Road (Auto) Transport

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Road (Auto) Transport
Georgiana Surdu
[email protected]

International road transport
 It is a contract by which a professional auto carrier undertakes
to transport a specified quantity of goods from the place of
shipment to the place of destination for a sum of money
(transport fee).
 The document for this type of transport it is called International
(Road) Consignment Note.
 This is completed in 4 copies:
 one accompanies the goods and is delivered to the recipient with
it;
 another remains to sender (exporter) proving the existence of
contract, delivery of goods in the custody of the carrier and
transport conditions;
 third copy is retained by the carrier;
 the fourth is reserved for administrative procedures.

International expedition
 If the contracting parties agree that the export-import cargo to be shipped
by truck, they shall specify in the contract who will engage the carrier and
what costs will incur for each partner, using one of the Incoterms 2010
delivery conditions.
 As a feature of road expedition is that the loading of the goods in the
transport vehicle can be performed at the factory/ warehouse of the
exporter.
 This requires a proper and in time notification of the date on which the
vehicle must present to load the goods (especially if provided by the
importer), and a detailed organization of the shipment operations (cargo
preparation, loading, customs clearance and other formalities), in order to
avoid additional parking of the vehicle.
 The sequence of expedition operations:
1. Loading a cargo in the vehicle;
2. Completion of the contract for the International carriage;
3. Announce the recipient about the expedition of goods.

Loading a cargo in the vehicle
 The charger will seek to make optimal use of transport capacity of the vehicle
being in the regulations for overweight (up to 8 tons/axle weight , usually ).
 Loading the vehicle to full capacity is a necessity, given the high cost of
transportation, and the transport fee is calculated based on maximum
carrying capacity of the truck and the distance map.

 In order to properly stack the cargo, which excludes its breakage during
transport, the liability (responsibility) belongs to the driver, it will require
accurate data about the goods (dimensions, weight and other
characteristics).
 Loading will be done under the supervision of the driver within the period
prescribed by the contract of carriage, overcome this period will lead to the
collection of penalties.
 The driver will take the goods loaded for transport.

Completion of the contract for the
International carriage
 The International (Road) Consignment Note (CMR) represents
material evidence of conclusion of international road transport
of goods, as proof of receipt of the goods by the carrier.
 The data necessary to complete the CMR form can be found in
the expedition instructions, the carrier representative (driver)
receives from the exporter or a broker working for it.
 CMR forms are available to the exporter by the carrier.

Completion of the contract for the
International carriage (continued)
 Road waybill (CMR model) is a non-negotiable document, which
shall be made in three originals by the charger and signed by the
charger and the carrier.
 The first copy remains to the charger after delivers the goods, the
second shall accompany the goods and will be issued to the
recipient (importer), and the third copy shall be retained by the
carrier.
 In order to make customs clearance as well as other formalities, the
charger can produce more copies (without commercial value) after
the original in its possession.
 If the goods were loaded in different vehicles, or about different
kinds of goods in separate lots, charger and carrier may agree to
prepare the CMR separately for each vehicle or each type of goods.

Completion of the contract for the
International carriage (continued)
 CMR must contain at least the following mandatory fields:
 place and date of issue,
 name and address of the exporter and the carrier,
 place and date of receipt of the goods and the place designated
for delivery,
 name and address,
 data on cargo
 delivery condition (INCOTERMS 2010),
 transport costs,
 instructions for customs clearance,
 statement that the carriage is subject to the regime established
by CMR.

Completion of the contract for the
International carriage (continued)
 The carrier representative shall verify the accuracy of the
statements in the waybill and apparent condition of the goods
and their packaging, with the right to enter any comments in
the consignment note.
 The exporter has the responsibility for the accuracy of the data
entered in the consignment note, as for all damages caused to
the vehicle or third party due to package or goods.
 The charger shall append to the consignment note all
necessary documents on goods (commercial invoice,
specification list, quality certificates, origin and health
certificates, the export / import license).

Completion of the contract for the
International carriage (continued)
 The carrier is responsible for the loss of documents, and for
loss or damage of goods that have been delivered.
 If the goods are not delivered to the recipient within 60 days
of receiving it from the charger, it is considered lost, the
carrier will bear the corresponding compensation (up to the
value of the lost goods).
 The recipient (importer) must complete a document for
finding the goods within 7 working days from delivery,
otherwise shall be presumed that it has received the goods in
the condition described in the consignment note.

Announce the recipient about the
expedition of goods
 Announcing the recipient about the expedition of goods is
done usually within 24 hours by fax or e-mail.
 The announce must contain a minimum of data needed to
identify the shipment, such as:
 external contract number,
 date of shipment,
 registration number of the vehicle,
 Cargo specification, etc.

Sending goods using a TIR Document
 Goods shipped by road vehicles can circulate under a TIR Document.
 Customs Convention on the international transport of goods under TIR
Document was signed in Geneva in 1959, as subsequently revised.
 Romania acceded to the Convention in 1963. TIR Documents are nested
documents printed by the International Road Transport Union (IRU),
based in Geneva, which provides, against some guarantees, to the
affiliated national associations.
 These books contain several tabs, each consisting of two parts: the
removable one it is called voucher, and the fixed one it is called jelly.
 After use, the spine of the book and unused vouchers must be returned to
national guaranteeing association that issued them.

Sending goods using a TIR Document
 Transport of goods using the TIR Document allows passage
through border points of entry / exit of the IRU members
states without physical customs checks.
 Transit customs recognize the stamps of the customs from
the country of shipment and consider the goods are safe since
customs who assisted in loading ensures trough the seal
affixed on the vehicle that the data on the product's name,
quantity and value contained in the documents are real.
 Detailed customs control is performed at the ends of the
route (the place of loading and place of destination).

Sending goods using a TIR Document
 After loading the cargo in the vehicle and perfecting the customs export
declaration, the customs authorities shall specify in the TIR Document the seals
and serial number, breaking the first voucher of the TIR Document and applying
customs stamp on the remaining jelly spine.
 On arrival of the goods at the border, leaving the exporter's country, the customs
control the documents and check the status of customs seals.
 If the seals are intact, the cargo receives customs clearance, breaking next
voucher from TIR Document, which will be send to the customs who performed
the initial inspection, and applying customs stamp on the remaining jelly spine.
 At the entrance in the importer’s country, the customs authority will do the same
and leave the goods being transported to the destination where it will break the
seal, open the vehicle and clearance is performed by local customs authorities.

Sending goods using a TIR Document
 Starting with January 1, 2007, Romania as a Member State
applies the TIR Convention respecting the peculiarities, the
European Union is considered one territory in terms of using
the TIR procedure. In this regard, the TIR Document can be
used in the European Union as follows:
 TIR operation begins outside EU and ends in the EU;
 TIR operation begins in the EU and ends outside the EU;
 TIR operation begins and ends outside the EU, with transit of
the EU territory.
 TIR operation begins and ends in the EU, in transit to a third
country which is party of TIR Convention.

Road transport – 2nd part
Challenges and developments

Challenges
 Drivers are confronted with ever more congested roads while one out of
four heavy goods vehicles still runs empty.
 Road users expect safer and more secure roads and the working conditions
of professional drivers should remain attractive
 Fuel prices keep on rising, as does he need to reduce air and noise pollution
and the carbon footprint to which road transport contributes.
 Moving towards low-carbon and more energy efficient transport will
depend on new technologies like hybrid and electrical motors, as well as
developing more efficient urban and intermodal transport solutions as
alternatives to road haulage. Reaching these goals should be supported by
financial, fiscal and pricing incentives.

Modal split intra- EU goods transport in 2013

Modal split intra- EU passenger transport in 2013

Cabotage
 The EU internal market for transporting freight by road has
been opened, and the EU has progressively established a
comprehensive set of uniform rules to ensure fair
competition among road transport operators.
 The open internal market created the possibility for
transport operators to supply services across national
borders. To do so, they must respect a set of common
regulations. Updated rules took effect in December 2011. To
carry goods or passengers between Member States,
operators must fulfill four criteria.

Cabotage (continued)
 The four criteria are:
 Good reputation: professional operators must meet
adequate ethical and entrepreneurial standards. Failure to
apply or respect EU rules will mean exclusion.
 Sound financial standing: each year, operators need to show
capital assets equivalent to €9 000 for the first vehicle and €5
000 for each additional vehicle.
 Professional competence: operators must pass a standard
exam to assess their practical knowledge and aptitude.
 Establishment: operators must demonstrate that they have
an effective and stable establishment in an EU Member
State.

Other rules of cabotage
 Cabotage is one way of reducing congestion and boosting
efficiency. Cabotage allows a carrier from one country to
transport goods within another country on a temporary
basis when making international deliveries (thus, if a Danish truck
delivers a cargo to Bordeaux and is due to drive empty to pick up a return load in Lyon, it
can carry goods from Bordeaux to Lyon).

 Operators from all the Member States, including the ones
which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007, are now free to carry
out temporary cabotage subject to certain rules.

Other rules of cabotage
 The EU sets limits for the weight and dimensions of heavy
duty vehicles used for transport in Europe to avoid damage to
roads, bridges and other infrastructure, and to ensure the
maximum level of safety on roads. For instance, the maximum
weight for trucks is 40 tons or 44 tons when carrying a
container for combined transport operations.
 The rules also allow Member States to authorize on their own
territory and under certain conditions longer and heavier
vehicles on their own roads or to carry out specific tasks.

EU road freight transport by type
of operation in 2013

Rules regarding drivers safety
 The EU sets a series of social provisions for professional
drivers working conditions, which also contribute to road
safety and underpin fair competition among operators. The
rules fix:
 A daily driving period of no more than nine hours, with a break
of at least 45 minutes after 4.5 hours of driving.
 Ten-hour driving periods are possible twice a week; a maximum
weekly driving time of 56 hours (or 90 hours per fortnight);
 Daily rest periods of at least 11 hours (with the option of cutting
this to nine hours, three times per week);
 A weekly rest period of 45 continuous hours; this can be cut to
24 hours every second week (with appropriate compensation).

 Every truck on EU roads must be
fitted with a tachograph to record
information on each journey such as
 driving times and rest periods.
Tachographs were first introduced
in 1985. Now digital can record data
such as speed, distance covered and
driver identification — with much
greater accuracy.
 These data once processed make it
easier to check compliance with EU
rules by operators and drivers.
 The Commission require Member
States to provide parking areas at
50 km intervals on motorways to
offer commercial road users
adequate parking space with an
appropriate level of safety and
security.

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