subpoenae ,iolate petitione+s= +i7hts to p+i,ac% an a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination. /n thei+ Consoliate Co44ent' the abo,eDna4e +esponents counte+e3 <+st' the issues +aise in the petitions in,ol,e political uestions o,e+ 8hich this Cou+t has no Iu+isiction secon' Section HbF has been +epeale b% the Constitution thi+' +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e ,este 8ith conte4pt po8e+ fou+th' Senate=s Rules of P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies in Ai of )e7islation ha,e been ul% publishe <fth' +esponents ha,e not ,iolate an% ci,il +i7ht of the ini,iual petitione+s' such as thei+ aF +i7ht to p+i,ac% an bF +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination an sith' the inui+% oes not constitute unue enc+oach4ent into Iusticiable cont+o,e+sies. -u+in7 the o+al a+7u4ents hel on Septe4be+ 21' 2;;!' the pa+ties 8e+e i+ecte to sub4it si4ultaneousl% thei+ +especti,e 4e4o+ana 8ithin a nonDetenible pe+io of <fteen 1#F a%s f+o4 ate. /n the 4eanti4e' pe+ a7+ee4ent of the pa+ties' petitione+ Chai+4an Sabio 8as allo8e to 7o ho4e. Thus' his petition fo+ habeas co+pus has beco4e 4oot. The pa+ties also a7+ee that the se+,ice of the a++est 8a++ants issue a7ainst all petitione+s an the p+oceein7s befo+e the +esponent Senate Co44ittees a+e suspene u+in7 the penenc% of the instant cases.1H C+ucial to the +esolution of the p+esent petitions is the funa4ental issue of 8hethe+ Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 is +epeale b% the 1(" Constitution. On this lone issue hin7es the 4e+it of the contention of Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s that thei+ +efusal to appea+ befo+e +esponent Senate Co44ittees is Iusti<e. >ith the +esolution of this issue' all the othe+ issues +aise b% the pa+ties ha,e beco4e inconseuential. Pe+che on one a+4 of the scale of Iustice is A+ticle /' Section 21 of the 1(" Constitution 7+antin7 +esponent Senate Co44ittees the po8e+ of le7islati,e inui+%. /t +eas3  The Senate Senate o+ the 0 0ouse ouse of R Rep+ese ep+esentati,es ntati,es o+ a an% n% of its ++especti,e especti,e c co44ittees o44ittees 4a% conuct in inui+ies ui+ies in ai of le le7islation 7islation iin n acco+ance 8ith its ul% publishe +ules of p+oceu+e. The +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte.


On the othe+ a+4 of the scale is Section HbF of E.O. No.1 li4itin7 such po8e+ of le7islati,e inui+% b% ee4ptin7 all PCGG 4e4be+s o+ sta5 f+o4 testif%in7 in an% Iuicial' le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7' thus3 No 4e4be+ o+ sta5 of the Co44ission shall be +eui+e to testif% o+ p+ouce e,ience in an% Iuicial' le7islati,e o+ a4inist+ati,e p+oceein7 conce+nin7 4atte+s 8ithin its ocial co7ni:ance.  To  To ete+4 ete+4ine ine 8hethe 8hethe++ the+e e eists ists a clea clea++ an une uneui,ocal ui,ocal ++epu7nanc% epu7nanc% bet8een the t8o uote uote  p+o,isi p+o,isions ons that 8a++ants 8a++ants a ecla+ation that Section HbF has been +epeale b% the 1(" Constitution' a b+ief consie+ation of the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+% is i4pe+ati,e.  The Con7+ess= Con7+ess= po po8e+ 8e+ of in inui+% ui+% has be been en +eco +eco7ni:e 7ni:e in ffo+ei7n o+ei7n Iu+isictions Iu+isictions lon7 befo+e befo+e it ++eache eache ou ou++ sho+e sho+es s th+ou7 th+ou7h h McG+ain ,. -au7he+t%'1# cite in A+nault ,. Na:a+eno.1! /n those ea+lie+ a%s' A4e+ican cou+ts consie+e the po8e+ of inui+% as inhe+ent in the po8e+ to le7islate. The 1"!H case of B+i77s ,. MacKella+1 eplains the b+eath an basis of the po8e+' thus3 >he+e no constitutional li4itation o+ +est+iction eists' it is co4petent fo+ eithe+ of the t8o boies co4posin7 the le7islatu+e to o' in thei+ sepa+ate capacit%' 8hate,e+ 4a% be essential to enable the4 to le7islate./t is 8ellDestablishe p+inciple of this pa+lia4enta+% la8' that eithe+ house 4a% institute an% in,esti7ation ha,in7 +efe+ence to its o8n o+7ani:ation' the conuct o+ uali<cation of its 4e4be+s' its p+oceein7s' +i7hts' o+ p+i,ile7es o+ an% 4atte+ a5ectin7 the public inte+est upon 8hich it 4a% be i4po+tant that it shoul ha,e eact info+4ation' an in +espect to 8hich it 8oul be co4petent fo+ it to le7islate. The +i7ht to pass la8s' necessa+il% i4plies the +i7ht to obtain info+4ation upon an% 4atte+ 8hich 4a% beco4e the subIect of a la8. /t is essential to the full an intelli7ent ee+cise of the le7islati,e function./n A4e+ican le7islatu+es the in,esti7ation of public 4atte+s befo+e co44ittees' p+eli4ina+% to le7islation' o+ 8ith the ,ie8 of a,isin7 the house appointin7 the co44ittee is' as a pa+lia4enta+% usa7e' 8ell establishe as it is in En7lan' an the +i7ht of eithe+ house to co4pel 8itnesses to appea+ an testif% befo+e its co44ittee' an to punish fo+ isobeience has been f+euentl% enfo+ce.The +i7ht of inui+%' / thin6' etens to othe+ 4atte+s' in +espect to 8hich it 4a% be necessa+%' o+ 4a% be ee4e a,isable to appl% fo+ le7islati,e ai. Re4a+6abl%' in A+nault' this Cou+t ahe+e to a si4ila+ theo+%. Citin7 McG+ain' it +eco7ni:e that the po8e+ of inui+% is 9an essential an app+op+iate auilia+% to the le7islati,e function'9 thus3 Althou7h the+e is no p+o,ision in the 9Constitution ep+essl% in,estin7 eithe+ 0ouse of Con7+ess 8ith po8e+ to 4a6e in,esti7ations an eact testi4on% to the en that it 4a% ee+cise its le7islati,e functions a,isel% an e5ecti,el%' such po8e+ is so fa+ inciental to the le7islati,e function as to be i4plie. /n othe+ 8o+s' the po8e+ of inui+% Q 8ith p+ocess to enfo+ce it Q is an essential an app+op+iate auilia+% to the le7islati,e function. A le7islati,e bo% cannot le7islate 8isel% o+ e5ecti,el% in the absence of info+4ation +espectin7 the conitions 8hich the le7islation is intene to a5ect o+ chan7e an 8he+e the le7islation bo% oes not itself possess the +euisite info+4ation Q 8hich is not inf+euentl% t+ue Q +ecou+se 4ust be ha to othe+s 8ho possess it.9 -ispellin7 an% oubt as to the Philippine Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%' p+o,isions on such po8e+ 4ae thei+ 4aien appea+ance in A+ticle ///' Section 12 of the 1(& Constitution.1" Then ca4e the 1(" Constitution inco+po+atin7 the p+esent A+ticle /' Section 12. >hat 8as the+efo+e i4plicit une+ the 1(&# Constitution' as inuence b% A4e+ican Iu+isp+uence' beca4e eplicit une+ the 1(& an 1(" Constitutions.1( Notabl%' the 1(" Constitution +eco7ni:es the po8e+ of in,esti7ation' not Iust of Con7+ess' but also of 9an% of its co44ittee.9 This is si7ni<cant because it constitutes a i+ect confe++al of in,esti7ato+% po8e+ upon the co44ittees an it 4eans that the 4echanis4s 8hich the 0ouses can ta6e in o+e+ to e5ecti,el% pe+fo+4 its in,esti7ati,e function a+e also a,ailable to the co44ittees.2; /t can be sai that the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+% has 7aine 4o+e soli eistence an epansi,e const+ual. The Cou+t=s hi7h +e7a+ to such po8e+ is +ene+e 4o+e e,ient in Senate ,. E+4ita'21 8he+e it cate7o+icall% +ule that 9the po8e+ of inui+% is b+oa enou7h to co,e+ ocials of the eecuti,e b+anch.9 e+il%' the Cou+t +einfo+ce the oct+ine in A+nault that 9the ope+ation of 7o,e+n4ent' bein7 a le7iti4ate subIect fo+ le7islation' is a p+ope+ subIect fo+ in,esti7ation9 an that 9the po8e+ of inui+% is coDetensi,e 8ith the po8e+ to le7islate.9 Consie+in7 these Iu+isp+uential inst+uctions' 8e <n Section HbF i+ectl% +epu7nant 8ith A+ticle /' Section 21. Section HbF ee4pts the PCGG 4e4be+s an sta5 f+o4 the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%. This cannot be countenance. No8he+e in the Constitution is an% p+o,ision 7+antin7 such ee4ption. The Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%' bein7 b+oa' enco4passes e,e+%thin7 that conce+ns the a4inist+ation of eistin7 la8s as 8ell as p+opose o+ possibl% neee statutes.22 /t e,en etens 9to 7o,e+n4ent a7encies c+eate b% Con7+ess an oce+s 8hose positions a+e 8ithin the po8e+ of Con7+ess to +e7ulate o+ e,en abolish.92& PCGG belon7s to this class. Ce+tainl%' a 4e+e p+o,ision of la8 cannot pose a li4itation to the b+oa po8e+ of Con7+ess' in the absence of an% constitutional basis. *u+the+4o+e' Section HbF is also inconsistent 8ith A+ticle /' Section 1 of the Constitution statin7 that3 9Public oce is a public t+ust. Public oce+s an e4plo%ees 4ust at all ti4es be accountable to the people' se+,e the4 8ith ut4ost +esponsibilit%' inte7+it%' lo%alt%' an ecienc%' act 8ith pat+iotis4 an Iustice' an lea 4oest li,es.9  The p+o,ision p+o,ision p+ p+esuppose esupposes s that since a an n incu4be incu4bent nt of a publ public ic oce iis s in,este 8i 8ith th ce+tain p po8e+s o8e+s an an  cha+7 cha+7e e 8ith ce+ ce+tain tain uties pe+tinent to so,e+ei7nt%' the po8e+s so ele7ate to the oce+ a+e hel in t+ust fo+ the people an a+e to be ee+cise in behalf of the 7o,e+n4ent o+ of all citi:ens 8ho 4a% nee the inte+,ention of the oce+s. Such t+ust etens to all 4atte+s 8ithin the +an7e of uties pe+tainin7 to the oce. /n othe+ 8o+s' public oce+s a+e but the se+,ants of the people' an not thei+ +ule+s.2H Section HbF' bein7 in the natu+e of an i44unit%' is inconsistent 8ith the p+inciple of public accountabilit%. /t places the PCGG 4e4be+s an sta5 be%on the +each of cou+ts' Con7+ess an othe+ a4inist+ati,e boies. /nstea of encou+a7in7 public accountabilit%' the sa4e p+o,ision onl% institutionali:es i++esponsibilit% an nonDaccountabilit%. /n P+esiential Co44ission on Goo Go,e+n4ent ,. Pea'2# $ustice *lo+entino P. *eliciano cha+acte+i:e as 9obite+9 the po+tion of the 4aIo+it% opinion ba++in7' on the basis of Sections HaF an bF of E.O. No. 1' a ci,il case fo+ a4a7es <le a7ainst the PCGG an its Co44issione+s. 0e elouentl% opine3  The abo,e abo,e une+sco une+sco+e +e po po+tions +tions a+ a+e' e' it is +e +espectfull% spectfull% su sub4itte' b4itte' cle clea+l% a+l% obite obite++. /t is i4po+t i4po+tant ant to 4a6 4a6e e clea+ tha thatt the Cou+t is not he+ he+e e inte+p+etin7' 4uch less upholin7 as ,ali an constitutional' the lite+al te+4s of Section H aF' bF of Eecuti,e O+e+ No.1. /f Section H aF 8e+e 7i,en its lite+al i4po+t as i44uni:in7 the PCGG o+ an% 4e4be+ the+eof f+o4 ci,il liabilit% 9fo+ an%thin7 one o+ o4itte in the ischa+7e of the tas6 conte4plate b% this O+e+'9 the constitutionalit% of Section H aF 8oul' in 4% sub4ission' be open to 4ost se+ious oubt. *o+ so ,ie8e' Section H aF 8oul institutionali:e the i++esponsibilit% an nonDaccountabilit% of 4e4be+s an sta5 of the PCGG' a notion that is clea+l% +epu7nant to both the 1(& an 1(" Constitution an a p+i,ile7e status not clai4e b% an% othe+ ocial of the Republic une+ the 1(" Constitution.   .  /t 8oul see4 constitutionall% o5ensi,e to suppose that a 4e4be+ o+ sta5 4e4be+ of the PCGG coul not be +eui+e to testif% befo+e the Sani7anba%an o+ that such 4e4be+s 8e+e ee4pte f+o4 co4pl%in7 8ith o+e+s of this Cou+t. Cha,e: ,. Sani7anba%an2! +eite+ates the sa4e ,ie8. /nee' Section HbF has been f+o8ne upon b% this Cou+t e,en befo+e the <lin7 of the p+esent petitions. Co+olla+il%' Section HbF also +uns counte+ to the follo8in7 constitutional p+o,isions ensu+in7 the people=s access to info+4ation3


A+ticle //' Section 2" SubIect to +easonable conitions p+esc+ibe b% la8' the State aopts an i4ple4ents a polic% of full public isclosu+e of all its t+ansactions in,ol,in7 public inte+est. A+ticle ///' Section   The +i7ht +i7ht of the peop people le to info info+4ation +4ation on 4atte+s o off public co conce+n nce+n sha shall ll be +e +eco7ni:e co7ni:e.. Access to ocial ++eco+s' eco+s' an to oc ocu4ents' u4ents' an pape+s pe+tainin7 to ocial acts' t+ansactions' o+ ecisions' as 8ell as to 7o,e+n4ent +esea+ch ata use as basis fo+ polic% e,elop4ent' shall be a5o+e the citi:en' subIect to such li4itations as 4a% be p+o,ie b% la8.  These t8in t8in p+o,i p+o,isions sions of the C Constitution onstitution se see6 e6 to p+ p+o4ote o4ote t+a t+anspa+en nspa+enc% c% in polic%D4a6in polic%D4a6in7 7 an in the ope+atio ope+ations ns of the 7o 7o,e+n4e ,e+n4ent' nt' as 8ell as p+o,ie the people sucient info+4ation to enable the4 to ee+cise e5ecti,el% thei+ constitutional +i7hts. A+4e 8ith the +i7ht info+4ation' citi:ens can pa+ticipate in public iscussions leain7 to the fo+4ulation of 7o,e+n4ent policies an thei+ e5ecti,e i4ple4entation. /n al4onte ,. Bel4onte' $+.2 the Cou+t eplaine that an info+4e citi:en+% is essential to the eistence an p+ope+ functionin7 of an% e4oc+ac%' thus3 An essential ele4ent of these f+eeo4s is to 6eep open a continuin7 ialo7ue o+ p+ocess of co44unication bet8een the 7o,e+n4ent an the people. /t is in the inte+est of the State that the channels fo+ f+ee political iscussion be 4aintaine to the en that the 7o,e+n4ent 4a% pe+cei,e an be +esponsi,e to the people=s 8ill. @et' this open ialo7ue can be e5ecti,e onl% to the etent that the citi:en+% is info+4e an thus able to fo+4ulate its 8ill intelli7entl%. Onl% 8hen the pa+ticipants in the iscussion a+e a8a+e of the issues an ha,e access to info+4ation +elatin7 the+eto can such bea+ f+uit. Conseuentl%' the conuct of inui+ies in ai of le7islation is not onl% intene to bene<t Con7+ess but also the citi:en+%. The people a+e euall% conce+ne 8ith this p+oceein7 an ha,e the +i7ht to pa+ticipate the+ein in o+e+ to p+otect thei+ inte+ests. The etent of thei+ pa+ticipation 8ill la+7el% epen on the info+4ation 7athe+e an 4ae 6no8n to the4. /n othe+ 8o+s' the +i7ht to info+4ation +eall% 7oes hanDinDhan 8ith the constitutional policies of full public isclosu+e an honest% in the public se+,ice. /t is 4eant to enhance the 8ienin7 +ole of the citi:en+% in 7o,e+n4ental ecisionD4a6in7 as 8ell as in chec6in7 abuse in the 7o,e+n4ent.2" The cases of Taaa ,. Tu,e+a2( an )e7aspi ,. Ci,il Se+,ice Co44ission&; ha,e +eco7ni:e a citi:en=s inte+est an pe+sonalit% to enfo+ce a public ut% an to b+in7 an action to co4pel public ocials an e4plo%ees to pe+fo+4 that ut%. Section HbF li4its o+ obst+ucts the po8e+ of Con7+ess to secu+e f+o4 PCGG 4e4be+s an sta5 info+4ation an othe+ ata in ai of its po8e+ to le7islate. A7ain' this 4ust not be countenance. /n Senate ,. E+4ita'&1 this Cou+t st+esse3  To  To the ete etent nt that in,esti in,esti7ations 7ations in a ai i of le7i le7islation slation a+ a+e e 7ene+al 7ene+all% l% conuct conucte e in publ public' ic' ho8e,e ho8e,e+' +' an% e eecuti,e ecuti,e issua issuance nce tenin7 tenin7 to unul% li4it isclosu+es of info+4ation in such in,esti7ations necessa+il% ep+i,es the people of info+4ation 8hich' bein7 p+esu4e to be in ai of le7islation' is p+esu4e to be a 4atte+ of public conce+n. The citi:ens a+e the+eb% enie access to info+4ation 8hich the% can use in fo+4ulatin7 thei+ o8n opinions on the 4atte+ befo+e Con7+ess Q opinions 8hich the% can then co44unicate to thei+ +ep+esentati,es an othe+ 7o,e+n4ent ocials th+ou7h the ,a+ious le7al 4eans allo8e b% thei+ f+eeo4 of ep+ession. A statute 4a% be ecla+e unconstitutional because it is not 8ithin the le7islati,e po8e+ to enact o+ it c+eates o+ establishes 4ethos o+ fo+4s that inf+in7e constitutional p+inciples o+ its pu+pose o+ e5ect ,iolates the Constitution o+ its basic p+inciples.&2 As sho8n in the abo,e iscussion' Section HbF is inconsistent 8ith A+ticle /' Section 21 Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+%F' A+ticle /' Section 1 p+inciple of public accountabilit%F' A+ticle //' Section 2" polic% of full isclosu+eF an A+ticle ///' Section  +i7ht to public info+4ationF. Si7ni<cantl%' A+ticle ///' Section & of the Constitution p+o,ies3 All eistin7 la8s' ec+ees' eecuti,e o+e+s' p+ocla4ations' lette+s of inst+uctions' an othe+ eecuti,e issuances not inconsistent 8ith this Constitution shall +e4ain ope+ati,e until a4ene' +epeale' o+ +e,o6e.  The clea+ clea+ i4po+t o off this p+o p+o,ision ,ision is th that at all e eistin7 istin7 la8s la8s'' eec eecuti,e uti,e o+e o+e+s' +s' p+oc p+ocla4ations' la4ations' lette+s of iinst+uctions nst+uctions a an n othe+ eecuti,e eecuti,e issuances inconsistent o+ +epu7nant to the Constitution a+e +epeale.  $u+isp+uence is ++eplete  $u+isp+uence eplete 8ith ecisions iin,aliati n,aliatin7 n7 la8s' ec+ees' ec+ees' e eecuti,e ecuti,e o o+e+s' +e+s' p p+ocla4 +ocla4ations' ations' lett lette+s e+s of inst+u inst+uctions ctions an othe+ eecuti,e issuances inconsistent 8ith the Constitution. /n Pelae: ,. Auito+ Gene+al'&& the Cou+t consie+e +epeale Section !" of the Re,ise A4inist+ati,e Coe of 1(1 autho+i:in7 the Eecuti,e to chan7e the seat of the 7o,e+n4ent of an% subi,ision of local 7o,e+n4ents' upon the app+o,al of the 1(&# Constitution. Section !" 8as aIu7e inco4patible an inconsistent 8ith the Constitutional 7+ant of li4ite eecuti,e supe+,ision o,e+ local 7o,e+n4ents. /n /sla4ic -a=8ah Council of the Philippines' /nc.' ,. Oce of the Eecuti,e Sec+eta+%'&H the Cou+t ecla+e Eecuti,e O+e+ No. H!' entitle 9Autho+i:in7 the Oce on Musli4 A5ai+s to Une+ta6e Philippine 0alal Ce+ti<cation'9 ,oi fo+ enc+oachin7 on the +eli7ious f+eeo4 of Musli4s. /n The P+o,ince of Batan7as ,. Ro4ulo'&# the Cou+t ecla+e so4e p+o,isions of the Gene+al App+op+iations Acts of 1(((' 2;;; an 2;;1 unconstitutional fo+ ,iolatin7 the Constitutional p+ecept on local autono4%. An in Ople ,. To++es'&! the Cou+t li6e8ise ecla+e unconstitutional A4inist+ati,e O+e+ No. &;"' entitle 9Aoption of a National Co4pute+i:e /enti<cation Refe+ence S%ste4'9 fo+ bein7 ,iolati,e of the +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+otecte b% the Constitution.  These -ecisions' -ecisions' a an n 4an% othe othe+s' +s' hi7hli hi7hli7ht 7ht that the C Constitution onstitution iis s the hi7he hi7hest st la8 of the lan. /t is 9the basic an pa+a pa+a4ount 4ount la8 to 8hich all othe+ la8s 4ust confo+4 an to 8hich all pe+sons' incluin7 the hi7hest ocials of the lan' 4ust efe+. No act shall be ,ali' ho8e,e+ noble its intentions' if it conicts 8ith the Constitution.9& Conseuentl%' this Cou+t has no +ecou+se but to ecla+e Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 +epeale b% the 1(" Constitution. Si7ni<cantl%' u+in7 the o+al a+7u4ents on Septe4be+ 21' 2;;!' Chai+4an Sabio a4itte that shoul this Cou+t +ule that Section HbF is unconstitutional o+ that it oes not appl% to the Senate' he 8ill ans8e+ the uestions of the Senato+s' thus3 C0/E* $UST/CE PANGAN/BAN3 O6a%. No8' if the Sup+e4e Cou+t +ules that Sec. HbF is unconstitutional o+ that it oes not appl% to the Senate' 8ill %ou ans8e+ the uestions of the Senato+s C0A/RMAN SAB/O3  @ou+  @ou+ 0ono 0ono+' +' 4% fathe fathe++ 8as a Iu Iu7e' 7e' ie be bein7 in7 a Iu Iu7e. 7e. / 8as h he+e e+e in the Sup+e4 Sup+e4e e Cou+t as Chief of Sta Sta5 5 of $ustice *e+ *e+ia. ia. / 8oul e<nitel% hono+ the Sup+e4e Cou+t an the +ule of la8. C0/E* $UST/CE PANGAN/BAN3  @ou  @ou 8ill a ans8e+ ns8e+ the  uestions uestions of the Senato Senato+s +s if 8e sa sa% % that C0A/RMAN SAB/O3  @es'  @es' @ @ou+ ou+ 0ono 0ono++. That is the la8 al+ al+ea% ea% as fa+ as / a4 co conce+ne nce+ne. .


>ith his a4ission' Chai+4an Sabio is not full% con,ince that he an his Co44issione+s a+e shiele f+o4 testif%in7 befo+e +esponent Senate Co44ittees b% Section HbF of E.O. No. 1. /n e5ect' his a+7u4ent that the sai p+o,ision ee4pts hi4 an his coD +esponent Co44issione+s f+o4 testif%in7 befo+e +esponent Senate Co44ittees conce+nin7 Senate Res. No. H## utte+l% lac6s 4e+it. /ncientall%' an a+7u4ent +epeate b% Chai+4an Sabio is that +esponent Senate Co44ittees ha,e no po8e+ to punish hi4 an his Co44issione+s fo+ conte4pt of the Senate.  The a+7u4ent a+7u4ent is 4i 4isleain7. sleain7. A+ticle /' Section 21 p+o,ies3  The Senate Senate o+ the 0 0ouse ouse of R Rep+ese ep+esentati,es ntati,es o+ a an% n% of its ++especti,e especti,e c co44ittees o44ittees 4a% conuct in inui+ies ui+ies in ai of le le7islation 7islation iin n acco+ance 8ith its ul% publishe +ules of p+oceu+e. The +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte. /t 4ust be st+esse that the O+e+ of A++est fo+ 9conte4pt of Senate Co44ittees an the Philippine Senate9 8as app+o,e b% Senate P+esient illa+ an si7ne b% <fteen 1#F Senato+s. *+o4 this' it can be conclue that the O+e+ is une+ the autho+it%' not onl% of the +esponent Senate Co44ittees' but of the enti+e Senate. At an% +ate' A+ticle /' Section 21 7+ants the po8e+ of inui+% not onl% to the Senate an the 0ouse of Rep+esentati,es' but also to an% of thei+ +especti,e co44ittees. Clea+l%' the+e is a i+ect confe++al of po8e+ to the co44ittees. *athe+ Be+nas' in his Co44enta+% on the 1(" Constitution' co++ectl% pointe out its si7ni<cance3 /t shoul also be note that the Constitution eplicitl% +eco7ni:es the po8e+ of in,esti7ation not Iust of Con7+ess but also of 9an% of its co44ittees.9 This is si7ni<cant because it constitutes a i+ect confe++al of in,esti7ato+% po8e+ upon the co44ittees an it 4eans that the 4eans 8hich the 0ouses can ta6e in o+e+ to e5ecti,el% pe+fo+4 its in,esti7ati,e function a+e also a,ailable to the Co44ittees.&"  This is a +eason +easonable able concl conclusion. usion. T The he confe+ confe++al +al of the lle7islati,e e7islati,e p po8e+ o8e+ of iinui+% nui+% upo upon n an% co44ittee co44ittee of Co Con7+ess n7+ess 4u 4ust st ca++% 8 8ith ith it all po8e+s necessa+% an p+ope+ fo+ its e5ecti,e ischa+7e. Othe+8ise' A+ticle /' Section 21 8ill be 4eanin7less. The inispensabilit% an usefulness of the po8e+ of conte4pt in a le7islati,e inui+% is une+sco+e in a catena of cases' fo+ei7n an local. /n the 1"21 case of Ane+son ,. -unn'&( the function of the 0ouses of Con7+ess 8ith +espect to the conte4pt po8e+ 8as li6ene to that of a cou+t' thus3 But the cou+t in its +easonin7 7oes be%on this' an thou7h the 7+ouns of the ecision a+e not ,e+% clea+l% state' 8e ta6e the4 to be3 that the+e is in so4e cases a po8e+ in each 0ouse of Con7+ess to punish fo+ conte4pt that this po8e+ is analo7ous to that ee+cise b% cou+ts of Iustice' an that it bein7 the 8ell establishe oct+ine that 8hen it appea+s that a p+isone+ is hel une+ the o+e+ of a cou+t of 7ene+al Iu+isiction fo+ a conte4pt of its autho+it%' no othe+ cou+t 8ill ischa+7e the p+isone+ o+ 4a6e fu+the+ inui+% into the cause of his co44it4ent. That this is the 7ene+al +uleas +e7a+s the +elation of one cou+t to anothe+ 4ust be concee. /n McG+ain'H; the U.S. Sup+e4e Cou+t hel3 9Epe+ience has sho8n that 4e+e +euests fo+ such info+4ation a+e often una,ailin7' an also that info+4ation 8hich is ,oluntee+e is not al8a%s accu+ate o+ co4plete so so4e 4eans of co4pulsion is essential to obtain 8hat is neee.9 The Cou+t' in A+nault ,. Na:a+eno'H1 sustaine the Con7+ess= po8e+ of conte4pt on the basis of this obse+,ation. /n A+nault ,. Bala7tas'H2 the Cou+t fu+the+ eplaine that the conte4pt po8e+ of Con7+ess is foune upon +eason an polic% an that the po8e+ of inui+% 8ill not be co4plete if fo+ e,e+% contu4acious act' Con7+ess has to +eso+t to Iuicial inte+fe+ence' thus3  The p+inciple p+inciple that C Con7+ess on7+ess o+ an% of its boies h has as the po8 po8e+ e+ to punis punish h +ecal +ecalcit+ant cit+ant 8it 8itnesses nesses is foune foune upon +eason an polic% polic%. Sai po8e+ 4ust be consie+e i4plie o+ inciental to the ee+cise of le7islati,e po8e+. 0o8 coul a le7islati,e bo% obtain the 6no8le7e an info+4ation on 8hich to base intene le7islation if it cannot +eui+e an co4pel the isclosu+e of such 6no8le7e an info+4ation if it is i4potent to punish a e<ance of its po8e+ an autho+it% >hen the f+a4e+s of the Constitution aopte the p+inciple of sepa+ation of po8e+s' 4a6in7 each b+anch sup+e4e 8ithin the +eal4 of its +especti,e autho+it%' it 4ust ha,e intene each epa+t4ent=s autho+it% to be full an co4plete' inepenentl% of the othe+=s autho+it% o+ po8e+. An ho8 coul the autho+it% an po8e+ beco4e co4plete if fo+ e,e+% act of +efusal' e,e+% act of e<ance' e,e+% act of contu4ac% a7ainst it' the le7islati,e bo% 4ust +eso+t to the Iuicial epa+t4ent fo+ the app+op+iate +e4e%' because it is i4potent b% itself to punish o+ eal the+e8ith' 8ith the a5+onts co44itte a7ainst its autho+it% o+ i7nit%.H& /n Ne7+os O+iental // Elect+ic Coope+ati,e' /nc. ,. San77unian7 Panlun7so of -u4a7uete'HH the Cou+t cha+acte+i:e conte4pt po8e+ as a 4atte+ of selfDp+ese+,ation' thus3  The ee+cise ee+cise b% th the e le7isla le7islatu+e tu+e of the conte4pt p po8e+ o8e+ is a 4 4atte+ atte+ of sel selfDp+ fDp+ese+,atio ese+,ation n as that b+anch b+anch of the 7o,e+n4 7o,e+n4ent ent ,este 8ith 8ith the le7islati,e po8e+' inepenentl% of the Iuicial b+anch' asse+ts its autho+it% an punishes conte4pts the+eof. The conte4pt po8e+ of the le7islatu+e is' the+efo+e' sui 7ene+is   . Mean8hile' 8ith +espect to G.R. No. 1H1' the petition of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation an its i+ecto+s an oce+s' this Cou+t hols that the +esponent Senate Co44ittees= inui+% oes not ,iolate thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% an +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination. One i4po+tant li4itation on the Con7+ess= po8e+ of inui+% is that 9the +i7hts of pe+sons appea+in7 in o+ a5ecte b% such inui+ies shall be +especte.9 This is Iust anothe+ 8a% of sa%in7 that the po8e+ of inui+% 4ust be 9subIect to the li4itations place b% the Constitution on 7o,e+n4ent action.9 As hel in Ba+enblatt ,. Unite States'H# 9the Con7+ess' in co44on 8ith all the othe+ b+anches of  the Go,e+n4ent' 4ust ee+cise its po8e+s subIect to the li4itations place b% the Constitution on 7o,e+n4ental action' 4o+e pa+ticula+l% in the contet of this case' the +ele,ant li4itations of the Bill of Ri7hts.9 *i+st is the +i7ht to p+i,ac%. ?ones of p+i,ac% a+e +eco7ni:e an p+otecte in ou+ la8s.H! >ithin these :ones' an% fo+4 of int+usion is i4pe+4issible unless ecuse b% la8 an in acco+ance 8ith custo4a+% le7al p+ocess. The 4eticulous +e7a+ 8e acco+ to these :ones a+ises not onl% f+o4 ou+ con,iction that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is a 9constitutional +i7ht9 an 9the +i7ht 4ost ,alue b% ci,ili:e 4en'9H but also f+o4 ou+ ahe+ence to the Uni,e+sal -ecla+ation of 0u4an Ri7hts 8hich 4anates that' 9no one shall be subIecte to a+bit+a+% inte+fe+ence 8ith his p+i,ac%9 an 9e,e+%one has the +i7ht to the p+otection of the la8 a7ainst such inte+fe+ence o+ attac6s.9H" Ou+ Bill of a Ri7hts' ensh+ine A+ticle /// of the Constitution' p+o,ies at leastho8 t8o4uch' 7ua+antees thatan eplicitl% c+eate :onesabout of p+i,ac%. hi7hli7hts pe+son=s 9+i7ht toinbe let alone9 o+ the 9+i7ht to ete+4ine 8hat' to 8ho4 8hen info+4ation hi4self/t shall be isclose.9H( Section 2 7ua+antees 9the +i7ht of the people to be secu+e in thei+ pe+sons' houses' pape+s an e5ects a7ainst un+easonable sea+ches an sei:u+es of 8hate,e+ natu+e an fo+ an% pu+pose.9 Section & +ene+s in,iolable the 9p+i,ac% of co44unication an co++esponence9 an fu+the+ cautions that 9an% e,ience obtaine in ,iolation of this o+ the p+ecein7 section shall be ina4issible fo+ an% pu+pose in an% p+oceein7.9 /n e,aluatin7 a clai4 fo+ ,iolation of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' a cou+t 4ust ete+4ine 8hethe+ a pe+son has ehibite a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% an' if so' 8hethe+ that epectation has been ,iolate b% un+easonable 7o,e+n4ent int+usion.#; Appl%in7 this


ete+4ination to these cases' the i4po+tant inui+ies a+e3 <+st' i the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation ehibit a +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% an secon' i the 7o,e+n4ent ,iolate such epectation  The ans8e+s ans8e+s a+e in the ne7a ne7ati,e. ti,e. Pe Petitione+s titione+s 8 8e+e e+e in,i in,ite te in the Se Senate=s nate=s publi public c hea+in7 to elibe elibe+ate +ate on Se Senate nate R Res. es. No. H# H##' #' pa+ticula+l% 9on the ano4alous losses incu++e b% the Philippine O,e+seas Teleco44unications Co+po+ation POTCF' Philippine Co44unications Satellite Co+po+ation P0/)COMSATF' an Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ations P0CF ue to the alle7e i4p+op+ieties in the ope+ations b% thei+ +especti,e boa+ of i+ecto+s.9 Ob,iousl%' the inui+% focus on petitione+s= acts co44itte in the ischa+7e of thei+ uties as oce+s an i+ecto+s of the sai co+po+ations' pa+ticula+l% Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation. Conseuentl%' the% ha,e no +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% o,e+ 4atte+s in,ol,in7 thei+ oces in a co+po+ation 8he+e the 7o,e+n4ent has inte+est. Ce+tainl%' such 4atte+s a+e of public conce+n an o,e+ 8hich the people ha,e the +i7ht to info+4ation.  This 7oes 7oes to sho8 tha thatt the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is n not ot absolute 8he+e the+e is a an n o,e++ o,e++iin7 iin7 co4 co4pellin7 pellin7 stat state e inte+est. inte+est. /n Mo+fe ,. Mutuc'#1 the Cou+t' in line 8ith >halen ,. Roe'#2 e4plo%e the +ational basis +elationship test 8hen it hel that the+e 8as no inf+in7e4ent of the ini,iual=s +i7ht to p+i,ac% as the +eui+e4ent to isclosu+e info+4ation is fo+ a ,ali pu+pose' i.e.' to cu+tail an 4ini4i:e the oppo+tunities fo+ ocial co++uption' 4aintain a stana+ of honest% in public se+,ice' an p+o4ote 4o+alit% in public a4inist+ation.#& /n al4onte ,. Bel4onte'#H the Cou+t +e4a+6e that as public <7u+es' the Me4be+s of the fo+4e+ Batasan7 Pa4bansa enIo% a 4o+e li4ite +i7ht to p+i,ac% as co4pa+e to o+ina+% ini,iuals' an thei+ actions a+e subIect to close+ sc+utin%. Ta6in7 this into consie+ation' the Cou+t +ule that the +i7ht of the people to access info+4ation on 4atte+s of public conce+n p+e,ails o,e+ the +i7ht to p+i,ac% of <nancial t+ansactions. Une+ the p+esent ci+cu4stances' the alle7e ano4alies in the P0/)COMSAT' P0C an POTC' +an7in7 in 4illions of pesos' an the conspi+ato+ial pa+ticipation of the PCGG an its ocials a+e co4pellin7 +easons fo+ the Senate to eact ,ital info+4ation f+o4 the i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ations' as 8ell as f+o4 Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s to ai it in c+aftin7 the necessa+% le7islation to p+e,ent co++uption an fo+4ulate +e4eial 4easu+es an polic% ete+4ination +e7a+in7 PCGG=s ecac%.  The+e bein7 no ++easonabl easonable e epect epectation ation of p+i p+i,ac% ,ac% on the p pa+t a+t of those i+ecto i+ecto+s +s an o oce+s ce+s o,e+ the subIect co,e+e co,e+e  b% Senate R Res. es. No. H##' it follo8s that thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% has not been ,iolate b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees. Anent the +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination' it 4ust be e4phasi:e that this +i7ht 4a%be in,o6e b% the sai i+ecto+s an oce+s of Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation onl% 8hen the inc+i4inatin7 uestion is bein7 as6e' since the% ha,e no 8a% of 6no8in7 in a,ance the natu+e o+ e5ect of the uestions to be as6e of the4.9## That this +i7ht 4a% possibl% be ,iolate o+ abuse is no 7+oun fo+ en%in7 +esponent Senate Co44ittees thei+ po8e+ of inui+%. The consolation is that 8hen this po8e+ is abuse' such issue 4a% be p+esente befo+e the cou+ts. At this Iunctu+e' 8hat is i4po+tant is that +esponent Senate Co44ittees ha,e sucient Rules to 7uie the4 8hen the +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination is in,o6e. Sec. 1( +eas3 Sec. 1(. P+i,ile7e A7ainst SelfD/nc+i4ination A 8itness can in,o6e his +i7ht a7ainst selfDinc+i4ination onl% 8hen a uestion tens to elicit an ans8e+ that 8ill inc+i4inate hi4 is p+opoune to hi4. 0o8e,e+' he 4a% o5e+ to ans8e+ an% uestion in an eecuti,e session. No pe+son can +efuse to testif% o+ be place une+ oath o+ a+4ation o+ ans8e+ uestions befo+e an inc+i4inato+% uestion is as6e. 0is in,ocation of such +i7ht oes not b% itself ecuse hi4 f+o4 his ut% to 7i,e testi4on%. /n such a case' the Co44ittee' b% a 4aIo+it% ,ote of the 4e4be+s p+esent the+e bein7 a uo+u4' shall ete+4ine 8hethe+ the +i7ht has been p+ope+l% in,o6e. /f the Co44ittee ecies othe+8ise' it shall +esu4e its in,esti7ation an the uestion o+ uestions p+e,iousl% +efuse to be ans8e+e shall be +epeate to the 8itness. /f the latte+ continues to +efuse to ans8e+ the uestion' the Co44ittee 4a% punish hi4 fo+ conte4pt fo+ contu4acious conuct.  The sa4e i+ecto i+ecto+s +s an oce+s oce+s conte conten n that the Se Senate nate is ba+ ba++e +e f+ f+o4 o4 inui+ inui+in7 in7 into tthe he sa4e issue issues s bein7 li liti7ate ti7ate befo befo+e +e the C Cou+t ou+t of Appeals an the Sani7anba%an. Suce it to state that the Senate Rules of P+oceu+e Go,e+nin7 /nui+ies in Ai of )e7islation p+o,ie that the <lin7 o+ penenc% of an% p+osecution of c+i4inal o+ a4inist+ati,e action shoul not stop o+ abate an% inui+% to ca++% out a le7islati,e pu+pose. )et it be st+esse at this point that so lon7 as the constitutional +i7hts of 8itnesses' li6e Chai+4an Sabio an his Co44issione+s' 8ill be +especte b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees' it thei+ ut% to coope+ate 8ith the4 in thei+ e5o+ts to obtain the facts neee fo+ intelli7ent le7islati,e action. The un+e4ittin7 obli7ation of e,e+% citi:en is to +espon to subpoenae' to +espect the i7nit% of the Con7+ess an its Co44ittees' an to testif% full% 8ith +espect to 4atte+s 8ithin the +eal4 of p+ope+ in,esti7ation. /n <ne' PCGG Chai+4an Ca4ilo Sabio an Co44issione+s Rica+o Abcee' Na+ciso Na+io' Nicasio Conti' an Te+eso $a,ie+ an Manuel Anal an $ulio $alanoni' PCGG=s no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' as 8ell as its i+ecto+s an oce+s' 4ust co4pl% 8ith the Subpoenae A Testi<canu4 issue b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees i+ectin7 the4 to appea+ an testif% in public hea+in7s +elati,e to Senate Resolution No. H##. >0ERE*ORE' the petition in G.R. No. 1H&H; fo+ habeas co+pus is -/SM/SSE-' fo+ bein7 4oot. The petitions in G.R Nos. 1H&1" an 1H1 a+e li6e8ise -/SM/SSE-. Section HbF of E.O. No. 1 is ecla+e REPEA)E- b% the 1(" Constitution. Responent Senate Co44ittees= po8e+ of inui+% +elati,e to Senate Resolution H## is uphel. PCGG Chai+4an Ca4ilo ). Sabio an Co44issione+s Rica+o Abcee' Na+ciso Na+io' Nicasio Conti an Te+eso $a,ie+ an Manuel Anal an $ulio $alanoni' PCGG=s no4inees to Philco4sat 0olin7s Co+po+ation' as 8ell as its i+ecto+s an oce+s' petitione+s in G.R. No. 1H1' a+e o+e+e to co4pl% 8ith the Subpoenae A Testi<canu4 issue b% +esponent Senate Co44ittees i+ectin7 the4 to appea+ an testif% in public hea+in7s +elati,e to Senate Resolution No. H##. SO OR-ERE-. Pan7aniban' C.$.' Puno' Juisu4bin7' @na+esDSantia7o' Ca+pio' Aust+iaDMa+tine:' Co+ona' Ca+pio Mo+ales' CalleIo' S+.' A:cuna' ChicoD Na:a+io' Tin7a' Ga+cia' an elasco' $$.' concu+.

 Republic of the Philippines Sup+e4e Cou+t


Manila   EN BANC   /N T0E MATTER O* T0E PET/T/ON *OR T0E >R/T O* AMPARO AN- 0ABEAS -ATA /N *AOR O* NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   Petitione+'   D ,e+sus D   G)OR/A MACAPAGA)[email protected]' GEN. /CTOR S. /BRA-O' P-G $ESUS AME ERSO?A' )T. GEN. -E)*/N BANG/T' MA$. GEN. NESTOR ?. OC0OA' PCSUPT. AMETO G. TO)ENT/NO' PSSUPT. $U-E >. SANTOS' CO). REM/G/O M. -E ERA' an oce+ na4e MATUT/NA' )T. CO). M/NA' CA)OG' GEORGE PA)ACPAC une+ the na4e [email protected]'V ANTON/O CRU?' A)->/N BONGV PAS/CO)AN an /NCENT CA))AGAN'   Responents. G.R. No. 1(1";#    D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D /N T0E MATTER O* T0E PET/T/ON *OR T0E >R/T O* AMPARO AN- 0ABEAS -ATA /N *AOR O* NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   PO)/CE -/R. GEN. $ESUS A. ERSO?A' PSSUPT. $U-E >. SANTOS' BGEN. REMEG/O M. -E ERA' 1ST )T. [email protected] S. MATUT/NA' )T. CO). )AURENCE E. M/NA' ANTON/O C. CRU?' A)->/N C. PAS/ PAS/CO)AN CO)AN an /CENTE A. CA))AGAN'   Petitione+s'   D ,e+sus D  

NOR/E) 0. RO-R/GUE?'   Responent. G.R. No. 1(&1!;   P+o4ul7ate3 No,e4be+ 1#' 2;11    D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D   -EC/S/ON SERENO' $.3 Befo+e this Cou+t a+e t8o consoliate cases' na4el%' 1F Petition fo+ Pa+tial Re, Re,ie8 ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i ate 2; Ap+il 2;1; G.R. No. 1(1";#F' an 2F Petition fo+ Re,ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i ate 1( Au7ust 2;1; G.R. No. 1(&1!;F.L1 Both Petitions assail the 12 Ap+il 2;1; -ecision of the Cou+t of Appeals' the ispositi,e po+tion of 8hich +eas3   >0ERE*ORE' the petition fo+ 8+it of a4pa+o an 8+it of habeas ata is GRANTE-.   Responents Respo nents Gen. icto+ S. /b+ao' )t. Gen. -el<n Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Nesto+ ?. Ochoa' PCSupt. A4eto G. Tolentino' PSSupt.  $ue >. >. Santos' Col. R Re4i7io e4i7io M. -e  e+a' e+a' )t. Col. )au+ )au+ence ence E. Mina an 1)t 1)t.. R%an S. Ma Matutina' tutina' o+ thei+ ++eplace4ents eplace4ents in the thei+ i+ ocial posts if the% ha,e al+ea% ,acate the sa4e' a+e OR-ERE- to fu+nish this Cou+t 8ithin <,e #F a%s f+o4 notice of this ecision' ocial o+ unocial +epo+ts pe+tainin7 to petitione+ Q co,e+in7 but not li4ite to intelli7ence +epo+ts' ope+ation +epo+ts an p+o,ost 4a+shal +epo+ts +epo+ts p+io+ to' u+in7 an subseuent to Septe4be+ !' 2;;( Q 4ae b% the #th /nfant+% -i,ision' Philippine A+4%' its i ts b+anches an subsiia+ies' incluin7 the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' Philippine A+4%. A+4%.    The abo,eDna4e abo,eDna4e +esponents a+e also -/RE -/RECTECTE- to +ef+ain f+ f+o4 o4 usin7 the sa sai i +epo+ts in an% t+ t+ansaction ansaction o+ o ope+ation pe+ation of the 4ilita+%. Necessa+il%' the afo+eDna4e +esponents a+e OR-ERE- to epun7e f+o4 the +eco+s of the 4ilita+% all ocu4ents ha,in7 an% +efe+ence to petitione+.   )i6e8ise' the afo+eDna4e +esponents' as 8ell as +esponents Police -i+ecto+ Gene+al $esus A4e e e+so:a' +so:a' Antonio C+u:' Al8in Pasicolan an icente Calla7an a+e -/RECTE- to ensu+e that no fu+the+ ,iolation of petitione+Ws +i7hts to life' l ife' libe+t% an secu+it% is co44itte a7ainst the latte+ o+ an% 4e4be+ of his fa4il%.    The petition is -/SM/SSE-/SM/SSE- 8ith +espect tto o P+esie P+esient nt Glo+ia Macapa7alDA++o%o Macapa7alDA++o%o on a account ccount of he+ p p+esiential +esiential i44unit% f+ f+o4 o4 suit. Si4ila+l%' the petition is -/SM/SSE- 8ith +espect to +esponent +esponents s Calo7 an Geo+7e Palacp Palacpac ac o+ 0a++% fo+ lac6 of 4e+it.   Petitione+Ws Petitione +Ws p+a%e+ fo+ iissuance ssuance of a te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+ an inspection o+e+ is -EN/E-. No+iel Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue:F Ro+i7ue:F is petitione+ in G.R. No. 1(1";# an +esponent in G.R. No. 1(&1!;. 0e is a 4e4be+ of Al%ansa -a7iti Mannalon /ti Ca7a%an Ka7i4un7anF' a peasant o+7ani:ation aliate 8ith Kilusan7 Ma7bubu6i n7 Pilipinas KMPF. On the othe+ han' Glo+ia Macapa7alDA++o%o fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%oF' Police -i+ecto+ Gene+al P-G.F $esus A. e+:osa' Police Senio+ Supe+intenent PSSupt.F $ue >. Santos' B+i7aie+ Gene+al B+i7. Gen.F Re4e7io M. -e e+a' *i+st )ieutenant 1st )t.F R%an R%a n S. Matutina' )ieutenant Colonel )t. Col.F )au+ence E. Mina' Antonio C. C+u: C+u:F' Al8in C. Pasicolan Pasico PasicolanF lanF an icente A. Calla7an Calla7anF a+e +esponents +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# an petitione+s in G.R. No. 1(&1!;. At the ti4e the e,ents +ele,ant to the p+esent Petitions occu++e' fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o 8as the P+esient of the Philippines. P-G. e+:osa' PSSupt. Santos' B+i7. Gen. -e e e+a' +a' 1st )t. Matutina an )t. Col. Mina 8e+e oce+s of the Philippine National Police PNPF. C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an 8e+e Special /n,esti7ato+s of the Co44ission on 0u4an Ri7hts C0RF in Re7ion //. Anteceent *acts Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : clai4s that the 4ilita+% ta77e KMP as an ene4% of the State une+ the Oplan Banta% )a%a' 4a6in7 iits ts 4e4be+s ta+7ets of et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances.L2   On ! Septe4be+ 2;;(' at #3;; p.4.' Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : ha Iust +eache Ba+an7a% Tapel' Ca7a%an onboa+ a t+ic%cle +i,en b% 0e+4ie Antonio Ca+los Ca+losF' 8hen fou+ 4en fo+cibl% too6 hi4 an fo+ce hi4 into a ca+. /nsie the ,ehicle 8e+e se,e+al 4en in ci,ilian clothes' one of 8ho4 8as 8 as holin7 a .H# calibe+ pistol. Subseuentl%' th+ee 4o+e pe+sons a++i,e' an one of the4 ca++ie a 7un at his sie. T8o 4en boa+e the ca+' 8hile the othe+s +oe on the t+ic%cle.L&  The 4en tie the hans hans of Ro Ro+i7ue:' +i7ue:' o+e+ o+e+e e hi4 to lie on his sto4a sto4ach' ch' sat on his bac bac6 6 an sta+te pun punchin7 chin7 hi4. The

ca+ t+a,elle to8a+s the i+ection of Sta. Te+esita Te+esita Mission an 4o,e a+oun the a+ea until about 23;; a.4. -u+in7 the +i,e'


the 4en fo+ce Ro+i7ue: to confess to bein7 a 4e4be+ of the Ne8 PeopleWs A+4% NP NPAF' AF' but he +e4aine silent. The ca+ then ente+e a place that appea+e appea+e to be a 4il 4ilita+% ita+% ca4p. The+e 8e+e solie+s all o,e+ the a+ea' an the+e 8as a banne+ 8ith the 8o+ B+a,oV B+a,oV 8+itten on it. Ro+i7ue: late+ on lea+ne that the ca4p belon7e to the 1th /nfant+% Battalion of the Philippine A+4%.LH Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : 8as b+ou7ht to a canteen' 8he+e si 4en conf+onte hi4' o+e+in7 hi4 to confess to his 4e4be+ship in the NPA. -ue to his ehaustion' he unintentionall% fell asleep. As a +esult' the 4en hit hi4 on the hea to 8a6e hi4 up. Afte+ the inte++o7ation' inte++o 7ation' t8o of the 4en 7ua+e hi4' but i not allo8 hi4 to sleep.L# /n the 4o+nin7 of  Septe4be+ 2;;(' the 4en tie the hans of Ro+i7ue:' blinfole hi4 an 4ae hi4 boa+ a ,ehicle. >hile the% 8e+e in t+ansit' the solie+s +epeatel% hit hi4 in the hea an th+eatene to 6ill hi4. >hen the ca+ stoppe afte+ about ten 4inutes' the solie+s b+ou7ht hi4 to a +oo4' +e4o,e his bli blinfol' nfol' an fo+ce hi4 to confess to bein7 a 4e4be+ of the NPA. -u+in7 the inte++o7ation inte++o7ation'' the solie+s +epeate +epeatel% l% hit hi4 on the hea. The+eafte+ The+eafte+'' he 8as etaine insie the +oo4 fo+ the enti+e a% a%.. The solie+s tie his sto4ach to a papa7' an 7a,e hi4 +ice an ,ian. *ea+in7 that the foo 4i7ht be poisone' he +efuse to eat an%thin7. 0e slept on the papa7 8hile bein7 tie to it at the 8aist.L! On " Septe4be+ 2;;(' the 4en fo+ce fo+ce Ro+i7ue: into a ,eh ,ehicle' icle' 8hich b+ou7ht the4 to Bu7e% an Mission. >hile passin7 houses alon7 the 8a%' 8a%' the 4en as6e hi4 if his contacts li,e in those house houses. s. >hen he faile to ans8e+' a solie+ pointe a 7un to his hea an th+eatene to 6ill hi4 an his fa4il% fa4il%.. Because he +e4aine silent' the solie+s beat hi4 an tie hi4 up. The ,ehicle +etu+ne +etu+ne  to the 4ilita+% ca4p at past 13;; p.4.' 8he+e he 8as a7ain subIecte subIecte to tactical inte++o7ation inte++o 7ation about the location of an NPA ca4p an his alle7e NPA co4+aes. 0e su5e+e incessant 4aulin7 e,e+% ti4e he faile to ans8e+.L At a8n on ( Septe4be+ 2;;(' solie+s a+4e 8ith +ies too6 Ro+i7ue: an 4ae hi4 thei+ 7uie on thei+ 8a% to an NPA ca4p in Bi+ao. Acco4pan%in7 the4 8as a 4an na4e 0a++%' 8ho' acco+in7 to the solie+s' 8as an NPA 4e4be+ 8ho ha su++ene+e to the 4ilita+%. 0a++% pointe to Ro+i7ue: an calle calle  hi4 a 4e4be+ of the NPA. 0e also hea+ 0a++% tell the solie+s that the latte+ 6ne8 the a+ea 8ell an 8as acuainte 8ith a 4an na4e El,is. The solie+s loae Ro+i7ue: into a 4ilita+% t+uc6 an +o,e to Tabba6' Bu7e% Bu7e%.. >hile he 8as 8al6in7 8ith the solie+s' he notice a solie+ 8ith the na4e ta7 Matutina'V 8ho appea+e to be an ocial because the othe+ solie+s a+esse hi4 as si+.VL" Upon +eachin7 Bi+ao on foot' the solie+s loo6e fo+ an 8as able to locate a ce+tain El,is an tol hi4 that Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: ha ienti<e his 8he+eabouts location. The solie+s fo+ce Ro+i7ue: to con,ince El,is to isclose the location of the NPA ca4p. The% b+ou7ht the t8o to the 4ountains' 8he+e both 8e+e th+eatene th+eatene 8ith eath. >hen the solie+s punche El,is' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : tol the4 that he 8oul +e,eal the location of the NPA ca4p if the% let El,is 7o ho4e. The% <nall% +elease El,is a+oun &3;; p.4. that a%. The solie+s an Ro+i7ue: spent the net th+ee ni7hts in the 4ountains.L( On 12 Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s a7ain hit Ro+i7ue: an fo+ce hi4 to ientif% the location of the NPA ca4p. 0e 8as blinfole an 8a+ne to 7et +ea% because the% 8oul beat hi4 up a7ain in the 4ilita+% ca4p. Upon a++i,al the+ein' the% b+ou7ht hi4 to the sa4e +oo4 8he+e he ha <+st been etaine' an t8o solie+s 4aule hi4 a7ain. The% +epeatel% punche an 6ic6e hi4. /n the afte+noon' afte+noon' the% let hi4 +est an 7a,e hi4 an Alaan tablet. The+eafte+' he fell asleep ue to o,e+Dfati7ue o,e+ Dfati7ue an et+e4e bo% pain. The solie+s' ho8e,e+' hit hi4 a7ain. Afte+ 7i,in7 hi4 a pen an a piece of pape+' the% o+e+e o+e+ e hi4 to 8+ite o8n his +euest fo+ +ice f+o4 the people. >hen he +efuse' the solie+s 4alt+eate hi4 once 4o+e.L1; On 1& Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s fo+ce Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : to si7n ocu4ents ecla+in7 that he ha su++ene+e in an encounte+ in Cu4ao' an that the solie+s i not shoot hi4 because he beca4e a 4ilita+% asset in Ma% Ma%.. >hen he +efuse to si7n the ocu4ent' he +ecei,e anothe+ anothe+ beatin7. Thus' he 8as co4pelle to si7n' but i so usin7 a i5e+ent si7natu+e si7natu+e to sho8 that he 8as 4e+ 4e+el% el% coe+ce.L11  The solie+s sho8e Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue: photo7 photo7+aphs +aphs of i5e+en i5e+entt pe+sons an as6 as6e e hi4 if he 6ne8 the 4en appe appea+in7 a+in7 the+e the+ein. in. >hen he tol the4 that he i not +eco7ni:e the ini,iuals on the photos' the solie+s inst+ucte hi4 to 8+ite 8 +ite o8n the na4e of his school an o+7ani:ation' but he ecline. The solie+s then 8+ote so4ethin7 on the pape+' 4a6in7 it appea+ that he 8as the one 8ho ha 8+itten it' an fo+ce hi4 to si7n the ocu4ent. The solie+s too6 photo7+aphs of hi4 8hile he 8as si7nin7. Afte+8a+s' Afte+8a+s' the solie+s fo+ce hi4 o8n' hel his hans' an sat on his feet. 0e i not onl% +ecei,e anothe+ beatin7' but 8as also elect+ocute. The to+tu+e laste fo+ about an hou+.L12 At 113;; p.4. on 1# Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s b+ou7ht Ro+i7ue: to a 4ilita+% ope+ation in the 4ountains' 8he+e he sa8 Matutina a7ain. The% all spent the ni7ht the+e.L1& /n the 4o+nin7 of 1! Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s an Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: sta+te thei+ escent. >hen the% stoppe' the solie+s too6 his photo7+aph an as6e hi4 to na4e the location of the NPA ca4p. The+eafte The+eafte+' +' the% all +etu+ne +etu+ne  to the 4ilita+% ca4p. The solie+s as6e hi4 to ta6e a bath an 8ea+ a 8hite polo shi+t hane to hi4. 0e 8as then b+ou7ht to the En+ile Meical Cente+' 8he+e -+. $uliet Ra4il -+. -+. Ra4ilF ea4ine hi4.L1H >hen the octo+ as6e hi4 8h% he ha b+uises an contusions' he lie an tol he+ that he sustaine the4 8hen he slippe' as he notice a solie+ obse+,in7 hi4. -+. Ra4ilWs 4eical ce+ti<cate inicate that he su5e+e f+o4 fou+ he4ato4as in the epi7ast+ic a+ea' chest an ste+nu4.L1# Bac6 at the ca4p' the solie+s let Ro+i7ue: eat 8ith se,e+al 4ilita+% ocials an too6 pictu+es of hi4 8hile he 8as eatin7 8ith the4. The% also as6e hi4 to point to a 4ap in f+ont of hi4 an a7ain too6 his photo7+aph. )ate+' )ate+' the% tol hi4 that he 8oul <nall% see his 4othe+ 4othe+.. L1! Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : 8as b+ou7ht to anothe+ 4ili 4ilita+% ta+% ca4p' 8he+e he 8as o+e+ o+e+e e to si7n a piece of pape+ statin7 that he 8as a su++ene+ee su++en e+ee an 8as ne,e+ beaten up. Sca+e an espe+ate to en his o+eal' he si7ne the pape+ an 8as 8a+ne not to +epo+t an%thin7 to the 4eia.L1 A+oun !3;; a.4. on 1 Septe4be+ Septe4be+ 2;;(' the solie+s inst+ucte petitione+ petitione+ to ta6e a bath. The% 7a,e hi4 a pai+ of  Ieans an pe+fu4e. pe+fu4e. >hile he 8as ha,in7 b+ b+ea6fast' ea6fast' the t8o so solie+s lie+s 7ua+in7 hi4 ++epeatel% epeatel% +e4 +e4ine ine hi4 not to isclos isclose e to the 4eia his epe+ience in the ca4p an to sa% instea that he ha su++ene+ su++ene+e e to the 4ilita+% 4ilita+%.L1" .L1" At (3;; a.4. on the sa4e a%' the 4othe+ an the b+othe+ of Ro+i7ue: a++i,e su++oune b% se,e+al 4en. 0is 4othe+' >il4a Ro+i7ue: >il4aF' tal6e tal6e to )t. Col. Mina. Ro+i7ue: hea+ one of the solie+s tell >il4a that he ha su++ene+e to the 4ilita+% an ha lon7 been its asset. 0is b+othe+' Roel Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: RoelF' info+4e hi4 that the 4en acco4pan%in7 the4 8e+e f+o4 the C0R' na4el%' Pasicolan' C+u: an Calla7an. Upon seein7 Ro+i7ue:' C+u: inst+uct inst+ucte e hi4 to lift up his shi+t' an one of the C0R e4plo%ees too6 photo7+aphs of his b+uises.L1( A solie+ t+ie to con,ince >il4a to let Ro+i7ue: sta% in the ca4p fo+ anothe+ t8o 8ee6s to supposel% p+e,ent the NPA f+o4 ta6in7 +e,en7e on hi4. Responent Calo7 also app+oache Ro+i7ue: an Roel an as6e the4 to beco4e 4ilita+% assets. Roel +efuse +efuse an insiste that the% ta6e Ro+i7ue: ho4e to Manila. A7ain' the solie+s +e4ine the4 to +ef+ain f+o4 facin7 the 4eia. The solie+s also tol the4 that the latte+ 8ill be ta6en to the T Tu7ue7a+ao u7ue7a+ao Ai+po+t an 7ua+e until the% +eache ho4e.L2; Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : an his fa4il% 4isse thei+ i7ht. Subseuentl%' the solie+s acco4panie the4 to the C0R oce' 8he+e Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : 8as 4ae to si7n an aa,it statin7 that he 8as neithe+ abucte no+ to+tu+e. to+tu+e. Af+ai an espe+at espe+ate e to +etu+n ho4e' he 8as fo+ce to si7n the ocu4ent. C+u: a,ise hi4 not to <le a case a7ainst his abucto+s because the% ha al+ea% f+ee hi4. The C0R pe+sonnel then le hi4 an his fa4il% to the C0R To To%ota %ota T Ta4a+a8 a4a+a8 * se+,ice ,ehicle. 0e notice that a ,ehicle 8ith solie+s on boa+ follo8e the4.L21  The Ta4a+a8 * pulle o,e+ an +esponent 1st 1st )t. Matutina boa boa+e +e the ,ehicle ,ehicle.. Upon +each +eachin7 in7 a 4all in /sabela' Ro+i7ue:' Ro+i7ue :' his fa4il%' Calla7an' 1st )t. Matutina an t8o othe+ solie+s t+ansfe++e to an o+an7e T To%ota o%ota Re,o 8ith plate nu4be+ >TG #(. Upon +eachin7 the bouna+% of Nue,a EciIa an Nue,a isca%a' 1st )t. Matutina ali7hte an calle Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : to a ine+ ine+.. A ce+tain Alan app+oache Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: an hane hi4 a cellphone 8ith a S/M ca+. The latte+ an his fa4il% then left an +esu4e thei+ Iou+ne% bac6 ho4e.L22 Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : +eache his house in Sta. Ana' Manila at &3;; a.4. on 1" Septe4be+ 2;1;. Calla7an an t8o solie+s 8ent

insie the house' an too6 photo7+aphs an a ,ieo foota7e the+eof the+eof.. The solie+s eplaine that the photos an ,ieos 8oul 8 oul


se+,e as e,ience of the fact that Ro+i7ue: an his fa4il% 8e+e able to a++i,e ho4e safel% safel%.. -espite Ro+i7ue:Ws e5o+ts to conf+ont the solie+s about thei+ acts' the% still continue an onl% left thi+t% 4inutes late+ late+.L2& .L2& On 1( Septe4be+ 2;;(' -+. Re7inalo Pa4u7as' a ph%sician t+aine b% the /nte+national Co44ittee on To+tu+e an Rehabilitation' Reha bilitation' ea4ine Ro+i7ue: an issue a Meical Ce+ti<cate statin7 that the latte+ ha been a ,icti4 of to+tu+e.L2H   A+oun 3;; a.4. on & No,e4be+ 2;1;' Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : an his 7i+lf+ien' Aileen 0a:el Robles' notice that se,e+al suspiciousDloo6in7 4en follo8e the4 at the Met+o Rail T+ansit MRTF' in the st+eets an on a Ieepne%.L2#   On  -e -ece4be+ ce4be+ 2;;(' Ro+i7ue: <le befo+e this Cou+t a P Petition etition fo+ the >+it of A4pa+o an Petition fo+ the >+it of 0abeas -ata 8ith P+a%e+s fo+ P+otection O+e+s' /nspection of Place' an P+ouction of -ocu4ents an Pe+sonal Pe+sonal P+ope+ties ate 2 -ece4be+ 2;;(.L2! The petition 8as <le a7ainst fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o' Gen. /b+ao' P-G. e+so:a' )t. Gen. Ban7it' MaIo+ Gene+al MaI. Gen.F Nesto+ ?. Ochoa' PCSupt. Tolentino' Tolentino' PSSupt. Santos' Col. -e e+a' 1st )t. Matutina' Calo7' Geo+7e Palacpac Palacpac PalacpacF' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an. The petition p+a%e fo+ the follo8in7 +eliefs3 a. The issuance of the 8+it of a4pa+o o+e+in7 +esponent +esponents s to esist f+o4 ,iolatin7 Ro+i7 Ro+i7ue:Ws ue:Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% sec u+it%.. b. The issuance of an o+e+ to enIoin +esponen +esponents ts f+o4 oin7 ha+4 to o+ app+oac app+oachin7 hin7 Ro+i7ue:' his fa4il% an his 8itnesses. c. Allo8in7 the inspection of the etention a+eas of the 0eaua+te+s of B+a,o Co.' #th /nfant+% -i,ision' Ma7uin7' Gon:a7a' Ca7a%an an anothe+ place nea+ 8he+e Ro+i7ue: 8as b+ou7ht. . O+e+in7 +esponen +esponents ts to p+ouce ocu4ents sub4itte to the4 +e7a+in7 an% +epo+t on Ro+ Ro+i7ue:' i7ue:' incluin7 ope+ation +epo+ts an p+o,ost 4a+shall +epo+ts of the #th /nfant+% -i,ision' the Special Ope+ations G+oup of the A+4e *o+ces of the Philippines A*PF' p+io+ to' on an subseuent to ! Septe4be+ 2;;(. e. O+e+in7 +eco+s pe+tinent o+ in an% 8a% connecte to Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue:' :' 8hich a+e in the custo% of +esponen +esponents' ts' to be epun7e' isabuse' an fo+e,e+ ba++e f+o4 bein7 use.L2 On 1# -ece4be+ 2;;(' 8e 7+ante the +especti,e 8+its afte+ <nin7 that the petition sucientl% alle7e that Ro+i7ue: ha been abucte' to+tu+e an late+ +elease b% 4e4be+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion of the Philippine A+4% A+4%.L2" .L2" >e li6e8ise o+e+e o+e+ e +esponents the+ein to <le a ,e+i<e +etu+n on the 8+its on o+ befo+e 22 -ece4be+ 2;;( an to co44ent on the petition on o+ befo+e H $anua+% 2;1;.L2( *inall%' 8e i+ecte the Cou+t of Appeals to hea+ the petition on H $anua+% 2;1; an ecie on the case 8ithin 1; a%s afte+ its sub4ission fo+ ecision.L&; -u+in7 the initial hea+in7 on H $anua+% 2;1;' the Cou+t of Appeals +eui+e the pa+ties to sub4it aa,its an othe+ pieces of e,ience at the net scheule hea+in7 on 2 $anua+% 2;1;.L&1   On " $anua+% 2;1;' +esponent +esponents s the+ein' th+ou7h the Oce of the Solicito+ Gene+al OSGF' <le thei+ Retu+ Retu+n n of the >+it' 8hich 8as li6e8ise consie+e as thei+ co44ent on the petition.L&2 /n thei+ Retu+n' Retu+n' +esponents the+ein alle7e that Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : ha su++ene+e to the 4ilita+% on 2" Ma% 2;;( afte+ he ha been put une+ su+,eillance an ienti<e as Ka PepitoV Pepito V b% fo+4e+ +ebels.L&& Acco+in7 to his 4il 4ilita+% ita+% hanle+s' Co+po+al Cpl.F Roel B. Cabaccan an Cpl. $ulius P. Na,a++o' Ro+i7ue: 8as a fo+4e+ 4e4be+ of the NPA ope+atin7 in Ca7a%an alle%.L&H >antin7 to bolt f+o4 the NPA' he tol Cpl. Cabaccan an Cpl. Na,a++o that he 8oul help the 4ilita+% 4ili ta+% in echan7e fo+ his p+otection. p+otection. L&# Upon his ,olunta+% su++ene+ su++ene+ on 2" Ma% 2;;(' Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : 8as 4ae to si7n an Oath of )o%alt% an an A7entWs A7+ee4entCont+act' A7+ee4ent Cont+act' sho8in7 his 8illin7ness to +etu+n to societ% an beco4e a 4ilita+% asset.L&! Since then' he acte as a ouble a7ent' +etu+nin7 to the NPA to 7athe+ info+4ation.L& 0o8e,e+' he fea+e that his NPA co4+aes 8e+e be7innin7 to suspect hi4 of bein7 an in<lt+ato+.L&" in<lt+ato+.L&" Thus' 8ith his 6no8le7e an consent' the solie+s planne to sta7e a sha4 abuction to e+ase an% suspicion about hi4 bein7 a ouble a7ent.L&( 0ence' the abuction subIect of the instant petition 8as conucte.L conucte.LH; H;   Mean8hile' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an <le a Consoliate Retu+ Retu+n n of the >+it ate 1# $anua+% 2;1;'LH1 alle7in7 that the% ha ee+cise et+ao+ina+% et+ao+ina+% ili7ence in locatin7 Ro+i7ue:' facilitatin7 his safe tu+no,e+ to his fa4il% an secu+in7 thei+ Iou+ne% bac6 ho4e to Manila. Mo+e speci<call%' the% alle7e that' on 1! Septe4be+ 2;;(' afte+ >il4a sou7ht thei+ assistance in asce+tainin7 the 8he+eabouts of he+ son' C+u: 4ae phone calls to the 4ilita+% an la8 enfo+ce4ent a7encies to ete+4ine his location.LH2 C+u: 8as able to spea6 8ith )t. Col. Mina' 8ho con<+4e that Ro+i7ue: 8as in thei+ custo% custo%.. LH& This info+4ation 8as t+ans4itte to C0R Re7ional -i+ecto+ Att%. $i44% P. Bali7a. 0e' in tu+n' o+e+e C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an to acco4pan% >il4a to the 1th /nfant+% -i,ision.LHH >hen the C0R oce+s' alon7 8ith >il4a an Roel' a++i,e at the 1th /nfant+% Battalion at Masin' Alcala' Ca7a%an' B+i7ae Co44ane+ Col. e e+a an Battalion Co44ane+ )t. Col. Mina Mi na alle7e that Ro+i7ue: ha beco4e one of thei+ assets' as e,ience b% the Su44a+% on the Su++ene+ of No+iel Ro+i7ue: an the latte+Ws Cont+act as A7ent.LH# The C0R oce+s obse+,e his casual an co+ial e4eano+ 8ith the solie+s.LH! /n an% case' C+u: as6e hi4 to +aise his shi+t to see if he ha been subIecte to an% 4alt+eat4ent. 4alt+eat4ent. C+u: an Pasicolan i not see an% t+aces of to+tu+e. The+eaf The+eafte+' te+' Ro+i7ue: 8as +elease to his fa4il%' an the% 8e+e 4ae to si7n a ce+ti<cation to this e5ect. -u+in7 the si7nin7 of the ocu4ent' he+ein C0R oce+s i not 8itness an% th+eat' inti4iation o+ fo+ce e4plo%e a7ainst Ro+i7ue: o+ his fa4il% fa4il%.. LH -u+in7 thei+ Iou+ne% bac6 to the ho4e of Ro+i7ue:' the C0R oce+s obse+,e that he 8as ,e+% 4uch at ease 8ith his 4ilita+% esco+ts' especiall% 8ith 1st )t. Matutina.LH" Neithe+ 8as the+e an% fo+ce o+ inti4iation 8hen the solie+s too6 pictu+es of his house' as the ta6in7 of photo7+aphs 8as pe+fo+4e 8ith >il4aWs consent.LH( -u+in7 the hea+in7 on 2 $anua+% 2;1;' the pa+ties a7+ee to <le aitional aa,its an position pape+s an to ha,e the case consie+e sub4itte fo+ ecision afte+ the <lin7 of these pleain7s.L#;   On 12 Ap+il 2;1;' the Cou+t of Appeals +ene+e +ene+e  its assaile -ecision.L#1 Subseuentl%' on 2" Ap+il 2;1;' +esponen +esponents ts the+ein <le thei+ Motion fo+ Reconsie+ation.L#2 Befo+e Befo+e the Cou+t of Appeals coul +esol,e this Motion fo+ Reconsie+ation' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : <le the instant Petition fo+ Pa+tial Re Re,ie8 ,ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i G.R. No. 1(1";#F' +aisin7 the follo8in7 assi7n4ent of e++o+s3   a. The Cou+t of Appeals e++e in not 7+antin7 the /nte+i4 Relief fo+ te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+ o+e+..   b. The Cou+t of Appeals e++e in sa%in73 0Fo8e,e+' 7i,en the natu+e of the 8+it of a4pa+o' 8hich has the e5ect of enIoinin7 the co44ission b% +esponents of ,iolation to petitione+Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%' the safet% of petitione+ is ensu+e 8ith the issuance i ssuance of the 8+it' e,en in the absence of an o+e+ p+e,entin7 +esponent f+o4 app+oachin7 app+oachin7 petitione+ petitione+.V .V   c. The Cou+t of Appeals e++e in not <nin7 that +esponent Glo+ia Macapa7al A++o%o ha co44an +esponsibil +esponsibilit% it%.. L#&   On the othe+ han' +esponents +esponents the+ein' in thei+ Co44ent ate &; $ul% 2;1;' a,e++e a,e++e3 3   a. The Cou+t of Appeals p+ope+l% +oppe then P+esient Glo+ia Macapa7al A++o%o as a pa+t%D+es pa+t%D+esponent' ponent' as she 4a% not be sue in an% case u+in7 he+ tenu+e of oce o+ actual incu4benc% incu4benc%..   b. Petitione Petitione++ ha not p+esente an% aeuate an co4petent e,ience' 4uch less substantial e,ience' to establish his clai4 that public +esponents ha ,iolate' 8e+e ,iolatin7 o+ th+eatenin7 th+eatenin7 to ,iolate his +i7hts to life' l ife' libe+t% an secu+it%' as 8ell as his +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.. 0ence' he 8as not entitle to the p+i,ile7e of the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata o+


to the co++esponin7 inte+i4 +eliefs i.e. inspection o+e+' p+ouction o+e+ an te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+F p+o,ie une+ the +ule on the 8+it of a4pa+o an the +ule on the 8+it of habeas ata.L#H   On 1( Au7ust 2;1;' P-G. e+:os e+:osa' a' PSSupt. Santos' BGen. -e e e+a' +a' 1st )t. Matutina' )t. Col. Mina' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an <le a Petition fo+ Re,ie8 on Ce+tio+a+i' see6in7 the +e,e+sal +e,e+sal of the 12 Ap+il 2;1; -ecision of the Cou+t of Appeals. L## The% alle7e that Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: :Q   0as not p+esente an% aeuate an co4petent e,ience' 4ust less substantial e,ience' to establish his clai4 that petitione+s ha,e ,iolate' a+e ,iolatin7 o+ th+eatenin7 th+eatenin7 8ith ,iolation his +i7hts to life' li fe' libe+t% an secu+it%' as 8ell as his +i7ht to p+i,ac% hence' he is not entitle to the p+i,ile7e of the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata an thei+ co++esponin7 inte+i4 +eliefs i.e.' inspection o+e+' p+ouction o+e+ an te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+F p+o,ie une+ the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o an the Rule on the >+it of 0abeas -ata.L#!   /n asce+tainin7 8hethe+ the Cou+t of Appeals co44itte +e,e+sible e++o+ in issuin7 its assaile -ecision an Resolution' the follo8in7 issues 4ust be +esol,e3 /. >hethe+ the inte+i4 +eliefs p+a%e fo+ b% Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : 4a% be 7+ante afte+ the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata ha,e al+ea% been issue in his fa,o+. //. >hethe+ fo+4e+ P+esien P+esientt A++o%o shoul be +oppe as a +esponent on the basis of the p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit. ///. >hethe+ the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% can be use in a4pa+o an habeas ata cases. /. /. >hethe+ the +i7hts to life' libe+t% an p+ope+t% of Ro+i7ue: 8e+e ,iolate ,iolate  o+ th+eatene b% +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";#. At the outset' it 4ust be e4phasi:e that the 8+its of a4pa+o an habeas ata 8e+e p+o4ul7ate to ensu+e the p+otection of the peopleWs +i7hts to life' libe+t% an secu+it% secu+it%.L# .L# The +ules on these 8+its 8e+e iissue ssue in li7ht of the ala+4in7 p+e,alence of et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances.L#" The Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o too6 e5ect on 2H Octobe+ 2;;'L#( an the Rule on the >+it of 0abeas -ata on 2 *eb+ua+% 2;;".L!;  The 8+it of a4pa+o a4pa+o is an et+a et+ao+ina+% o+ina+% an inepe inepenent nent +e4e% tha thatt p+o,ies +a +api pi Iuicial +elief' as it pa+t pa+ta6es a6es of a s su44a+% u44a+% p+oceein7 that +eui+es +eui+es onl% substantial e,ience to 4a6e the app+op+iate inte+i4 an pe+4anent +eliefs a,ailable to the petitione+.L!1 petitione+ .L!1 /t is not an action to ete+4ine c+i4inal 7uilt +eui+in7 p+oof be%on +easonable oubt' o+ liabilit% fo+ a4a7es +eui+in7 p+epone+ance p+epone+ance of e,ience' o+ a4inist+ati,e +esponsibilit% +eui+in7 substantial substantial e,ience that 8il 8illl +eui+e full an ehausti,e p+oceein7s.L!2 p+oceein7s.L!2 Rathe+' it se+,es both p+e,enti,e an cu+ati,e +oles in a+essin7 the p+oble4 of et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances.L!& /t is p+e,enti,e in that it b+ea6s the epectation of i4punit% in the co44ission of these o5enses' an it is cu+ati,e in that it facilitates the subseuent punish4ent of pe+pet+ato+s pe+pet+ato+s b% ine,itabl% leain7 to subseuent in,esti7ation an action.L!H Mean8hile' the 8+it of habeas ata p+o,ies a Iuicial +e4e% to p+otect a pe+sonWs +i7ht to cont+ol info+4ation +e7a+in7 oneself' pa+ticula+l% in instances 8he+e such info+4ation is bein7 collecte th+ou7h unla8ful 4eans in o+e+ to achie,e unla8ful ens.L!# As an inepenent an su44a+% +e4e% to p+otect the +i7ht to p+i,ac% Q especiall% the +i7ht to info+4ationall p+i,ac%L!! Q the p+oceein7s fo+ the issuance of the 8+it of habeas ata oes not entail an% <nin7 of c+i4inal' info+4ationa ci,il o+ a4inist+ati,e culpabilit%. culpabilit%. /f the alle7ations in the petition a+e p+o,en th+ou7h substantial e,ience' then the Cou+t 4a% aF 7+ant access to the atabase o+ info+4ation bF enIoin the act co4plaine of o+ cF in case the atabase o+ info+4ation contains e++oneous e++oneous ata o+ info+4ation' o+e+ its eletion' est+uction o+ +ecti<cat +ecti<cation.L! ion.L!

*i+st issue3 G+ant of inte+i4 +eliefs /n the petition in G.R. No. 1(1";#' Ro+i7ue: p+a%s fo+ the issuance of a te4po+a+% p+otec p+otection tion o+e+ o+e+.. /t 4ust be une+sco+e that this inte+i4 +elief is onl% a,ailable befo+e <nal Iu74ent. Section 1H of the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o clea+l% p+o,ies3   /nte+i4 Reliefs. Q Upon <lin7 of the petition o+ at an%ti4e befo+e <nal Iu74ent' the cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e 4a% 7+ant an% of the follo8in7 +eliefs3    T  Te4po+a+% e4po+a+% P+ P+otection otection O+ O+e+ e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e' upon 4otion o+ 4otu p+op+io' p+op+io' 4a% o+e+ tthat hat the petitione petitione++ o+ the a77+ie,e pa+t% an an% 4e4be+ of the i44eiate fa4il% be p+otecte in a 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% o+ b% an acc+eite pe+son o+ p+i,ate institution capable of 6eepin7 an secu+in7 thei+ safet%. /f the petitione+ is an o+7ani:ation' association o+ institution +efe++e +efe++e to in Section &cF of this Rule' the p+otection 4a% be etene to the oce+s in,ol,e.    The Sup+e4e Cou+t Cou+t shall acc+e acc+eit it the pe+sons a an n p+i,ate institutions that shall eten eten te4po+a+% p+ p+otection otection to the petitione+ o+ the a77+ie,e pa+t% an an% 4e4be+ of the i44eiate fa4il%' in acco+ance 8ith 7uielines 8hich it shall issue.    The acc+eite acc+eite pe+sons an p+ p+i,ate i,ate institutions sha shall ll co4pl% 8ith the +ules an conitions conitions that 4a% be i4pose b% the cou+t' cou+t'  Iustice o+ Iu7e.   aF /nspection O+e+ O+e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e' upon ,e+i<e 4otion an afte+ ue hea+in7' 4a% o+e+ an% pe+son in possession o+ cont+ol of a esi7nate lan o+ othe+ p+ope+t%' to pe+4it ent+% ffo+ o+ the pu+pose of inspectin7' 4easu+in7' su+,e%in7' o+ photo7+aphin7 the p+ope+t% o+ an% +ele,ant obIect o+ ope+ation the+eo the+eon. n.    The 4otion shall state state in etail the place o o++ places to be ins inspecte. pecte. /t shall be suppo+ suppo+te te b% aa,its o+ testi4onies of 8itnesses ha,in7 pe+sonal 6no8le7e of the enfo+ce isappea+ance o+ 8he+eabouts of the a77+ie,e pa+t% pa+t%.. /f the 4otion is oppose on the 7+oun of national secu+it% o+ of the p+i,ile7e natu+e of the info+4ation' the cou+t' Iustice o+  Iu7e 4a% conuct conuct a hea+in7 in cha4be cha4be+s +s to ete+ ete+4ine 4ine the 4e+it of the op opposition. position.    The 4o,ant 4ust sho8 sho8 that the inspection inspection o+e+ is ne necessa+% cessa+% to esta establish blish the +i7ht of the a7 a77+ie,e 7+ie,e pa+t% alle7e tto o be th+eatene th+eate ne o+ ,iolate.    The inspection o+e+ o+e+ shall specif% the pe+son o+ pe+so pe+sons ns autho+i:e to 4a6e the inspe inspection ction an the a ate' te' ti4e' place an 4anne+ of 4a6in7 the inspection an 4a% p+esc+ibe othe+ conitions to p+otect p+otect the constitutional +i7hts of all pa+ties. The o+e+ shall epi+e <,e #F a%s afte+ the ate of its issuance' unless etene fo+ Iusti<able +easons.   bF P+ouct P+ouction ion O+e+ O+e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice' o+ Iu7e' upon ,e+i<e 4otion an afte+ ue hea+in7' 4a% o+e+ an% pe+son in possession' custo% o+ cont+ol of an% esi7nate ocu4ents' pape+s' boo6s' accounts' lette+s' photo7+a photo7+aphs' phs' obIects o+ tan7ible thin7s' o+ obIects in i7iti:e o+ elect+onic fo+4' 8hich constitute o+ contain e,ience +ele,ant to the petition o+ the +etu+n' +etu+ n' to p+ouce an pe+4it thei+ inspection' cop%in7 o+ photo7+aphin7 b% o+ on behalf of the 4o,ant.    The 4otion 4a% be oppose oppose on the 7+ 7+oun oun of nationa nationall secu+it% o+ of the p p+i,ile7e +i,ile7e natu+e o off the info+4ation' in 8hich case the cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e 4a% conuct a hea+in7 in cha4be+s to ete+4ine the 4e+it of the opposition.



 The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e shall p+es p+esc+ibe c+ibe othe+ con conitions itions to p+o p+otect tect the const constitutional itutional +i7hts of a all ll the pa+ties.   cF >itness P+ote P+otection ction O+e+ O+e+.. Q The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e' upon 4otion o+ 4otu p+op+io' 4a% +efe+ the 8itnesses to the -epa+t4ent of $ustice fo+ a4ission to the >itness P+otection' Secu+it% an Bene<t P+o7+a4' pu+suant to Republic Act No. !("1.    The cou+t' Iustice o+ Iu7e 4a% also ++efe+ efe+ the 8itnesses to othe+ 7o,e+ 7o,e+n4ent n4ent a7encies' o+ tto o acc+eite acc+eite pe+sons o+ p+i,a p+i,ate te institutions capable of 6eepin7 an secu+in7 thei+ safet%. safet%. E4phasis supplieF   >e hel in @ano ,. Sanche:L!" that Lthese p+o,isional +eliefs a+e intene to assist the cou+t befo+e it a++i,es at a Iuicious ete+4ination ete+4inatio n of the a4pa+o petition.V Bein7 inte+i4 +eliefs' the% can onl% be 7+ante befo+e a <nal aIuication of the case is 4ae. /n an% case' it 4ust be une+sco+e that the p+i,ile7e of the 8+it of a4pa+o' once 7+ante' necessa+il% entails the p+otection p+otect ion of the a77+ie,e pa+t% pa+t%.. Thus' since 8e 7+ant petitione+ the p+i,ile7e of the 8+it of a4pa+o' the+e is no nee to issue a te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+ inepenentl% of the fo+4e+. The o+e+ +est+ictin7 +esponents f+o4 7oin7 nea+ Ro+i7ue: is subsu4e une+ the p+i,ile7e of the 8+it.   Secon issue3 P+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit /t bea+s st+essin7 that since the+e is no ete+4ination of a4inist+ati,e' ci,il o+ c+i4inal liabilit% in a4pa+o an habeas ata p+oceein7s'' cou+ts can onl% 7o as fa+ as asce+tainin7 +espons p+oceein7s +esponsibilit% ibilit% o+ accountabilit% fo+ the enfo+ce isappea+ance o+ et+aIuicial 6illin7. As 8e hel in Ra:on ,. Ta7itis3L!(   /t oes not ete+4ine 7uilt no+ pinpoint c+i4inal culpabilit% fo+ the isappea+ance +athe+' it ete+4ines +esponsibilit%' o+ at least accountabilit%' fo+ the enfo+ce isappea+ance fo+ pu+poses of i4posin7 the app+op+iate +e4eies to a+ess the isappea+ance.. Responsibilit% +efe+s to the etent the acto+s ha,e been establishe b% substantial e,ience to ha,e isappea+ance pa+ticipate in 8hate,e+ 8a%' b% action o+ o4ission' in an enfo+ce isappea+ance isappea+ance'' as a 4easu+e of the +e4eies this Cou+t shall c+aft' a4on7 the4' the i+ecti,e to <le the app+op+iate c+i4inal an ci,il cases a7ainst the +esponsible pa+ties in the p+ope+ cou+ts. Accountabilit%' Accountabilit%' on the othe+ han' +efe+s to the 4easu+e of +e4eies that shoul be a+esse to those 8ho ehibite in,ol,e4ent in the enfo+ce isappea+ance isappea+ance 8ithout b+in7in7 the le,el of thei+ co4plicit% to the le,el of +esponsibilit% e<ne abo,e o+ 8ho a+e i4pute 8ith 8i th 6no8le7e +elatin7 to the enfo+ce isappea+ance an 8ho ca++% the bu+en of isclosu+e o+ those 8ho ca++%' but ha,e faile to ischa+7e' the bu+en of et+ao+ et+ao+ina+% ina+% ili7ence in the in,esti7ation of the enfo+ce isappea+ance. /n all these cases' the issuance of the >+it of A4pa+o is Iusti<e b% ou+ p+i4a+% 7oal of a+essin7 the isappea+ance' so that the life li fe of the ,icti4 is p+ese+,e an his libe+t% an secu+it% a+e +esto+e.L; E4phasis supplie.F    Thus' in the case at ba+' the Cou+ Cou+tt of Appeals' in its -ecision -ecisionL1 L1 foun +e +esponents sponents in G.R G.R.. No. 1(1";# Q 8ith the e eception ception of Calo7' Palacpac o+ 0a++% Q to be accountable fo+ the ,iolations of Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue:Ws :Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% co44itte b% the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision -i ,ision of the Philippine Phili ppine A+4%. A+4%. L2 The Cou+t of Appeals is4isse the petition 8ith +espect to fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o on account of he+ p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit. Ro+i7ue: contens' thou7h' that she shoul +e4ain a +esponent in this case to enable the cou+ts to ete+4ine 8hethe+ she is +esponsible o+ accountable the+efo+. the+efo+. /n this +e7a+' it 4ust be cla+i<e that the Cou+t of AppealsW +ationale fo+ +oppin7 he+ f+o4 the list of +esponents no lon7e+ stans since he+ p+esiential i44unit% is li4ite onl% to he+ incu4benc% incu4benc%.. /n Est+aa ,. -esie+to'L& 8e cla+i<e the oct+ine that a nonDsittin7 P+es P+esient ient oes not enIo% i44unit% f+o4 suit' e,en fo+ acts co44itte u+in7 the latte+Ws tenu+e. >e e4phasi:e ou+ +ulin7 the+ein that cou+ts shoul loo6 8ith isfa,o+ upon the p+esiential p+i,ile7e of i44unit%' especiall% 8hen it i4pees the sea+ch fo+ t+uth o+ i4pai+s the ,inication of a +i7ht' to 8it3   >e +eIect LEst+aaWs a+7u4ent that he cannot be p+osecute fo+ the +eason that he 4ust <+st be con,icte in the i4peach4ent p+oceein7s. p+oceein7s. The i4peach4ent t+ial of petitione+ Est+aa 8as abo+te b% the 8al6out of the p+osecuto+s an b% the e,ents that le to his loss of the p+esienc% p+esienc%.. /nee' on * *eb+ua+% eb+ua+% ' 2;;1' the Senate passe Senate Resolution No. "& Reco7ni:in7 Reco7ni:in7 that the /4peach4ent Cou+t is *unc *unctus tus Ocio.V Since the /4peach4ent Cou+t is no8 functus ocio' it is untenable fo+ petitione+ to e4an that he shoul <+st be i4peache an then con,icte befo+e he can be p+osecute. The plea if 7+ante' 8oul put a pe+petual ba+ a7ainst his p+osecution. Such a sub4ission has nothin7 to co44en itself fo+ it 8ill place hi4 in a bette+ situation than a nonDsittin7 P+es P+esient ient 8ho has not been subIecte to i4peach4ent p+oceein7s an %et can be the obIect of a c+i4inal p+osecut p+osecution. ion. T To o be su+e' the ebates in i n the Constitutional Co44ission 4a6e it clea+ that 8hen i4peach4ent p+oceein7s p+oceein7s ha,e beco4e 4oot ue to the +esi7nation of the P+esient P+esient'' the p+ope+ c+i4inal an ci,il cases 4a% al+ea% be <le a7ainst hi4' ,i:3        M+ M+.. Auino. On anothe+ point' if an i4peach4ent p+oceein7 has been <le a7ainst the P+esient' fo+ ea4ple' an the P+esient P+esie nt +esi7ns befo+e Iu74ent of con,iction has been +ene+e b% the i4peach4ent cou+t o+ b% the bo%' ho8 oes it a5ect the i4peach4ent p+oceein7 >ill it be necessa+il% +oppe   M+ M+.. Ro4ulo. /f 8e ecie the pu+pose of i4peach4ent to +e4o,e one f+o4 oce' then his +esi7nation 8oul +ene+ the case 4oot an acae4ic. 0o8e,e+' as the p+o,ision sa%s' the c+i4inal an ci,il aspects of it 4a% continue in the o+ina+% cou+ts.V    This is in acco+ 8ith 8ith ou+ +ulin7 in /n Re3 Re3 Satu+nino Be Be+4ue: +4ue: that in incu4bent cu4bent P+e P+esients sients a+e i44une f+o4 suit o+ f+ f+o4 o4 bein7 b+ou7ht to cou+t u+in7 the pe+io of thei+ incu4benc% an tenu+eV but not be%on.    >e no8 co4e to the scope of i44unit% that can be clai4e b% petitione+ as a nonDsittin7 P+e P+esient. sient. The cases <le a7ainst petitione+ Est+aa a+e c+i4inal in cha+acte+. cha+acte+. The% in,ol,e plune+' b+ibe+% an 7+aft an co++uption. B% no st+etch of the i4a7ination can these c+i4es' especiall% plune+ 8hich 8 hich ca++ies the eath penalt%' be co,e+e b% the alle7e 4antle of i44unit% of a nonDsittin7 p+esient. Pe Petitione+ titione+ cannot cite an% ecision of this Cou+t licensin7 the P+esient to co44it c+i4inal acts an 8+appin7 hi4 8ith postDtenu+e i44unit% f+o4 liabilit%. liabilit%. /t 8ill be ano4alous to hol that i44unit% is an inoculation f+o4 liabilit% fo+ unla8ful acts an o4issions. The +ule is that unla8ful acts of public ocials a+e not acts of the State an the oce+ 8ho acts ille7all% is not actin7 as such but stans in the sa4e footin7 as an% othe+ t+espasse+ t+espasse+..   /nee' a c+itical +eain7 of cu++ent lite+atu+e on eecuti,e i44unit% 8ill +e,eal a Iuicial isinclination to epan the p+i,ile7e especiall% 8hen it i4pees the sea+ch fo+ t+uth o+ i4pai+s the ,inication of a +i7ht. /n the 1(H case of US ,. Nion' US P+esient P+esie nt Richa+ Nion' a sittin7 P+esient' 8as subpoenae to p+ouce ce+tain +eco+in7s an ocu4ents +elatin7 to his con,e+sations 8ith ais an a,ise+s. Se,en a,ise+s of P+esient Nion=s associates 8e+e facin7 cha+7es of conspi+ac% to obst+uct Iustice an othe+ o5enses 8hich 8e+e co44itte in a bu+7la+% of the -e4oc+atic National 0eaua+te+s in >ashin7ton=s >a shin7ton=s >ate+7ate >ate+7ate 0otel u+in7 the 1(2 p+esiential ca4pai7n. P+esient Nion hi4self 8as na4e an uninicte coD conspi+ato+. P+esient Nion 4o,e to uash the subpoena on the 7+oun' a4on7 othe+s' that the P+esient 8as not subIect to Iuicial p+ocess an that he shoul <+st be i4peache an +e4o,e f+o4 oce befo+e he coul be 4ae a4enable to  Iuicial p+oceein7s. p+oceein7s. The clai4 8as +e +eIecte Iecte b% the US Sup+e4e Sup+e4e Cou+t. /t co conclue nclue that  8hen 8hen the 7+oun 7+oun  fo+ asse+tin7

p+i,ile7e as to subpoenae 4ate+ials sou7ht fo+ use in a c+i4inal t+ial is base onl% on the 7ene+ali:e inte+est in


con<entialit%' it cannot p+e,ail p+e,ail o,e+ the funa4ental e4ans of ue p+ocess of la8 in the fai+ a4inist+ation of c+i4inal  Iustice.V /n the 1("2 case of Nio Nion n ,. *it:7e *it:7e+al' +al' the US Sup+e Sup+e4e 4e Cou+t fu+the+ he hel l that the i44unit% of the P+esie P+esient nt f+o4 ci,il a4a7es co,e+s onl% ocial acts.V Recentl%' the US Sup+e4e Cou+t ha the occasion to +eite+ate this oct+ine in the case of Clinton ,. $ones 8he+e it hel that the US P+esient=s i44unit% f+o4 suits fo+ 4one% a4a7es a+isin7 out of thei+ ocial acts is inapplicable to unocial conuct.LH E4phasis supplieF   *u+the+' *u+th e+' in ou+ Resolut Resolution ion in Est+aa ,. -esie+to'L# 8e +eite+ate that the p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit eists onl% in concu++ence 8ith the p+esientWs incu4benc%3   Petitione++ stubbo+nl% clin7s to the contention that he is entitle to absolute i44unit% f+o4 suit. 0 Petitione 0is is a+7u4ents a+e 4e+el% +ec%cle an 8e nee not p+olon7 the lon7e,it% of the ebate on the subIect. /n ou+ -ecision' 8e ehausti,el% t+ace the o+i7in of eecuti,e i44unit% in ou+ Iu+isiction an its bens an tu+ns up to the p+esent ti4e. >e hel that 7i,en the intent of the 1(" Constitution to b+eathe life to the polic% that a public oce is a public t+ust' the petitione+' as a nonDsittin7 P+esient' P+esie nt' cannot clai4 eecuti,e i44unit% fo+ his alle7e c+i4inal acts co44itte 8hile a sittin7 P+esient. Petitione Petitione+=s +=s +ehashe a+7u4ents a+7u4ents incluin7 thei+ thinl% is7uise ne8 spins a+e base on the +eIecte contention that he is still P+esient' albeit' a P+esient on lea,e. 0is stance that his i44unit% co,e+s his enti+e te+4 of oce o+ until $une &;' 2;;H is+e7a+s the +ealit% that he has +elinuishe the p+esienc% an the+e is no8 a ne8 e Iu+e P+esient. Petitione++ 7oes a step fu+the+ an a,e+s that e,en a nonDsittin7 P+esient enIo%s i44unit% f+o4 suit u+in7 his te+4 of oce. Petitione 0e butt+esses his position 8ith the elibe+ations of the Constitutional Co44ission' ,i:3   M+. Sua+e:. Than6 %ou.    The last uestion is 8ith +efe+ence +efe+ence to the Co44ittee=s o4ittin7 o4ittin7 in the +aft p+oposal p+oposal the i44unit% p+ p+o,ision o,ision fo+ the P+esient. P+esie nt. / a7+ee 8ith Co44issione+ Nolleo that the Co44ittee i ,e+% 8 8ell ell in st+i6in7 out this secon sentence' at the ,e+% least' of the o+i7inal p+o,ision on i44unit% f+o4 suit une+ the 1(& Constitution. But 8oul the Co44ittee 4e4be+s not a7+ee to a +esto+ation of at least the <+st sentence that the p+esient shall be i44une f+o4 suit u+in7 his tenu+e' consie+in7 that if 8e o not p+o,ie hi4 that 6in of an i44unit%' he 4i7ht be spenin7 all his ti4e facin7 liti7ations' as the P+esientDinDeile P+esie ntDinDeile in 0a8aii is no8 facin7 liti7ations al4ost ail%   *+. Be+nas3    The +eason fo+ the o4ission is that 8e consie+ it une+s une+stoo too in p+ese p+esent nt Iu+isp+uence tha thatt u+in7 his tenu+ tenu+e e he is i44une f+o4 suit.   M+. Sua+e:3   So the+e is no nee to ep+ess it he+e.   *+. Be+nas3    The+e is no nee. nee. /t 8as that 8a% befo befo+e. +e. The onl% inno,a inno,ation tion 4ae b% the 1(& C Constitution onstitution 8as to 4a6e that e eplicit plicit an to a othe+ thin7s.   M+. Sua+e:3   On the une+stanin7' / 8ill not p+ess fo+ an% 4o+e ue+%' 4aa4 P+esient.   / than6 the Co44issione+ fo+ the cla+i<cation.V   Petitione+' Petitione +' ho8e,e+' fails to istin7uish bet8een te+4 an tenu+e. The te+4 4eans the ti4e u+in7 8hich the oce+ 4a% clai4 to hol the oce as of +i7ht' an <es the inte+,al afte+ 8hich the se,e+al incu4bents shall succee one anothe+ anothe+.. The tenu+e +ep+esents +ep+esents the te+4 u+in7 8hich the incu4bent actuall% hols oce. The tenu+e 4a% be sho+te+ than the te+4 fo+ +easons 8ithin o+ be%on the po8e+ of the incu4bent. *+o4 the elibe+ations' the intent of the f+a4e+s is clea+ that the i44unit% of the p+esient f+o4 suit is concu++ent onl% 8ith his tenu+e an not his te+4.L! E4phasis supplieF   Appl%in7 the fo+e7oin7 +ationale to the case at ba+' it is clea+ that fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o cannot use the p+esiential i44unit% f+o4 suit to shiel he+self f+o4 Iuicial sc+utin% that 8oul assess 8hethe+' 8ithin the contet of a4pa+o p+oceein7s'' she 8as +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ the abuction of Ro+i7ue p+oceein7s Ro+i7ue:. :.  Thi+ issue3 Co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa a4pa+o +o p+oc p+oceein7s eein7s  To  To att+ibute ++esponsibilit% esponsibilit% o+ acco accountabilit% untabilit% to fo+4e+ fo+4e+ P+esient A+ A++o%o' +o%o' R Ro+i7ue: o+i7ue: conte contens ns that the o oct+ine ct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% be applie. As 8e eplaine in Rub+ico , ,.. A++o%o'L co44an +esponsibilit% pe+tains to the +esponsibilit% +esponsibilit% of co44ane+s fo+ c+i4es co44itte b% subo+inate 4e4be+s of the a+4e fo+ces o+ othe+ pe+sons subIect to thei+ cont+ol in inte+nationall 8a+s o+ o4estic conict.VL" Althou7h o+i7inall% use fo+ asce+tainin7 c+i4inal co4plicit%' the co44an inte+nationa +esponsibilit% oct+ine has also foun application in ci,il cases fo+ hu4an +i7hts abuses.L( /n the Unite States' fo+ ea4ple' co44an +esponsibilit% 8as use in *o+ ,. Ga+cia an Ro4a7o:a ,. Ga+cia Q ci,il actions <le une+ the Alien To+t Clai4s Act an the To+tu+e To+tu+e icti4 P+otection Act.L"; This e,elop4ent in the use of co44an +esponsibilit% in ci,il p+oceein7s sho8s that the application of this oct+ine has been libe+all% etene e,en to cases not c+i4inal in natu+e. Thus' it is ou+ ,ie8 that co44an +esponsibilit% +esponsibilit% 4a% li6e8ise <n application in p+oceein7s see6in7 the p+i,ile7e of the 8+i 8+itt of a4pa+o. As 8e hel in Rub+ico3   /t 4a% plausibl% be contene that co44an +esponsibilit%' as le7al basis to hol 4ilita+%police co44ane+s liable fo+ f o+ et+aD le7al 6illin7s' enfo+ce isappea+ances' o+ th+eats' 4a% be 4ae applicable to this Iu+isiction on the theo+% that the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine no8 constitutes a p+inciple of inte+national la8 o+ custo4a+% inte+nationa inte+nationall la8 in acco+ance 8ith the inco+po+ation clause of the Constitution.      /f co44an +esponsibilit% 8e+e to be in,o6e an applie to these p+oceein7s' it shoul' at 4ost' be onl% to ete+4ine the autho+ 8ho' at the <+st instance' is accountable fo+' an has the ut% to a+ess' the isappea+ance an ha+ass4ents co4plaine of' so as to enable the Cou+t to e,ise +e4eial 4easu+es that 4a% be app+op+iate une+ the p+e4ises to p+otect +i7hts co,e+e b% the 8+it of a4pa+o. As inti4ate ea+lie+' ho8e,e+' the ete+4ination shoul not be pu+sue to < c+i4inal liabilit% on +esponents p+epa+ato+% to c+i4inal p+osecution' o+ as a p+elue to a4inist+ati,e isciplina+% p+oceein7s une+ eistin7 a4inist+ati,e issuances' if the+e be an% an%.L"1 .L"1 E4phasis supplie.F P+ecisel% P+ecise l% in the case at ba+' the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% be use to ete+4ine 8hethe+ +esponents a+e accountable fo+ an ha,e the ut% to a+ess the abuction of Ro+i7ue: in o+e+ to enable the cou+ts to e,ise +e4eial accountable 4easu+es to p+otect his +i7hts. Clea+l%' nothin7 p+eclues this Cou+t f+o4 appl%in7 the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% in


a4pa+o p+oceein7s p+oceein7s to asce+tain +esponsibilit% an accountabilit% in et+aIuicial 6illin7s 6illi n7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances. /n this +e7a+' the Sepa+ate Opinion of $ustice Conchita Ca+pioDMo+ales in Rub+ico is 8o+th notin7' thus3 +e7a+'    That p+oceein7s p+oceein7s une+ the R Rule ule on the > >+it +it of A4pa+o  o o not ete+ ete+4ine 4ine c+i4inal' ci,il o+ a4inist+at a4inist+ati,e i,e liabilit% shoul not abate the applicabilit% of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit%. Ta6in7 Sec+eta+% of National -efense ,. Manalo an Ra:on ,.  Ta7itis  Ta7itis in p+ope+ c contet' ontet' the% o not p+eclue the application o off the oct+ine of c co44an o44an +espon +esponsibilit% sibilit% to A4pa+o ca cases. ses.   Manalo 8as actuall% e4phatic on the i4po+tance of the +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son an its conte4po+a+% si7ni<cation as a 7ua+antee of p+otection of oneWs +i7hts b% the 7o,e+n4ent. /t fu+the+ state that p+otection inclues conuctin7 e5ecti,e in,esti7ations' o+7ani:ation o+7ani:ation of the 7o,e+n4ent appa+atu appa+atus s to eten p+otection to ,icti4s of et+ale7al 6illin7s o+ enfo+ce isappea+ances' isappea+ance s' o+ th+eats the+eof' ano+ thei+ fa4ilies' an b+in7in7 o5ene+s to the ba+ of Iustice.    Ta7itis'  Ta7itis' on the othe othe++ han' cannot be 4o+e cat cate7o+ical e7o+ical on the app application' lication' at least in p+ p+inciple' inciple' of the oct+in oct+ine e of co44an +esponsibilit%3   Gi,en thei+ 4anates' the PNP an PNPDC/-G ocials an 4e4be+s 8e+e the ones 8ho 8e+e +e4iss in thei+ uties 8hen the 7o,e+n4ent co4pletel% faile to ee+ ee+cise cise the et+ao+ et+ao+ina+% ina+% ili7ence that the A4pa+o Rule +eui+es. >e hol these o+7ani:ations accountable accountable th+ou7h thei+ incu4bent Chiefs 8ho' une+ this -ecision' shall ca++% the pe+sonal +esponsibilit% of seein7 to it that et+ao+ et+ao+ina+% ina+% ili7ence' in the 4anne+ the A4pa+o Rule +eui+es' is applie in a+essin7 the enfo+ce isappea+ance of Ta7itis.   Neithe+ oes Republic Act No. ("#1 e4asculate the applicabilit% of the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine to A4pa+o cases. The sho+t title of the la8 is the Philippine Act on C+i4es A7ainst /nte+national 0u4anita+ian )a8' Genocie' an Othe+ C+i4es A7ainst 0u4anit%.V 0u4anit%.V Ob,iousl%' it shoul' as it i' onl% t+eat of supe+io+ +esponsibilit% as a 7+oun fo+ c+i4inal +esponsibilit% fo+ the c+i4es co,e+e. Such li4ite t+eat4ent' ho8e,e+' is 4e+el% in 6eepin7 8ith the statuteWs pu+pose an not intene to +ule out the application of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% to othe+ app+op+iate cases.   /nee' one can i4a7ine the innu4e+able an7e+s of insulatin7 hi7hD+an6in7 4ilita+% an police oce+s f+o4 the co,e+a7e of +eliefs a,ailable une+ the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o. The eplicit aoption of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% in the p+esent case 8ill onl% b+in7 Manalo an T Ta7itis a7itis to thei+ lo7ical conclusion.   /n <ne' / sub4it that the Cou+t shoul ta6e this oppo+tunit% to state 8hat the la8 ou7ht to be if it t+ul% 8ants to 4a6e the >+it of A4pa+o an e5ecti,e +e4e% fo+ ,icti4s of et+ale7al 6illin7s an enfo+ce isappea+ances o+ th+eats the+eof the+eof.. >hile the+e is a 7enuine ea+th of e,ience to hol +esponents Gen. 0e+4o7enes Espe+on an P-i+. Gen. A,elino Ra:on accountable une+ the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine' the ponenciaWs hesitant application of the oct+ine itself i tself is +eplete 8ith i4plications abho++ent abho++ent to the +ationale behin the Rule on the >+it of A4pa+o. A4pa+o.L"2 L"2 E4phasis supplie.F  This Sepa+ate Opinion Opinion 8as +eite+a +eite+ate te in the +ece +ecentl% ntl% ecie case of Bo Boac ac ,. ,. Caapan'L"& li6 li6e8ise e8ise penne b% $ust $ustice ice Ca+pioD Mo+ales' 8he+ein this Cou+t +ule3   Rub+ico cate7o+icall% cate7o+icall% enies the application of co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa+o cases to ete+4ine c+i4inal liabilit% liabilit%.. The Cou+t 4aintains its ahe+ence to this p+onounce4ent as fa+ as a4pa+o cases a+e conce+ne. Rub+ico' ho8e,e+' +eco7ni:es +eco7ni:es a p+eli4ina+% %et li4ite application of co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa+o cases to instances of  ete+4inin7 the +esponsible o+ accountable ini,iuals o+ entities that a+e ut%Dboun to abate an% t+ans7+ess t+ans7+ession ion on the life' libe+t% o+ secu+it% of the a77+ie,e pa+t%. /f co44an +esponsibilit% 8e+e to be in,o6e an applie to these p+oceein7s' it shoul' at 4ost' be onl% to ete+4ine the autho+ 8ho' at the <+st instance' is accountable fo+' an has the ut% to a+ess' the isappea+ance an ha+ass4ents co4plaine of' so as to enable the Cou+t to e,ise +e4eial 4easu+es that 4a% be app+op+iate une+ the p+e4ises to p+otect +i7hts co,e+e b% the 8+it of a4pa+o. As inti4ate ea+lie+' ho8e,e+' the ete+4ination shoul not be pu+sue to < c+i4inal liabilit% on +esponents p+epa+ato+% to c+i4inal p+osecution' o+ as a p+elue to a4inist+ati,e isciplina+% p+oceein7s une+ eistin7 a4inist+ati,e issuances' if the+e be an%.  /n othe+ 8o+s' co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% be loosel% applie in a4pa+o cases in o+e+ to ientif% those accountable ini,iuals that ha,e the po8e+ to e5ecti,el% i4ple4ent 8hate,e+ p+ocesses an a4pa+o cou+t 8oul iissue. ssue. /n such application' the a4pa+o cou+t oes not i4pute c+i4inal +esponsibilit% but 4e+el% pinpoint the supe+io+s it consie+s to be in the best position to p+otect the +i7hts of the a77+ie,e pa+t%. Such ienti<cation of the +esponsible an accountable supe+io+s 4a% 8ell be a p+eli4ina+% ete+4ination of c+i4inal liabilit% 8hich' of cou+se' is still subIect to fu+the+ in,esti7ation b% the app+op+iate 7o,e+n4ent 7o,e+n4ent a7enc% a7enc%.. E4phasis supplie.F As ea+lie+ pointe out' a4pa+o p+oceein7s ete+4ine aF +esponsibilit%' o+ the etent the acto+s ha,e been establishe b% substantial e,ience to ha,e pa+ticipate in 8hate,e+ 8a%' b% action o+ o4ission' in an enfo+ce isappea isappea+ance' +ance' an bF accountabilit%' accountab ilit%' o+ the 4easu+e of +e4eies that shoul be a+esse a+esse  to those iF 8ho ehibite in,ol,e4ent in the enfo+ce isappea+ance 8ithout b+in7in7 the le,el of thei+ co4plicit% to the le,el of +esponsibilit% e<ne abo,e o+ iiF 8ho a+e i4pute 8ith 6no8le7e +elatin7 to the enfo+ce isappea+ance an 8ho ca++% the bu+en of isclosu+e o+ iiiF those 8ho ca++%' but ha,e faile to ischa+7e' the bu+en of et+ao+ina+% ili7ence in the in,esti7ation of the enfo+ce isappea+ance. isappea+ance.  Thus' althou7h the+e the+e is no ete ete+4ination +4ination of c+i4inal' c ci,il i,il o+ a4inist+ati,e liabilities' the oct+ine oct+ine of co44an co44an +esponsibilit% 4a% ne,e+theless be applie to asce+tain +esponsibilit% an accountabilit% 8ithin these fo+e7oin7 e<nitions. a. Co44an +esponsibilit% of the P+esie P+esient nt 0a,in7 establishe the applicabilit% of the oct+ine of co44an +esponsibilit% in a4pa+o p+oceein7s' p+oceein7s' it 4ust no8 be +esol,e 8hethe+ the p+esient' as co44ane+DinDchief co44ane+DinDchief of the 4ili 4ilita+%' ta+%' can be hel +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ et+aIuicial 6illin7s an enfo+ce enfo+ce isappea+ances isappea+ances.. >e +ule in the a+4a a+4ati,e. ti,e.  To  To hol so4eone liab liable le une+ the oct+in oct+ine e of co44an +esponsibilit%' +esponsibilit%' the follo8in7 ele4e ele4ents nts 4ust obtain3 a. the eistence of a supe+io+ supe+io+Dsubo+inate Dsubo+inate +elationship bet8een the accuse as supe+io+ an the pe+pet+ato+ of the c+i4e as his subo+inate subo+inate b. the supe+io+ 6ne8 o+ ha +eason to 6no8 that the c+i4e 8as about to be o+ ha been co44itte an c. the supe+io+ faile to ta6e the necessa+% an +easona +easonable ble 4easu+es to p+e,ent the c+i4inal acts o+ punish the pe+pet+ato+s the+eof.L"H  The p+esient' p+esient' bein7 the co44ane co44ane+DinDc +DinDchief hief of all a+4e fo+ fo+ces'L"# ces'L"# necessa+il% necessa+il% possesses co cont+ol nt+ol o,e+ the 4ilita+% that uali<es hi4 as a supe+io+ 8ithin the pu+,ie8 of the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine. L"! On the issue of 6no8le7e' it 4ust be pointe out that althou7h inte+national inte+national t+ibunals appl% a st+ict stana+ of 6no8le7e' i.e.' actual 6no8le7e' such 4a% nonetheless be establishe th+ou7h ci+cu4stantial ci+cu4stantial e,ience.L" /n the Phili Philippines' ppines' a 4o+e libe+al ,ie8 is aopte an supe+io+s 4a% be cha+7e 8ith const+ucti,e 6no8le7e. This ,ie8 is butt+ess butt+esse e b% the enact4ent of Eecuti,e O+e+ No. 22!' othe+8ise 6no8n as the /nstitutionali:ation of the -oct+ine of XCo44an Responsibilit%W in all Go,e+n4ent Oces' pa+ticula+l% pa+ticula+l% at all )e,els of Co44an in the Philippine National Police an othe+ )a8 Enfo+ce4ent A7encies E.O. 22!F.L"" Une+ E.O. 22!' a 7o,e+n4ent ocial 4a% be hel liable fo+ ne7lect of ut% une+ the oct+ine of

co44an +esponsibilit% +esponsibilit% if he has 6no8le7e that a c+i4e o+ o5ense shall be co44itte' is bein7 co44itte' o+ has been


co44itte b% his subo+inates' o+ b% othe+s 8ithin his a+ea of +esponsibilit% an' espite such 6no8le7e' he i not ta6e p+e,enti,e o+ co++ecti,e co++ecti,e action eithe+ befo+e' u+in7' o+ i44eiatel% afte+ its co44ission.L"( Kno8le7e of the co44ission of i++e7ula+ities' c+i4es o+ o5enses is p+esu4e 8hen aF the acts a+e 8iesp+ea 8ithin the 7o,e+n4ent ocialWs a+ea of  Iu+isiction bF the the acts ha,e been ++epeatel% epeatel% o+ ++e7ula+l% e7ula+l% co44itte 8ithin his a a+ea +ea of +e +esponsibilit% sponsibilit% o+ cF 4e4be 4e4be+s +s of his i44eiate sta5 o+ oce pe+sonnel a+e in,ol,e.L(; Mean8hile' as to the issue of failu+e to p+e,ent o+ punish' it iis s i4po+tant to note that as the co44ane+DinDchief co44ane+DinDchief of the a+4e fo+ces' the p+esient has the po8e+ to e5ecti,el% co44an' cont+ol an iscipline the 4ilita+%.L(1 4ilita+%.L(1 b. Respo Responsibilit% nsibilit% o+ accountabilit% of fo+4e+ P+esient P+esient A++o%o  The net uestion uestion that 4ust be ta tac6le c6le is 8hethe+ R Ro+i7ue: o+i7ue: has p+ p+o,en o,en th+ou7h substantial e,ience that fo+4e+ P+esient P+esient A++o%o is +esponsible +esponsible o+ accounta accountable ble fo+ his abuction. >e +ule in the ne7at ne7ati,e. i,e. Ro+i7ue: ancho+s his a+7u4ent on a 7ene+al alle7ation that on the basis of the Melo Co44issionV an the Alston Repo+t'V +esponents +espone nts in G.R. No. 1(1";# al+ea% ha 6no8le7e of an info+4ation on' an shoul ha,e 6no8n that a cli4ate of enfo+ce isappea+ances isappea+ances ha been pe+pet+ate on 4e4be+s of the NPA.L NPA.L(2 (2 >ithout e,en attachin7' o+ at the ,e+% least' uotin7 these +epo+ts' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue: contens that the Melo Repo Repo+t +t points to +o7ue 4ili 4ilita+% ta+% 4en as the pe+pet+ato+s pe+pet+ato+s.. >hile the Alston Repo+t states that the+e is a polic% allo8in7 all o8in7 enfo+ce isappea+ances isappea+ances an pins the bla4e on the P+esient' 8e o not auto4aticall% i4pute +esponsibilit% to fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o A++o%o fo+ each an e,e+% count of fo+cible isappea+anc isappea+ance.L(& e.L(& Asie f+o4 Ro+i7ue:Ws Ro+i7ue:Ws 7ene+al a,e+4ents' the+e is no piece of e,ience that coul establish he+ +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit% fo+ his abuction. Neithe+ 8as the+e e,en a clea+ atte4pt to sho8 that she shoul ha,e 6no8n about the ,iolation of his +i7ht to life' libe+t% o+ secu+it%' o+ that she ha faile to in,esti7ate' punish o+ p+e,ent it. *ou+th issue3 Responsibilit% o+ accountabilit% of +esponent +esponents s in G.R. No. 1(1";#  The oct+ine of totalit% totalit% of e,ience in a a4pa+o 4pa+o cases 8 8as as <+st lai o8n in th this is Cou+tWs +ulin7 in R Ra:on'L(H a:on'L(H to 8it3    The fai+ an p+ope+ p+ope+ +ule' to ou+ 4in' is to consie+ all the pieces of e,ience auce auce in thei+ totalit%' totalit%' an to cons consie+ ie+ an% e,ience othe+8ise ina4issible une+ ou+ usual +ules to be a4issible if it is consistent 8ith the a4issible e,ience auce. /n othe+ 8o+s' 8e +euce ou+ +ules to the 4ost basic test of +eason Q i.e.' to the +ele,ance of the e,ience to the issue at han an its consistenc% 8ith all othe+ pieces of auce e,ience. Thus' e,en hea+sa% e,ience can be a4itte if it satis<es this basic 4ini4u4 4i ni4u4 test.L(# E4phasis supplie.F   /n the case at ba+' 8e <n no +eason to epa+t f+o4 the factual <nin7s of the Cou+t of Appeals' the sa4e bein7 suppo+te b% substantial e,ience. A ca+eful ea4ination of the +eco+s of this case +e,eals that the totalit% of the e,ience auce b% Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : inubitabl% p+o,e the +esponsibilit% an accountabilit% of so4e +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# fo+ ,iolatin7 ,i olatin7 his +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%.   a. The totalit% of e,ience p+o,e b% substantial e,ience the +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit% of +esponent +esponents s fo+ the ,iolation of o+ th+eat to Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%. Afte+ a ca+eful ea4ination of the +eco+s of these cases' 8e a+e con,ince that the Cou+t of Appeals co++ectl% foun sucient e,ience p+o,in7 that the solie+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision of the 4ilita+% abucte Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : on ! Septe4be+ 2;;(' an etaine an to+tu+e hi4 until 1 Septe4be+ 2;;(. Ro+i7ue:Ws Ro+i7ue :Ws Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate H -ece4be+ 2;;( 8as a 4eticulous an st+ai7htfo+8a+ account of his ho++i<c o+eal 8ith the 4ilita+%' etailin7 the 4anne+ in 8hich he 8as captu+e an 4alt+eate 4alt+eate on account of his suspecte 4e4be+ship in the NPA.L(! 0is na++ation of his su5e+in7 inclue an ehausti,e esc+iption of his ph%sical su++ounin7s' su++ounin7s' pe+sonal ci+cu4stances ci+cu4stances an pe+cei,e obse+,ations. 0e li6e8ise positi,el% ienti<e +esponent +esponents s 1st )t. Matutina an )t. Col. Mina to be p+esent u+in7 his abuction' etention an to+tu+e'L( an +esponent +esponents s C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an as the C0R +ep+esentati,es +ep+es entati,es 8ho appea+e u+in7 his +elease.L(" Mo+e pa+ticula+l%' the fact of Ro+i7ue:Ws abuction 8as co++obo+ate co++obo+ate b% Ca+los in his Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate 1! Septe4be+ 2;;('L(( 8he+ein he +ecounte +ecounte  in etail the ci+cu4sta ci+cu4stances nces su++ounin7 the ,icti4Ws captu+e. As +e7a+s the alle7ation of to+tu+e' the +especti,e Ce+ti<cations of -+. Ra4il an -+. Pa4u7as ,aliate the ph%sical 4alt+eat4entt Ro+i7ue: su5e+e in the hans of the solie+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision. Acco+in7 to 4alt+eat4en the Ce+ti<cation ate 12 Octobe+ 2;;( eecute b% -+. Ra4il'L1;; she ea4ine Ro+i7ue: in the Alfonso Ponce En+ile Me4o+ial -ist+ict 0ospital on 1! Septe4be+ 2;;( an a++i,e at the follo8in7 <nin7s3   *ACE D 1;c4 heale sca+ face +i7ht sie D 2c4 heale sca+ +i7ht e%eb+o8 late+al a+eaF D 2c4 heale sca+ +i7ht e%e b+o8 4eian a+eaF D Hc4  2c4 he4ato4a ante+io+ chest at the ste+nal a+ea +i7ht sie D &c4  2c4 he4ato4a ste+nal a+ea left sie D !c4  1c4 he4ato4a f+o4 epi7ast+ic a+ea to ant. chest left sie D !c4  1c4 he4ato4a f+o4 epi7ast+ic a+ea to ant. chest +i7ht sie D Multiple heale +ashes b+o8nish iscolo+ationF both fo+ea+4 D Multiple heale +ashes b+o8nish iscolo+ationF D both le7 a+4 D hip a+ealu4ba+ a+eaL1;1   -+ -+.. Pa4u7as pe+fo+4e a sepa+ate 4eical ea4ination of Ro+i7ue: on 1( Septe4be+ 2;;(' the +esults of 8hich con<+4e that the inIu+ies su5e+e b% the latte+ 8e+e inicte th+ou7h to+tu+e. -+. -+. Pa4u7as thus issue a Meical Repo+t ate 2& Septe4be+ 2;;('L1;2 eplicitl% statin7 that Ro+i7ue: ha been to+tu+e u+in7 his etention b% the 4ilita+%' to 8it3   . /nte+p+etation of *inin7s    The abo,e ph%sical ph%sical an ps%cholo7ical <n <nin7s in7s sustaine b% the the subIect a+e ++elate elate to the to to+tu+e +tu+e an illDt+ illDt+eat4ent eat4ent one tto o hi4. The 4ultiple ci+cula+ b+o8n to a+6 b+o8n spots foun on both le7s an a+4s 8e+e ue to the insect bites that he sustaine 8hen he 8as fo+ce to Ioin t8ice in the 4ilita+% 4ili ta+% ope+ations. The ab+asions coul also be ue to the conitions +elate u+in7 4ilita+% ope+ations. The 4ultiple pinDpoint bloo spots foun on his left ea+ is a +esult of an un6no8n obIect place insie his left l eft ea+ ea+.. The a+eas of tene+nes tene+ness s he felt u+in7 the ph%sical ea4ination 8e+e ue to the o,e+8hel4in7 punchin7 an 6ic6in7 on his bo% bo%.. The occasional icult% of sleepin7 is a s%4pto4 epe+ience sicF b% the subIect as a +esult of the ps%cholo7ical t+au4a he encounte+e u+in7 his etention.   /. Conclusions an Reco Reco44enations 44enations    The ph%sical inIu+ies an ps%cholo7ical t+au4a su5e+e b% the s subIect ubIect a+e se secona+% cona+% to the tto+tu+e o+tu+e an illDt+eat4ent on one e to hi4 8hile in etention fo+ about 11 a%s. The ph%sical inIu+ies sustaine b% the subIect' of 8hich the a7e is co4patible 8ith the alle7e ate of iniction sicF.L1;& E4phasis supplie.F



/n assessin7 the 8ei7ht of the Ce+ti<cations' the Cou+t of Appeals co++ectl% +elie on the 4eical <nin7 that the inI inIu+ies u+ies su5e+e b% Ro+i7ue: 4atche his account of the 4alt+eat4ent inicte on hi4 b% the solie+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision of the Philippine A+4% A+4%.. *u+the+' the 6in of inIu+ies he sustaine sho8e that he coul not ha,e sustaine the4 f+o4 4e+el% fallin7' thus 4a6in7 +esponentsW clai4 hi7hl% i4plausible. -espite these 4eical <nin7s that o,e+8hel4in7l% suppo+te an lent c+eibilit% to the alle7ations of Ro+i7ue: in his Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa%' +esponents +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# still stubbo+nl% clun7 to thei+ a+7u4ent that he 8as neithe+ abucte no+ etaine. Rathe+' Rathe+' the% clai4e that he 8as a ouble a7ent' 8hose +elationship 8ith the 4ilita+% 8as at all ti4es con7enial. This contention cannot be sustaine' as it is fa+ +e4o,e f+o4 o+ina+% hu4an epe+ience. /f it 8e+e t+ue that Ro+i7ue: 4aintaine a4icable +elations 8ith the 4ilita+%' then he shoul ha,e unhesitatin7l% assu+e his fa4il% on 1 Septe4be+ 2;;( that he 8as a4on7 f+iens. /nstea' he ,i7o+ousl% pleae 8ith the4 to 7et hi4 out of the 4ilita+% facilit%. facilit%. /n fact' in the Si Sinu4paan7 nu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate H -ece4be+ 2;;(L1;H >il4a eecu eecute' te' she 4ae the follo8in7 a,e+4ents3   1". Na nan7 Ma6ita 6o an7 a6in7 ana6 a% na6a+a4a4 a6o a6o sa 6an%a n7 a8a ahil sa 4u6ha s%an7 pa7o at 4ala6i an7 6an%an7 ipina%at.   1(. Na ni%a6ap 6o s%a at sa a4in7 pa76a6a%a6ap a% binulun7an n%a a6o na 8a7 6o s%an7 ii8an sa lu7a+ na i%on i %on        2&. Na sinabihan a6o n7 47a sunalo na 6un7 p8ee a8 a% 4ai8an 4una n7 ala8an7 lin77o sa 6a4po a6o at si No+iel pa+a a8 4at+ain pa si No+iel sa loob n7 6a4po   2H. Na hini a6o pu4a%a7 na 4ai8an an7 a6in7 ana6        &&. Na sa 6asalu6u 6asalu6uhan' han' han77an7 n7a%on a% na7Daalala pa a6o sa paa sicF sa 6ali7tasan n7 a4in7 buon7 pa4il%a' lalo l alo na 6a% No+iel L1;#   Also' Roel 4ae the follo8in7 suppo+tin7 a,e+4ents in his Sinu4paan7 Sala%sa% ate & -ece4be+ 2;;(3L1;!   2H. Na nan7 4a6ita 6o si No+iel' hini s%a 4a6ala6a n7 i+etso' hinan7Dhina s%a' 4ala6i an7 ipina%at at nanlalali4 an7 47a 4ata   2#. Na nan7 4a6ita 6o an7 a6in7 6apati a% na6a+a4a4 a6o n7 a8a ahil na6ilala 6o s%an7 4asi7la at 4asa%ahin   2!. Na ilan7 4inuto lan7 a% binulu7an n%a a6o n7 Ku%a' ilabas 4o a6o ito' papata%in nila a6o.V   2. Na sinabihan 6a4i ni )t. Col. Mina na ba6a p8een7 4ai8an pa n7 al8an7 lin77o an7 a6in7 6apati sa 6anila pa+a +a8 4aDt+ain s%a.   2". Na hini 6a4i pu4a%a7 n7 a6in7 nana% L1;   Mo+eo,e+'' the Cou+t of Appeals li6e8ise aptl% pointe out the illo7ical' if Mo+eo,e+ i f not out+i7htl% cont+aicto+%' contention of +esponents +espone nts in G.R. No. 1(1";# that 8hile Ro+i7ue: ha co4plaine of his ehaustion f+o4 his acti,ities as a 4e4be+ of the CPPDNPA' CPPDNP A' he ne,e+theless 8illi 8illin7l% n7l% ,oluntee+e to +etu+n to his life in the NPA to beco4e a oubleDa7ent fo+ the 4ilita+%. 4ilita+%. The lo8e+ cou+t +ule in this 4anne+3   /n the Retu+n of the >+it' +esponent A*P 4e4be+s alle7e that petitione+ con<e to his 4ilita+% hanle+' Cpl. Na,a++o' that petitione+ coul no lon7e+ stan the ha+ships he epe+ience in the 8ile+ness' an that he 8ante to beco4e an o+ina+% citi:en a7ain because of the e4pt% p+o4ises of the CPPDNPA. 0o8e,e+' in the sa4e Retu+n' +esponents state that petitione+ a7+ee to beco4e a ouble a7ent fo+ the 4ilita+% an 8ante to +eDente+ the CPPDNPA CPPDNPA'' so that he coul 7et info+4ation +e7a+in7 +e7a+ in7 the 4o,e4ent i+ectl% f+o4 the sou+ce. /f petitione+ 8as ti+e of life in the 8ile+ness an esi+e to beco4e an o+ina+% citi:en a7ain' it e<es lo7ic l o7ic that he 8oul a7+ee to beco4e an une+co,e+ a7ent an 8o+6 alon7sie solie+s in the 4ountains Q o+ the 8ile+ness he +eas Q to locate the hieout of his alle7e NPA co4+aes.L1 co4+aes.L1;" ;" E4phasis supplie.F   *u+the+4o+e' *u+th e+4o+e' the appellate cou+t also p+ope+l% +ule that asie f+o4 the abuction' etention an to+tu+e of Ro+i7ue:' +esponents' +espone nts' speci<call% 1st )t. Matutina' ha ,iolate an th+eatene the fo+4e+Ws +i7ht to secu+it% 8hen the% 4ae a ,isual +eco+in7 +eco+ in7 of his house' as 8ell as the photos of his +elati,es' to 8it3   /n the ,ieos ta6en b% the solie+s Q one of 8ho4 8 ho4 8as +esponent Matutina Q in the house of petitione+ on Septe4be+ 1"' 2;;(' the solie+s e,en 8ent as fa+ as ta6in7 ,ieos of the photos of petitione+Ws +elati,es hun7 on the 8all of the house' as 8ell as ,ieos of the inne+4ost pa+t of the house. This Cou+t notes that 1)t. Matutina' b% ta6in7 the sai ,ieos' i not 4e+el% inten to 4a6e p+oofs of the safe a++i,al of petitione+ an his fa4il% in thei+ ho4e. 1)t. Matutina also esi+e to instill fea+ in the 4ins of petitione+ an his fa4il% b% sho8in7 the4 that the sanctit% of thei+ ho4e' f+o4 then on' 8ill not be f+ee f+o4 the 8atchful e%es of the 4ilita+%' pe+4anentl% captu+e th+ou7h the 4eiu4 of a see4in7l% innocuous cellhpone ,ieo ca4e+a. The Cou+t cannot Q an 8ill not Q conone such act' as it int+ues into the ,e+% co+e of petitione+Ws +i7ht to secu+it% 7ua+antee b% the funa4ental la8 la8.L1;( .L1;( E4phasis supplie.F    Ta6en  Ta6en in thei+ to totalit%' talit%' the pieces of e e,ience ,ience auce b% Ro+i7ue:' Ro+i7ue:' as 8ell as tthe he cont+aicto+% cont+aicto+% efenses p+e p+esente sente b% +esponents +espone nts in G.R. No. 1(1";#' 7i,e c+eence to his clai4 that he ha been abucte' etaine an to+tu+e b% solie+s belon7in7 to the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' #th /nfant+% -i,ision of the 4ilita+%. 4ilita+%. /t 4ust be pointe out' ho8e,e+' that as to +esponents +esponents C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an' the+e 8as no substantial e,ience to sho8 that the% ,iolate' o+ th+eatene th+eatene  8ith ,iolation' Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it%. secu+it%. -espite the ea+th of e,ience to sho8 the C0R oce+sW +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit%' this Cou+t nonetheless e4phasi:es its c+iticis4 as +e7a+s thei+ capacit% to +eco7ni:e to+tu+e o+ an% si4ila+ fo+4 of abuse. The C0R' bein7 constitutionall% 4anate to p+otect hu4an +i7hts an in,esti7ate ,iolations the+eof'L11; shoul ensu+e that its oce+s a+e 8ellDeuippe to +espon e5ecti,el% to an a+ess hu4an +i7hts ,iolations. The actuations of +esponents un4ista6abl% sho8e thei+ insucient co4petence in facilitatin7 an ensu+in7 the safe +elease of Ro+i7ue Ro+i7ue: : afte+ his o+eal. b. The failu+e to conuct a fai+ an e5ect in,esti7ation a4o a4ounte unte to a ,iolation of o+ th+eat tto o Ro Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7ue:Ws +i7hts tto o life' libe+t% an secu+it%.  The Rule on on the >+ >+it it of A4pa+o e eplicitl% plicitl% states that the ,iolation of o+ th+ th+eat eat to the +i7ht tto o life' libe+t% an secu+ secu+it% it% 4a% be cause b% eithe+ an act o+ an o4ission of a public ocial.L111 Mo+eo,e+' Mo+eo,e+' in the contet of a4pa+o


p+oceein7s'' +esponsibilit% 4a% +efe+ to the pa+ticipation of the +esponents' b% action o+ o4ission' in enfo+ce p+oceein7s isappea+ance.L112 Accountabilit%' on the othe+ han' 4a% attach to +esponents 8ho a+e i4pute 8ith 6no8le7e +elatin7 isappea+ance.L112 to the enfo+ce isappea+ance an 8ho ca++% the bu+en of isclosu+e o+ those 8ho ca++%' but ha,e faile to ischa+7e' the bu+en of et+ao+ina+% ili7ence in the in,esti7ation of the enfo+ce isappea+ance.L11& /n this +e7a+' 8e e4phasi:e ou+ +ulin7 in Sec+eta+% of National -efense ,. ManaloL11H that the +i7ht to secu+it% of a pe+son inclues the positi,e obli7ation of the 7o,e+n4ent to ensu+e the obse+,ance of the ut% to in,esti7ate' ,i:3  Thi+' the +i7ht to to secu+it% of pe+so pe+son n is a 7ua+ante 7ua+antee e of p+otect p+otection ion of one=s +i7hts b% tthe he 7o,e+n4ent 7o,e+n4ent.. /n the conte contet t of the 8+it of A4pa+o' this +i7ht is built into the 7ua+antees of the +i7ht to life l ife an libe+t% une+ A+ticle ///' Section 1 of the 1(" Constitution an the +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son as f+eeo4 f+o4 th+eat an 7ua+antee of boil% an ps%cholo7ical inte7+it%F une+ A+ticle ///' Section 2. The +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son in this thi+ sense is a co+olla+% of the polic% that the State 7ua+antees full +espect fo+ hu4an +i7htsV une+ A+ticle //' Section 11 of the 1(" Constitution. As the 7o,e+n4ent is the chief  7ua+anto+ of o+e+ an secu+it%' the Constitutional 7ua+antee of the +i7hts to life' libe+t% an secu+it% of pe+son is +ene+e +ene+e  ine5ecti,e if 7o,e+n4ent oes not a5o+ p+otection to these +i7hts especiall% 8hen the% a+e une+ th+eat. P+otection inclues conuctin7 e5ecti,e in,esti7ations' o+7ani:ation of the 7o,e+n4ent appa+atus to eten p+otection to ,icti4s of et+ale7al 6illin7s o+ enfo+ce isappea+ances o+ th+eats the+eofF ano+ thei+ fa4ilies' an b+in7in7 o5ene+s to the ba+ of IIustice. ustice. The /nte+DA4e+ican /nte+ DA4e+ican Cou+t of 0u4an Ri7hts st+esse the i4po+tance of in,esti7ation in the e elasue: lasue: Ro+i7ue: Case' ,i:3 The ut% to in,esti7ateF 4ust be une+ta6en in a se+ious 4anne+ an not as a 4e+e fo+4alit% p+eo+ p+eo+aine aine to be ine5ecti,e. An in,esti7ation 4ust ha,e an obIecti,e an be assu4e b% the State as its o8n le7al ut%' not as a step ta6en b% p+i,ate inte+ests that epens upon the initiati,e of the ,icti4 o+ his fa4il% o+ upon thei+ o5e+ of p+oof' 8ithout an e5ecti,e sea+ch fo+ the t+uth b% the 7o,e+n4ent.        Si4ila+l%' the Eu+opean Cou+t of 0u4an Ri7hts EC0RF has inte+p+ete the +i7ht to secu+it%V not onl% as p+ohibitin7 the State f+o4 a+bit+a+il% ep+i,in7 libe+t%' but i4posin7 a positi,e ut% on the State to a5o+ p+otect p+otection ion of the +i7ht to libe+t% libe+t%.. The EC0R inte+p+ete the +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+sonV une+ A+ticle #1F of the Eu+opean Con,ent Con,ention ion of 0u4an Ri7hts in the leain7 case on isappea+ance of pe+sons' Ku+t ,. Tu+6e%. /n this case' the clai4ant=s son ha been a++este b% state autho+ities an ha not been seen since. The fa4il%=s +euests fo+ info+4ation an in,esti7ation +e7a+ +e7a+in7 in7 his 8he+eabout 8he+eabouts s p+o,e futile. The clai4ant su77este that this 8as a ,iolation of he+ son=s +i7ht to secu+it% of pe+son. The EC0R +ule' ,i:3   ... an% ep+i,ation of libe+t% 4ust not onl% ha,e been e5ecte in confo+4it% 8ith the substanti,e an p+oceu+al p+oceu+al +ules of national la8 but 4ust euall% be in 6eepin7 8ith the ,e+% pu+pose of A+ticle #' na4el% to p+otect the ini,iual f+o4 a+bit+a+iness... 0a,in7 assu4e cont+ol o,e+ that ini,iual it is incu4bent on the autho+ities to account fo+ his o+ he+ 8he+eabouts. 8he+eabout s. *o+ this +eason' A+ticle # 4ust be seen as +eui+in7 the autho+ities to ta6e e5ecti,e 4easu+es to safe7ua+ a7ainst the +is6 of isappea+ance an to conuct a p+o4pt e5ecti,e in,esti7ation into an a+7uable clai4 that a pe+son has been ta6en into custo% an has not been seen since.L11# E4phasis supplieF   /n the instant case' this Cou+t +ules that +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# a+e +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ the ,iolation of Ro+i7ue:Ws Ro+i7ue :Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% on account of thei+ abIect failu+e to conuct a fai+ an e5ecti,e ocial in,esti7ation of his o+eal in the hans of the 4il 4ilita+% ita+%.. Responents Gen. /b+ao' P-G. e+:os e+:osa' a' )t. Gen. Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Ochoa' Col. -e e+a an )t. Col. Mina onl% conucte a pe+functo+% in,esti7ation' ee+tin7 no e5o+ts to ta6e Ra4i+e:Ws account of the e,ents into consie+ation. Rathe+' these +esponents solel% +elie on the +epo+ts an na++ation of the 4ilita+%.  The +ulin7 of the appellate appellate cou+t 4ust be e4phasi:e3   /n this case' +esponents /b+ao' e+:osa' Ban7it' Tolentino' Santos' -e e+a' an Mina a+e accountable' fo+ 8hile the% 8e+e cha+7e 8ith the in,esti7ation of the subIect incient' the in,esti7ation the% conucte ano+ +elie on is supe+<cial an oneDsie. The +eco+s isclose that the 4ilita+%' in in,esti7atin7 the incient co4plaine of' epene on the Co4p+ehensi,e Co4p+ehen si,e Repo+t of No+iel Ro+i7ue: YPepito p+epa+ p+epa+e e b% 1)t. $ohnn% Calub fo+ the Co44anin7 Oce+ of the #;1st /nfant+% B+i7ae' #th /nfant+% -i,ision' Philippine Phili ppine A+4%. A+4%. Such +epo+t' ho8e,e+' is 4e+el% base on the na++ation of the 4ilita+%. 4ilita+%. No e5o+ts 8e+e une+ta6en to solicit petitione+Ws ,e+sion of the subIect incient an no 8itnesses 8e+e uestione +e7a+in7 the alle7e abuction of petitione+.   Responent Respo nent P-G e+:osa' as Chief of the PNP' is accountable because Section 2H of Republic Act No. !(#' othe+8ise 6no8n as the PNP )a8'V speci<es the PNP as the 7o,e+n4ent 7o,e+n4ental al oce 8ith the 4anate to in,esti7ate an p+e,ent c+i4es' e5ect the a++est of c+i4inal o5ene+s' b+in7 o5ene+s to Iustice an assist in thei+ p+osecution.V /n this case' P-G e+:osa faile to o+e+ the police to conuct the necessa+% in,esti7ation to un4as6 the 4%ste+% su++ounin7 petitione+Ws abuction an isappea+ance.. /nstea' P-G e+:osa isclai4s accountabilit% b% 4e+el% statin7 that petitione+ has no cause of action a7ainst isappea+ance hi4. Palpable' ho8e,e+' is the lac6 l ac6 of an% e5o+t on the pa+t of P-G e+:osa to e5ecti,el% an a77+essi,el% in,esti7ate the ,iolations of petitione+Ws +i7ht to life' libe+t% an secu+it% b% 4e4be+s of the 1th /nfant+% Battalion' 1th /nfant+% -i,ision' Philippine A+4%.L11! A+4%.L11! E4phasis supplie.F   Clea+l%' the absence of a fai+ an e5ecti,e ocial in,esti7ation into the clai4s of Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue: ,iolate his +i7ht to secu+it%' fo+ 8hich +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# 4ust be hel +esponsible o+ accountable. Ne,e+theless' it 4ust be cla+i<e cl a+i<e that Ro+i7ue: 8as unable to establish an% +esponsibilit% o+ accountabilit% on the pa+t of +esponents PCSupt. Tolentino' PSSupt. Santos' Calo7 an Palacpac. Responent PCSupt. Tolentino ha al+ea% +eti+e 8hen the abuction an to+tu+e of Ro+ Ro+i7ue: i7ue: 8as pe+pet+ate pe+pet+ate'' 8hil 8hile e PSSupt. Santos ha al+ea% been +eassi7ne an t+ansfe++e to the National Capital Re7ional Police Oce si 4onths befo+e the subIect incient occu++e. Mean8hile' no sucient alle7ations 8e+e 4aintaine a7ainst +esponents Calo7 an Palacpa Palacpac. c. *+o4 all the fo+e7oin7' 8e +ule that Ro+i7ue: 8as successful in p+o,in7 th+ou7h substantial e,ience that +esponents Gen. /b+ao' P-G. e+:osa' e+:osa' )t. Gen. Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Ochoa' B+i7. Gen. -e e+a' 1st )t. Matutina' an )t. Col. Mina 8e+e +esponsible an accountable accountable fo+ the ,iolation of Ro+i7ue:Ws +i7hts to life' libe+t% l ibe+t% an secu+it% on the basis of aF his abuction' etention an to+tu+e f+o4 f+o4 ! Septe4be+ to 1 Septe4be+ 2;;(' an bF the llac6 ac6 of an% fai+ an e5ecti,e ocial in,esti7ation as to his alle7ations. Thus' the p+i,ile7e of the 8+its 8 +its of a4pa+o an habeas ata 4ust be 7+ante in his fa,o+. As a +esult' the+e is no lon7e+ an% nee to issue a te4po+a+% p+otection o+e+' as the p+i,ile7e of these 8+its al+ea% has the e5ect of enIoinin7 +esponents in G.R. No. 1(1";# f+o4 ,iolatin7 his +i7hts to life' libe+t% an secu+it% secu+it%.. /t is also clea+ cl ea+ f+o4 the abo,e iscussion that espite aF 4aintainin7 fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o A++o%o in the list of +esponent +esponents s in G.R. No. 1(1";#' an bF allo8in7 the application of the co44an +esponsibilit% oct+ine to a4pa+o an habeas ata p+oceein7s' Ro+i7ue: Ro+i7ue : faile to p+o,e th+ou7h substantial e,ience that fo+4e+ P+esient A++o%o 8as +esponsible o+ accountable fo+ the ,iolation of his +i7hts to life' libe+t% li be+t% an p+ope+t%. 0e li6e8ise faile to p+o,e th+ou7h substantial e,ience the accoun accountabilit% tabilit% o+ +esponsibilit% of +esponents MaI. Gen. Ochoa' C+u:' Pasicolan an Calla7an. >0ERE*ORE' 8e +esol,e to GRANT the Petition fo+ Pa+tial Re,ie8 in G.R. No. 1(1";# an [email protected] the Petition fo+ Re,ie8 in G.R. No. 1(&1!;. The -ecision of the Cou+t of Appeals is he+eb% A**/RME- >/T0 MO-/*/CA MO-/*/CAT/ON. T/ON.  The case is is4isse 8ith +espect +espect to ++esponents esponents fo+ fo+4e+ 4e+ P+es P+esient ient Glo+ia Macapa7alDA++o%o' Macapa7alDA++o%o' PCSupt. PCSupt. A4eto G. Tolentino' an PSSupt. $ue >. Santos' Calo7' Geo+7e Palacpac' Palacpac' Antonio C+u:' Al8in Pasicolan an icent Calla7an fo+ lac6 of 4e+it.  This Cou+t i+ects i+ects the Oce of the O4bus4an O O4bus4anF 4bus4anF an the -epa+t4ent of $us $ustice tice -O$F to ta ta6e 6e the app+ app+op+iate op+iate

action 8ith +espect to an% possible liabilit% o+ liabilities' 8ithin thei+ +especti,e le7al co4petenc co4petence' e' that 4a% ha,e been


incu++e incu++e  b% +esponent +esponents s Gen. icto+ /b+ao' P-G. $esus e+:osa' e+:osa' )t. Gen. -el<n Ban7it' MaI. Gen. Nesto+ Ochoa' B+i7. Gen. Re4e7io -e e+a' e+a' 1st )t. R%an Matutina' an )t. Col. )au+ence Mina. The O4bus4an an the -O$ a+e o+e+e to sub4it to this Cou+t the +esults of thei+ action 8ithin a pe+io of si 4onths f+o4 +eceipt of this -ecision. /n the e,ent that he+ein +esponents no lon7e+ occup% thei+ +especti,e posts' the i+ecti,es 4anate in this -ecision an in the Cou+t of Appeals a+e enfo+ceable a7ainst the incu4bent ocials holin7 the +ele,ant positions. *ailu+e *ailu+e to co4pl% 8ith the fo+e7oin7 shall constitute conte4pt of cou+t.   SO OR-ERE-.  

G.R. No. 1(&!' $une 2!' 2;1& SPOUSES B/)) AN- /CTOR/A 0/NG' Petitione+s' ,. A)EAN-ER [email protected]' SR. AN- A))AN [email protected]' Responents. -EC/S/ON -E) CAST/))O' $.3 The concept of libe+t% 8oul be e4asculate if it oes not li6e8ise co4pel +espect fo+ LoneWs pe+sonalit% as a uniue ini,iual 8hose clai4 to p+i,ac% an LnonDinte+fe+ence e4ans +espect.V1  This Petition Petition fo+ Re,i Re,ie8 e8 on Ce+tio+a+i2 Ce+tio+a+i2 un une+ e+ R Rule ule H# of the Rules Rules of Cou+ Cou+tt assails the $ul% 1;' 2;; -ecision& an the Septe4be+ Septe4be+ 11' 2;; ResolutionH of the Cou+t of Appeals CAF in CADG.R. CEBDSP No. ;1H&. *actual Anteceents


On Au7ust 2&' 2;;#' petitione+Dspouses Bill an icto+ia 0in7 <le 8ith the Re7ional T+ial Cou+t RTCF of Manaue Cit% a Co4plaint# fo+ /nIunction an -a4a7es 8ith p+a%e+ fo+ issuance of a >+it of P+eli4ina+% Manato+% /nIunctionTe4po+a+% Rest+ainin7 O+e+ TROF' oc6ete as Ci,il Case MAND#22& an +aZe to B+anch 2"' a7ainst +esponents Aleane+ Choachu%' S+. an Allan Choachu%. Petitione+s alle7e that the% a+e the +e7iste+e o8ne+s of a pa+cel of lan )ot 1(;;DBF co,e+e b% T+ansfe+ Ce+ti<cate of Title TCTF No. H2"1 situate in Ba+an7a% Basa6' Cit% of Manaue' Cebu! that +esponents a+e the o8ne+s of Alo -e,elop4ent [ Resou+ces' /nc. AloF locate at )ots 1(;1 an 1(;;DC' aIacent to the p+ope+t% of petitione+s that +esponents const+ucte an autoD+epai+ shop builin7 Alo Goo%ea+ Se+,itecF on )ot 1(;;DC that in Ap+il 2;;#' Alo <le a case a7ainst petitione+s fo+ /nIunction an -a4a7es 8ith >+it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunctionTRO' oc6ete as Ci,il Case No. MAND#12#" that in that case' Alo clai4e that petitione+s 8e+e const+uctin7 a fence 8ithout a ,ali pe+4it an that the sai const+uction 8oul est+o% the 8all of its builin7' 8hich is aIacent to petitione+sW p+ope+t%( that the cou+t' in that case' enie AloWs application fo+ p+eli4ina+% inIunction fo+ failu+e to substantiate its alle7ations1; that' in o+e+ to 7et e,ience to suppo+t the sai case' +esponents on $une 1&' 2;;# ille7all% setDup an installe on the builin7 of Alo Goo%ea+ Se+,itec t8o ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as facin7 petitione+sW p+ope+t%11 that +esponents' th+ou7h thei+ e4plo%ees an 8ithout the consent of petitione+s' also too6 pictu+es of petitione+sW onD7oin7 const+uction12 const+uction1 2 an that the acts of ++esponents esponents ,iolate petitione+sW petitione+s W +i7ht to p+i,ac%.1& Thus' petitione+s p+a%e that +esponents be o+e+e to +e4o,e the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as an enIoine f+o4 conuctin7 ille7al su+,eillance.1H /n thei+ Ans8e+ 8ith Counte+clai4'1# +esponents clai4e that the% i not install the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as'1! no+ i the% o+e+ thei+ e4plo%ees to ta6e pictu+es of petitione+sW const+uction.1 The% also cla+i<e that the% a+e not the o8ne+s of Alo but a+e 4e+e stoc6hole+s.1" Rulin7 of the Re7ional T+ial Cou+t On Octobe+ 1"' 2;;#' the RTC RTC issue an O+e+1( 7+antin7 the application fo+ a TRO. TRO. The ispositi,e po+tion of the sai O+e+ +eas3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% >0ERE*ORE' the application fo+ a LTe4po+a+% LRest+ainin7 LRest+ain in7 LO+e+ o+ a L>+it of LP+eli4ina+% L/nIun L/nIunction ction is 7+ante. Upon the <lin7 an app+o,al of a bon b% Lpetitione+s' 8hich the Cou+t sets at P#;';;;.;;' let a L>+it of LP+eli4ina+% L/nIunction issue a7ainst the L+esponents Aleane+ Choachu%' S+. an Allan Choachu%. The% a+e he+eb% i+ecte to i44eiatel% +e4o,e the +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a that the% installe at the left sie of thei+ builin7 o,e+loo6in7 the sie of Lpetitione+sW lot an to t+ansfe+ an ope+ate it else8he+e at the bac6 8he+e Lpetitione+sW p+ope+t% can no lon7e+ be ,ie8e 8ithin a istance of about 2D& 4ete+s f+o4 the left co+ne+ of Alo Se+,itec' facin7 the +oa. /T /S SO OR-ERE-.2; Responents 4o,e fo+ a +econsie+ation21 but the RTC enie the sa4e in its O+e+22 ate *eb+ua+% !' 2;;!.2&  Thus3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a  Thus3c+ala,,online la8lib+a+% +% >0ERE*ORE' the Motion fo+ Reconsie+ation is he+eb% -EN/E- fo+ lac6 of 4e+it. /ssue a L>+it of LP+eli4ina+% L/nIunction in consonance 8ith the O+e+ ate 1" Octobe+ 2;;#. /T /S SO OR-ERE-.2Hnac+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% A77+ie,e' +esponents <le 8ith the CA a Petition fo+ Ce+tio+a+i2# une+ Rule !# of the Rules of Cou+t 8ith application fo+ a TRO ano+ >+it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunction. Rulin7 of the Cou+t of Appeals On $ul% 1;' 2;;' the CA issue its -ecision2! 7+antin7 the Petition fo+ Ce+tio+a+i. The CA +ule that the > >+it +it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunction 8as issue 8ith 7+a,e abuse of isc+etion because petitione+s faile to sho8 a clea+ an un4ista6able +i7ht to an inIuncti,e 8+it.2  The CA eplaine eplaine that the +i7ht to p+i,ac% of ++esience esience une+ A+ticle A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Co Coe e 8as no nott ,iolate si since nce the p+ p+ope+t% ope+t% subIect of the cont+o,e+s% is not use as a +esience.2" The CA also sai that since +esponents a+e not the o8ne+s of the builin7' the% coul not ha,e installe ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as.2( The% a+e 4e+e stoc6hole+s of Alo' 8hich has a sepa+ate Iu+iical pe+sonalit%.&; Thus' the% a+e not the p+ope+ pa+ties.&1 The fallo +eas3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% +eas3c+ala,,onlin ela8lib+a+% >0ERE*ORE' in ,ie8 of the fo+e7oin7 p+e4ises' Iu74ent is he+eb% +ene+e b% us GRANT/NG the petition <le in this case. The assaile o+e+s ate Octobe+ 1"' 2;;# an *eb+ua+% !' 2;;! issue b% the +esponent Iu7e a+e he+eb% ANNU))E- an SET AS/-E. SO OR-ERE-.&2nac+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% /ssues 0ence' this +ecou+se b% petitione+s a+7uin7 that3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% /.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T ANNU))E- AN- SET AS/-E AS/-E T0E O OR-ERS R-ERS O* T T0E 0E LR LRTC TC -A -ATETE- 1" OCTOBER 2;;# AN- ! *[email protected] 2;;! 0O)-/NG T0AT [email protected] >ERE /SSUE- >/T0 GRAE ABUSE O* -/SCRET/ON. //.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T RU)E- T0A T0AT T PET/T PET/T/ONER /ONER SPO SPOUSES USES 0/NG A ARE RE NOT E ENT/T)ENT/T)E- T TO O T0E >R >R/T /T O* PRE)/M/[email protected] /N$UNCT/ON ON T0E GROUN- T0AT T0ERE /S NO /O)AT/ON O* T0E/R CONST/TUT/ONA) AN- C//) R/G0T TO PR/[email protected] -ESP/TE T0E *ACTUA) */N-/NGS LO* T0E RTC' >0/C0 RESPON-ENTS [email protected] *A/)E- TO RE*UTE' T0AT T0E /))EGA))@ /NSTA))E- SURE/))ANCE CAMERAS O* RESPON-ENTS C0OAC0LU@ >OU)- CAPTURE T0E PR/ATE ACT//T/ES O* PET/T/ONER SPOUSES 0/NG' T0E/R C0/)-REN AN- EMP)[email protected] ///.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T RU)E- T0A T0AT T S/NCE T T0E 0E O>NER O* T0E BU/ BU/)-/NG )-/NG /S A) A)-O -O -EE)OPMENT AN- RESOURCES' /NC. T0EN TO SUE RESPON-ENTS [email protected] CONST/TUTELS A PURPORTE-)@ UN>ARRANTEP/ERC/NG O* T0E CORPORATE E/). /.  T0E    LCA COMM COMM/TTE/TTE- A REERS REERS/B)E /B)E ERROR >0EN /T /GNORE- T T0E 0E SER/O SER/OUS US *ORMA *ORMA) ) -E*/C/ENC -E*/C/ENC/ES /ES O* BO BOT0 T0 T0E PE PET/T/ON T/T/ON AN- T0E MOT/ON *OR RECONS/-ERAT/ON -ATE- 1# MARC0 2;;! O* RESPON-ENTLS C0OAC0LU@ AN- GAE    T0EM -UE COURSE AN- CONS/-ERAT/ON.&& Essentiall%' the issues boil o8n to 1F 8hethe+ the+e is a ,iolation of petitione+sW +i7ht to p+i,ac%' an 2F 8hethe+ +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to this suit.


Petitione+sW A+7u4ents Petitione+s insist that the% a+e entitle to the issuance of a >+it of P+eli4ina+% /nIunction because +esponentsW installation of a stationa+% ca4e+a i+ectl% facin7 petitione+sW p+ope+t% an a +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a co,e+in7 a si7ni<cant po+tion of the sa4e p+ope+t% constitutes a ,iolation of petitione+sW petitione+s W +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.&H .&H Petitione+s cite A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe' 8hich enIoins pe+sons f+o4 p+%in7 into the p+i,ate li,es of othe+s.&# Althou7h the sai p+o,ision pe+tains to the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esience' petitione+s opine that it inclues business oces' citin7 P+ofesso+ A+tu+o M. Tolentino.&! Thus' e,en assu4in7 a+7ueno that petitione+sW p+ope+t% is use fo+ business' it is still co,e+e b% the sai p+o,ision.& As to 8hethe+ +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to i4plea in this case' petitione+s clai4 that +esponents an Alo a+e one an the sa4e' an that +esponents onl% 8ant to hie behin AloWs co+po+ate <ction.&" The% point out that if +esponents a+e not the +eal o8ne+s of the builin7' 8he+e the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as 8e+e installe' then the% ha no business consentin7 to the ocula+ inspection conucte b% the cou+t.&( ResponentsW A+7u4ents Responents' on the othe+ han' echo the +ulin7 of the CA that petitione+s cannot in,o6e thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% since the p+ope+t% in,ol,e is not use as a +esience.H; Responents 4aintain that the% ha nothin7 to o 8ith the installation of the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as as these 8e+e installe b% Alo' the +e7iste+e o8ne+ of the builin7'H1 as aitional secu+it% fo+ its builin7. H2 0ence' the% 8e+e 8+on7full% i4pleae in this case.H& Ou+ Rulin7  The Petition Petition is 4e 4e+ito+ious +ito+ious..  The +i7ht +i7ht to p+i,ac% is the +i7ht to be let alo alone. ne.  The +i7ht +i7ht to p+i,ac% is ensh+ine ensh+ine  in ou+ C Constitution onstitutionHH HH an in ou+ ou+ la8s. /t is e<ne as the +i7 +i7ht ht to be f+ f+ee ee f+o f+o4 4 un8a+ un8a++ante +ante eploitation of oneWs pe+son o+ f+o4 int+usion into oneWs p+i,ate acti,ities in such a 8a% as to cause hu4iliation to a pe+sonWs o+ina+% sensibilities.VH# sensibilities. VH# /t is the +i7ht of an ini,iual to be f+ee f+o4 un8a+ un8a++ante +ante publicit%' o+ to li,e 8ithout un8a++ante inte+fe+ence b% the public in 4atte+s in 8hich the public is not necessa+il% conce+ne.VH! Si4pl% put' the +i7ht to p+i,ac% is the +i7ht to be let alone.VH  The Bill of of Ri7hts 7 7ua+antees ua+antees th the e people peopleWs Ws +i7ht to p+ p+i,ac% i,ac% an p p+otects +otects the the4 4 a7ain a7ainst st the StateWs ab abuse use of po8e po8e++. /n this ++e7a+' e7a+' the State +eco7ni:es the +i7ht of the people to be secu+e in thei+ houses. No one' not e,en the State' e ecept cept in case of o,e++iin7 social nee an then onl% une+ the st+in7ent p+oceu+al safe7ua+s'V can istu+b the4 in the p+i,ac% of thei+ ho4es.H"  The +i7ht +i7ht to p+i,ac% une+ A+tic A+ticle le 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe co,e+s business oces 8he+e the public a+e eclue the+ef+o4 an onl% ce+tain ini,iuals a+e allo8e to ente+. A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe' on the othe+ han' p+otects an ini,iualWs +i7ht to p+i,ac% an p+o,ies a le7al +e4e% a7ainst abuses that 4a% be co44itte a7ainst hi4 b% othe+ ini,iuals. /t states3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% states3c+ala,,onlinela8l ib+a+% A+t. 2!. E,e+% pe+son shall +espect the i7nit%' pe+sonalit%' p+i,ac% an peace of 4in of his nei7hbo+s an othe+ pe+sons. The follo8in7 an si4ila+ acts' thou7h the% 4a% not constitute a c+i4inal o5ense' shall p+ouce a cause of action fo+ a4a7es' p+e,ention an othe+ +elief3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% 1F P+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esiencechan+obles,i+tuala8li +esiencechan+obles,i+tuala8lib+a+% b+a+%   This p+o,ision p+o,ision ++eco7ni:es eco7ni:es th that at a 4anW 4anWs s house is hi his s castle' 8he 8he+e +e his ++i7ht i7ht to p+i, p+i,ac% ac% canno cannott be enie o+ e,en ++est+icte est+icte b% o othe+s. the+s. /t inclues an% act of int+usion into' peepin7 o+ pee+in7 inuisiti,el% into the +esience of anothe+ 8ithout the consent of the latte+.VH(  The ph+ase ph+ase p+%in7 in into to the p+i,a p+i,ac% c% of anoth anothe+Ws e+Ws +esi +esience'V ence'V ho ho8e,e+' 8e,e+' o oes es not 4ea 4ean n that onl% the +esien +esience ce is entitle entitle to p+i,ac p+i,ac% %. As eluciate b% Ci,il la8 epe+t A+tu+o M. Tolentino3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% Ou+ Coe speci<call% 4entions p+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esience.V This oes not 4ean' ho8e,e+' that onl% the +esience is entitle to p+i,ac%' because the la8 co,e+s also si4ila+ acts.V A business oce is entitle to the sa4e p+i,ac% 8hen the public is eclue eclue the+ef+o4 an onl% such ini,iuals as a+e allo8e to ente+ 4a% co4e in.   #; E4phasis supplieF  Thus' an ini,iual ini,iualWs Ws +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac% une une++ A+ticle 2 2!1F !1F of the Ci Ci,il ,il Coe s shoul houl not be con<ne tto o his house o+ +esie +esience nce as it 4a 4a% % eten to places 8he+e he has the +i7ht to eclue the public o+ en% the4 access. The ph+ase p+%in7 into the p+i,ac% of anothe+Ws +esience'V the+efo+e' co,e+s places' locations' o+ e,en situations 8hich an ini,iual consie+s as p+i,ate. An as lon7 as his +i7ht is +eco7ni:e b% societ%' othe+ ini,iuals 4a% not inf+in7e on his +i7ht to p+i,ac%. p+i,ac%. The CA' the+efo+e' e++e in li4itin7 the application of A+ticle 2!1F of the Ci,il Coe onl% to +esiences.  The +easona +easonable ble epe epectation ctation of p+ p+i,ac%V i,ac%V test is use to ete+4ine 8hethe+ the+e is a ,iolation of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%. /n asce+tainin7 8hethe+ the+e is a ,iolation of the +i7ht to p+i,ac%' cou+ts use the +easonable +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%V test. test . This test ete+4ines 8hethe+ a pe+son has a +easonable +easonable epectation of p+i,ac% an 8hethe+ the epectation has been ,iolate.#1 /n Ople ,. ,.  To++e  To++es'#2 s'#2 8e enunciate enunciate that  the the +easo +easonableness nableness of a pe+sonWs pe+sonWs epe epectation ctation of p+ p+i,ac% i,ac% epe epens ns on a t8 t8oDpa+t oDpa+t test3 1F 8 8hethe+' hethe+' b% h his is conuct' the ini,iual has ehibite an epectation of p+i,ac% an 2F this epectation is one that societ% +eco7ni:es as +easonable.V Custo4s' co44unit% no+4s' an p+actices 4a%' the+efo+e' li4it o+ eten an ini,iualWs +easonable e epectation pectation of p+i,ac%.V#& p+i,ac% .V#& 0ence' the +easonableness of a pe+sonWs epectation of p+i,ac% 4ust be ete+4ine on a caseDtoDcase basis since it epens on the factual ci+cu4stances su++ounin7 the case.#H /n this a% an a7e' ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as a+e installe p+acticall% e,e+%8he+e fo+ the p+otection an safet% of e,e+%one. The installation of these ca4e+as' ho8e,e+' shoul not co,e+ places 8he+e the+e is +easonable epectation of p+i,ac%' unless the consent of anothe+Ws the ini,iual' 8hoseo++i7ht to p+i,ac% be a5ecte' 8as obtaine. No+ shoul these ca4e+as be use p+% into Act the No. p+i,ac% of +esience business oce 8oul as it 8oul be no i5e+ent f+o4 ea,es+oppin7' 8hich is a c+i4e une+toRepublic H2;; o+ the AntiD>i+etappin7 )a8. /n this case' the RTC' in 7+antin7 the application fo+ P+eli4ina+% /nIunction' +ule that3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% Afte+ ca+eful consie+ation' the+e is basis to 7+ant the application fo+ a te4po+a+% +est+ainin7 o+e+. The ope+ation b% L+esponents of a +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a' e,en if it 8e+e 4ounte on thei+ builin7' ,iolate the +i7ht of p+i,ac% of Lpetitione+s' 8ho a+e the o8ne+s of the


aIacent lot. The ca4e+a oes not onl% focus on L+esponentsW p+ope+t% o+ the +oof of the facto+% at the bac6 Alo -e,elop4ent an Resou+ces' /nc.F but it actuall% spans th+ou7h a 7oo po+tion of Lthe lan of Lpetitione+s. Base on the ocula+ inspection' the Cou+t une+stans 8h% Lpetitione+ 0in7 8as so un%ielin7 in asse+tin7 that the +e,ol,in7 ca4e+a 8as set up elibe+atel% to 4onito+ the onLD7oin7 const+uction in his p+ope+t%. p+ope+t%. The 4onito+ sho8e onl% a po+tion of the +oof of the facto+% of LAlo. /f the pu+pose of L+esponents in settin7 up a ca4e+a at the bac6 is to secu+e the builin7 an facto+% p+e4ises' then the ca4e+a shoul +e,ol,e onl% to8a+s thei+ p+ope+ties at the bac6. LResponentsW ca4e+a cannot be 4ae to eten the ,ie8 to Lpetitione+sW lot. To allo8 the L+esponents to o that o,e+ the obIection of the Lpetitione+s 8oul ,iolate the +i7ht of Lpetitione+s Lpetitione+ s as p+ope+t% o8ne+s. The o8ne+ of a thin7 cannot 4a6e use the+eof in such a 4anne+ as to inIu+e the +i7hts of a thi+ pe+son.V##  The RTC' RTC' tthus' hus' consi consie+e e+e tha thatt petitione+ petitione+s s ha,e a  +easona +easonable ble epe epectation ctation of p p+i,ac%V +i,ac%V in th thei+ ei+ p+o p+ope+t%' pe+t%' 8heth 8hethe+ e+ the% use it as a business oce o+ as a +esience an that the installation of ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as i+ectl% facin7 petitione+sW p+ope+t% o+ co,e+in7 a si7ni<cant po+tion the+eof' 8ithout thei+ consent' is a clea+ ,iolation of thei+ +i7ht to p+i,ac% p+i,ac%.. As 8e see then' the issuance of a p+eli4ina+% inIunction 8as Iusti<e. >e nee not belabo+ that the issuance of a p+eli4ina+% p+eli4ina+% inIunction is isc+etiona+% on the pa+t of the cou+t ta6in7 co7ni:ance of the case an shoul not be inte+fe+e 8ith' unless the+e is 7+a,e abuse of isc+etion co44itte b% the cou+t.#! 0e+e' the+e is no inication of an% 7+a,e abuse of isc+etion. 0ence' the CA e++e e++e in <nin7 that petitione+s a+e not entitle to an inIuncti,e 8+it.  This b+in7s b+in7s us to the n net et uestio uestion3 n3 8hethe 8hethe++ +espon +esponents ents a+ a+e e the p+o p+ope+ pe+ pa+tie pa+ties s to this suit suit.. A +eal pa+t% efenant is one 8ho has a co++elati,e le7al obli7ation to +e+ess a 8+on7 one to the plainti5 b% +eason of the efenant=s act o+ o4ission 8hich ha ,iolate the le7al +i7ht of the fo+4e+. Section 2' Rule & of the Rules of Cou+t p+o,ies3c+ala,,onlinela8lib+a+% SEC. 2. Pa+tiesDinDinte+est.  A +eal pa+t%DinDinte+est is the pa+t% 8ho stans to be bene<te o+ inIu+e b% the Iu74ent in the suit' o+ the pa+t% entitle to the a,ails of the suit. Unless othe+8ise autho+i:e b% la8 o+ these Rules' e,e+% action 4ust be p+osecute o+ efene in the na4e of the +eal pa+t%DinDinte+est. A +eal pa+t% efenant is one 8ho has a co++elati,e le7al obli7ation to +e+ess a 8+on7 one to the plainti5 b% +eason of the efenantWs act o+ o4ission 8hich ha ,iolate the le7al +i7ht of the fo+4e+.V# /n +ulin7 that +esponents a+e not the p+ope+ pa+ties' the CA +easone that since the% o not o8n the builin7' the% coul not ha,e installe the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as.#" Such +easonin7' ho8e,e+' is e++oneous. The fact that +esponents a+e a+e not the +e7iste+e o8ne+s of the builin7 oes not auto4aticall% 4ean that the% i not cause the installation of the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as. /n thei+ Co4plaint' petitione+s clai4e that +esponents installe the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as in o+e+ to <sh fo+ e,ience' 8hich coul be use a7ainst petitione+s in anothe+ case.#( -u+in7 the hea+in7 of the application fo+ P+eli4ina+% /nIunction' petitione+ Bill testi<e that 8hen +esponents installe the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as' he i44eiatel% b+oache his conce+ns but the% i not see4 to ca+e'!; an thus' he +epo+te the 4atte+ to the ba+an7a% fo+ 4eiation' an e,entuall%' <le a Co4plaint a7ainst +esponents befo+e the RTC.!1 RTC.!1 0e also a4itte that as ea+l% as 1((" the+e has al+ea% been a ispute bet8een his fa4il% fa4il % an the Choachu% fa4il% conce+nin7 the bouna+ies of thei+ +especti,e p+ope+ties.!2 >ith these factual ci+cu4stances in 4in' 8e belie,e that +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to be i4pleae. Mo+eo,e+' althou7h Alo has a Iu+iical pe+sonalit% sepa+ate an istinct f+o4 its stoc6hole+s' +eco+s sho8 that it is a fa4il%Do8ne co+po+ation 4ana7e b% the Choachu% fa4il%.!& Also uite tellin7 is the fact that +esponents' not8ithstanin7 thei+ clai4 that the% a+e not o8ne+s of the builin7' allo8e the cou+t to ente+ the co4poun of Alo an conuct an ocula+ inspection. The counsel fo+ +esponents e,en tou+e $u7e Ma+il%n )[email protected] insie the builin7 an ans8e+e all he+ uestions +e7a+in7 the setDup an installation of the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as.!H An 8hen +esponents 4o,e fo+ +econsie+ation of the O+e+ ate Octobe+ 1"' 2;;# of the RTC' one of the a+7u4ents the% +aise is that Alo 8oul su5e+ a4a7es if the ,ieo su+,eillance ca4e+as a+e +e4o,e an t+ansfe++e.!# Noticeabl%' in these instances' the pe+sonalities of +esponents an Alo see4 to 4e+7e. All these ta6en to7ethe+ lea us to the ine,itable conclusion that +esponents a+e 4e+el% usin7 the co+po+ate <ction of Alo as a shiel to p+otect the4sel,es f+o4 this suit. /n ,ie8 of the fo+e7oin7' 8e <n that +esponents a+e the p+ope+ pa+ties to this suit. >0ERE*ORE' the Petition is he+eb% GRANTE-. The -ecision ate $ul% 1;' 2;; an the R Resolution esolution ate Septe4be+ 11' 2;; of the Cou+t of Appeals in CADG.R. CEBDSP No. ;1H& a+e he+eb% REERSE- an SET AS/-E. The O+e+s ate Octobe+ 1"' 2;;# an *eb+ua+% !' 2;;L! of B+anch 2" of the Re7ional T+ial Cou+t of Manaue Cit% in Ci,il Case No. MAND#22& a+e he+eb% RE/NSTATE- an A**/RME-. SO OR-ERE-.

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