Sample Undergraduate Thesis

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Lyceum of Subic Bay

PATIENT’S PERCEPTION ON STUDENT NURSES CARING BEHAVIOR AT SAN MARCELINO DISTRICT HOSPITAL WARD: AN ASSESSMENT

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Submitted to The Faculty of Nursing Lyceum of Subic Bay Subic Bay Freeport Zone

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In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing

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By: Phoebe Dawn Guevarra Virgencita Tullao Christine Bada Michelle Mangahas Glenda Sotto

October 18, 2012

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Acknowledgement

First and foremost the researchers would like to offer their sincerest gratitude to their adviser, Mr. Jhessie L. Abella, who has guided and supported them throughout their thesis with his patience and knowledge whilst allowing them the room to work in their own way. This study would not be possible without his consistent coaching and encouragement.

To Mrs. Ruby Duave, the Chief Nurse of SMDH for allowing us them to conduct a survey at San Marcelino District Hospital ward, and to their staff nurses for accommodating the group while obtaining the data from the respondents.

The researchers would also like to extend our deepest thanks to our fellow nursing students at Lyceum of Subic Bay and friends, for their unending support and acknowledgement.

The LSB Health Care Department for offering the support and equipment we have needed to produce and complete our. Our beloved Coordinator Ms. Josephine Pe together with the classroom and clinical instructors for sharing their diverse knowledge thus allowing the researchers to reach this far. Thank you.

Finally, we would like to thank our parents for supporting us throughout our studies at Lyceum of Subic Bay and have sustained us financially.

Start with ii here until the end of the thesis abstract

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Table of Contents Page No. Title Page ……………………………………………………………… Acknowledgement …………………………………………………….. Table of Contents ……………………………………………………… Thesis Abstract ……………………………………………………….. i ii iii

Chapter I – The Problem and Its Setting Introduction …………………………………………………… Statement of the Problem ……………………………………... Significance of the Study ……………………………………… Scope and Delimitation ……………………………………….. Chapter II – Review of Related Literature Related Literature ……………………………………………… Foreign Sources ……………………………………. Local Sources ……………………………………….

Related Studies ………………………………………………… Foreign Sources ……………………………………. Local Sources ……………………………………….

Chapter III – Research Methods and Procedure Research Methodology …………………………………………

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Data Gathering Procedure ……………………………………… Population and Sample of the Study ………………………….. Research Instrument …………………………………………… Validation of the Instruments ………………………………….. Statistical Treatment of the Data ………………………………. Chapter IV – Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data Chapter V – Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation Bibliography …………………………………………………… Appendix ………………………………………………………. Curriculum Vitae ……………………………………………….

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Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Setting

Background of the Study

The caring energy is powerful that enhances healing with the core factors involved in the process. The basic idea is that all around us is made up of energy and everyone emits some energy. The nurse emits a much higher frequency of caring energy than the energy of a sick patient that converge into conscious healing process thus, tapping on the inner healing field of the patient. Once the inner healing field is touched, the healing process begins. As a professional nurse, one is equipped with nursing knowledge with the integration of the clinical carative factors, critical thinking skills, and the consciousness of caring that promotes the caring-healing relationships with the patient. This conscious caring attitude and skill is enhanced through practice over time. The caring energy that resonates from the nurse to patient restoring ones normal health is incomprehensible. Caring and nursing have always been thought of synonymously. Most individuals choose nursing as a profession because of their desire to care for other individuals. Caring as a central concept has led to the development of several caring theories. Jean Watson defines caring as a science. She states; Caring is a science that encompasses a humanitarian, human science orientation, human caring processes,

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phenomena, and experiences. Caring science includes arts and humanities as well as science. A caring science perspective is grounded in a relational ontology of being-inrelation, and a world view of unity and connectedness of all. Transpersonal Caring acknowledges unity of life and connections that move in concentric circles of caringfrom individual, to others, to community, to world, to Planet Earth, to the universe. Caring behaviors are defined as; Behaviors evidenced by nurses in caring for patients. Some Caring behaviors are evident in other professions. Law enforcement is noted for their honesty and respect. Psychologists are comforting and require attentive listening skills to help their patients. Teachers must possess patience, attentive listening, sensitivity, and great responsibility to mold our children into productive adults.The nurse’s caring attitude toward the client is essential in improving the client’s well being. It is a nurse’s job to care for a patient’s medical needs. However, caring for their emotional well-being can have just as beneficial an impact on patient care. The relationship between nurse and patient requires trust, as well as understanding. For a patient to disclose private or embarrassing details about their physical or mental condition, they need to first trust that their nurse will treat them with dignity and respect. Furthermore, patients will only follow the advice of their nurse if they trust in his or her professional opinion. This careful balance of trust and professional respect is the founding principle for a healthy nurse-patient relationship. The researcher choose to take this study relating to patient’s perception on the student nurses caring behavior to see how effective the student nurses’ care inside the

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clinical area, more specifically in the medical ward and obstetric ward, according to the patient’s perspective. Also it aims for the improvement of the student nurse and patient relationship inside the medical ward and OB ward. Theoretical Framework This page consists of relevant theories from the citations of notable authors, which will give support to the study presented. The theory of Watson (1999), a caring occasion is the moment when the nurse and another person come together in such a way that an occasion for human caring is created. Both persons, with their unique phenomenal fields, have the possibility to come together in a human-to-human transaction. For Watson, a phenomenal field corresponds to the person’s frame of reference or the totality of human experience consisting of feelings, bodily sensations, thoughts, spiritual beliefs, goals, expectations, environmental considerations, and meanings of one’s perceptions—all of which are based upon one’s past life history, one’s present moment, and one’s imagined future. Not simply a goal for the cared-for, Watson (1999) insists that the nurse, i.e., the caregiver, also needs to be aware of her own consciousness and authentic presence of being in a caring moment with her patient. Moreover, both the one cared-for and the one caring can be influenced by the caring moment through the choices and actions decided within the relationship, thereby, influencing and becoming part of their own life history. The caring occasion becomes ―transpersonal‖ when ―it allows for the presence of the spirit of both—then the event of the moment expands the limits of

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openness and has the ability to expand human capabilities‖ (Watson, 1999, pp. 116117). Watson also insists that the nurse, i.e., the caregiver, also needs to be aware of her own consciousness and authentic presence of being in a caring moment with her patient. Moreover, both the one cared-for and the one caring can be influenced by the caring moment through the choices and actions decided within the relationship, thereby, influencing and becoming part of their own life history. The caring occasion becomes ―transpersonal‖ when ―it allows for the presence of the spirit of both—then the event of the moment expands the limits of openness and has the ability to expand human capabilities‖ (Watson, 1999, pp. 116-117). Orem (1959, 2001) Self care deficit theory described nursing as a complex form of deliberate interpersonal action that ultimately provides a helping human health service. She chose the name deficit as it describes and explain a relationship between abilities of individual, their children or adults for whom they care. The notion deficit does not refer to a specific type of limitation, but to the relationship between the capabilities of the individual and the need for action. Orem’s theory essentially defines the need for nursing care. This need occurs whenever a person experiences some limitation or deficit which interferes with their ability to maintain self care. In addition the theory describes the various interactions which could occur between a nurse and a patient.

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Conceptual Framework The paradigm in Figure 1 showed the conceptual framework and cycle on the caring behavior of student nurses which will follows the Independent, Dependent and Moderator Variable: The independent variable of the study is the caring behavior of the student nurses. This were measured using five (5) indicators namely; taking vital signs, giving medication, health teaching, performing nursing procedure, and communication with the patient and relatives. Next is the dependent variable, which is the perceived effect of the student’s caring behavior which the researcher believed would be the improvement of the nursepatient relationship. Thus, it will facilitate positive relation between the nurse and the patient. Lastly, the moderator variable, has measured using the following indicators; age, sex, educational attainment, disease/illness and occupation. The moderator variable is believed to have an indirect effect on both Independent and Dependent variables. The figure on the next page explained the paradigm of the study:

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Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Caring Behavior:  Taking VS  Giving medication  Performing nursing procedure  Health Teaching  Communication with the patient and relatives

Improved Student NursePatient Relationship

Moderator Variable  Age  Sex  Educational Attainment  Disease/Illness  Occupation

Figure 1 Paradigm of the Study

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Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the patient’s perception regarding the student nurses caring behavior at San Marcelino District Hospital Medical Ward and OB ward. Furthermore, this study sought to answer to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Sex; 1.3 Educational Attainment; 1.4 Disease/Illness and 1.5 Occupation? 2. How can the caring behavior of the student nurse be described in terms of: 2.1 Taking vital signs; 2.2 Giving medication; 2.3 Health teaching; 2.4 Performing nursing procedure and 2.5 Communication with the patient and relatives?

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3. Is there a significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, disease condition, occupation? Hypothesis The following hypotheses are tested to determine the relation and difference of the several variables identified in this study. 1. There is no significant difference between the student nurses caring behavior as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, disease condition, occupation Significance of the Study This study determined the patient’s perception regarding the student nurses caring behavior. The following will profit from the present study. The researchers have conducted the study at San Marcelino District Hospital Ward, specifically at the Medical, Surgical and OB Ward. A ward is a part of the hospital where the nurses caring behavior is vital in promoting improved disease condition of the patient. It is a hospital facility where nurses and other health care providers render care to patients with acute and chronic diseases that is in need of medical treatment. A good caring behavior inside the medical ward can lead to an improved nurse-patient relationship that may result to a speedy recovery of the patient.

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Nurses/Student Nurse- The nurse and nursing student will benefit from this research based on the perception of the patients regarding their caring behavior. Through this study, the nurse and nursing student will realize and learn the significance of good caring behavior in the improvement of the nurse-patient relationship and faster recovery of the patient. Hospital- The hospital will benefit from this study because this research will help them enhance the service they provide especially in patient care. This research will serve as their reference to promote their standards on caring for the patients. The Patient- The patient will benefit from the results of this study as it will contribute to a better relationship between them and the nurse and student nurse. Therefore, patient concerns will be addressed hence promoting high level of awareness and patient’s wellness. Future Researchers- This study will guide them to ascertain new knowledge about student nurses caring behavior and the patients’ perceptions regarding it. This will also supply as a reference for their future study.

Scope and Delimitation This study determined the patient’s perception regarding student nurses caring behavior at San Marcelino District Hospital Medical, Surgical, and OB Ward. Included in this study are the profiles of the respondents in terms of: age, sex, educational

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attainment, disease/illness and occupation; the caring behavior of the student nurse be described in terms of: taking vital signs, giving medication, health teaching,

performing nursing procedure and communication with the patient and relatives; the significant difference between the 4th year student nurses caring behavior as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, sex, educational attainment, disease/illness, occupation; the significant relationship between the student nurse’s caring behavior and the improvement of the nurse-patient relationship. This study is limited to patients of San Marcelino District Hospital Medical Ward and OB ward who are currently admitted in the facility. With this, the researchers have fully analyzed and determine the patient’s perception regarding the student nurses caring behavior. The patients who are currently admitted at the ward served as the respondents of the study. Medical, Surgical, and OB ward were chosen as the area of the study because the researchers believe that in these areas, intense nurse interaction is needed to facilitate effective delivery of health services towards patients who are severely afflicted with debilitating illness thus caring behavior is an essential part to help patient maintain normal functioning or support them during the course of illness. Definition of Terms The following terms are defined for the readers to have a complete understanding about the terms used in the study.

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Caring Behavior. It refers to actions characteristic of concern for the well-being of a patient, such as sensitivity, comforting, attentive listening, honesty, and nonjudgmental acceptance.

Nurse-Patient Relationship. It refers to the therapeutic relationship between a nurse and a client built on a series of interactions and developing over time. All interactions do not develop into relationships but may nonetheless be therapeutic. The relationship differs from a social relationship in that it is designed to meet the needs only of the client.

Disease. It refers to any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any body part, organ, or system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs and whose etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.

Hospital. It refers to an institution that provides medical, surgical, or psychiatric care and treatment for the sick or the injured.

Vital Signs. It refers to the measures of various physiological statistics, often taken by health professionals, in order to assess the most basic body functions.

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Giving Medication. The act of administering medication, whether in a form oral drugs or parenteral drugs. This has been the practice of nurses which allows the recovery of the patients.

Caring Behavior. Actions characteristic of concern for the well-being of a patient, such as sensitivity, comforting, attentive listening, honesty, and nonjudgmental acceptance.

Nursing Intervention. Any act by a nurse that implements the nursing care plan or any specific objective of that plan, such as turning a comatose patient to avoid the development of decubitus ulcers or teaching insulin injection technique to a patient with diabetes before discharge from the hospital.

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Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature

This section is comprised of collection of significant readings, foreign and local which provided discussions of facts to which the present study is associated. This review of related literature and studies focused on the nursing caring behavior. Foreign Sources According to Pullen (2010) in his article entitled ―Fostering Therapeutic NursePatient Relationship‖ he stated that the caring relationship between the nurse and patient develops when you and your patient come together in the moment, which results in harmony and healing. Effective verbal and nonverbal communication is an important part of the nurse-patient interaction, as well as providing care in a manner that enables your patient to be an equal partner in achieving wellness.

According to the American Society of Registered Nurses (2007) in their article entitled ―The Real Public Perception of Nurses‖ they stated that no common man thinks or does any analysis of a nurse until he needs one or is in a situation where he/she interacts with a nurse as in case of a hospital admission. They know that a caring nurse can give comfort and solace to someone in need. The public perceive a nurse as just someone who assists the doctor during and after treatment of the illness assisting the

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patient in keeping up his personal hygiene, giving the medications as prescribed by the doctor, dressing the wounds when there is a need ensuring the welfare of the patient. According to Wysong and Driver (2009) in their study entitled ―Patients’ Perceptions of Nurses’ Skill‖ the study revealed that patients’ perceptions of a nurse’s skill are largely a component of the interpersonal skills, critical thinking skills, and caring practices of the nurse, rather than the nurse’s technical skills. Patients’ comments related to nurses’ skill fit well with the Synergy Model, particularly the nurse characteristics of caring behaviors, facilitator of learning and clinical judgment. These results support the importance of the acquisition of strong interpersonal skills, critical thinking skills, and characteristics of caring practices for nurses and add to the knowledge of patients’ perceptions of nursing care. According to Larsson, Sahlsen, et al. (2011) in their study entitled ―Patient’s Perception on Nurses’ Behavior That Influence Patient Participation in Nursing Care‖ the study revealed that in order to promote patient participation, nurses need to be aware of the situations where they could overstep the mark and which of their own behaviors lead to promotion or hindrance. According to Sieger et.al. (2010) in their study entitled ―Perceptions and interpretations of nurse-patient interactions‖ their study revealed that the interaction between nurses and paraplegic patients who are indicative of chronically ill persons in their pursuit of self-determination and autonomy, concerning all aspects of life.

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According to Zhao and Akkadechanunt (2011) in their study entitled ―Patient’s Perception of Quality Nursing Care in a Chinese Hospital‖ their study revealed that quality nursing care as perceived by patients is an important objective for nurses to strive for. Patients tend to perceive quality nursing care as being individualized, having a professional manner and caring attitude and giving education to them. According to Zamanzadeh, Azimzadeh and Rahmani (2010) in their study entitled ―Oncology patients' and professional nurses' perceptions of important nurse caring behaviors‖ their study revealed that the oncology patients and nurses perceived highly physical aspects of caring and the results provide for nurses to be aware of the need, during their interactions with patients, to validate the effect their intended caring has upon patients. By so doing and with further refinement of the concept of caring for nursing in studies such as this, the practical aim of making patients feel cared for can be achieved. According to Thomas et al. (2010) in their study entitled ―Perception of Nurse Caring, Skills, and Knowledge Based on Appearance‖ their study revealed that the conflict between the right to self-expression and professional role expectations during nurse and patient interactions is a difficult one. However, because a nurse’s appearance can impact perceptions during an encounter, dress codes in the acute care setting should take this into account. To be perceived as skilled and knowledgeable, nurses should wear a solid colored uniform with limited visible body art.

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According to Rafii (2010) in their study entitled ―Nurse Caring in Iran and Its Relationship with Patient Satisfaction‖ their study revealed that it is important to reflect on the impact of the current health care environment and cultural religion of Iran on caring behaviors of nurses and patient satisfaction with nursing care. Heavy workloads and severe staff shortages are common characteristics of Tehran educational hospitals and the time that nurses previously allotted to direct care has been reduced which may contribute to changes in patients’ perceptions of nurse caring and satisfaction with nursing care possibly reducing the effects of nursing care services. Iranian nurse managers need to consider the religious and cultural barriers to nurse caring and recompense it by providing more human resources. According to Journal of Advance Nursing (2010) in their study entitled ―Nurses and patients perceptions of caring behaviors: Quantitative systematic review of comparative studies‖ their study revealed that There is considerable evidence of the assertion that there is no congruence of perceptions between patients and nurses as regards which behaviors are considered caring, and intended caring is not always perceived as such by the patient. Local Sources According to Sombillo (2009) in his book entitled ―Comparison of Nurses’ and Patients’ Perception of Caring Behavior‖ he stated that caring behaviors in a complex health care environment minimizes depersonalization in health care. Congruence of

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perceived value of caring behaviors between patients and nurses as health care needs and requirements escalate is imperative in a complex health care environment. The monograph gives an insight that Filipino nurses' and patients' perception of caring behaviors are generally congruent in both levels of complexity of care. According to De Guzman (2007) in their study entitled ―Surfacing Filipino Student Nurses’ Perspective of Comfort and Comforting Viewed through Metaphorical Lens‖ their study revealed that there are four major aspects that reflected the respondent’s perception on the words ―comfort‖ and ―comforting‖, namely; physiologic, socio-environmental, psycho-spiritual and emotional. Results of this qualitative study did not show any marked difference in the interpretation of the construct under investigation on the comparison of the student’s perception of the terms ―comfort‖ and ―comforting‖. According to Echo (2011) in his article entitled ―Nursing Service Attributes: Cultivating a Culture of Patient Satisfaction For Quality Health Care‖ he stated that Patient satisfaction in health care must be planned and designed from the patient’s point of view from the very start while considering the different factors that may affect such evaluation. Patients want empathy, anticipation of their needs, and a personalized, humanized experience – something that nurses do every day. Nurses clearly influence patient satisfaction, but more subtly, their ability to work with other people on the care team influences the patient’s perception of the hospital. How nurses project their joys

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or frustrations can influence how patients feel about the things they do not see in the hospital. According to Ching (2012) in his article entitled ―5 Effective Ways to Deal with Difficult Patients‖ he stated that using positive verbal and non-verbal communication, will not only improves the patient’s perception about you, it will also help them recover faster in the long run. Remember, an assurance that you will always be there for the patient will help solve an emotional issue deeply rooted in the patient’s fear that they will be neglected and left behind. According to Costello, Giardino, Ambrose, et al. (1998) in their study entitled ―Relationship between Nurse Caring and Patient Satisfaction‖ their study revealed that nurse caring is associated with patient satisfaction with nursing care. It is important to reflect on the impact of the current health care environment on these variables. Decreased opportunities for caring can dramatically influence patients' perceptions of their hospital experience. This program of research is a critically significant one for adult health nurses.

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Chapter 3

Methodology and Research Design Research Design The researchers used the descriptive method of research. The researchers have chosen this method to determine the patient’s perception regarding the student nurses caring behavior at San Marcelino District Hospital Medical, Surgical, and OB ward. This method of research describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the

questions who, what, where, when, "why" and ―how‖. The primary aim of this study is to determine the patient’s perception regarding the student nurses caring behavior and its inference to the improved nurse-patient relationship. From this type of research, the researchers will be able to identify and describe the existing condition of the problem. Dr. Marion Joppe (2005) Descriptive research or statistical research provides data about the population or universe being studied. But it can only describe the "who, what, when, where and how" of a situation, not what caused it. Therefore, descriptive research is used when the objective is to provide a systematic description that is as factual and accurate as possible. It provides the number of times something occurs, or frequency, lends itself to statistical calculations such as determining

the average number of occurrences or central tendencies.

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Research Locale The research was conducted within the vicinity of San Marcelino District Hospital in the province of Zambales specifically in the Medical, Surgical, and OB ward. The SMDH was named in the memory of the province’s first elected Mayor ―Marcelino‖ equipped with the state of the art medical facilities with the diagnostic and laboratory equipment. Meanwhile, SMDH is one of many district hospitals in Zambales that houses more than fifty (50) beds capacity. It is also a hospital not only within the area of San Marcelino but also to the neighboring provinces of Zambales, Bataan, Olongapo, and as far as western Pangasinan. The hospital has also established specialty clinics which provide free consultation and services to indigents by specialized physicians like surgeons, OB gyne and others. With the accreditation of the residency programs it has also established affiliation and tie ups with the other institution for the training of resident physicians. The hospital has also accredited as a research and training hospital with accreditation of residency training in family medicine, OB Gyne, pediatrics, and to become accredited in surgery.

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Data Gathering Procedure The researchers devised their questionnaire following specific questions. Questions were based on literatures and past researchers which serve as the basis of the construction of the questionnaires. The researchers then submitted it to their adviser. After series of revisions and corrections, the researchers are able to finalize their questionnaires which pertain to the profile of the respondents in terms of Age, Sex, Educational Attainment, Disease/Illness, and Occupation. How can the caring behavior of the student nurse be described in terms of taking vital signs, Giving medication, Health teaching, Performing nursing procedure, and Communication with the patient and relatives. After all the revisions and corrections were done and with the approval of the chief nurse of San Marcelino District Hospital, the researchers had personally administered the questionnaires to the patients. After they answered the questionnaire, the researchers affirmed to the patients if the questions were comprehensible. Research Subject This study was conducted at San Marcelino District Hospital in San Marcelino, Zambales. The respondents in this study are the patients inside the Medical, Surgical, and OB ward. The subsequent table presents the distribution of the respondents

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Table 1 Total Target Population Patient Respondents Frequency Med
Female Male Total 11 14 25

Percentage

OB
19 0 19

Surgery
2 4 6 36 64 100

Sampling Design The sampling instrument that was used within the study is convenience sampling. The researcher will use this kind of sampling design because of the undemanding access to the respondents. Instead of the large population, the researchers conducted the study and at the same did the interview to the respondents who were available. Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are chosen because of their convenient accessibility and propinquity to the researcher. The subjects will be selected just because they are easiest to procure for the study and the researcher did not consider selecting subjects that delegate the entire population. The researchers preferred this sampling technique because it is fast, economical, simple, and the subjects are readily available.

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Research Instrument The study used questionnaires and unstructured interview as the main instruments in gathering data. The researchers primed questionnaires which are made up of list of questions for collecting useful information from the respondents. Questionnaires or survey questions are research tools that asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information. It serves four basic purposes: to (1) collect the appropriate data, (2) make data comparable and amenable to analysis, (3) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and (4) to make questions engaging and varied. The questionnaire consists of two major parts: Part 1 consists the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Sex; 1.3 Educational Attainment; 1.4 Disease/Illness and 1.5 Occupation? Part 2 includes the caring behavior of the student nurse be described in terms of: 2.1 Taking vital signs;

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2.2 Giving medication; 2.3 Health teaching; 2.4 Performing nursing procedure and 2.5 Communication with the patient and relatives? The respondents were assisted in reading the questions. The researchers aimed to make the questionnaires comprehensible for the respondents. Statistical Treatment of Data The following statistical tools were used in the analysis and interpretation of gathered data. Statistics is simply a tool to help the experimentalist interpret data in an unbiased manner. When properly employed, statistics will not only tell the scientist how "good" his or her numbers are, but can also lead to improvements in experimental design. Frequency and Percentage. This will be used to determine the frequency distribution of the profiles of respondents. Formula: P=F/N (100) Where: F = Frequency

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P = Percentage N = Number of respondents Pearson R- this test will be used if there is positive or negative correlation between the independent and the dependent variable

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Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data This chapter exhibited the data collected from the questionnaires and interviews. The responses for the specific questions shown in chapter one is herewith presented. The data gathered from the questionnaires are presented in a table to enable the researchers to classify the data in order and also give the reader a comprehensive analysis of the findings. The data on this chapter used critical thinking to efficiently analyze the data gathered and practically answer the questions cited in chapter 1. Profile of the Respondents The profiles of the respondents’ data are exhibited on the following pages to present information regarding the chosen respondents of this study. This included the respondents’ Age, Sex, Educational Attainment, Occupation, and Occupation. The researcher believed that the variables considered could probably affect the patient’s perception on student nurses caring behavior at San Marcelino District Hospital Ward. Age The table below presented the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to age.

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Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Age Age 76-81 70-75 64-69 58-63 52-57 46-51 40-45 34-39 28-33 22-27 16-21 Total Frequency 1 1 0 0 7 7 3 4 7 11 9 50 Percentage 2 2 0 0 14 14 6 8 14 22 18 100

Based on the findings on Table 1, the age bracket of 22-27 got the highest frequency of eleven (11) or 22%, followed by ages 16-21 with the frequency of nine (9) or 18%, corroborated by the ages 46-51, 28-33, and 52-57 with the frequency of seven (7) or 14%, the age bracket of 34-39 got the frequency of four (4) or 8%, while the ages 40-45 obtained the frequency of three (3) or 6%, and tailed by the ages 76-81 and 70-75 which attained the frequency of one (1) or 2%. Out of all the data tabulated above, the age bracket of 64-69 and 58-63 establishes the lowest frequency of zero (0) or 0%. The tabulated figures above reveals that majority of the respondents are under the age bracket of 22-27. This could be owing to the outstanding number of patients admitted inside the OB ward as demonstrated on Table 3. According to studies, the

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ideal ages to get pregnant are 20 to 24 or below 30 years old, as identified by Laura Flyn McCarthy on her article at Parenting’s website. Gender The table below presented the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to gender. Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Gender Patient Respondents Frequency
Female Male Total 32 18 50

Percentage
36 64 100

Female Male

Figure 2

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Based on the findings on Table 3, it could be glanced that thirty-two (32) or 64% of the respondents were female, while eighteen (18) or 36% of the respondents were male individuals. The table above presented that majority of the patients who were considered as the respondents were mostly females. This is due to the fact that majority of the respondents from SMDH were from the OB ward which for a fact caters for mothers who are in labor or just gave birth. Occupation Table 4 below presented the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to occupation Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Occupation

Occupation
White Collar Blue Collar None Total

Frequency
0 6 44 50

Percentage
0 12 88 100

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None Blue Collar White collar

Figure 3 Based on the findings on table 4, it revealed that forty-four (44) or 88% of the respondents were unemployed, six (6) or 12% have a blue collar job, and zero (0) or 0% were categorized under white collar job. As defined by Encarta Dictionary, A White-Collar job is relating to an employment that is usually salaried and do not involve manual labor. While BlueCollar is relating to workers who do manual or industrial work that often requires special work clothes or protective clothing. The table above presented that more than half of the respondents were unemployed and none were under the category of white collar job. It also showed that a few percent is under the category of blue-collar. This could be associated with the eminent percentage of high school graduates that is illustrated in Table 4, which is the only possible prerequisite for blue collar job employment.

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According to Wikipedia, a higher level academic education is not often required for blue collar jobs. However certain fields may require specialized training, licensing, or certification, as well as a high school diploma. A white collar worker as identified by Sherry Scott of Demand Media, are highly skilled and officially trained professionals. Employment to this particular job category requires formal education. Educational Attainment The table below presented the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to educational attainment. Table 5 Frequency and Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment
Elementary Graduate High School Level High School Graduate College Level College Graduate Vocational Total

Frequency Percentage
0 7 12 26 3 2 0 50 0 14 24 52 6 4 0 100

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High School Graduate High School Level Elementary Graduate College Graduate

Figure 4 Based on the findings on table 5, it could be distinguished that twenty-six (26) or 52% attained high school graduate, twelve (12) or 24% attained high school level, seven (7) or 14% attained elementary graduate, three (3) or 6% attained college level, two (2) or 4% attained college graduate, zero (0) or 0% attained elementary level, zero (0) or 0% attained vocational. The table above verified that majority of the patients admitted in the ward are High School graduates. This could be due to the apparent outstanding number of patients that doesn’t have enough comprehension about health, consequently due to under education. According to a recent study in Chicago, people who attained a higher education are more likely to live healthy lives as adults. Another study in the US, as mentioned in High Quality Education’s website, also supports this idea. It says that those adults in

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the US who have the lowest level of education are also the same people who have the poorest health. Disease/Illness or Cause of Hospitalization The table below presented the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to educational attainment. Table 6 Frequency and Distribution of Respondents According to Disease/Illness/Cause of Hospitalization Disease Acute Gastro Enteritis Hypertension Myocardial Infarction Cerebrovascular Accident Stab Wound Pre Eclampsia Diabetes Mellitus NSD Urinary Tract Infection Cerebral Contusion Caesarean Section Pulmonary Tuberculosis Ovarian Cyst Ectopic Pregnancy Cerebral Concussion DHF Total Frequency 4 4 2 2 2 1 6 11 2 2 4 3 2 1 2 2 50 Percentage 8 8 4 4 4 2 12 22 4 4 8 6 4 2 4 4 100

As observed on table 5, it could be notable that NSD accomplished the greatest frequency of eleven (11) or 22, tagged on by Diabetes Mellitus with the frequency of

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six (6) or 12%, followed by AGE, HPN, and CS with the frequency of four (4) or 8%, shadowed by PTB with the frequency of three (3) or 6%, and tailed by UTI, Cerebral Contusion, MI, CVA, Stab Wound, Cerebral Concussion, Ovarian Cyst, and DHF with the frequency of two (2) or 4%. Overall, the illnesses that received the lowest frequency are Pre Eclampsia and Ectopic Pregnancy. It is perceptible on the above table that NSD obtained the utmost frequency and percentage out of all the disease/illness tabulated. This could be again, due to the great number of admitted patients inside the OB ward. As cited on Table 2, the best age that one could conceive a baby is less than 30 years old. It is also the age that has the highest probability of having a Normal Spontaneous Delivery. A normal spontaneous delivery of vaginal delivery occurs when

a pregnant female goes into labor without the use of drugs or techniques to induce labor, and delivers her baby in the normal manner, without forceps, vacuum extraction, or a cesarean section. Taking Vital Signs Table 7 presented on the next page illustrated the mean and the average weighted mean of the student nurses’ behavior as perceived by the patients according to taking of vital signs.

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Table 7 Mean and the Descriptive Rating of the Patient’s Perception on the Students Nurses Caring Behavior According to Taking of Vital Signs Taking of Vital Signs VS S P f % F % f %
Student nurse explain the procedure before taking your VS Ask the patient in a nice manner when taking the VS Handles the patient gently during vital sign taking Shows comforting and warm attitude during taking vital sign Shows appropriate affect or facial expression when taking VS AWM 26 52 24 48 0 0

Mean
2.52

Interpretation
Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Very Satisfactory

28

56

22

44

0

0

2.56

28

56

22

44

0

0

2.53

26

52

24

48

0

0

2.52

28

56

22

44

0

0

2.53

2.53

Very Satisfactory

It could be observed on Table 7 that item number 2 which pertain to ―asking the patient in a nice manner‖ got the highest mean of 2.56 which is interpreted as very satisfactory. Item number 3 ―handles the patient gently during vital signs taking‖ were very satisfactory, performed by the student nurse which acquired a mean of 2.53. Item number 1 and item number 4 were also interpreted a very satisfactory by the patient.

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This showed that student nurse always explain the procedure and always shows comforting and warm attitude during vital sign taking. The figures exhibited above as supported by an average weighted mean (AWM) of 2.53, attested that student nurses executed vital sign taking in an exceptional manner. This only shows that student nurses are familiar with the essentiality of taking the vital signs of the patients which is important information needed to make life-saving decisions and treatment that will be ordered by the physician. Vital signs are the measurement of different physiological values such as Blood Pressure, Respiratory Rate, Cardiac/Heart Rate, and Temperature. These are also the initial findings that are assessed when a client is brought to the hospital. The preliminary nursing diagnosis could also be established through the patient’s vital signs. According to Susan McLean, vital signs are important because they are good indicators of how the body is functioning. Signs like heart rate, oxygen level in the blood, and blood pressure can all indicate if the body is in a state of shock or under stress. Giving Medications Table 8 on the next page presented the patient’s perception on the student nurses caring behavior according to giving of medications.

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Table 8 Patient’s Perception on the Student Nurses Caring Behavior According to Giving of Medications Giving Medications VS S P f % F % F %
Explain the procedure before giving medication so that the patient can gain info. Student nurse give meds on time Student nurse give medications gently via injection Student nurse answers the patient’s question concerning meds Student nurse tells you what meds he/she is going to administer AWM 14 28 36 72 0 0

Mean
2.28

Interpretation
Satisfactory

14 18

28 36

35 32

70 64

1 0

2 0

2.26 2.36

Satisfactory Very Satisfactory Satisfactory

16

32

34

68

0

0

2.32

16

32

34

68

0

0

2.32

Satisfactory

2.31

Satisfactory

It is perceptible on Table 8 that item number 3 which points out to ―giving the medications gently via injection‖ got the highest mean of 2.36 which is interpreted as very satisfactory. Item number 3 and 4 were interpreted by satisfactory, performed by the student nurse, which acquired a mean of 2.32. Item number 1 and 2 were also interpreted very satisfactory by the patient, which acquired the mean of 2.28 and 2.26

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respectively. This showed that student nurse always explain the procedure before giving the medication and always gives the medication on time. The data transcribed above revealed that the student nurses satisfactorily demonstrated good practice in terms of giving medications to their patients at SMDH ward. This was proved by the average weighted mean (AWM) of 2.31. Medication administration is an important aspect of nurses’ responsibility towards the patients. Based on studies medication error marked as number one of the cause of nurses’ negligence meaning they fail to remember the principles that governed the practice of medication administration. San Marcelino District Hospital as categorized by the DOH as a secondary level hospital caters for patients who are mostly indigent, unemployed and lack the basic education. A satisfactory rate for the student nurses is a good indicator that caring behavior is still initiated by the students during administration of therapeutic drugs. Explaining the procedure prior to administration is the fundamental ingredient towards patients understanding of the therapy they are undergoing. Answering patients concerns regarding the medication they are receiving will clear every doubt and shall also assist the patient to continue the regimen without any hesitation. A satisfactory should be maintained by the nursing student so that in their actual practice they will be able to carry along with them these positive attributes of a true Care Provider.

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Health Education Table 9 below presented the patient’s perception on the student nurses caring behavior according to health education. Table 9 Patient’s Perception on the Student Nurses Caring Behavior According to Health Education Health Education VS S P f % F % F %
Advise the patient regarding healthy regimen Encourage the patient to follow the medical treatment to hasten his/her healing Student nurses devotes extra time for health teaching sessions Exhibits great amount of patience when teaching Simplifies teaching session to allow patient’s understanding AWM 2 4 34 68 14 28

Mean
1.76

Interpretation
Satisfactory

0

0

36

72

14

28

1.72

Satisfactory

0

0

38

76

12

24

1.76

Satisfactory

2

4

36

72

12

24

1.8

Satisfactory

0

0

38

76

12

24

1.76

Satisfactory

1.76

Satisfactory

It could be observed on Table 9 that item number 4 which pertains to exhibiting great amount of patience when teaching got the highest mean of 1.8 which is

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interpreted as satisfactory. Item number 1, 3 and 5 were interpreted by satisfactory, performed by the student nurse which acquired a mean of 1.76. This showed that student nurse always advise the patient regarding healthy regimen, devotes extra for health teaching sessions, and simplifies teaching session to allow patient’s understanding. Item number 2 was also interpreted as satisfactory by the patient, which acquired the mean of 1.72. The total AWM of 1.76 from the above table ascertained that the student nurses fittingly provided their patients with the appropriate Health Education concerning their health conditions. Health teaching, as defined by MS Encarta 2009, is teaching and counseling on healthy living. Health education covers topics such as hygiene, nutrition, and sex education. It also addresses alcohol and drug misuse, smoking, and other threats to health. In most secondary schools, health education is included within a course of personal and social education; it may also be integrated into subjects such as biology, home economics, or physical education.

Health education is especially important in a community health center setting for the initiation of primary prevention. Also, as a nurse caring for a patient inside the ward, it is their commission to provide health teaching related to the health condition of the patient. It also supplies the patient the essential knowledge about self care and promotes health awareness.

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Performing Nursing Procedures Table 10 below presented the frequency and distribution of the student nurses’ behavior according to performing nursing procedures. Table 10 Patient’s Perception on the Student Nurses Caring Behavior According to Performing Nursing Procedures

Performing Nursing Procedures VS S P Mean f % F % F %
Student nurse promotes clients privacy when doing nursing procedures Student nurse explains and asks clients permission before doing the task Encourage patient’s participation in performing nursing procedures to lessen client’s anxiety Demonstrate good manners in doing the task Ensure that the patient is handled gently and prevents harm to the client AWM 16 32 32 64 2 4 2.28

Interpretation
Satisfactory

16

32

32

64

2

4

2.28

Satisfactory

8

16

24

48

18

36

1.33

Poor

14

28

34

68

2

4

2.24

Satisfactory

16

32

32

64

2

4

2.28

Satisfactory

2.08

Satisfactory

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It could be recognized on Table 10 that item number 1, 2, and 5 got the highest mean of 2.28 which is interpreted as satisfactory. Item number 1, 3 and 5 were interpreted by satisfactory, performed by the student nurse which acquired a mean of 1.76. This showed that student nurse always advise the patient regarding healthy regimen, devotes extra for health teaching sessions, and simplifies teaching session to allow patient’s understanding. Item number 2 was also interpreted as satisfactory by the patient, which acquired the mean of 1.72. The student nurses’ Performance on Nursing Procedures is satisfactorily implemented, as evidenced by the average weighted mean (AWM) of 1.76 in the table depicted above. Nursing interventions are actions undertaken by a nurse to further the course of treatment for a patient. It is supported by the nursing process, which contains Assessment, Nursing Diagnosis, Planning, Intervention and Evaluation. The goal of nursing interventions is to improve the health and comfort of the patient. Communicating with Patient and Relatives Table 11 on the next page presented the frequency and distribution of the student nurses’ behavior according to communicating with patient and relatives.

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Table 11 Patient’s Perception on the Student Nurses Caring Behavior According to Communicating with Patient and Relatives Communicating with Patient and Relatives VS S P Mean Interpretation f % F % F %
Student maintains warm and caring attitude when talking to patients Spends time with the clients or significant others to facilitate interaction Listens attentively to client’s concerns Provide reassurance to patients Express words of encouragement and comforting words AWM 12 0.72 38 1.52 0 0 2.24 Satisfactory

4

0.24

38

1.52

8

0.16

1.92

Satisfactory

12 8 12

0.72 0.48 0.72

38 36 32

1.52 1.44 1.28

0 6 6

0 0.12 0.12

2.24 2.04 2.18

Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory

2.12

Satisfactory

It is indicated on Table 11 that item number 1 and 3 got the highest mean of 2.24 which is interpreted as satisfactory. Item number 2, 4 and 5 were also interpreted by satisfactory, which obtained a mean of 1.92, 2.04, and 2.18 respectively. This simply shows that good rapport establishment is well performed by student nurses. Good communication with patients and relatives aids in the foundation of relationship with the nurses and patients as well as their significant others. When

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rapport is built, the nurse can easily win the participation of the patient when giving medication, performing nursing interventions and giving health education. As for the presented data above, it could be determined that the student nurses aptitude for communicating with the patient and relatives revealed an average performance rate. Therapeutic or good communication also allows the patient to express opinion and emotion toward a safe and non-threatening environment. According to Lifestyle India’s website, therapeutic communication serves to push down the barricade of culture and gender and establish a connection and that helps in dealing with a situation, where empathy is what a patient looks for. While maladies of the body are easy to heal, the complications of mind are never really simple to tackle or deal with. Tacking together pieces of shattered mind needs expert help and here comes in the importance of therapeutic communication. Dealing with setbacks, breakdowns, failures, loss and misery can often send one’s mind down the tunnel, demanding a strong willpower to bounce back to normal self. The challenge of the technique is to help a patient open up and confront his/her concerns and challenges with confidence.

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Table 12 Summary of the Average Weighted Mean of the Patients Perception on the Students Nurses Caring Behavior Average Weighted Mean 2.53 2.31 1.76 2.08 2.12 2.16 Interpretation Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory

Taking vital signs Giving medication Health teaching Performing nursing procedure Communication with the patient and relatives Total

The patient’s perception on student nurses caring behavior were abridged on the data tabulated above. It could be noted that out of the 5 variables, Taking Vital Signs ranked first as corroborated by the average weighted mean of 2.53. It was followed by Giving Medication which has a rate of 2.31. Student nurses also demonstrated a stupendous execution of Communication with the Patient and Relatives which was supported by the given rate of 2.12, followed by the Performing Nursing Procedure which was rated 2.08, and tailed by Health Teaching with the rate of 2.16 which divulged the lowest ranking among the caring behavior. To sum it up, the table conferred a good remark on the proficiency of the student nurses caring behavior as verified by the total AWM of 2.16 which implies that the above data are satisfactorily performed by the student nurses.

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Statistical Test on the Significant Between the Student Nurse Caring Behavior as Perceived by the Patient when Grouped According to Age, Gender, Educational Attainment, Disease Condition and Occupation Table 13 Test on the Significant Difference on the Students Nurses Caring Behavior in Terms of Taking Vital Sign Grouped According to their Profile Respondent's Profile Age Gender Educational Attainment Disease/Illness Occupation Correlation Coefficient Computed Critical -0.016868 0.159453 -0.142403 -0.039998 -0.107155 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732

Decision Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis

Interpretation Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant

It is apparent on the above table that the Student Nurses Caring Behavior was not significant to all the data specified above. The outcome is the acceptance of the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior in terms of taking vital signs as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, and disease condition.

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Table 14 Test on the Significant Difference on the Students Nurses Caring Behavior in Terms of Giving Medication Grouped According to their Profile
Respondent's Profile Age Gender Educational Attainment Disease/Illness Occupation Correlation Coefficient Computed Critical 0.069210 0.2732 -0.146385 0.2732 -0.308705 0.033825 0.108112 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732

Decision Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Reject the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis

Interpretation Not Significant Not Significant Significant Not Significant Not Significant

The table 14 revealed that the Student Nurses Caring Behavior was not significant to all the data specified above except on Educational Attainment, which is interpreted as significant. The outcome hence, is the acceptance of the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior in terms of giving medication as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, and disease condition and rejection of the null hypothesis that is therefore construed as there is no significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior in terms of giving medication as perceived by the patient when grouped according to their profile.

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Table 15 Test on the Significant Difference on the Students Nurses Caring Behavior in Terms of Health Education Grouped According to their Profile Respondent's Profile Age Gender Educational Attainment Disease/Illness Occupation Correlation Coefficient Computed Critical -0.004949 0.010079 -0.179132 -0.102200 0.187410 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732

Decision Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis

Interpretation Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant

As seen on the above table, the Student Nurses Caring Behavior was not significant to all the data specified above. This resulted to the acceptance of the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior in terms of health education as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, and disease condition.

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Table 16 Test on the Significant Difference on the Students Nurses Caring Behavior in Terms of Performing Nursing Procedure Grouped According to their Profile Correlation Coefficient Decision Computed Critical 0.079601 0.2732 Accept the null hypothesis 0.257329 0.2732 Accept the null hypothesis -0.104440 -0.209964 0.057085 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732 Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis

Respondent's Profile Age Gender Educational Attainment Disease/Illness Occupation

Interpretation Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant

On the above table, it could be observed that the Student Nurses Caring Behavior was not significant to all the data specified above. This results to the approval of the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior in terms of performing nursing procedure as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, and disease condition.

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Table 17 Test on the Significant Difference on the Students Nurses Caring Behavior in Terms of Communication with patients and Relatives Grouped According to their Profile Correlation Coefficient Computed Critical 0.002432 -0.002702 -0.247865 0.043495 0.231481 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732 0.2732

Respondent's Profile Age Gender Educational Attainment Disease/Illness Occupation

Decision Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis Accept the null hypothesis

Interpretation Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant

It is evident on the data indicated on table 6 was not significant to the Student Nurses Caring Behavior. As an outcome, the null hypothesis is accepted therefore, there is no significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior in terms of communication with patients and relatives as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, and disease condition.

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Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations This chapter imparted the summary of findings, conclusions, and

recommendations grounded by the results of the study. The principal objective of this study is to uncover the patients’ perception on student nurses caring behavior at San Marcelino District Hospital Ward. The aggregate number of respondents is 32 female and 18 male patients. This study utilized the descriptive method of research. The gathered data through the questionnaires were tabulated, computed, and evaluated using statistical formulas that is Frequency and Percentage, Average Weighted Mean, Pearson R, and T-Test. The statistical treatment helped the researchers to resolve given problems itemized in chapter one viz.: Furthermore, this study sought to answer to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Sex; 1.3 Educational Attainment; 1.4 Disease/Illness and

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1.5 Occupation? 2. How can the caring behavior of the student nurse be described in terms of: 2.1 Taking vital signs; 2.2 Giving medication; 2.3 Health teaching; 2.4 Performing nursing procedure and 2.5 Communication with the patient and relatives? 3. Is there a significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, disease condition, occupation? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the student nurse’s caring behavior and the improvement of the nurse-patient relationship? SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS The major findings of the study are: Profile of the Respondents 1.1 Age: The age bracket of 22-27 got the highest frequency of eleven (11) or 22%, followed by ages 16-21 with the frequency of nine (9) or 18%,

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corroborated by the ages 46-51, 28-33, and 52-57 with the frequency of seven (7) or 14%, the age bracket of 34-39 got the frequency of four (4) or 8%, while the ages 40-45 obtained the frequency of three (3) or 6%, and tailed by the ages 76-81 and 70-75 which attained the frequency of one (1) or 2%. Out of all the data tabulated above, the age bracket of 64-69 and 58-63 establishes the lowest frequency of zero (0) or 0%. 1.2 Sex: In a nutshell, the patients who were considered as the respondents were mostly females. Out of 50 patient respondents, 32 were female, compared to males that are only 18. 1.3 Educational Attainment: Majority of the respondents, which is 52%, were high school graduates. Followed by high school level, which is 24%. Tagged on by 14% those were elementary graduates. Tailed by 4% of college graduates and none were under the category of elementary level and vocational. 1.4 Disease/Illness: Majority of the respondents are NSD patients, next is Diabetes Mellitus with the frequency of six (6) or 12%, followed by AGE, HPN, and CS with the frequency of four (4) or 8%, shadowed by PTB with the frequency of three (3) or 6%, and tailed by UTI, Cerebral Contusion, MI, CVA, Stab Wound, Cerebral Concussion, Ovarian Cyst, and DHF with the frequency of two (2) or 4%. Overall, the illnesses that received the lowest frequency are Pre Eclampsia and Ectopic Pregnancy.

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1.5 Occupation: The respondents inside the ward were mostly unemployed which is supported by the frequency 44 or 88% and (0) none were under the category of white collar job. Only 6 or 12% are in the category of blue collar. 2. Caring Behavior of the Student Nurses described in terms of 2.1 Taking vital signs: In summary, ―asking the patient in a nice manner‖ got the highest mean of 2.56 which is interpreted as very satisfactory. Item number 3 ―handles the patient gently during vital signs taking‖ were very satisfactory, performed by the student nurse which acquired a mean of 2.53. Item number 1 and item number 4 were also interpreted a very satisfactory by the patient. 2.2 Giving medication: All in all, ―giving the medications gently via injection‖ got the highest mean of 2.36 which is interpreted as very satisfactory. Item number 3 and 4 were interpreted by satisfactory, performed by the student nurse, which acquired a mean of 2.32. Item number 1 and 2 were also interpreted very satisfactory by the patient, which acquired the mean of 2.28 and 2.26 respectively. 2.3 Health teaching: Concisely, ―exhibiting great amount of patience when teaching‖ got the highest mean of 1.8 which is interpreted as satisfactory. Item number 1, 3 and 5 were interpreted by satisfactory, performed by the student nurse which acquired a mean of 1.76. Item number 2 was also interpreted as satisfactory by the patient, which acquired the mean of 1.72.

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Lyceum of Subic Bay

2.4 Performing nursing procedure: In summary, item number 1, 2, and 5 got the highest mean of 2.28 which is interpreted as satisfactory. Item number 1, 3 and 5 were interpreted by satisfactory, performed by the student nurse which acquired a mean of 1.76. Item number 2 was also interpreted as satisfactory by the patient, which acquired the mean of 1.72. 2.5 Communication with the patient and relatives: Overall, item number 1 and 3 got the highest mean of 2.24 which is interpreted as satisfactory. Item number 2, 4 and 5 were also interpreted by satisfactory, which obtained a mean of 1.92, 2.04, and 2.18 respectively. CONCLUSION Based on the significant findings, the subsequent conclusions were depicted: 1. Majority of the respondents were on the age bracket of 28-33, and mostly female. Also, based on the corresponding data we have gathered, most of the respondents are NSD patients with an educational attainment of high school graduate and are under the category of blue-collar employment 2. Caring Behavior of the Student Nurses 2.1 Taking vital signs: The group of respondents rated this item as very satisfactory as supported by the total AWM of 2.53.

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

2.2 Giving medication: This was satisfactorily demonstrated by the student nurses as rated by 2.31 by the respondents. 2.3 Health teaching: This was rated satisfactory by the respondents, as proved by the total AWM of 1.76. 2.4 Performing nursing procedure: This was satisfactorily exhibited by the student nurses as rated by the respondents. 2.5 Communication with the patient and relatives: This was rated satisfactory by the group of patient respondents. 3. There is no significant difference between the student nurse caring behavior as perceived by the patient when grouped according to age, gender, educational attainment, and disease condition. Nonetheless, there is a significant difference between the patients perception on student nurses behavior when grouped according to educational attainment. 4. There is no significant relationship between the student nurse’s caring behavior and the improvement of the nurse-patient relationship.

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the main findings and conclusions illustrated, the following are hereby recommended: 1. Student nurses should be well equipped with enough knowledge with medications and proficiency in administering the drugs in order to gain the trust of the patients.

What else based it on your variables give at least 5 recommendations….

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Bibliography

http://www.en.wikipedia.org http://www.quality-patient-experience.com/nurse-patient-relationship.html http://onlinenursing.fhchs.edu http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com http://www.asrn.org/journal-nursing http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2011/534060/ http://oremselfcaredeficittheory.blogspot.com/ Microsoft Encarta Dictionary, 2009 Microsoft Encarta Premium, 2009

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Appendices Appendix A Letter of Request

August 7, 2012 Ruby B. Duave, RN, MAN Chief Nurse San Marcelino Distric Hospital

Dear Madam: Greetings in Christ! Our group is completing a thesis at Lyceum of Subic Bay in Olongapo City. The thesis title is: The patient’s perception regarding the patient’s perception student nurses caring behavior at San Marcelino Medical Hospital Medical Ward: . We would like your permission to conduct a survey for the patients at the Medical Ward. If these arrangements meet with your approval, please sign this letter where indicated below and return it to us in the enclosed return envelope. Thank you very much. We’re hoping for your positive response. Yours truly, Phoebe Dawn Guevarra Virgencita Tullao Christine Bada Michelle Mangahas Glenda Sotto The Researchers

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Dear Respondent,

This questionnaire is handed out to know your perception on the 4th year student nurses caring behavior inside the medical ward of San Marcelino district hospital. The data that will be obtained from this will help improve the nurse-patient relationship. The questions you answer should only pertain to your own perception on the caring behavior or 4th year student nurses inside the medical ward and OB ward of San Marcelino District hospital. You should check the box right beside the correct answer to each question. Please kindly answer the questions on this questionnaire as honest as possible. Thanks for your input and cooperation. We assure you that all information provided will be treated in the strictest of confidence.

Yours truly, Phoebe Dawn Guevarra Virgencita Tullao Christine Bada Michelle Mangahas Glenda Sotto The Researchers Age: _____________ Sex: Male Female Sex:

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Occupation:

White Collar Job (Please Specify): Blue Collar Job (Please Specify):

Educational Attainment:

Elementary Level Elementary Graduate High School Level High School Graduate College Level College Graduate Vocational

What is your current disease or Illness? Heart Problem Respiratory Problem Other: Please Specify:

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

The following question pertains to the student nurse behavior towards patients. Please mark the box that corresponds your answer: Taking Vital Signs 1. Student Nurse explain the procedure before taking your Vital Sign 2. Ask the Patient in a nice manner when taking the vital sign 3. Handles the patient gently during vital signs taking 4. Shows comforting and warm attitude during taking vital signs 5. Shows appropriate affect when taking vital signs Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor

Giving Medications 1. Explain the procedure before giving medication so that the patient can gain information 2. Student Nurse give medications on time 3. Student Nurse give medications gently 4. Student Nurse give medications in a proper attitude 5. Student Nurse tells you what medications he/she going to administer

Very Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Poor

Health Education 1. Advise the patient regarding healthy regimen after discharge 2. Encourage the patient to follow the medical treatment to hasten his/her healing 3. Student Nurses devotes extra time for health teachings sessions 4. Exhibit great amount of patience when teaching 5. Simplify teaching session to allow patients

Very Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Poor

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

understanding

Performing Nursing Procedure 1. Student Nurse promotes clients privacy when doing nursing procedures 2. Student Nurse explains and ask clients permission before doing the task 3. Encourage patients participation in performing nursing procedure to lessen clients anxiety 4. Demonstrate good manner in doing the task 5. Ensure that the patient is handle gently and prevent clients harm

Very Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Poor

Communicating with patient and relatives 1.Student maintains warm and caring attitude when talking to patients 2. Spends time with the clients or significant others to facilitate interaction 3. Listen attentively to clients concerns 4. Provides reassurance to patients 5.Express words of encouragement and comforting words

Very Satisfactory

Satisfactory

Poor

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name: Nickname: Age: Birth Date: Gender: Civil Status: Nationality: Phoebe Dawn P. Guevarra Feebs, Dawn 20 September 26, 1992 Female Single Filipino

Educational Attainment Elementary: Olongapo Wesley School

High School: Regional Science High School III Olongapo Wesley School

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Personal Data Name: Nickname: Age: Birth Date: Gender: Civil Status: Nationality: Virgencita B. Tullao Vergz 19 January 10, 1993 Female Single Filipino

Educational Attainment Elementary: St. Augustine’s School

High School: St. Augustine’s School

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Personal Data

Name: Nickname: Age: Birth Date: Gender: Civil Status: Nationality:

Glenda A.Sotto Dang 20 September 29, 1992 Female Single Filipino

Educational Attainment Elementary: Saguing Elementary School

High School: Luakan National High School

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

Personal Data Name: Nickname: Age: Birth Date: Gender: Civil Status: Nationality: Christine D. Bada Tin 19 June 26, 1992 Female Single Filipino

Educational Attainment Elementary: Carael Elementary School

High School: St. Joseph College

Lot 73, Central Business District, Subic Bay Freeport Zone, Olongapo City, Zambales Tel. No. (047) 252-3358

Lyceum of Subic Bay

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