SAME: Nov/Dec 2010

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THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O ´
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AN ENGINEER’S VIEW
Chris Reay
Chairman of the Working
Committee: Communications
(SA Institution of Mechanical
Engineering)
N
ormally in the process of appoint-
ing new resources, one would
take account of qualifications,
experience and a degree of
environmental and psychometric fit to the
position. Would it be too much to request
the President to publish the CVs of the new
appointments as well as the performance
criteria that will be applied?
All under control?
The last two Ministers of Water Affairs
extolled their assurance that all was under
control in the water world in South Africa.
Either the public are victims of intentional
anti-government sentiment by the media
and other exposure platforms about the
condition of our water resources, or the
Ministers were seriously out of touch with
reality. The reader is left to decide on this.
I trust the current Minister of Energy is still confident
that 10 000GWh per annum of installed renewable
energy capacity is achievable by 2013.
Decline in skills
In South Africa right now a most serious problem is
a steady decline in the skills across the board and it
is not fixed by suddenly declaring OBE to have been
a dismal failure. That is certainly a major factor but
added to this root cause of the deterioration of maths
and science standards at primary and secondary level,
is the continued loss of useful skills across the full
spectrum. In this mix are the skills to set policy and
implement strategy (ministers included).
A further recent discovery is the parlous state of
our intellectual property laws. We used to be at the
forefront of the modern requirements for addressing
and modifying these laws with rapidly changing
technology. An observation recently compared the
deterioration here with that of our secondary roads
— neglect of maintenance until potholes develop
and the journey then becomes unpleasant and in
fact dangerous. The reason? Not difficult to find. All
the skills and expertise that existed and should be
utilised to keep ahead of the game were replaced
Missing in Action
So we now have a new pack of Ministers and Deputy Ministers and various other government appointments.
At least that may signify an awareness that the performance and delivery have not been acceptable by those
who have been removed en masse, but it alternatively may be another bout of jobs for the party favourites. It
is a mystery how the selection process works. Is experience in the work area of the ministry one of the met-
rics for selection?
with politically correct appointments. Replicate
this across so many activities and it explains the
slide to mediocrity and lack of effective action in
so many areas.
Recently someone asked me, why do we want to train
up lots of engineering resources into the economy?
After all, if supply and demand are to drive the
dynamic, then if we as engineering resources want
to earn more - our “better life for us” so to speak
- then let’s keep the numbers down. Why create our
own oversupply? My own answer to that is when
the industry’s growth and the infrastructure’s sup-
port needs are threatened then I guess we all fall
down together. There is a balance and if we do not
develop our own resources we will finish up having
to import them at astronomical cost.
Watch and learn
Study the demands of foreign skills in Rand terms
especially those who have optimised the benefits
of being internationally mobile. You may want
to find out what the expats working on many of
Eskom’s projects are costing South Africa. Watch
and learn, they say. And out there as I mentioned
in my last note, we have many early retired Engi-
neers, Technologists and Technicians who would
be quite capable of using their past experience on
power projects and who are being overlooked. The
mind boggles.
Consumption grew at double the rate of production
between 1994 and 2008. It now takes 36% fewer
workers to produce the same level of output we had
in 1960. More automation follows world trends,
ably assisted here by South Africa’s inflexible labour
laws, BEE, poor training and little mentorship. Un-
skilled unemployment must inevitably go on rising
and I believe it will be greater in 2014 than half the
present numbers as forecast by government.
It’s an intellectual world, the world of the Engineer.
There is certainly room for many more of us and
we may be the essential catalyst to help reduce
our horrific unemployment statistic.
The skills and expertise that existed were replaced with
politically correct appointments
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Monthly Column
8 A City Afloat
Cover Story
11 Clean Air Solution
Steam, Turbines & Boilers
13 As Good As New
17 New Steam Company
POWER GENERATION TODAY
21 Whipping up a Solar Factory
26 Power Generation News
Heating & Cooling
31 Keeping Industry Cool
33 Airing Buildings Economically
Produced by:
PROMECH PUBLISHING,
P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, 2123
Republic of South Africa
Tel: (011) 781-1401, Fax: (011) 781-1403
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.promech.co.za
Managing Editor Susan Custers
Editor Kowie Hamman
Advertising Louise Taylor
Circulation Catherine Macdiva
DTP Zinobia Docrat/Sean Bacher
Disclaimer
PROMECH Publishing and The South African Institution of Mechanical
Engineering as well as any other body do not take responsibility for
the opinions expressed by individuals.
Printed by: Typo Colour Printing, Tel: (011) 402-3468/9
Offcial Publication of
THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
and endorsed by:
 CORROSION INSTITUTE OF SA
 SA PUMP MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
 SA VALVE AND ACTUATORS MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
 THE SA INSTITUTE OF TRIBOLOGY
 NUCLEAR INSTITUTE
 SA INSTITUTE FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
 NATIONAL SOCIETY OF BLACK ENGINEERS
 INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATED MECHANICAL AND
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS
 SOUTH AFRICAN ASSOCIATION OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS
 ASSOCIATION OF SOCIETIES FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
AND HEALTH

Bearings & Lubrication
35 Lubes in a Big Box
37 Greasing the Gears
Regulars
3 An Engineer’s View
6 Institution News
19 SAINT
28 Nuclear Institute (SA Branch)
29 SAIT
39 Market Forum
46 On the Move
Contents
The monthly circulation is 4 242
Copyright
All rights reserved. No editorial
matter published in “SA Mechani-
cal Engineer” may be reproduced
in any form or language without
written permission of the publish-
ers. While every effort is made to
ensure accurate reproduction, the
editor, authors, publishers and
their employees or agents shall
not be responsible or in any way
liable for any errors, omissions or
inaccuracies in the publication,
whether arising from negligence or
otherwise or for any consequences
arising therefrom. The inclusion
or exclusion of any product does
not mean that the publisher or
editorial board advocates or rejects
its use either generally or in any
particular field or fields.
Nov Lec 'O´O \O¦LMF o4 NLMEFF ´´
Featured on the cover:
John Thompson
Tel: (021) 959-8400
www.johnthompson.co.za
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Council 2010/2011
Office Bearers
Presiden¦ .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C Earbic (Ceorce)
Presiden¦ F¦ec¦ ........................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... L Findeis (Lir¦)
Na¦iona¦ Treasurer ................................. ¦ Nvanconi (¦ud.ai)
Branch Chairpersons
Cen¦ra¦ ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M Cra·er (Mi¦e)
Fas¦ern Cape ................................................ \ Fa¦¦ (\i¦¦ia·)
¦wa/u¦u/Na¦a¦ ........................................... /C Fi¦ec.¦i (/¦e)
\es¦ern Cape ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pro¦ E Co¦¦ierFeed (Erandon)
Portfolios:
Co··unica¦ions .............................................. CL Feav (Cnris)
Fduca¦ion Lniversi¦ies................... Pro¦ )¦ van Nie¦er¦ (\i¦us)
Fduca¦ion. Lniversi¦ies o¦ Tecnno¦ocv............... F /awi¦s¦a (Fwa)
Me·bersnip .................................................... F /awi¦s¦a (Fwa)
oe·inars and \or¦snops.................................. L Findeis (Lir¦)
Tecnno¦ocv Procra··e ................................. o/ Hrabar (o¦eve)
Chief Executive Officer: \aucnan Fi·bau¦¦
National Office Manager: /nisa Nanabnav
PO Eo o´´. Eru·a. 'O'o
Te¦. (O´´) o´ooooO. Fa. (O´´) o88oooo
F·ai¦. in¦o(sai·ecne.orc..a
\ebsi¦e. www.sai·ecne.orc..a
Me·bersnip. Cen¦ra¦. Fas¦ern Cape o ¦/N.
·e·bersnip(sai·ecne.orc..a
Me·bersnip. \es¦ern Cape. sai·ecne.wc(voda·ai¦.co..a
Company Af filiates
Alstom Power Service SA
Babcock Africa Limited
Bateman Engineered Technologies
Bosch Projects
Fluor SA
GEA Air-cooled Systems
Hansen Transmissions SA
Hatch Africa
Howden Power
Howden Projects
Industrial Water Cooling
MBE Minerals (SA) (Pty) Ltd
(previously KHD Humboldt
Wedag SA
Megchem Eng & Drafting Services
THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Osborn Engineered Products SA
Rotek Engineering
RSD a division of DCD-Dorbyl
S.A.M.E Water
Sasol Technologies
SEW Eurodrive
Siemens
SNC-Lavalin SA
Spicer Axle SA
Spirax Sarco SA
Thyssenkrupp Engineering
Transvaal Pressed Nuts & Bolts
Ultra-Flow Engineering Services
Vital Engineering
Weir Minerals Africa
Winder Controls
The SAIMechE Central Branch Dinner & Dance held
at Killarney Country Club on 9 October 2010 was
sponsored by Eskom and Energas. Awesome lucky
draw prizes were kindly sponsored by Killarney
Country Club, Swiss Lady Chocolates, Yao Thai
Spa and BMW Advanced Driver Training.
The guest speaker for the evening was Bernie Goosen,
an inspirational young man, who despite his dis-
abilities has overcome all odds and demonstrated
how willing he is to try anything. He was the first
disabled Rotary Exchange student to be sent to
America, has sky dived, and climbed Mt Kilimanjaro
more than once – in a wheelchair. Havana Gas had
most guests boogying the night away.
Dinner &
Dance
Guest speaker
Bernie Goosen.
President of ICMEESA,
Obed Letsholo and his
wife, Lerato
Central Branch committee member Godfrey Mathe-
bula and his wife Veronica
The Chairman of the recently launched SAIMechE
Mpumalanga/Highveld branch, Louis Odendaal of
Megchem with his wife, Maryke
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THE SA INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
In Memoriam: Christopher J. Early
Christopher J. Early, a Fellow of SAIMechE, passed
away along with his wife, Jennifer, on 15 July
2010. Chris was a sought-after engineer who
worked on numerous projects and was particu-
larly known for his mechanical engineering and
project management contributions, especially in
the mining and brewing industries. He completed
his management and initial engineering qualifica-
tions in the UK and was also an alumnus of the
University of the Witwatersrand, and went on
to patent his milk pasteurizer graduate research
design. More recently he and Jennie, a skilled
office manager, ran their own engineering con-
sultancy and they will be remembered for their
caring and genial personalities as well as their
professionalism and integrity.
Dr Mukul Shukla with his wife Ruchi with Peter Stachelhaus and
his wife Udri
SAIMechE President and Central Branch committee member, George
Barbic with his wife Bonjana, and guests Drago & Verica Pesic
SAIMechE Central Branch Chairman,
Mike Cramer and his wife Evie
Carla and Chuck Grassley, Managing Director of Au-
toDesk
Hekkie Bronkhorst from Fluor SA and his wife Salome
Energas guests: Johan Potgieter, Rudolph Barnard and
HP van Huyssteen
8 THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
MONTHLY COLUMN
T
his makes
t he t ask
of naval
architects
a huge one. Not
only do they have
to consider the
latest equipment
and technology in
utility equipment
specific to ships, but they also have to keep track
of the latest ship building technologies as far as
materials, paints, drive trains, electronics and legal
safety requirements are concerned. “SA Mechanical
Engineer” visits one of South Africa’s well-known
naval architects, Pieter Volschenk, at Naval Africa’s
headquarters in Durban harbour.
More than just shapes
“Ship design is not only about shape and form;
there are functional parameters you simply have
to get right in terms of flow dynamics around the
hull in relation to weight distribution in order to be
seaworthy,” Pieter says. “Specific hydrostatic prop-
erties have to be met concerning conditions which
the vessel is subjected to while at rest in water and
while afloat under various conditions.
A ship is like a self-contained city in a hull
where you’ll find all the utilities and all the
necessary amenities required for people
to function as they would on land. People
need to work, eat, sleep and play in a com-
fortable environment that has aircondition-
ing, fresh water, electricity, sanitation and
in the case of ocean liners, shops and en-
tertainment facilities for voyagers.
Get right in terms of flow dynamics around the hull
Riaan Grebe, chief draughtsman (left) and Pieter
Volschenk of Naval Africa Design
This involves computing buoyancy, displacement
and other hydrostatic properties including hydrody-
namics such as the flow of water around the ship’s
hull, bow, stern and over bodies such as propeller
blades and the rudder.
Empty or full
“Ultimately, however, the environment on a vessel
has to be suitable for cargo as well as humans, in
essence creating a small city in a hull,” explains
Pieter. “Besides all the necessary utility requirements
for humans, the type of cargo being transported can
become a very complex factor in the design. If, for
example, the ship is transporting fresh produce,
just one banana going bad during the voyage can
spoil the entire load.
“On the other hand, in designing a tug boat, the
variation changes completely and the main design
consideration here is to cater for a vessel that has
the capacity to carry a load of a hundred tonnes of
fuel,” he adds. “You also have to ensure it’s stable
enough to operate equally well when fully loaded
as when empty and pulling something big. Tipping
over is not an option.”
Emphasis shifts
In terms of design, there are basic principles to
follow whether for a small boat or a large vessel.
Thus a tug boat is just another vessel when it comes
A City Afloat
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MONTHLY COLUMN
to basic design principles, but the emphasis shifts
to other areas as far as functionality goes. “We go
through a design spiral that basically starts with
the layout and weight considerations in relation to
the function of the vessel,” explains Pieter.
“On a tug boat, for example, the core consideration
is the drive system which dictates the layout of
everything else on the boat. On our tug boat de-
sign, we use a vertical propeller system that alone
weighs 120 tonne and comes in at 60 to 70% of
the cost of the boat. On a new design you neces-
sarily go through the design spiral several times
before achieving an optimum balance between
seaworthiness and practical functionality.”
Software
CAD software and analysis modelling software
makes the task of a naval architect a little easier
and reduces the risks associated with an entirely
new concept. “Our investment in software runs into
millions,” says Pieter. “In our drawing offices we
have several specialist engineers who each use a
specialised software package for certain aspects of
design on a ship. An example is the fire extinguishing
system which has to conform to very specific safety
standards and classifications and, so we have one
engineer who works just on that.”
Like all system engineering projects, ship design
starts with detailed customer requirements. Ship
building standards, insurance requirements and
material classifications means the naval architect
design team systematically works all these require-
ments into the design until the client is satisfied.
A little easier
“Today there are many existing designs models of
almost all types of vessels, making life a little easier
as a starting point because, in most cases, you can
use an existing design as the reference base,” says
Pieter. “There are many other resources to draw
from such as the classification society from whom
you can purchase information and specifications
if you’re tackling an entirely new type of vessel
design.
“As a result, all our design engineers have to constantly
remain aware of new technologies in many different
fields of ship building. Apart from new materials,
there are new paints and paint regulations, new
standards as far as engines are concerned and lots
of alternative drive systems such as sail and solar
energy. You simply have to know what’s new and
could benefit your design.”
Projects
Pieter and his team of 18 design engineers have
worked on everything from international luxury
motorised yachts to a barge working a river up
in Africa powered by an old truck that had been
converted to a drive system. “There is a dire need
for marine engineered solutions in Africa and I often
travel through the continent helping people solve
their unique problems,” Pieter adds. “I helped one
Finishing touches on a tug boat just before launch
Ships design is more than just the shape. This is a model of the pipe work
in a small vessel
guy in Mozambique who owns a barge type boat but
he may not motorise it to get across the lake. Now
he drives his truck onto the barge. The truck then
drives a dynamometer system to which a propeller
is fitted to take him across the lake legally.”
Apart from serving several local ship builders, Peter
and his team also design tug boats for a company
that builds ships in Egypt. “We also do variations
on a ferry design for a company that builds them
in Zambia,” says Pieter in conclusion. “At the mo-
ment we’re working on a project in Malawi where
we’re doing the design work on an old lake cruise
boat to convert it to a floating hospital. In terms of
ocean-going ships, we’re also involved in designing
double hull conversions on big ships and tankers
according to the required classification standards.”
All in a day’s work – as they say!
Pieter Volschenk, Naval Africa, Tel: (031) 205-3747, Email:
[email protected]
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B
ag-filters on smaller boilers of this size
have thus far not been economically viable
as the bags were subject to temperature
constraints. By using glass bags with a
PTFE membrane and ensuring the plant operates
within the design parameters John Thompson was
able to develop a system which not only meets the
requirements but also offers the durability demanded
by industrial plant.
The steam installation comprises a John Thompson
“Europac” boiler producing 10 000 kg/h of steam
at 10bar with a particulate emission guaranteed
at 50mg/m
3
or less. The boiler is also fitted with a
mechanical cyclone grit-arrestor for by-passing the
bagfilter during start-up & maintenance periods.
The gas burden at the cyclone arrestor outlet is
approximately 300 mg/m
3
. The bulk of the ash is
removed from inside the boiler via a submerged
belt ash conveyor and smaller airborne grits
are removed automatically in the reversal
chamber where the gas velocity drops
before the second gas pass.
Not only meet the requirements but also offers the
durability demanded by industrial plant
Clean Air Solution
John Thompson recently completed the installation of a new
coal fired steam boiler at Ladismith Cheese in the Southern
Cape. What is unique about this plant is the fact that not only
does it come with the latest control technology for efficient
combustion of coal, but it also comes with a bag-filter to re-
duce the particulate emissions to within European standards.
Control systems
This boiler is fitted with the John Thompson Mi-
cropac control system which, over and above the
increased overall boiler efficiency, also offers the
following advantages:
Continuously optimized efficiency reducing
fuel usage
Coal bed management reduces smoke and
particulate emissions
Digital air distribution reducing boiler attendant
combustion errors
PLC - based optimum control strategy
Inverters replace inherently inaccurate
mechanical linkages
Inverters reduce power consumption and noise
levels under low load conditions
Option for multi-loading boilers via
local communication
Superior response and turndown
ratio
Stoker protected by electronic
torque detection
UPS ensures orderly shutdown
during power outages
Bearing fruit
Consider this; if the Micropac system
can improve boiler efficiency by
about 10% it means a 2,5 ton
of coal saving per day or 75 tons
per month which at R 500/ ton
equates to R35 000 per month
or roughly R400 000 per an-
num. This however is only the










10 000 kg/h coal-fired boiler complete with bag filter, coal handling equipment
and ash conveyors
COVER STORY
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Bag filter
on improved coal combustion and control which
is now bearing fruit. With the addition of the new
smaller size bag filter system to reduce particulate
emission the argument for coal as a fuel source for
industrial boilers has just become stronger.
More on the bag filter
By isolating the bag filter plant from the gas stream
during the start-up and shut down operations,
thus passing the gas stream through the bypass
duct to the stack or/and passing the gas through
the bypass duct when the gas temperature drops
below the low temperature set point, acid forming
and consequent damage to the bags and severe
corrosion problems of the mild steel components
will be prevented. The equipment design is based
on a continuous operating temperature of 194°C
with minor fluctuations. To further protect the bags
against acid, the bags must be pre-coated with lime
before every start-up procedure
Although the equipment installed in this instance
will only be able to collect particulate and will
not remove SO
2
or NO
2
gases, the system can be
adapted to incorporate a Flue Gas Desulpherisation
system if required at a later stage.
Pulse jet bag house
The collector employs cylindrical filter elements and
is continuously cleaned on the reverse jet principle.
Simplicity of design with no moving parts results
in an extremely low maintenance filter.
Dust removal from the filter bags is achieved by
the introduction of a momentary jet of compressed
air to a row of filter bags. The required jet-pump
cleaning action is achieved by a venturi, which
induces a secondary airflow. Reverse flow and a
shock wave are generated, sufficient to clean the
filter bags.
The compressed air header pipe is located on the
outside of the bag filter and the solenoid/diaphragm
valves are easily accessible for maintenance. Bag
removal is done from the clean air plenum via a
suitably sized access doors on the plenum roof.
Bag removal and all maintenance is done from the
clean air side of the filter.
John Thompson, Neil Berry, Tel: (021) 959-8400,
www.johnthompson.co.za
COVER STORY
direct fuel cost saving. By burning less fuel, the
emission levels are also reduced, as is electricity
demand and fuel for transporting coal and ash to
and from site.
With the resources available and the cost of fuel
today we can accept the fact that coal is here to stay,
with this in mind John Thompson has for the last
number of years focused its development programme
Due to the cost of fuel today we can
accept the fact that coal is here to stay
Are you looking for engineering resources?
Engineer Placements
Contact us for a win-win deal [email protected]rplacements.com
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STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS
S
A Mechanical Engineer” speaks to Louw of
the Boiler Utilisation Group in a coffee shop
in Vereeniging as his office is on the road,
usually to where the next second-hand boiler
awaits his experienced eye. “Provided a used boiler
is inspected by the right authorities properly, there
is no reason it cannot be refurbished to deliver
another decade or two of reliable service,” he says.
“Even old boilers that have been scrapped still have
a place in industry, even if they’re used purely to
warm up water.”
The list
Louw arrives at the coffee shop with a thick pack
of dog-eared pages that have seen better days
under his arm, explaining that it is an old list the
government compiled in the sixties to list all the
boilers installed in South Africa. “The list has 6
054 boilers, where they were installed at the time,
the make, capacity, a government number and the
manufacturer’s identification code,” he explains.
“This list helps me to trace the history of a boiler
when I come across a used one that’s up for sale.
A boiler tends to move around quite a bit during its
life, but usually it still has the government number
on it and then I can cross-reference it against the
list to see its original specifications and where it
was installed originally.”
Inspection
But this is not the only criteria Louw bases his
inspection on when evaluating a used boiler.
“Firstly I always try to get
the prospective buyer to
join me on site to see the
boiler first-hand. Then
either the client or I will
have the wall thickness
of the boiler drum tested
by an independent official
inspector to make sure it
can be refurbished,” he
explains. “Then I do my own
inspection on the furnace
side and most importantly
on the water side of the
boiler installation.
“People often make the
mistake of not looking at
the water side thoroughly
and if this is neglected
and clogged up, the boiler
simply won’t perform as it
should,” adds Louw. “The
water treatment side of
boiler operation is as crucial
As Good As New
Why buy new when a good second-hand one will do? This
is the philosophy on which Louw van Vuuren has based his
business for the past thirty years; the business of servicing,
refurbishing, rebuilding, relocating and converting used steam
generating boilers for customers across Southern Africa.
Louw van Vuuren of Boiler Ultilisation Group
Louw’s pack of sheets that help trace the history of boilers
Thick pack of dog-eared pages that have
seen better days
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STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS
as the combustion side. If
the tubes are clogged up,
the heat simply remains
in the tube steel and
does not get transferred
properly, wasting precious
fuel energy. If possible, we
clean out the tubes and
replace where necessary,
but most of the time a
complete re-tubing of the
boiler gives a far better
performance.”
Moving
This work is usually done on
location, either where the
boiler is installed or after
it has been moved to the
site of the new owner. “We
provide the full service,”
says Louw. Boiler inspections are important
Tore itself from its
foundation to ‘walk’
the other way
several metres
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they use a lot of warm water for heating during
winter. Although the farmers always heckle about
the price, it’s much cheaper to buy an old boiler
than having one built for this purpose.”
Louw van Vuuren, Boiler Utilisation Group, Tel: (016)
423-3665, or 072-298-8382, Fax: (016) 423- 4275
Third party inspection is important for used boiler upgrading
Boilers rarely get witten off completely
“Most of the time we dismantle and get
the boiler out the way as quickly as pos-
sible and then do all refurbishing work
on the other side during installation. Our
teams are equipped with all the tools to
do this and we only rarely have to hire
in a mobile crane if the chimney on
the system is a large one that can’t be
handled with our block and tackle equip-
ment. In a complete tube replacement
job we follow the normal procedure of
tubes out, third party inspection, tubes
in and again an inspection.”
Disasters
In Louw’s thirty years he has seen his fair
share of boiler disasters. “An instance I
remember well was in Pietermaritzburg
where a ten tonne boiler got blocked up
and exploded,” he recalls. “It spat the
stoker out like a projectile and at the
same time tore itself from its foundation
to ‘walk’ the other way several metres,
killing two people.
“Another one from my younger days was
where the shell of an upright boiler shot
through the roof of the building like a
rocket and landed on a house down
the road. They’d forgotten to free the
mechanism on a new safety valve that
had been installed, resulting in the steam
building up pressure without anywhere
to go and the shell just gave way.
Assurance
“Boilers are pressure vessels made to
exacting specifications, but it’s something
you never take chances with, especially
when it comes to used boilers,” warns
Louw. “For this very reason I always tell
prospective buyers to go the extra mile
of having the wall thickness of the boiler
shell measured and tested by an official
third party inspection entity before buy-
ing. If the buyer won’t do it at his or her cost, we
add the price of the boiler inspection to our fee for
our own assurance.”
Very rarely does a boiler get written off completely
which means that of the 6 054 boilers on Louw’s
list, most are probably still functioning somewhere
in South Africa, albeit not as a pressure vessel.
“When a boiler is written off by the authorities as
a steam generator I sell them as water warmers,”
he says. “They are very popular for nurseries where
STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS
Shot through the roof of the
building like a rocket and
landed on a house down the
road
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THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O ´¯
H
eading the new company is managing
director John Rundle, previously from
Cyclotherm in Johannesburg. “Cyclotherm
and I came to an agreement for me to
purchase from it as a going concern the servicing
and installation divisions, hence the formation of
our new company Steam Generation Africa, Cy-
clotherm is now only focused on manufacturing,”
he explains.
“This means Steam Generation Africa retains a
well-established client base in terms of servicing
equipment originally bought through Cyclotherm.
However, it has now given us the opportunity to
extend our service to other areas such as coal fired
boiler applications, an aspect we seldom covered
previously.”
“Collectively we pride ourselves on having over 40
years’ experience in the company and we’re well
geared to sell and service a full range of boilers,
autoclaves and hot water vessels,” adds John.
New Steam Company
There is a brand new player in the South African steam generation market, centrally based in Midrand.
However, when “SA Mechanical Engineer” visits the new company, Steam Generation Africa, we find that it is
made up of many familiar faces who have been in the local industry for many years.
“Besides being an official reseller of Cyclotherm
boilers, we can now provide a full turnkey steam
solution, from the coal handling systems through to
the boiler, reticulation systems and even providing
kitchen equipment, for example.”
Professional team
All the products are supported by a professional
team offering the client base a range of cost effective
after-sales services which includes statutory govern-
ment inspection services and service maintenance
contracts. “A key addition to our team, specifically
for the coal fired boilers, is general manager, Chris
Erasmus, who has extensive experience in all as-
pects of coal fired boilers and steam reticulation
systems,” says John as he introduces Chris.
“This opened the market for us to widen our of-
fering to cover coal, gas, heavy and light oil fired
boiler systems. We’re also a certified Natural Gas
installation practitioner which allows us to tender
for Natural Gas Line Installations and enable us to
issue a Certificate of Compliance directly to clients.”
New regulations
Because boilers are considered pressure vessels
John Rundle
Chris Erasmus
A typical Cyclotherm boiler will now be avail-
able through Steam Generation Africa
A steam installation has to be undertaken by specialists
who have experience
STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS
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for regulatory purposes, the rules have changed
and there is absolutely no cutting corners when it
comes to steam installations and reticulation. “Today
you need approved design drawings and calcula-
tions, inspection authorities are directly involved
and when you start dealing at this level, a steam
installation has to be undertaken by specialists who
have experience,” says Chris.
“Today large installations, like prisons for example,
require service providers who can handle service
and maintenance as an ongoing project where you
not only look after the steam installation, but also
all electrical and mechanical systems at the facility.
I’ve operated this way for a number of years and it’s
a service we can now offer all our clients.”
Do it right
As steam is one of the most expensive commodities
around, steam systems should be done correctly
from the beginning, not only to comply with the new
regulations, but also to avoid unnecessary expense
when a system has to be fixed or upgraded at a
later stage. Yet, many companies still use ‘bakkie
The biggest mistake people make in terms of steam
systems is to use installers who don’t have the
experience
STEAM, TURBINES & BOILERS
brigade’ installers to set up steam reticulation
systems or service boilers.
“The biggest mistake people generally make in
terms of steam systems is to use installers who just
don’t get it right because they simply don’t have the
experience,” says Chris. “Let me give an example;
a big company recently called me in to help with
a boiler they’ve been battling with for over a year.
We immediately found the problem and fixed it,
saving them 65% on coal consumption a month
due to small errors in the installation.
Example
“First of all the coal did not burn out completely,
resulting in half-burnt coal going to the ash dump
and their having to dump an excessive amount
of ash,” adds Chris. “In addition the client had
frequent chain breaks due to the incorrect heat
distribution of coal not burning completely. To top
it all, the fans were running in the wrong direction.
We fixed this, fine-tuned the boiler and not only
brought about the saving in coal usage, but there
hasn’t been a very expensive chain break since.
Also, instead of emptying the bins daily, they now
only do it every four days.”
John Rundle or Chris Erasmus, Steam Generation Africa,
Tel: (011) 695-2500, Email: [email protected]
/[email protected]
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T
he first document to control the certification
process was the ASNT Recommended Practice
SNT-TC 1A issued for the first time in 1966
by the American Society for NDT (ASNT).
This document was and still is a recommended
practice, ie, a document which recommends the
actions which two parties must take to assure that
the NDT on projects is performed to the satisfac-
tion of the two parties ie, the client and the NDT
service provider. The document which then outlines
the specific requirements for the certification is
referred to as a Written Practice and usually forms
part of the quality system for a project.
Revised and reissued
Since 1966 SNT-TC-1A has been revised and
reissued 11 times, Whereas the 1966 document
addressed 5 methods, viz. Magnetic Particle Test-
ing (MT), Penetrant Testing (PT), Ultrasonic Testing
(UT), Radiographic Testing (RT) and Eddy Current
Testing (ET), the 2006 version addresses 13 NDT
methods ie, MT, PT, UT, RT, ET as in the past plus
Neutron Radiographic Testing (NRT), Leak Testing
(LT), Acoustic Emission Monitoring (AEM), Visual
Testing (VT), Infrared Thermographic Testing (IRT),
Vibration Analyses (VA), Laser Testing and Magnetic
Flux Leakage (MFL).
The requirements for certification have however
essentially remained the same, in that the train-
ing, examination and certification requirements to
which the NDT practitioners will be subjected to
assure that they are equipped to perform the NDT
work are addressed and documented.
The Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A formed
the basis for all the subsequent documents which
address the qualification and certification of NDT
personnel. These documents and standards include
NAS 410, EN 4179, EN 473 and ISO 9712 among
others. Because of this background, all these docu-
ments aim to achieve the same goal, which is to
assure that NDT practitioners can competently
perform the task at hand.
Unfortunate situation
Within a professional manufacturer’s in-house
environment this system worked, and still does
work, adequately. Unfortunately with the advent of
outsourced NDT services, the system was abused
in that the so-called NDT service companies paid
lip service in compiling a single written practice
to govern all the NDT work which the company
offered as a service.
This led to the unfortunate situation that paper
certification to the written practice became more
important than the responsibility which the service
company has viz. to assure that the NDT practitioners
in their employ are competent to perform the specific
work on a client’s plant and components.
Biggest abuse
The biggest abuse however, lay in the fact that the
NDT Level III practitioner only performed rubber
stamping activities like keeping the written practice
and the procedures in place and “up to date”. Gen-
erally, if a NDT Level III practitioner was involved
at all, he did not take responsibility for the NDT
work, and did not vouch for the competence of the
NDT personnel performing the work. An additional
problem was that the users of the NDT service did
not have the competence in-house to control this
process, contributing to the impasse.
Against this background, the requirement for em-
ployer authorisation, which was included in ISO
9712 and EN 473 should be understood. Point
5.5.3 in ISO 9712 states:
“In respect of certified personnel under their control,
the employer shall
a) be fully responsible for all that concerns the
authorization to operate, including any job-spe-
cific training,
b) be responsible for the results of NDT opera-
tions.”
Certification of NDT Personnel in accordance with the require-
ments of applicable standards has been with us since the very
early days of performing NDT.
It is the employer’s responsibility, prior to issue of the
authorisation to work, to check that an individual’s
certification is adequate
SA INSTITUTE FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
The Saint annual award of the H, Rohloff Trophy for progress in NDT was
this year presented to Manfred Johannes, current president of Saint (right),
by Rainer Rohloff at the Annual general meeting held in Pretoria
Global Harmonisation
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These requirements place the responsibility for
the NDT work squarely into the hands of the NDT
Company, something which was intended by SNT-
TC-1A but not unambiguously stated.
Auditable training records
With the advent of Company Authorisation, the
requirement for auditable training records and
documented experience becomes less important, as
the suitability of a particular NDT practitioner for a
job and the competence of the NDT practitioner is
now fully within the ambit and professional judge-
ment of the employer of the NDT practitioner. This
role will require that NDT Level III practitioners
will have to be much closer to the NDT work; one
cannot take “full” responsibility for the NDT results
remotely or at arm’s length.
Worldwide harmonisation
With this new understanding, the various certification
schemes have realised that worldwide harmonisation
is possible. Indeed during an ISO TC 135 committee
meeting in June 2010 in Moscow – ISO TC 135 is
responsible for all the NDT standards in ISO – the
following decision was tabled and accepted:
“Notwithstanding the detail differences between
the present versions of ISO 9712 and EN 473,
the competence of NDT personnel certified ac-
cording to these standards is considered effectively
equivalent.
It is the employer’s responsibility, prior to issue
of the authorisation to work, to check that an
individual’s certification (EN 473 or ISO 9712) and
any additional employer administered job-specific
training and examination are adequate for the NDT
tasks to be executed.
ICNDT and EFNDT are requested to dispatch this
recommendation to their members and to publish
it in their journal.” At this stage ASNT have not
fully endorsed this, however it is hoped that they
will come aboard at the next meeting scheduled
for Houston.
Take responsibility
This statement places the responsibility for assuring
the competency of NDT practitioners in no uncertain
terms back with the NDT company. The Authorisa-
tion of NDT Practitioners by the employing company
is now much more than just a paper exercise. The
company must have competent and professional
individuals in their employ who understand the
science of NDT, can assure the adequacy of the
methods and techniques to be employed and can
take responsibility for the NDT results produced.
At this stage this would fall under the role a NDT
Level 111 practitioner has to perform.
At this ISO TC 135 meeting it was also resolved
that ISO 9712 be revised, together with the inputs
from CEN TC 138, and that the revised document
be issued as a CEN/ISO Standard. This is a step in
the right direction, ie the reduction in the number
of standards and documents which all have the
same aim: The assurance that the NDT system
(equipment, procedures and personnel) is suitable
and effective for the task at hand.
Unique situation
South Africa, via SAINT, endorses this move. Has
been, and will continue to be involved very closely,
including having our local schemes included in the
system. Industry in South Africa is in a unique situa-
tion as they use all the above schemes. Additionally
we, through some of our major end users, are well
advanced with requiring the NDT supplier, using
their NDT Level 111 practitioner to authorise the
NDT personnel and to take technical responsibility
for the NDT outputs. Another proposed benefit will
be the local control (under ISO and ICNDT) of all the
different, hopefully conforming, schemes, thereby
avoiding repeat expensive overseas auditing.
Any queries in this regard, or additional information re-
quired, can be directed to Manfred Johannes – President
SAINT, email: [email protected]
Places the responsibility in no uncertain terms back with
the NDT company
SA INSTITUTE FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
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POWER GENERATION
Produced by:
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P O Box 373, Pinegowrie, 2123
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is made to ensure accurate
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use either generally or in any
particular field or fields.
C
an you purchase a plant where you
only have to roll the gate open and
start producing right away? This
is the promise made by so-called
turnkey plants, ready-built manufacturing
sites for silicon wafers, cells and modules
that many overseas PV (photovoltaics)
suppliers offer these days.
Originally these machinery and plant build-
ers only offered equipment for one specific
manufacturing process, manufacturing
lines were therefore always the product
of numerous specialised outfitters. Today,
they supply the complete lines as single-
source suppliers – commissioned and with
guaranteed output parameters such as yield,
Whipping up a
Solar Factory
To be able to compete, photovoltaics manufacturers have to develop large
production capacities fast and produce efficiently. Upstream suppliers help
them to expand by offering complete, turnkey lines that they install and run in
in a short period of time while guaranteeing their output; and the industry is
only too pleased to accept these turnkey installations.
throughput, availability and efficiency.
Solar producers benefit from turnkey solu-
tions of this kind because it allows them
to ramp up large manufacturing capacity
fast – bringing costs down rapidly. How-
ever, building a solar factory is a complex
business.
A plant consists of lots of equipment that
differs according to product and production
process,” explains Eddy Blokken, the former
Head of Technology and Standards at the
Semi-Conductor Association Semi Europe
and an expert in solar manufacturing tech-
nology. For crystalline silicon technologies
the four steps of the value chain – silicon,
wafer, cell and module production – are
generally carried out in separate factory
buildings. Each one of these products is
based on many individual process steps:
silicon is prepared and crystallised into
blocks; the wafers cut from this are pro-
cessed into solar cells by another special
Solar producers benefit from turn-
key solutions of this kind because
it allows them to ramp up large
manufacturing capacity fast
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POWER GENERATION
treatment, which are in turn electrically connected,
laminated and framed. The production of thin-film
modules, on the contrary, is a condensed process
occurring in one building.
One-stop shopping for all processes
Customers’ needs also differ. “Our clients are either
newcomers in the business with little know-how
under their belt or experienced “solar players” with
a very clear idea about their new manufacturing
site,” says Chris Buckland of the Berlin-based fac-
tory planner ib vogt. Well-established producers
who wish to expand their capacities rely on the
machinery proven to be the best for their process.
“In such cases we prefer to focus on turning their
wishes into reality,” adds Chris.
In contrast, newcomers, such as financial inves-
tors, need assistance in scouting the right location,
infrastructure, planning and construction of the
building as well as the installation of the line. Such
newcomers prefer solar factories that have already
been erected exactly the same way elsewhere and
are tried and tested.
All by themselves
Chris adds, “Unfortunately, these customers believe
that turnkey plants run all by themselves. To build
the factory halls and fill them with equipment
is not the problem. This can be done in twelve
months. But the lead-time required until the first
marketable products are available is very lengthy
with these new producers, “taking six months or
more”. In his experience, a future producer needs
a minimum of five people with at least five years of
PV experience to fill the core positions for a turnkey
factory. Otherwise only rejects will be produced for
a long time – probably for too long.
The pioneers in turnkey factories are Centrotherm
and Gebrüder Schmid from southern Germany.
The first lines for manufacturing crystalline cells
were built after the turn of the century. But as the
number of new market entrants rose, the demand
for quick-build greenfield production sites increased
with ever-widening product portfolios.
SMEs now building large giga-factories
This trend towards integrating as many technologies
and process steps as possible continues unabat-
edly. Some companies concentrate on the devel-
opment of new products and processes buying in
the necessary expertise and machinery. This is the
approach taken by Centrotherm, a “heavy weight”
in this industry. With a view to pushing vertical
integration across the entire solar value chain, the
Swabians have taken over a number of specialised
suppliers, Michael Glatt Maschinenbau, a producer
of pressure vessels for silicon reactors, Solmic, the
silicon production expert and GP Solar, the module
line engineering firm.
Other enterprises, on the contrary, enter into strategic
cooperations in order to be able to offer turnkey
plants. A real professional at installing such net-
works is the Schmid Group. It leads a consortium
that has now been joined by many specialised
suppliers. The portfolios of these companies are
complementary and jointly they can install turnkey
Building a turnkey factory: employees of Centrotherm install a so-called
CVD-reactor for silicon production. (Source: Centrotherm)
A future producer needs a minimum of five people with
at least five years of PV experience to fill the core
positions for a turnkey factory
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POWER GENERATION
wafer, cell and module lines of up to one gigawatt
(GW) capacity.
Given a boost
The turnkey movement was really given a boost
when thin-film mass production started. Companies
such as Applied Materials in the USA, Oerlikon in
Switzerland or Ulvac in Japan “pricked up” their
ears. Leveraging their expertise in plant engineer-
ing for the semi-conductor and flat-panel screen
industry, they’ve started focusing on solar energy
too – and soon became established suppliers of
turnkey PV lines.
Having observed this trend, Arnulf Jäger-Waldau
of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability
at the Joint Research Centre of the EU (JRC) in
Italy says, “In 2007, firms announced that they
would soon offer a turnkey line. By 2009, 20 firms
already offered turnkey solutions.” Without this
development, photovoltaics would probably not
have experienced such a rapid growth. According
to the European Photovoltaic Industry Association
(EPIA) global manufacturing capacities for crystal-
line and thin-film modules amounted to 15 GW in
2009 from a low of 250 MW in 2000.
Automation from the automotive industry
More and more firms are turning to photovolta-
ics to cash in on the PV boom. The OEMs of the
crisis-stricken automobile industry especially are
now turning their robots “towards the sun” when
seeking new buyers of their assembly line exper-
tise. As Markus Meier, the marketing manager of
Kuky Systems in Augsburg, puts it, “Being OEMs
for the automotive industry, the sector boasting
the highest degree of industrialisation, we can
also make solar factories leaner, faster and more
flexible.” Kuka delivers module lines with up to
100% automation.
Also gaining a firm foothold in the PV sector is the
Southern Franconian robot producer Reis Robotics.
Early 2000 still saw them deliver primarily infra-
structure for automotive production – today they
are already generating half their sales with solar
How a solar module comes into being
Many production steps are required to make modules out of silicon.
Usually, silicon is produced by way of chemical distillation in special
reactors. Subsequently, it is molten in crucibles, crystallised to form
ingots, which are then cut by dicing saws into the so-called wafers.
These wafers are first cleaned in chemical baths, then etched to
produce a surface suitable for collecting light. After this texturing,
the electrical properties of the silicon are set.
To this end, a diffusion furnace is used to make phosphor atoms
migrate into the crystal with the aim of achieving a surfeit of
electrons at the surface – the decisive prerequisite for producing
electrical energy. Then anti-reflective and deadening layers are
applied to the “semi-finished” cells. These ensure that more light
enters the cells and can be absorbed.
The coating process of choice is chemical vapour deposition (CVD).
In this process, silicon nitride or titanium oxide is deposited on the
surface. In the module line, the individual cells are then contacted
into strings by tabber-stringers and brazed. Subsequently, a lami-
nator thermally welds this composite cell under vacuum between
two glass sheets and several plastic films making it weather-proof.
Finally, the module is fitted in a frame with a junction box and is
ready for mounting on roofs or in solar power plants.
Turnkey module line robots assume a crucial function – they ensure faster
production. (Reis Robotics)
'4 THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
equipment and turnkey module lines according to
General Manager, Eberhard Kroth. Having supplied
(car) glass lines for many years, the enterprise boasts
impressive manufacturing technology expertise. The
plants delivered by Reis in 2007 produced modules
with an output of 850 Megawatts (MW); only a year
later this figure had gone up to 1.6 GW.
External expertise
While turnkey module lines are numerous, there
are fewer and fewer turnkey solutions on offer the
closer you get to the beginning of the value chain.
The reason being the complex production of the up-
stream products and silicon, in particular. The British
ingot and wafer producer PV Crystalox has erected
a silicon plant completely with its own resources
since there was no external expertise available for
buying in. Plant Manager Hanno Wilhelm knows
why: “There is a great deal of “cloak and dagger” in
this segment.” Who would voluntarily provide their
competitors with a plan of the complex production
of these valuable semi-conductors?
2007 finally saw PV Crystalox start building their
facility, which has subsequently gone into operation.
But now there are even “off-the-shelf ” factories for
elaborate silicon production. Centrotherm launched its
fully integrated factory in spring 2009: the complete
New dimensions: thin-film module production equipment. Here the Sunfab
by Applied Materials, has a big footprint – posing a big challenge to factory
planners. (Source: Applied Materials)





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Thin-film manufacturing is a continuous process. Contacts and
semi-conducting materials – layers that are many times thinner
than silicon – are applied directly to a substrate (as a rule glass).
There are different ways to do this: usually physical and chemical
vapour deposition is used. In this process, the semi-conductors are
sputtered or vapour-deposited in sheer layers at high temperatures
in special reactors. In the sputtering process, atoms are extracted
from a solid body by bombarding it with high-energy ions. These
condense and are deposited on the substrate. After processing, the
cells are provided with a protective glass sheet.
POWER GENERATION
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O 'o
production from silicon to finished modules is
available for just under EUR 1 billion.
Rapid ramp-up
But what are the benefits of these off-the-
shelf factories? “Clearly the rapid ramp-up
of capacity,” says Jäger-Waldau.
This view is also shared by the well-estab-
lished producers – which is why more and
more of them expand with the help of turnkey
facilities these days. But they use their own
factories as a blueprint, mirroring them on
the adjacent greenfield site, so to speak. Most
equipment suppliers grant output guarantees
that provide for some breathing space in the
initial stages. Alternatively, they can build
a factory based on their own research and
development activities.
A case in point being the leading thin-film
provider, First Solar. However the drawbacks
of this strategy also become evident: it took
the Americans eight years and $ 140 million to
achieve the ramp-up phase – no new entrant
could afford to wait that long these days.
The downside of turnkey
The downside of turnkey installations is the
restricted possibility of creating USPs so as to
stand out from competitors who are probably
already running the same factory at another
location. “Then you can only stand out with
economies of scale, ie, a faster expansion of
mass production,” says Jäger-Waldau. When
installing the first line, planning for the second
one must already be underway. However,
growth presupposes that the factory opera-
tor will change his business model speedily
and accumulate in-house expertise, which is
anything but easy considering the enormous
development pace in PV.
In addition, new equipment cannot just be incor-
porated into an existing line without any refitting
because there are no uniform standards governing
this field as yet. The issue of poor compatibility has
at least been identified and is now to be addressed.
The PV Group at Semiconductor Equipment and
Materials International (Semi) Europe has evaluated
measures designed to optimise manufacturing pro-
cesses. “This means the best available technology
could be easily integrated into existing lines,” says
manufacturing expert Blokken and adds that Semi
already maintains close links with the industry. It
will soon be clear whether and what standards will
be accepted by manufacturers.
Dead-end street
However, turnkey facilities can also become a
dead-end street for machinery and plant builders.
Competition is growing and manufacturing technol-
ogy innovations are developing fast so that suppliers
can easily lose track of the latest trends in the race
for the most efficient and biggest production line.
Small and medium-sized companies are better off
today specialising in one type of machine rather than
trying to offer turnkey solutions, says Jäger-Waldau.
“Modules are commodities and this mass product
will in future be manufactured by high-capital global
players located in Asia rather than in Europe.”
Enterprises such as Samsung, LG or Hyundai have
already “staked their claim” and will most prob-
ably be tomorrow’s solar tycoons. These would
admittedly also implement turnkey solutions but
in magnitudes that are out of the scope of SMEs.
This is why specialisation is most probably the
most sustainable strategy for SMEs. They should
concentrate on innovative equipment for the long
PV supply chain.
Solarpeq, Sebastian Pfügge/Corinna Kuhn, Email:Pfuegg-
[email protected], [email protected]
While turnkey module lines are numerous, there are
fewer and fewer turnkey solutions on offer the closer you
get to the beginning of the value chain





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POWER GENERATION
Checking the core machine: in a horizontal furnace wafers are processed further into
cells. A Centrotherm technician checks its ready status. (Source: Centrotherm)
Moving in: Oerlikon employees take the first thin-film systems into the factory of the
Berlin manufacturer Inventux. (Source: Inventux)
'o THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
POWER GENERATION NEWS POWER GENERATION NEWS
Solar challenge
Sunny South Africa was no match for the high speed Tokai
Challenger, Japan’s entrant in this year’s South African Solar
Challenge.
The sleek solar powered Tokai Challenger completed a total
of 4 061 km through South Africa to cross the finish line in
first place. The race started on Thursday 23 September and
The solar powered Tokai Challenger completed a total of 4 061 km through South Africa
ended on Saturday
2 October, with the
Innovation HUB in
Pretoria as the start
and finish line.
The Tokai Chal-
lenger is a project
of the Tokai Uni-
versity in Japan.
Its victory in what
is billed the most
gruelling solar race
on the international
calendar follows a
similar victory at
the recent Austra-
lian Global Green
Challenge.
“With a race dis-
tance of over 4
000 km and elevation differences of 1 700 m, the South
African Solar Challenge can easily be described as the tough-
est solar race in the world,” says Professor Hideki Kimura,
project leader and member of Tokai University’s School of
Engineering.
The race was organised to emphasise the benefits of envi-
ronmentally friendly technologies and to give students, in a
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O '¯
Purely renewable
Hansen Transmissions International, an established global
gearbox designer, manufacturer and supplier with a leading
position in the wind turbine gearbox market, has announced
that it has received an offer for its industrial gearbox division,
Hansen Industrial Transmissions (“HIT”) from Sumitomo
Heavy Industries. The management team and board of Han-
sen have evaluated the proposed transaction in detail and
believe it presents a great opportunity for both its industrial
and wind gearbox businesses.
Hansen Transmissions has recognised for some time the
different market dynamics between the wind and industrial
gearbox businesses, which accounted for 84% and 16%
respectively of its group revenue in FY 2010.
As a result of the proposed transaction, Hansen Transmis-
sions will focus its future business strategy on wind energy.
The group’s management and board are convinced that this
is the right strategic path that will lead to a stronger and
more focused position in a sector with substantial long-term
opportunities.
Hansen Transmissions will now begin the information and
consultation process with respect to the contemplated divest-
ment. The Proposed Transaction requires the Hansen plant in
Edegem, Belgium, to be restructured before completion. The
restructuring may lead to a headcount reduction in Belgium
of up to 125 employees out of a total HIT headcount of 730
in seven countries worldwide (514 in Belgium). It is envis-
aged that the management team of HIT will transfer with
HIT on completion of the proposed transaction.
Following any sale of HIT, Hansen Transmissions plans to
discontinue its wind gearbox activities in the Edegem plant,
and concentrate the production, assembly and testing of
wind turbine gearboxes in its existing dedicated wind gearbox
facilities. This will reduce Hansen Transmissions’ current
wind turbine gearbox manufacturing capacity by 1,100 mega
watts (“MW”) (out of a total capacity of 8,700 MW as of
30 September 2010). This reduction in capacity will help
reduce the level of over capacity in Hansen Transmissions’
remaining facilities and is reflective of the continued volatility
and uncertainty in the global wind energy market.
Hansen Transmissions SA, Fritz Fourie, Tel: (011) 397 2495,
Fax: (011) 397 2585, Email: [email protected]
Website: www.hansen.co.za
New pumped storage
ABB has won an order worth $23 million from Eskom
to supply an electrical balance of plant (eBoP) solution
for the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme (PSS), currently
under construction on the border of the Free State and
KwaZulu-Natal provinces in South Africa.
The Ingula plant will have the capacity to generate 1 333
megawatts (MW) of hydropower to be integrated into the
South African grid, when fully operational in 2014
As part of the turnkey eBoP solution for the power plant,
ABB will be responsible for the design, engineering, sup-
ply, installation and commissioning of the project. Key
products to be supplied include the service and auxiliary
transformers, dry-type distribution transformers and me-
dium- and low-voltage switchgear.
“ABB has a strong track record in providing power and
automation solutions that enable pumped storage plants
to operate at high levels of efficiency and reliability,”
says Franz-Josef Mengede, head of ABB’s global Power
Generation business in the Power Systems division. “The
Ingula project will generate a significant amount of renew-
able hydropower to help meet the growing demand for
electricity in South Africa.”
ABB has supplied solutions for more than 300 hydropower
plants ranging from small one or two megawatt instal-
lations to some of the largest hydroelectric and pumped
storage plants in the world.
ABB, Eubulus Pillay, Tel: (043) 317 6480, Fax: (043) 317 6482,
Email: [email protected]
POWER GENERATION NEWS
wide range of disciplines, the opportunity to gain valuable
experience.
“As this race was such a gruelling event, I believe it was
the best possible opportunity for the students to learn about
technology, engineering and the environment. I am sure that
these students will introduce major new environmentally
friendly technological innovations to the automotive industry
in the near future,” says Kimura-san.
Supporting the driver and crew of the Tokai Challenger was
Toyota Prius vehicles supplied by Toyota South Africa.
“It was a great honour to be part of a project such as this,”
says Johan van Zyl, president and CEO of Toyota South
Africa. “The project not only highlighted the importance of
environmentally friendly technology, but it also allowed us
to showcase the Prius, which is one of the boldest steps
yet towards mass produced hybrid and other clean energy
vehicles.”
The Tokai Challenger’s main driver was Kenjiro Shinozuka,
the first Japanese racing driver to win a World Rally Cham-
pionship event and a Dakar desert race.
Toyota SA, Johan van Zyl, Tel: (011) 809 9111, Fax: (011) 809 2917
Email: [email protected], Website: www.toyota.co.za
'8 THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
NUCLEAR INSTITUTE (SA BRANCH)
I
t began in this country in the
1960s with a survey of the
entire coastline by consult-
ing engineers. I suspect the
organisation was Watermeyer,
Legge, Piesold and Uhlmann.
One of their preferred sites,
Duynefontein, came on the
market in 1966 and was
snapped up for R167 000.
Or it came on the market in
1967 and was snapped up for
R166 000. I’ve never been
quite sure which. Either way,
it was earmarked for Koeberg.
It was a good site but not
perfect. The shallow off-shore
conditions were always going
to complicate extracting vast
volumes of clean seawater and there was concern
about the regional population. It was not so much
the proximity of Cape Town which was within
nuclear norms at that time but of Atlantis.
In those days of apartheid, Atlantis was intended to
grow into a major Coloured city. In 1972, therefore,
before the Koeberg decision was irrevocable, Eskom
took another look at the coastline from Saldanha
round to Cape Hangklip, and duly satisfied itself
that no site better than Duynefontein had been
overlooked.
This was all seven years before Three Mile Island.
In our nuclear arrogance at that time, the core-melt
scenario was regarded as ‘beyond design basis’, in
other words incredible. The Germans, for example,
were known to be considering siting a nuclear station
in the middle of the BASF chemical complex.
Later in the seventies Eskom relooked at a number
of sites in Natal. None was deemed suitable. In
most cases the informal population right up the
coast was considered too great and too difficult to
mobilise for emergency evacuation planning.
Overriding public interest
Then, in the 1980s, realising that developers were
fast buying up the coastline and wishing to get a
foot in the door, Eskom launched a major and much
more professional review. Scores of potential sites
were evaluated and whittled down to two on the
Nuclear City?
Summer’s here. The south-easter is whipping the spray off False Bay and it’s nearly Christmas. A good time
for kite-flying. So how about a nuclear city four or five hundred kilometres north of here on the West Coast?
The idea is sparked by the recent Chinese announcement of a nuclear technology city apparently on their
north coast.
West Coast well north of Saldanha, Duynefontein
(again) thirty kilometres north of Cape Town, and
two on the south coast, Bantamsklip near (but not
too near) Bredasdorp and Thuyspunt near St Francis
Bay. Thuyspunt appears to be favoured - much to
the understandable dismay of local people.
The Brits have just been through a similar exercise.
They have a concept they call IROPI meaning that
there are Imperative Reasons of Overriding Public
Interest why a particular site must be reserved
for nuclear development. They have identified ten
such sites, eight being associated with existing
or already decommissioned nuclear units. All are
IROPI. The criteria used in the selection process
are identified in the March/April edition of the UK
Nuclear Institute journal ‘Nuclear Future’.
It grieves me whenever any pleasant stretch of
coastline is given over to industrial or even resi-
dential development. Do we give sufficient weight
to aesthetic values? How would a major nuclear
complex on the out of sight, relatively out of mind
West Coast match up to the UK criteria?
There are twelve basic criteria grouped into four
themes: nuclear safety, environmental protection,
societal issues and operational requirements. Two
of the twelve are called ‘Exclusionary’ namely
demographic risks, i.e. proximity to population
centres, and proximity to military activities. In
South Africa we might add a third: seismic risk.
From early Koeberg studies, I recall that there are
fault lines trending north west, for example through
Saldanha.
The ten ‘Discretionary’ criteria are all recognisable
as aspects studied in the EIA process for the next
Eskom units, which process rejected the West Coast
sites as too remote. Are we sure? One day we might
have to take another look. Maybe the nuclear city
amenities could be shared with the solar plants
proposed for the area. Transmission to Gauteng
and coastal load centres would be enormously
expensive but perhaps justifiable.
There is no space here to consider the UK or South
African criteria as they apply to the West Coast
but it’s fun to speculate. To come to anything, any
radical idea must be taken up and forced through
ranks of sceptics by a visionary Messiah. So, Mes-
siah, if you are reading this, please give the matter
some thought.
John Walmsley
John Walmsley
Thuyspunt appears to be favoured - much to the
understandable dismay of local people
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O 'O
A
request made from last year was that the
event be moved to October as opposed to
the usual August when the Johannesburg
winds and winter contribute to some miser-
able playing conditions. Despite the late rains this
year, the course was still in excellent condition and
the day provided some outstanding golf especially
on the Power Play holes in breezy conditions.
Adding pressure
The personnel from Golf Guys were once again on the
first tee adding pressure with their cameras for the
Swing Analysis CD which is given to all competitors
New Faces
analysing their individual swing.
Of course this is the nine holes
where the Power Play begins with
players nominating at least three
holes as Power Play holes where
double points can be made by
going for the Power Play Jolly
Roger Flags on the greens.
A tough day
The team from Chemimpo were
having a tough day which was
going from bad to worse as they
brought up the rear and then
lost their score card which was
probably fortunate for them.
Their consolation prize for the
longest day out in the sun was
an umbrella each donated by
the Rose Foundation. Further-
more, Basil Collins received a
prize for getting his ball closest
to the pin and Richard Rice
was rewarded for delivering the
longest drive.
The prize-giving dinner was once
again held in the Glenvista Club
House and it was S. Mahoa, I.
Merafe, Zeyd Timol and Bev
Heuwel team from Engen who
took top honours. A close second
place was the Clive Rice fourball
with C. Rice, R. Rice, K. Lubesi
and G. Curry. This team was af-
fectionately known as the Curry
and Rice team.
Enquiries: Gill Fuller, Tel : (011)
802-5146, Fax: (011) 804-4972,
Email: [email protected], www.
sait.org.za
Hole sponsor, Doug Herschell, on the 9th
67739 Hytec HFT Filtration.indd 1 7/13/10 9:12:12 AM
THE SA INSTITUTE OF TRIBOLOGY
The absence of Basset Bodies at this year’s
tournament at Glenvista Country Club meant
the battle for honours was a heated affair.
oO THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
From convenience and supermarkets to electronic and retail stores, Munters
provides cost-effective climate control and energy recovery. Let Munters’
technologies improve your store’s indoor air quality, increase customer and
employee comfort, and decrease operating costs.
Economical, fexible and advanced performance
ventilation and dehumidifcation solutions
Munters (Ftv) Ltd ª Tel. O8GO MbhTERS ª Email. [email protected]/a ª web. www.munters.co./a
This purchase actually
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THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O o´
I
ndustrial Cooling Towers, based in Alrode south
of Johannesburg, is a company that has been
around for over twenty two years. To catch up
with developments in this sector, “SA Mechanical
Engineer” meets with director Tom Kenny.
One and only
“We’re the only company that manufactures our
own unique cooling tower design entirely in South
Africa,” he says. “Most others cooling towers are
manufactured under licence from an overseas brand,
so companies such as these tend to purely offer a
product rather than a turnkey solution as we do.”
“Over the years we’ve improved our open circuit
design by making subtle differences inside the
tower to improve air flow,” adds manager, Henk
Keeping Industry Cool
At face value, one cooling tower looks and functions just like
the next one, but it’s the subtle differences inside that actu-
ally make one better than the other. A big differentiator be-
tween two products, however, is the service that goes with it,
especially when it directly affects the pocket of the end-user.
HEATING & COOLING
The only company that manufactures our own unique
cooling tower design
Oosthuizen. “We’ve also paid special attention to
energy saving solutions and now have configura-
tions that are aimed at reducing the overall energy
consumption of a cooling plant. This includes using
four small motorised fans rather than one large one
that has to run all day. Through PLC control, the
four fans are switched on and off as the demand
for cooling goes up or down.”
Maintenance
A large chunk of ICT’s work consists of servicing
cooling towers, from the smallest single fibre glass
tower to the large hyperbolic concrete towers typically
found at power stations. “We have tower installations
across Africa in industries that range from plastic
injection moulding to the petro-chemical industry
as well as the mining industry, both underground
and surface towers,” says Tom.
“Apart from several service teams up here in Gauteng,
we’ve just established a branch in Cape Town that
will service that area initially, but as we gain a
foothold, we intend setting up a manufacturing
facility down there.”
The Cinderella
Servicing cooling towers is one of the most neglected
aspects on many plants especially if end-users
choose to do it themselves. “The cooling tower is
usually tucked away at the back of plant, so people
tend to forget about it,” says Henk. “They don’t
always realise that a more efficient cooling tower
directly affects the efficiency of other machinery,
including energy efficiency. Generally, the cooler a
process machine runs, whether it is a dry-cleaning
process or injection moulding, the more efficient it
is in terms of energy consumption.
“The cooling plant tends to be the Cinderella
of most industrial setups where neglect usually
costs more than a service would have cost,” adds
Henk. “Yet, a service isn’t that complex. In a fibre
Director of Industrial Cooling Towers, Tom Kenny (left)
with manager, Henk Oosthuizen
From convenience and supermarkets to electronic and retail stores, Munters
provides cost-effective climate control and energy recovery. Let Munters’
technologies improve your store’s indoor air quality, increase customer and
employee comfort, and decrease operating costs.
Economical, fexible and advanced performance
ventilation and dehumidifcation solutions
Munters (Ftv) Ltd ª Tel. O8GO MbhTERS ª Email. [email protected]/a ª web. www.munters.co./a
This purchase actually
saves you money.
A cooling tower in operation
o' THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
glass tower, for example, we simply replace the
fill material, clean nozzles or replace them where
necessary. Servicing a hyperbolic tower involves a
bit more where we inspect and clean an area of
about 6 000 square metres and there are usually
more mechanical repairs that need to be taken
care of as well.”
Tsubaki lubrication-free free roller chain is designed for high power transmis-
sion efficiency and reduced downtime in diverse industrial applications
HEATING & COOLING
Big brother
and a
smaller
version in
the ICT
factory
Refurbished towers
The fibre glass cooling towers ICT builds have a
long life as the body lasts many years, while all
the steel inside the unit is usually stainless. “There
is a good market for refurbished cooling towers,”
says Henk. “We can provide a refurbished system
for about 60% of the cost of a new one. Consider-
ing that refurbishment entails replacing everything
inside with new parts, this is a very good option
because it’s in fact just the fibre glass shell that’s
old. A refurbished tower leaving our factory looks
and operates as well as a new one.”
The same principle applies to fans, a crucial ele-
ment in any cooling tower. “Instead of replacing
fibreglass fan blades, we refurbish and rebalance
them to make them stronger than new blades and
at a much reduced cost,” says Henk. “Our inducted
draught counter flow cooling towers use axial fans
which are aerodynamically more efficient than
the norm. They are positioned on top of the tower
above the fill pack and distribution system, and
coupled with the aerodynamically efficient shape
of the tower form, ensure superior performance
continuously.
More than service
“Service is our motto,” says Henk and to prove this,
he cites an example. “Regardless of the size of the
cooling plant, we’re always prepared to go out and
solve a problem by customising a solution to the
client’s specific problem,” he says.
“An international company who needed more than
just a cooling tower off the shelf approached us
the other day with a very specific requirement.
We put our thinking caps on and came up with
a solution to build the cooling plant onto a skid
system, something that no-one else in the industry
even considered doing. Needless to say they were
impressed and we’re only too happy to add them
to our list of long-term customers.”
Innovation
Energy saving is the first thing most people ask for
these days and to oblige, ICT constantly comes up
with ideas to save customers money. “Our concept
of having four small electric motors instead of one
large fan motor, for example, has many spin-off
benefits,” Tom says in conclusion.
“Apart from running them in direct relation to
demand, if one of the motors fails, you still have
75% of the fans running and the whole processing
plant doesn’t necessarily have to grind to a halt.
It’s also quicker to replace one small motor than
racing against time to replace the one and only
large motor, never mind the repair or replacement
costs associated with the large motor.”
Henk Oosthuizen, Industrial Cooling Towers, Tel: (011)
868-4756. Email: [email protected]
We put our thinking caps on to build the
cooling plant onto a skid system
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O oo
HEATING & COOLING
B
ut if this volume could be co-ordinated to
vary with thermal load demand, things could
be very different. Today this is achieved
with a variable air volume (VAV) diffuser
system that senses the requirements in different
areas in a building and releases optimum air volume
into each area as required.
Europair Africa, based in Spartan outside Johannes-
burg, has come up with a brand new VAV diffuser
design, entirely built in South Africa. To learn more,
“SA Mechanical Engineer” meets general manager,
Lee-Ann Drennan. “This is our first new product
line in a while,” she says. “Aimed at extending our
service to the industry by addressing energy sav-
ing, we have added new features which optimise
air distribution to ensure less energy consumption
throughout a building when heating or cooling.”
Individual control
Basically, the new VAV
diffusers function entirely
autonomously. The units
can however be grouped
into specific areas in a
building according to the
function of the area and
each diffuser and/or group
of diffusers can then be
controlled individually de-
pending on the specific
requirement of each area.
“Usually, the VAV diffuser
system is controlled by one
master controller that in
turn controls several slave
units,” explains regional
manager Michael Muller
who heads up the devel-
opment team. “The slave
units then mimic the master
controller settings in terms
Airing Buildings
Economically
Any energy saving is a bonus especially in building air han-
dling systems because this is an area where there’s a lot of
energy waste, mainly because systems have traditionally run
continuously day and night pumping conditioned air at a con-
stant volume.
of controlling air flow and
temperature. With our sys-
tem, you’re able to group any
number of diffusers together
and the groups can then be
controlled individually.
“For example, in a retail area
you can set all the diffusers
over the bakery area to a
certain temperature for that
group while the groups in
another areas can be set to
different temperatures,” adds
Michael. “In an office environment, you’ve solved
the perennial problem of one person liking it hot
which means that everyone else has to just live
with a particular master setting. Our system offers
individual control for each and every Diffuser.”
Remote control
But that’s not all! Europair has also added remote
control and networking functionality. A service pro-
vider can now go into the system over the internet
and not only change settings, but also diagnose
problems. “By logging onto the system through the
internet with a certain code you’ll be able to see
if a diffuser has a problem and even delve down
further to find which part of the diffuser is causing
the problem,” says Michael.
“Let’s say a heater element has failed, the system
will tell you exactly where the diffuser is located
and provide you with the part number, thus totally
eliminating the practice of sending a technician out
to find out what the problem is and what parts will
be needed to fix it. Also eliminating the second trip
then necessary to undertake the repair once the
offending part has been sourced.
Lee-Ann Drennan
Solved the perennial problem of one person liking it hot
which means that everyone else has to just live with a
particular master setting
Grilles on the production line
Alice Lane Towers, one of EuropAir’s projects
Michael Muller
o4 THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
Another enhancement to the new diffuser system
actively reduces the energy consumption of air handling
systems
Sensing conditions
“Everyone is going ‘green’ and to this end we’ve
added yet another enhancement to the new diffuser
system to actively reduce the energy consumption
of air handling systems,” adds Michael. “Our new
infrared device is fitted to the system to monitor
movement. If there is no movement in an area, like
an office or boardroom for example, the sensor will
shut the system off for that particular area. We can
also build in a certain amount of intelligence where
the conditions of the area are monitored by sensors
and the system reacts accordingly by balancing air
handling requirements.”
The team working on this project are busy with
the final concatenation of the system as we speak.
A prototype demonstration unit will be set up at
Europair’s fully interactive showroom in Spartan,
before the end of this year. “For now a full working
animated 3D model of the system has been completed
to clearly show prospective clients the effects and
advantages of this unique system,” says Michael.
“We’ve already started getting the production line
in the factory ready to prepare for production and
the first units should be ready early next year.”
SABS mark
“Our young dynamic team have worked very hard at
getting this proudly South African product to market
as quickly as possible and it’s now all falling into
place,” Lee-Ann says in conclusion. “Besides the
new VAV diffuser, which presents a whole range of
new options for our customers, our huge existing
product range is under constant review so that we
always bring the best solution to market. Our full
range of fire dampers, for example, has just been
awarded the SABS mark after extensive testing
whereas previously only our econo-dampers car-
ried the mark.”
Lee-Ann Drennan, EuropAir Africa, Tel: (011) 974-2425,
Email: [email protected]
Flex manufacture by EuropAir
HEATING & COOLING
Energy-saving, superior lubricants for
supreme performing refrigeration equipment
Engen offers a range of Mobil synthetic and mineral oil-based
refrigeration oils: Mobil Gargoyle Arctic, Mobil EAL Arctic, Mobil
Gargoyle Arctic SHC and Mobil Zerice S. These oils help to enable
an efficient and reliable operation, so whatever your refrigeration
application, we have a lubricant suitable for your needs. For
more information, call the Engen Customer Service Centre
on 08600 36436 or visit www.engen.co.za or
www.mobilindustrial.com
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- sole supplier of Mobil lubricants - sole supplier of Mobil lubricants
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O oo
T
his is what happened to Prolube Mar-
keting when a customer asked whether
the lube systems they required for their
SAG mills could not be pre-assembled
to a degree locally before shipping all the way
to the Republic of Guinea on the West coast of
Africa. This triggered the engineers at Prolube
to start thinking out the box in order to get a
complete working lube system into a box. “SA
Mechanical Engineer” speaks to Chris Erasmus
about the pre-commissioned lube system in
a container that they developed.
The old way
“Normally we build a lube system, partially or
complete, in our workshop and then the client has
Sometimes it takes just a simple enquiry from a customer to challenge a company’s zest for creativity and
innovation to come up with something completely new. If this leads to a whole new product line that will open
the doors for many others, it’s a bonus where everyone reaps the benefits.
Building the whole working lube plant into a container,
pre-commissioning it
BEARINGS & LUBRICATION
Lubes in a BIG Box…
Chris Erasmus
the option of installing the system and pipe work
or we can do it for him or her,” explains Chris. “If
we’re merely supplying all the components for a
lube system, it can turn into a nightmare for the
customer especially if the plant is in a remote area
such as Guinea where there are no technicians with
experience in setting up a centralised lubrication
system consisting of mechanical, electrical and
electronic components working together as one
system.
The new way
“Just this scenario led to the request from an
Australian company in Guinea to make assembly
on the other side a little simpler,” continues Chris.
“Although nothing like it exists, they immediately
liked our suggestion of pre-rigging the system in a
cargo container. This concept eventually turned into
actually building the whole working lube plant into
a container, pre-commissioning it right here in our
workshop and then shipping it to site as
a complete unit. They now simply con-
nect the oil flow to the lube points on
the mill, connect our signal outputs to
their PLC system, plug in the electricity
supply and start up the system.”
Skills shortage
Often, especially in remote areas, com-
missioning on site can take forever, re-
quiring specialist technicians in different
fields to sort out problems. “Our ‘lubes
in a box’ concept means we don’t have
to send our specialists all the way out
there to fine tune the programming, a
critical factor in commissioning a lube
system,” says Chris.
“In this case all they have to do on site is
lay a concrete foundation for the container
and possibly rig a roof covering over it.
The huge fans for cooling the oil circulate air through the container
oo THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
BEARINGS & LUBRICATION
This system could be used for any
situation or where portability of the lube
system is required
Tough learning curve
But, it’s wasn’t all plain
sailing for the engineers
and technicians at Prolube’s
workshop. In the two months
it took to build the four
containerised lube units, the
learning curve was steep.
Apart from having to fit all
the components of the system
into a confined space, it was
a case of placing compo-
nents, marking cut-outs in
the walls, removing it all,
placing it again, shifting stuff
around, re-marking and so
on until everything became
accessible and connectable
and placed just right.
Only then could they actually
make final markings and do
the cut-outs for pipe connec-
tions, air inlets, radiator grills, power points and
light fittings. To save space, a roller door was cut
into the side of the container and, before everything
was finally affixed permanently, the container walls
had to be insulated with a fibre material behind
neat wood panels.
Impressions
Our visit to the workshop coincided with the final
testing of the units. First impressions were of a very
neat lube room as you’d find in any fixed installa-
tion, but on closer inspection we could sympathise
with the huge achievement of getting the layout just
right. Yet standing inside the container, it didn’t
feel cramped despite all the metering, controls and
serviceable parts being open and reachable in a
well lit environment.
“Although this system has been built specifically for
a mill application, it could be used for any situation
where the site is remote and commissioning by
experienced engineers is a problem or where por-
tability of the lube system is required,” says Chris.
“For example, we’ve been involved in a number of
projects lately where mills are moved to another
location and in the process new lube rooms have
to built form scratch as it normally is a permanent
structure that can’t be moved with the mill.”
Chris says in conclusion, “The African continent
is increasingly looking south for solutions and as-
sistance. This particular product shows that we
have the knack down here to address the unique
challenges Africa presents.”
Chris Erasmus, Prolube Marketing, Tel: (011) 886-1460,
Email: [email protected]
The metering, controls and serviceable parts are open and reachable in
a well lit environment
When the container arrives, they connect the pipe
work to the mill and lay on the power supply, as
the lube system has been set up to the specific
requirements of the mill, programmed and tested
beforehand in our workshop back home.”
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O o¯
The multilube lubrication
system
BEARINGS & LUBRICATION
E
veryone knows that bearings
have to be lubricated with the
right type of lubricant, the right
amount and at the right time.
To achieve this, there are specific main-
tenance solutions to ensure optimum
bearing life in machinery. To find out
more about this scientific approach to
lubrication in practice “SA Mechanical
Engineer” speaks to Sarel Froneman,
manager of Lubrication Solutions at SKF
South Africa.
Greasing the Gears
When it comes to centralised lubrication systems, people assume they have to get the Full Monty right from
the start and they end up getting nothing because it’s just too much in one go. Yet, fitting an automated
lubrication system doesn’t have to cost an arm and a leg as it isn’t always necessary to fit a complete
centralised system for an entire plant all at the same time.
Sarel Froneman
Selective installation
“You needn’t go the whole hog on a lubrication
system to achieve optimum functionality,” he
says. “We’ve found that it’s more often a case of
considering a specific methodology in terms of
maintenance because it may not be necessary to
fit every single lubrication point on a plant to an
automated or centralised system.
“For example, only 80% of the lube points on a
plant may be in critical areas where most of the
problems arise and these areas should be addressed
first,” Sarel adds. “Through a thorough analysis of
the plant, all the main problem areas are identi-
fied and attended to, usually eliminating the
core lubrication problems without having to
weigh maintenance up against the cost of a
complete system.”
Reducing failure
By the same token, the cheapest system is not always
the most cost effective solution, especially in the
long term and real benefits can only be achieved
by talking to professionals who can scale a system
to each individual need. “Our lubrication systems
have been developed to prevent repair work
and production breaks caused by machinery
failures,” says Sarel.
“Systems can be configured in custom engineered
designs to lubricate from single machines right
through to a complete process plant. Centralised
lubrication systems feed lubricant from a
central source to all the points on a machine
at which friction occurs. In this way, wear is
minimised and in oil circulation systems, it also
plays the important role of removing impurities and
dissipating the heat generated by the friction.”
A needs analysis
“In our experience, automatic lubrication reduces
bearing failures by more than 36% compared
with manual lubrication with the attendant
significant savings in repair and spare part costs,”
says Sarel. “In many instances we can bring about
savings of up to 70% just in lubricant costs due to
accurate timing and dosing of lubricants.”
SKF’s lubrication division in South Africa is relatively
Only 80% of the lube points on a plant
may be in critical areas where most of
the problems arise
o8 THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
new, but the engineers have already had their fair
share in introducing and practically applying the
principles of this extended service locally. “One of
our recent projects was with a client who sought a
‘total lubrication management programme neces-
sitating a comprehensive custom needs analysis,”
explains Sarel.
An assortment of
components for
lubrication systems
Automatic lubrication reduces bearing failures by more
than 36% compared with manual lubrication
“In such a case, our tribology specialist analyses
the whole plant to determine how many lube points
can be done by hand, which points are inaccessible,
how many points are in dangerous zones and so
on. We also determine what types of lubricants,
grease or oil are needed in each of the zones or
where standard lubricants may contaminate the
product being produced.
Designing the system
“Once we’ve run the analysis, we design the system
accordingly by grouping lube points into manual
serviceable points, by grades of standard and special
greases and finally automate the lubrication of points
that are critical or inaccessible. You can even group
those points that need very specific dosages.
The right lubricant
The right type or grade of lubricant is as important
as having lubricant in the bearing in the first place.
This is an area where SKF has carried out extensive
research and development for many years. “Even
the very best bearing can only show optimum
performance if it is lubricated correctly,” Sarel says
in conclusion. “Here, it is extremely important to
choose the right bearing lubricant and to apply it at
the most suitable interval and in a specific way.”
Sarel Froneman, SKF South Africa, Tel: (011) 821-3534,
Email: [email protected]
BEARINGS & LUBRICATION
Wishing all our readers a good break and a great New Year from the crew at Promech who pulled out all the stops for our annual
fancy-dress. The theme was “C” and Kowie arrived as Caspar the semi-friendly looking ghost. Cleopatra and Cinderella added
glamour while Surita the cricket captain is next to the construction crew. On the left, Sean - the politically incorrect cripple. A
cowboy, a chef, a colourful clown with bad eyesight and a mix of culture revved up by the cheerleader, completed the line-up.
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O oO
Ultra fine grinding
“The Palla Mill has a major advantage over other such ma-
chines as it is capable of grinding more than 100 different
materials, including a range of minerals and commodities
previously considered unviable due to the costs involved,”
Johannes Kottmann, managing director of MBE Minerals,
says.
Designed as a single-mass vibrator operating in the super-
critical zone of materials fracture, the vibrating structure
is excited by unbalanced weights comprising two parallel
grinding cylinders joined by webs.
These two parallel tubes are rigidly mounted in a frame and
elastically separated from a base frame by rubber springs.
The tubes can be lined with steel or ceramic depending on
the application requirements and may be charged with rods,
balls or cylpebs.
The tubes are excited by eccentric drives mounted in the
frame, creating a circular action of the tubes. Material passed
into the tubes is comminuted between the oscillating grind-
ing elements.
Another advantage is that operation of the vibrating mill can
be either continuous or intermittent. Grinding can be carried
out in an atmosphere of inert, protective or reactive gas and
at temperatures well below zero if necessary.
MBE Minerals SA (Pty) Ltd, Johannes Kottmann, Tel: (011) 397
4660
No slipping
Kumba Resources’ Sishen South Project’s
screening plant is being fabricated,
erected and commissioned by Tubular
Technical Construction, which conducted
a comprehensive survey of the market to
source a supplier who could guarantee
delivery, quality and reliability of specific
products.
“Tubular ’s contribution to the project
includes 1 300 tons of structural steel,
1 200 tons of platework and 2 500
square metres of flooring,” explains
Tubular ’s contracts manager, Leonard
Langford. “Of this, some 2 000 square
metres consists of grating, with about
2 500 stair treads and all the relevant
handrailing and kickplates.
Kumba specified RS40 standard products,
with a particular emphasis on “real”
non-slip grating. Andrew Mentis was
the only manufacturer in the industry to
be able to supply this specific product.
“Andrew Mentis’ non-slip grating has a
pinched dimple which guarantees the
non-slip characteristic,” Leonard points
out. “Other gratings have a cut-out on
the top of the bearer bar which actually
weakens the product.”
Andrew Mentis (Pty) Ltd, Elaine van Rooyen
Tel: (011) 255-3200, Website: www.mentis.
co.za
The Palla Mill
is suitable for wet
and dry applications
in primary and secondary
grinding and for pulverising
materials of any hardness
The non-slip characteristics of this floor
grating are effective in all directions
Market Forum
4O THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
Market Forum
King of the road
Do you know what it feels like to control 1100Nm and
have the ability to withstand the blast of 21kg of TNT? Ever
wondered what it would feel like to be the King of the Road?
Never to be intimidated by double-cab bakkies, bulky Hum-
mers, daunting 4x4s and terrorising taxi-drivers?
The Casspir IV may not have speed, or even beauty on its
side, but for sheer show-of-force, in-your-face presence this
in the only vehicle to own.
One of South Africa’s legendary military icons has been up-
dated to be stronger, faster, lower and wider and ever-more
able to protect its occupants. The Casspir has starred in the
Oscar-nominated film District Nine, proudly served South
Africa since the early eighties, and subsequently become an
international icon of environmental security as the United
Reliable and accurate
BMG ’s technical resources division
has extended its range of SPM condi-
tion monitoring systems to include the
new VibChecker portable instrument,
designed for reliable on-site vibration
measurement and assessment.
“The new VibChecker maintenance
tool supports BMG’s BearingChecker,
which is used to accurately assess the
condition of rolling element bearings
during operation in equipment like
motors, fan, pumps and gearboxes,”
says Dave Russell, technical director
of BMG – Bearing Man Group.
“The VibChecker gives early warn-
ing signs of developing machine
problems in order to prevent pre-
mature replacement of machine
parts. Vibration monitoring is the BMG VibChecker and BearingChecker
Nations’ preferred Mine Protection Vehicle and Armoured
Personnel Carrier.
It is a formidable workhorse and a benchmark in the demining
industry. Mechem recently re-launched the very popular Casspir
MK-II, thirty-one years after it first came off the production
line (the first Casspir was built in 1979 by TFM).
“Mechem took the strategic decision to build this configura-
tion again due to the great demand still in the market. In
the last few years, most of these vehicles were re-manu-
factured from hulls bought from SAPS auctions and tender
processes causing depletion in actionable stock. There was
also concern over the supply of spare parts,” says Mechem
CEO, Ashley Williams.
Mechem (Pty) Ltd, Henry Abrahams, Tel: (012) 640 3002, Fax: (012)
664 3528
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O 4´
BMG VibChecker and BearingChecker
most widely used preventative maintenance technique for
the accurate assessment of the condition of machinery ele-
ments – like pump rotors, fan impellors, gearbox gears and
housing mountings.
The VibChecker is designed for simple vibration checks and
with built in FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) capabilities, it is
also an efficient device for troubleshooting. Periodic vibration
checks are easily done and reliable and accurate vibration
information is delivered in seconds. Readings are immedi-
ately and automatically evaluated according to established
ISO standards. These standards make the assumption that
limited information - obtained easily and at low cost - is as
useful as a detailed analysis, using expensive equipment
and elaborate techniques.
BMG–Bearing Man Group, Dave Russell, Tel: (011) 620 1500
Email:[email protected], Web: www.bmgworld.net
Market Forum
Mobile dewatering plant
Bateman Engineered Technologies (BET) is to launch a
Bellmer Winklepress Mobile Dewatering Belt Press for sewage
and effluent. The press will be used in mining, municipal
and general industrial applications. BET Water and Effluent
manager, Marius Botha says that a demonstration unit will
shortly be assembled with the full commercial
roll-out following soon thereafter.
“Bellmer Winklepress belt presses have been used successfully
in Southern Africa for many years in municipal wastewater
treatment plants and in the paper and fruit juice industries.
With this mobile press, we hope to extend significantly the
applications in which it will be used,” says Marius.
He adds that BET will be demonstrating its performance and
efficiency to clients’ with the aim of using that demonstration
to build full-scale dewatering plants for those sites.
The parameters that can be assessed in such a demonstration
include: hydraulic loading, dry solids loading, polyelectrolyte
consumption, cake dry solids concentration, filtrate solids
concentration, overall capture rate, and the establishment
of the cost for dewatering the sludge.
Bateman Engineered Technologies, Marius Botha, Tel: (011)
201 2300, Email: [email protected]
Bateman Engineered Technologies is to launch a Bellmer winklepress mobile dewatering belt press for sewage
and effluent
Real world efficiency
Johnson Controls Systems & Service has recently launched
the York Magnetic Centrifugal Chiller (YMC2), which offers
superior efficiency and sound performance.
The YMC² chiller is 10 percent more efficient than con-
ventional, variable-speed chillers. Proven magnetic-bearing
technology is utilised to eliminate mechanical-contact losses
in the driveline. The industry-leading OptiSpeed variable-speed
drive has been improved, and efficiency of the evaporator has
been enhanced with an advanced “falling-film” design.
In addition, the features that always made York chillers so
efficient have been retained, including the optimised
centrifugal compressor that takes advantage
of low-temperature cooling-tower
water to save energy.
As a result, the YMC²
chiller offers the best
real-world efficiency
in the industry.
“The new YMC2
chiller is ideal for
large sites and envi-
ronments and offers
an energy efficient
solution for chilling
which is becoming
increasingly impor-
tant with current
environmental is-
sues,” comments
Neil Cameron, gen-
eral manager for
Johnson Controls
Building Efficiency:
Systems and Ser-
4' THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
Advanced Materials Today September 2007 39
the society for
animals in distress
FOR AS LITTLE AS R50 A MONTH YOU CAN MAKE A
DIFFERENCE IN THEIR LIVES WITHOUT MAKING A
HOLE IN YOUR POCKET!
We thousands of animals in nine townships and informal settlements that we visit five days a week.
We their sickness both on-site and at our professionally-run animal hospital in Vorna Valley, Midrand.
We ignorance by educating in 50 underprivileged schools and in the field.
We communities through education, training, skills’ development and capacity building.
PLEASE VISIT OUR WEBSITE AT www.animalsindistress.org.za OR BETTER STILL, VISIT OUR PREMISES AT

PROTECT
HEAL
FIGHT
EMPOWER
“THE PADDOCKS”
PLOT 20, MOERDYK STREET
VORNA VALLEY, MIDRAND
BIG
TELEPHONE : 083 640 8825 OR 011-466-0261
FAX : 011-466-0262
ALTERNATE FAX : 086 626 5441
E-Mail : [email protected]
PO BOX 391164, BRAMLEY, 2018
BANKING DETAILS :
FIRST NATIONAL BANK
BRAMLEY, CODE 252105
ACCOUNT NUMBER : 5147 0054 747
FUNDRAISING NO : 01 100326 0001; 001-249 NPO; PBO : 930012662
ANIMALS
Healing
their
IGNORANCE
Fighting
Empowering
OTHERS
To do
SICKNESS
THE SAME
Protecting
T
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F
O
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A
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A
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I N D
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S
CARING FOR DISADVANTAGED ANIMALS SINCE 1958
D IT OR ER D A ON NSTRUC ON EB D ON TI I TI
NAM : _____ __________ _________ _________ _________ __________ __________ _________ E ___ ___ ____ ____ ___ ___ ___
POST L DDRESS :_________ _________ _________ _________ _________ __________ ________ A A ___ ____ ____ ____ ___ ___
E-MAI : _______ _________ _________ __ TELE HONE : ________ __________ _________ _____ L ___ ____ ____ P ___ ___ ____
BANK ________ _________ _________ __ BRA __________ __________ _________ _____ : ____ ____ ___ NCH : _ ___ ___ ____
RANCH CO : A UNT NO : B DE CCO
Y E OF ACCOU NT SAV S T AN MIS IO T P NT : CURRE ING R S S N
DATE OF IRS AY ENT : MONT LY NAT N MO : F T P M H DO IO A UNT

SIGNE __________ _________ _________ DAT : ______ _________ _________ ________ D : ___ ____ ___ E ____ ____ ___

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THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O 4o
Market Forum
vice, South Africa. “This is also our first centrifugal ‘bear-
ing-less’ chiller which means lower maintenance and less
wear and tear.”
Johnson Controls systems, Russell Hattingh, Tel (011) 921 7100, Email:
[email protected], Website: www.johnsoncontrols.com
A trio
DFC Water has launched three new pressure reducing
valves for municipal demand management applications.
The valves, imported and assembled locally, conserve water
by reducing leakage and improving the efficiency of water
reticulation systems. They also save energy and help prevent
pipe breaks.
All three of the new valves automatically adjust downstream
pipe pressure upward or downward according to changes
in demand. Recent installation trials yielded water savings
averaging 20 000 kilolitres per valve per month. This trans-
lates into a monthly monetary saving of R80 000.
The first of the new pressure reducing valves (PRVs) is the
90-35 dual-stage Cla-Val model eSmart L1. This is a time- or
flow-based design with two set pressures defined according
to historic data logging of the water network, and a battery-
operated smart control making the switch between the two
set pressures at pre-determined times or flows.
The second PRV is the PCM 90-41 eSmart L2 incorporating
the e-Drive 33, in which system flow is used to trigger a
switch between various set pressures. Third in the line-up
of new models is the Cla-Val 98-Series, a flow modulating
design working off the hydraulic advantage in the pipeline.
Fluctuations in the flow trigger a switch between set pressure
points, resulting in a truly automatic valve requiring no power
source, no batteries and very little maintenance.
Customer support is provided in the form of site surveying
and data logging both pre- and post-installation. The product
can be retrofitted to older valves already installed.
DFC Water welcomes the opportunity for trial installations
to prove product viability before purchase.
Dynamic Fluid Control (Pty) Ltd, Henry Smith, Tel: (011) 748-
0200, Fax: (011) 421-2749, E-mail: [email protected]
Cla-Val 98-Series
Staying the course
Voith Turbo secured three orders from
Sasol Synfuels for the supply of five off
Redundant I/H Converters and seven off
Trip Shut-off Modules (TSM 2-o-o-3)
for the protection and control of steam
turbines on the company’s Oxygen East
plant in Secunda.
“After numerous discussions with and
presentations to Sasol Synfuels on the
two products, Sasol Synfuels decided
on our solution”, says Corrie du Randt,
Manager of Voith Witbank. He adds that
he attended a training seminar in July
2009 in Crailsheim, Germany, where
he gained more invaluable knowledge
on the Redundant Converters and Trip
Shut-off Modules. After presenting
this additional product information to
the customer, Sasol Synfuels placed
an order for another Redundant I/H
converter.
Corrie attributes the success of securing
the three orders to good relationships
and quality of products and service. “First of all, I believe that
our long-term relationship with Sasol played a significant role.
Secondly, a number of products that we supplied to Sasol
over the years continue to operate successfully, proving their
quality performance and reliability. In the third instance, our
in-depth product knowledge and expertise were important
contributing factors as we not only supply the products but
study the problem and take all the variables into account to
find the optimum solution for the customer.
“Over the years we have shown that once our product is
installed, we don’t walk away, but continue supporting our
customers through advice, training and service. The result
is that customers have confidence not only in our products
but also in our people”.
Voith Turbo, Roy Webster, Tel: (011) 418 4036,Fax: (011) 418 4080,
Email: [email protected]
Advanced Materials Today September 2007 39
the society for
animals in distress
FOR AS LITTLE AS R50 A MONTH YOU CAN MAKE A
DIFFERENCE IN THEIR LIVES WITHOUT MAKING A
HOLE IN YOUR POCKET!
We thousands of animals in nine townships and informal settlements that we visit five days a week.
We their sickness both on-site and at our professionally-run animal hospital in Vorna Valley, Midrand.
We ignorance by educating in 50 underprivileged schools and in the field.
We communities through education, training, skills’ development and capacity building.
PLEASE VISIT OUR WEBSITE AT www.animalsindistress.org.za OR BETTER STILL, VISIT OUR PREMISES AT

PROTECT
HEAL
FIGHT
EMPOWER
“THE PADDOCKS”
PLOT 20, MOERDYK STREET
VORNA VALLEY, MIDRAND
BIG
TELEPHONE : 083 640 8825 OR 011-466-0261
FAX : 011-466-0262
ALTERNATE FAX : 086 626 5441
E-Mail : [email protected]
PO BOX 391164, BRAMLEY, 2018
BANKING DETAILS :
FIRST NATIONAL BANK
BRAMLEY, CODE 252105
ACCOUNT NUMBER : 5147 0054 747
FUNDRAISING NO : 01 100326 0001; 001-249 NPO; PBO : 930012662
ANIMALS
Healing
their
IGNORANCE
Fighting
Empowering
OTHERS
To do
SICKNESS
THE SAME
Protecting
T
H
E
S
O
CIET
Y
F
O
R
A
N
I
M
A
L
S
I N D
I
S
T
R
E
S
S
CARING FOR DISADVANTAGED ANIMALS SINCE 1958
D IT OR ER D A ON NSTRUC ON EB D ON TI I TI
NAM : _____ __________ _________ _________ _________ __________ __________ _________ E ___ ___ ____ ____ ___ ___ ___
POST L DDRESS :_________ _________ _________ _________ _________ __________ ________ A A ___ ____ ____ ____ ___ ___
E-MAI : _______ _________ _________ __ TELE HONE : ________ __________ _________ _____ L ___ ____ ____ P ___ ___ ____
BANK ________ _________ _________ __ BRA __________ __________ _________ _____ : ____ ____ ___ NCH : _ ___ ___ ____
RANCH CO : A UNT NO : B DE CCO
Y E OF ACCOU NT SAV S T AN MIS IO T P NT : CURRE ING R S S N
DATE OF IRS AY ENT : MONT LY NAT N MO : F T P M H DO IO A UNT

SIGNE __________ _________ _________ DAT : ______ _________ _________ ________ D : ___ ____ ___ E ____ ____ ___

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S
s l t e 50 m hat u com ta o d, can ak fference n m ’s l fe. A i tl as R a onth, or w ever yo can for bly aff r m e a di i an ani al i IG B
44 THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O
Frothing with success
Weir Minerals Africa has received its first orders for Warman
horizontal AHF froth pumps in Africa. These pumps will be
installed in Namibia and in a copper plant situated in the
DRC.
Derek Marsden, projects manager at Weir Minerals Africa,
says it is significant that these pumps were selected in place
of the more traditional vertical tank froth pumps. “The ma-
jor advantage of this pump is its capacity to handle higher
froth factors due to the vane profile on the impeller and the
oversized inlet. It also has a smaller footprint,” he says.
Designed around the Warman AH pump, the
Warman horizontal AHF froth pump has the
same proven bearing assemblies.
Derek says that four
components differ-
entiate it from a
conventional AH
pump including
the open-vaned
impeller, the
t hr o a t -
bus h,
t h e
f r o n t
c o v e r
and the
joint ring.
“The open-
vaned impel-
l er i nduces
tenacious froths
and has been engi-
neered specifically
to hook and draw
the froth into the eye
of the impeller,” Derek explains.
“The oversized throat-bush or inlet can
handle large volumes of froth which ensures
efficient transfer of the product, and the front
cover is obviously larger as a result of the
large inlet.”
Weir Minerals Africa (Pty) Ltd , Rene Calitz, Tel:
(011) 929 2622, Website: www.weirminerals.com
As good as new
Tectra Automation and Hytec joined forces in
a project to upgrade an old and out-of-use
vehicle parts press in the production line for
MA Automotive, a motor parts manufacturer in
Rosslyn, Pretoria. The old 201 press needed
improved functionality; with more user-friendly
electrical controls with increased capacity.
Hytec upgraded the hydraulics, the pumps,
valves and electronic control valves, while
Tectra Automation was responsible for the
The Warman AHF froth pump
new control components. “The machine used to be a hard-
wired relay and contactor control system that required a lot
of cabling and was difficult to reconfigure. A Profibus system
has been used to minimise cabling between machines and
control. The new system includes a Bosch Rexroth L40 PLC
with VEP40 colour touch screen. The client was very happy
with the user friendliness of the interface,” enthuses Georg
Venter, Divisional Manager - Electric Drives and Controls,
Tectra Automation.
Hytec provided the hydraulic manifold block and worked
together with the client to integrate the old hydraulics into
the new. “The press is recipe driven with the parameters
programmed in. The client’s re-
quirements were to regulate and
influence the speed and force of
the press, which we were able
to do with the Bosch Rexroth
A4V750 horsepower controlled
pumps that we installed,”
explains Maurice Bloemendal,
Technical Manager, Hytec.
Benefits of this system are stepless
programming with no mechanical
components to maintain; and
programme changes that can be
made on site.
Hytec Holdings (Pty) Ltd , Willem Gijzelaar,
Tel: (011) 979 4630 , Fax: (011) 979 4635,
Email: [email protected]
Contracted by MA Automotive, Hytec upgraded the hydraulics, the pumps and the
valves for the vehicle press upgrade
Market Forum
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O 4o
Low pressure applications
Atlas Copco’s ZS blower range, which uses the concept of
internal compression as opposed to external compression
relied on by the traditional “Roots” type lobe blowers, is
on average 30% more energy efficient than the roots-type
lobe blower and is ideally suited for applications such as
wastewater treatment and pneumatic
conveying.
The introduction of air blowers using
internal compression instead of external
compression sets a new standard for
energy efficiency in the low-pressure
market. This is the main conclusion of a
technical whitepaper published by Atlas
Copco’s Oil-free Air Division, explaining
the differences between screw technol-
ogy and the traditional ‘Roots’ type lobe
technology.
The detailed technical whitepaper dem-
onstrates that, with a thermodynamic
approach, internal compression is more
efficient than external compression from
0.4 bar(e) / 5.8 psi(g) upwards. Tests,
witnessed and certified by the indepen-
dent Technische Überwachungs-Verein
(German Technical Monitoring Associa-
tion, or TÜV) have proven that the ZS is
23,8 percent more energy-efficient than
a tri-lobe blower at 0,5 bar(e)/7 psig, and
39,7 percent at 0.9 bar(e)/13 psig.
The ZE-ZA range consists of variants
with discharge pressure increments of
0,25 bar from 1 bar to 3,5 bar and the
The ultimate cyclone
Multotec’s MAX range of dense
medium cyclones derives its name
from the guaranteed MAXimum
efficiency of separation and
MAXimum wear life. The range
embodies the considerable spe-
cialised technological expertise
and experience of two companies
in the Multotec Group, namely
Multotec Process Equipment and
Multotec Wear Linings.
The MAX range is engineered to
provide the most cost effective
solution to density separation. It
is considered the ultimate high
density alumina-tiled cyclone
engineering design. The concept
was created from Multotec’s own
extensive field experience and
interaction with its customers,
using computational fluid dynamic
analysis and 3D computer-aided
design.
Particular benefits of the MAX
cyclone, in addition to those
mentioned above, are higher
capacities than other inlet
configurations, minimised tur-
bulence for better separation
efficiency and reduced overall
operating costs.
The various components all
feature innovative design char-
acteristics generated from
hands-on experience to meet
challenges encountered in
the field. The inlet head, for
instance, dispenses with the
traditional tangential inlet in
favour of a scrolled evolute
inlet which offers numerous
advantages.
Multotec Group, Bernadette Wil-
son, Tel: (011) 923 6193,
Email: [email protected],
Website: www.multotec.co.za
An illustration of the Multotec Max 1450 dense medium cyclone
ZS blower series, offer pressure derivatives of 750 or 1200
mbar. Both the ZE-ZA compressor range and the ZS blower
series use IP55 electric motors.
Atlas Copco South Africa Pty Ltd, Wayne Jacobs, Tel: (011) 821 9120,
Fax: (011) 821 9106, Email: [email protected],
Website: www.atlascopco.co.za
Atlas Copco’s ZS blower range
Market Forum
4o THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O

On the Move
Index to Advertisers
Associated Energy Services 26
Afzelia 10
Artic Driers 20
Association of Arbitrators 46
AST Pyroshield Inside Front Cover
Atlas Copco 18
Bearings International Outside Back Cover
Chemserve Systems 32
Donaldson Filtration Systems 24
Engen 34
Engineer Placements 36, 12
Hansen Transmissions 14
Hytec Fluid Technology 29
IDC Inside Back Cover
John Thompson Outside Front Cover
ILS 16
Maizey 4
Munters 30
SAID 42
Yellotec 22, 23
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per year for Africa/Overseas. We will post you an invoice on
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Eugene Erasmus was appointed as Managing Director
of Grinaker-LTA with effect from July 2010.
Munitech (Pty) Ltd, part of the B & A Group, has ap-
pointed Chris Otto as operations technician.
Hansen Transmission SA’s George Letsoao, has been
promoted to External Sales and slotted into his new
position on 1 October 2010.
Chris Otto George Letsoao
Market Forum
Eugene Erasmus
THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O 4¯
48 THF oOLTH /FF¦C/N MFCH/N¦C/¦ FNC¦NFFF \O¦ oo Nov/Lec 'O´O

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