Scientific Investigation of Telepathy

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Telepathy
The psychic phenomena by which communication occurs between minds, or mind-to-mind communication. Such communication includes thoughts, ideas, feelings, sensations and mental images. Telepathic descriptions are universally found in writings and oral lore. In tribal societies such as the Aborigines of Australia telepathy is accepted as a human faculty, while in more advanced societies it is thought a special ability belonging to mystics and psychics. Although not scientifically proven, telepathy is being increasingly studied in psychical research. History: "Telepathy" is derived from the Greek terms tele ("distant") and pathe ("occurrence" or "feeling"). The term was coined in 1882 by the French psychical researcher Fredric W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR). Myers thought his term descrbed the phenomenon better than previous used terms such as the French "communication de pensees," "thought-transference," and "thoughtreading." Research interest in telepathy had its beginning in Mesmerism. The magnetists discovered that telepathy was among the so-called "higherphenomena" observed in magnetized subjects, who read the thoughts of the magnetists and carried out the unspoken instructions. Soon other psychologists and psychiatrists were observing the same phenomena in their patients. Sigmund Freud noticed it so often that he son had to address it. He termed it a regressive, primitive faculty that was lost in the course of evolution, but which still had the ability to manifest itself under certain conditions. Psychiatrist Carl G. Jung thought it more important. He considered it a function of synchronicity (1). Psychologist and philosopher William James was very enthusiastic toward telepathy and encouraged more research be put into it. When the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) was founded in 1885, after the SPR in 1884, telepathy became the first psychic phenomenon to be studied scientifically. The first testing was simple. A sender in one room would try to transmit a two-digit number, a taste, or a visual image to a receiver in another room. The French physiologist Charles Richet introduced mathematical chance to the tests, and also

discovered that telepathy occurred independent of hypnotism. Interest in telepathy increased following World War I as thousands of bereaved turned toward Spiritualism attempting to communicate with their dead loved ones. The telepathic parlor game called "willing" became popular. Mass telepathic experiments were undertaken in the United States and Britain. Experimental findings: Most often telepathy occurs spontaneously in incidents of crisis where a relative or friend has been injured or killed in an accident. An individual is aware of the danger to the other person from a distance. Such information seems to come in different forms as in thought fragments, like something is wrong; in dreams, visions, hallucinations, mental images, in clairaudience, or in words that pop into the mind. Often such information causes the person, the receiver, to change is course of action, such as changing his travel plans or daily schedule, or to just call or contact the other person. Some incidents involve apparent telepathy between humans and animals. Telepathy seems to be related to the individual's emotional state. This is true of both the sender and receiver. Most women were receivers, as case findings showed, and one possible explanation is that women are more in touch with their emotions and rely on intuition more than men. Geriatric telepathy is fairly common, this may be due, it is speculated, to the impairment of the senses with age. Telepathy can be induced in the dream state. It appears to be related to some biological factors: blood volume changes during telepathic sending, and electroencephalogram monitoring show that the brain waves of the recipient change to match those of the sender. Dissociative drugs adversely affect telepathy, but caffeine has a positive effect on it. During his 1930 ESP experiments J. B. Rhine also made some discoveries concerning telepathy: It was often difficult to determine whether information was communicated through telepathy, clairvoyance, or precognitive clairvoyance. He concluded that telepathy and clairvoyance were the same psychic function manifested in different ways. Also, telepathy is not affected by distance or obstacles between the sender and receiver. A telepathic experiment conducted during the Apollo 14 mission in 1971 proved distance is not a barrier. The experiment was not authorized by

the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), nor was it announced until the mission was completed. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell conducted the experiment with four recipients on Earth, 150,000 miles below. Mitchell concentrated on sequences of twenty-five random numbers. He completed 200 sequences. Guessing 40 correctly was the mean chance. Two of the recipients guessed 51 correctly. This far exceeded Mitchell's expectations, but still was only moderately significant. Theories: Although over the centuries various theories have been advanced to describe the functioning of telepathy, none seem to be adequate. Telepathy, like othe psychic phenomena, transcends time and space. The ancient Greek philosopher Democritus put forth the wave and corpuscle theories to explain telepathy. In the 19th century, the British chemist and physicist William Crookes, thought telepathy rode on radiolike brain waves. Later in the 20th century the Soviet scientist L. L. Vasilies proposed the electromagnetic theory. The American psychologist Lawrence LeShan proposed that each person has his or her personal reality, and the psychics and mystics share separate ones from other people which allow them to access information not available to others. In conclusion telepathy, like the other forms of psychic phenomena is elusive and difficult to test systematically. Enough evidence is available to reasonably substantiate the phenomenon does exist. But, quantifying it seems to be another matter. The phenomenon is closely connect to the emotional states on both the sender and receiver which creates difficulty in replicating experimental results. Attitudinal factors also influence the phenomenon. The best that researchers can hope for is to have supportive and receptive subjects in experiments that produce similar results. A.G.H.
Sources: 29, Gertrude

Schmeidler, The City College, New York, 61.

(1) Synchronicity: A term coined by Jung to designate the meaningful coincidence or equivalence (a) of a psychic and a physical state or event which have no causal relationship to one another. Such synchronistic phenomena occur, for instance, when an inwardly perceived event (dream, vision, premonition, etc.) is seen to have a correspondence in external reality: the inner image of premonition has "come true"; (b) of similar or identical thoughts, etc. occurring at the same time in different places. Neither one nor the other coincidence can be explained by

causality, but seems to be connected primarily with activated archetypal processes in the unconscious. Source: 60,

Scientific investigation of telepathy
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Numerous scientific experiments seeking evidence of telepathy have been conducted over more than a century. Many of these studies have yielded positive results, most notably using the Ganzfeld procedure. However, telepathy, as with all parapsychological subjects, remains controversial.

History
Western scientific investigation of telepathy is generally recognized as having begun with the initial program or research of the Society for Psychical Research. The apex of their early investigations was the report published in 1886 as the two-volume work Phantasms of the Living. It was with this work that the term "telepathy" was introduced, replacing the earlier term "thought transference". Although much of the initial investigations consisted largely of gathering anecdotal accounts with follow-up investigations, they also conducted experiments with some of those who claimed telepathic abilities. However, their experimental protocols were far more lax than those used today. In 1917, psychologist John E. Coover from Stanford University conducted a series of telepathy tests involving transmitting/guessing playing cards. His participants were able to guess the identity of cards with overall odds against chance of 160 to 1; however, Coover did not consider the results to be significant enough to report this as a positive result. The best-known early telepathy experiments were those of J. B. Rhine and his associates at Duke University, beginning in the 1927 using the distinctive ESP Cards of Karl Zener (see also Zener Cards). These involved more rigorous and systematic experimental protocols

than those from the 19th century, used what were assumed to be 'average' participants rather than those who claimed exceptional ability, and used new developments in the field of statistics to evaluate results. Results of these and other experiments were published by Rhine in his popular book Extra Sensory Perception, which popularized the term. Another influential book about telepathy was Mental Radio, published in 1930 by the Pulitzer prize-winning author Upton Sinclair (with foreword by Albert Einstein). In it Sinclair describes the apparent ability of his wife at times to reproduce sketches made by himself and others, even when separated by several miles. They note in their book that the results could also be described by the more general term clairvoyance, and they did some experiments whose results suggested that in fact no sender was necessary, and some drawings could be reproduced precognitively. By the 1960s, many parapsychologists had become dissatisfied with the forced-choice experiments of J. B. Rhine, partly because of boredom on the part of test participants after many repetitions of monotonous card-guessing, and partly because of the observed "decline effect" where the accuracy of card guessing would decrease over time for a given participant, which some parapsychologists attributed to this boredom. Some parapsychologists turned to free response experimental formats where the target was not limited to a small finite predetermined set of responses (e.g., Zener cards), but rather could be any sort of picture, drawing, photograph, movie clip, piece of music etc.

Notable experiments
Zener card experiments

Zener cards Dates run: 1930's Experimental philosophy: A Zener Card deck is created, which consists of five cards each of five different symbols. The deck is shuffled, and the subject is asked to guess the identity of each card as it is drawn and viewed by a sender. In this experiment, telepathy is assumed to be weak, and only expected to give a small deviation towards correct answers. Experimental design: J. B. Rhine, the experimenter, would sit across a table from the subject. He would shuffle the Zener Card deck, and draw cards one at a time. For each card, he would look at it and ask the psychic to guess its identity by reading his mind. A hit rate of significantly more or less than 20% was considered to be evidence of telepathy. Hit rates significantly below 20% were reguarded psi-missing, the phenomenon in which psi

may cause missing due to the attitude of the experimenter or subject toward the situation or subject matter.[1] Results: Rhine's studies produced results which were significantly above or below chance in a statistical sense.[2] He noted, however, that this experiment couldn't adequately distinguish telepathy from clairvoyance.[3] Ganzfeld experiments (Main article: Ganzfeld) Dates run: 1974 to present Experimental philosophy: The subject is placed in sensory deprivation, in hopes that this will make it easier to receive and notice incoming telepathic signals. In this experiment, telepathy is assumed to be weak, and only expected to give a small deviation towards correct answers.[4] Experimental design: The receiver (a possible psychic, who is being tested) is placed in a soundproof room and sits reclining in a comfortable chair. The subject wears headphones which play continuous white noise or pink noise. Halves of ping pong balls are placed over their eyes, and a red light is shined onto the subject's face. These conditions are designed to cause the receiver to enter a state similar to being in a sensory deprivation chamber. The sender is seated in another soundproof room, and is assigned one of four potential targets, randomly selected. Typically, these targets are pictures or video clips. The sender attempts to telepathically "send" information about the target to the receiver. The receiver is generally asked to speak throughout the sending process, and their voice is piped to the sender and experimenter. This is to assist the sender in determining if their method of "sending" information about the target is working, and adjust it if necessary. Breaks may be taken, and the sending process may be repeated multiple times. Once the sending process is complete, the experimenter removes the receiver from isolation. The receiver is then shown the four potential targets, and asked to choose which one they believe the sender saw. In order to avoid potential confounding factors, the experimenter must remain ignorant of which target was chosen until the receiver makes their choice, and multiple sets of the pictures of videos should be used in order to avoid handling cues (evidence, such smudges on a picture, that the picture was handled by the sender). A statistical analysis is performed to find out whether the subject scored significantly above or below chance.[4] Results: Many meta-analyses performed on multiple Ganzfeld experiments returned a hit rate of between 30% and 40%, which is significantly higher than the 25% expected by

chance.[4][5]

Controversy
Ganzfeld experiments: Isolation - Not all of the studies used soundproof rooms, so it is possible that when videos were playing, the experimenter (or even the receiver) could have heard it, and later given involuntary cues to the receiver during the selection process.[6] However, ganzfeld studies which did use soundproof rooms had a number of "hits" similar to those which did not.[2] (Radin 1997: 77-89) Handling cues - Only 36% of the studies performed used duplicate images or videos, so handling cues on the images or degradation of the videos may have occurred during the sending process.[7] However, the results of studies were not found to correspond to this flaw. Randomization - When subjects are asked to choose from a variety of selections, there is an inherent bias to not choose the first selection they are shown. If the order in which are shown the selections is randomized each time, this bias will be averaged out. However, this was often not done in the Ganzfeld experiments.[8][9] The psi assumption - The assumption that any statistical deviation from chance is evidence for telepathy is highly controversial, and often compared to the God of the gaps argument. Strictly speaking, a deviation from chance is only evidence that either this was a rare, statistically unlikely occurrence that happened by chance, or something was causing a deviation from chance. Flaws in the experimental design are a common cause of this, and so the assumption that it must be telepathy is fallacious. This does not rule out, however, that it could be telepathy.[10] Parapsychologists respond, however that while there are many potential theoretical explanations of psi, parapsychology as a science does not claim to understand what psi is, but Instead, [parapsychologists] design experiments to test experiences that people have reported throughout history. If rigorous tests for what we have called [say] "telepathy" result in effects that look like, sound like, and feel like the [often more impressive [11]] experiences reported in real life, then call it what you will, but the experiments confirm that this common experience is not an illusion.[2] (Radin 1997: 210) "Psi" is the name for an unknown factor, not necessarily for a force or factor outside the current range of scientific knowledge. The existence of telepathy is still a matter of extreme controversy, with many skeptics stating that evidence for it does not exist. A scientific methodology which always shows

statistically significant evidence of telepathy has yet to be discovered. Skeptics argue that the lack of a definitive experiment whose reproducibility is near 100% (e.g. those which exist for magnetism) may indicate that there is no credible scientific evidence for the existence of telepathy. Skeptics also point to historical cases in which flaws have been discovered in the experimental design of parapsychological studies, and the occasional cases of fraud which have marred the field.[12][13] Those who believe that telepathy may exist say that very few experiments in psychology, biology, or medicine can be reproduced at will with consistent results. Parapsychologists such as Dean Radin argue that the extremely positive results from reputable studies, when analyzed using meta-analysis, provide strong evidence for telepathy that is almost impossible to account for using any other means[2]. Fraud See Fraud section of parapsychology article There have been instances of fraud in the history of parapsychology research, such as the Soal-Goldney experiments of 1941-43.

See also
• • • • •

Parapsychology Paranormal Psi Extra-sensory perception Techlepathy

References
1. ^ http://www.parapsych.org/sheep_goat_effect.htm The Sheep - Goat Effect by Mario Varvoglis, Ph.D., from the website of the Parapsychological Association, retrieved December 27, 2006 2. ^ a b c d The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena by Dean I. Radin Harper Edge, ISBN 0-06-251502-0 3. ^ Randi, James (1995). An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-15119-5. 4. ^ a b c Bem, Daryl J. and Honorton, Charles (1994). Does Psi Exist?. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 115, No. 1, 4-18. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 5. ^ Hyman, Ray (March/April, 1996). The Evidence for Psychic Functioning: Claims vs. Reality. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 6. ^ Wiseman, R., Smith, M,. Kornrot, D. (June 1996). Exploring possible sender-toexperimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments. Journal of Parapsychology. 7. ^ Carpenter, S. (July 31, 1999). ESP findings send controversial message. Science

News. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 8. ^ Hyman, Ray (1985). "The ganzfeld psi experiment: A critical appraisal". Journal of Parapsychology (49): 3–49. 9. ^ Honorton, C (1985). "Meta-analysis of psi ganzfeld research: A response to Hyman". Journal of Parapsychology (49): 51–91. 10. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2005). The Skeptic's Dictionary: Psi Assumption. Retrieved on 2006-06-23. 11. ^ http://twm.co.nz/FAQpara2.htm#9.5 Parapsychology FAQ, Compiled by Dean Radin, PhD of UNLV's Cognitive Research Division A helpful guide to parapsychology and the facts regarding that field, Retrieved December 26, 2006 12. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2005). The Skeptic's Dictionary; ESP (extrasensory perception). SkepDic.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-13. 13. ^ "Most academic psychologists do not yet accept the existence of psi..." Bem, Daryl J. and Honorton, Charles (1994). Does Psi Exist?. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 115, No. 1, 4-18. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.

Further reading


Alcock, James (1981), Parapsychology: Science or Magic? A Psychological Perspective, Pergamon Press, ISBN 0-08-025772-0 Alcock, James E. (1990), Science and Supernature: A Critical Appraisal of Parapsychology, Prometheus Books, ISBN 0-87975-516-4 Hansel, C. E. M. (1966), ESP: A Scientific Evaluation, Charles Scribner's Sons, ISBN 0684310503 Hansel, C.E.M. (1989), The Search for Psychic Power: ESP & Parapsychology Revisited, Prometheus Books, ISBN 0-87975-533-4 Hyman, Ray (1989), The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research, Prometheus Books, ISBN 0-87975-504-0







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Telepathy from Wikipedia Telepathy, from the Greek τελε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθεια, patheia meaning "to be affected by", ..... Click the link for more information. Ganzfeld experiment A ganzfeld experiment (from German for “entire field”) is a technique used in the field of parapsychology to test individuals for extra-sensory perception (ESP). ..... Click the link for more information. Parapsychology

Parapsychology (from the Greek: παρά para, "alongside" + psychology) is the study of ostensibly paranormal events including extrasensory perception, psychokinesis, and survival of consciousness ..... Click the link for more information. Western culture Western culture (sometimes equated with Western civilization) are terms which are used to refer to cultures of European origin, in contrast to "Eastern" or "Oriental" culture. ..... Click the link for more information. Society for Psychical Research The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom and was later imitated in other countries. ..... Click the link for more information. Anecdotal evidence The expression anecdotal evidence has two quite distinct meanings. (1) Evidence in the form of an anecdote or hearsay is called anecdotal ..... Click the link for more information. Experiment In scientific inquiry, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, "of (or from) trying") is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or solving particular types of problems. ..... Click the link for more information. 1917 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s 1914 1915 1916 - 1917 - 1918 1919 1920 Year 1917 ( ..... Click the link for more information. Stanford University Leland Stanford Junior University Motto: Die Luft der Freiheit weht "The wind of freedom blows" (German)[1] ..... Click the link for more information. Joseph Banks Rhine Joseph Banks Rhine (September 29, 1895 – February 20, 1980) (usually known as J. B. Rhine) was a pioneer of parapsychology. ..... Click the link for more information.

Duke University Duke University Latin: Universitas Dukiana Motto: Eruditio et Religio ("Knowledge and Faith") Established: 1838 (Duke University from 1924) ..... Click the link for more information. Karl Zener Karl Edward Zener (April 22, 1903 - Sept. 27, 1964) was a perceptual psychologist best known for his affiliation with Dr. J. B. Rhine and their work in the field of Extrasensory perception or ESP. ..... Click the link for more information. Zener card Zener cards are cards used to conduct experiments for extra-sensory perception (ESP), most often clairvoyance. Perceptual psychologist Karl Zener designed the cards in the early 1930s for experiments conducted with his colleague, ..... Click the link for more information. 19th century 2nd millennium 18th century · 19th century · 20th century 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s ..... Click the link for more information. Mental radio The mental radio is a fictional object that featured prominently in the Golden Age and some later adventures of the fictional DC Comics superheroine Wonder Woman. ..... Click the link for more information. Pulitzer Prize Pulitzer Prize Awarded for Excellence in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition Presented by Columbia University Country United States First awarded ..... Click the link for more information. Upton Sinclair

Upton Sinclair Born September 20, 1878 Baltimore, Maryland Died November 25, 1968 (aged 90) Bound Brook, New Jersey ..... Click the link for more information. Albert Einstein Albert Einstein Einstein in 1947. Born March 14, 1879 Ulm, Württemberg, Germany ..... Click the link for more information. Clairvoyance Clairvoyance (from 17th century French with clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "visibility") is the purported ability to gain information about an object, location or physical event through means ..... Click the link for more information. Precognition Precognition (from the Latin præ-, “prior to,” + cognitio, “a getting to know”) denotes a form of extra-sensory perception where in a person is said to perceive information about places or events through ..... Click the link for more information. Joseph Banks Rhine Joseph Banks Rhine (September 29, 1895 – February 20, 1980) (usually known as J. B. Rhine) was a pioneer of parapsychology. ..... Click the link for more information. Zener card Zener cards are cards used to conduct experiments for extra-sensory perception (ESP), most often clairvoyance. Perceptual psychologist Karl Zener designed the cards in the early 1930s for experiments conducted with his colleague, ..... Click the link for more information. Joseph Banks Rhine Joseph Banks Rhine (September 29, 1895 – February 20, 1980) (usually known as J. B. Rhine) was a pioneer of parapsychology. ..... Click the link for more information. Psi hit

Psi hit and psi miss are terms used in discussion of parapsychological experimentation to describe the success or failure of the subject in achieving the desired result more often than could be expected through chance alone. ..... Click the link for more information. Clairvoyance Clairvoyance (from 17th century French with clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "visibility") is the purported ability to gain information about an object, location or physical event through means ..... Click the link for more information. Ganzfeld Ganzfeld (German for “complete field”) is a term used to describe a particular phenomena of visual perception. It is used most commonly in relationship to:


Ganzfeld experiment, a technique in parapsychology.

..... Click the link for more information. Psychic In popular culture the word psychic (pronounced /ˈ saɪkɨk/ ..... Click the link for more information. White noise Colors of noise White Pink Brown/Red Grey White noise is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. ..... Click the link for more information. Pink noise Colors of noise White Pink Brown/Red Grey Pink noise or 1/f noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density is proportional to the ..... Click the link for more information. Sensory deprivation

Sensory deprivation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. Simple devices such as blindfolds or hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing respectively, while more complex devices ..... Click the link for more information. This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the Wikipedia® encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License. This article is about the paranormal phenomenon. For the magical act, see mentalism.

Telepathy Terminology
TP

An experiment in sensory deprivation aiming to demonstrate TP Coined by Fredric W. H. Myers (1882) [1] Definition The transference of thoughts or feelings between two or more subjects through Psi One subject said to gain information from another Signature that was shielded from their traditional senses by distance, time, or physical barriers. Extra-sensory perception, See also Anomalous cognition, Ganzfeld experiment

Telepathy (from the Greek τηλε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθη, pathe meaning "affliction, experience"),[2] is the transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the "five classic senses" (See Psi).[1][3] The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Fredric W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research,[1] specifically to replace the earlier expression thought-transference.[1] [3] A telepath would be a person with the paranormal ability to read others' thoughts and mental contents. Telepathy is one kind of extrasensory perception which, along with

psychokinesis, forms the main topics of parapsychological research. Many studies seeking to detect, understand, and utilize telepathy have been done within this field. This research has neither produced a replicable demonstration of telepathy, nor an accepted mechanism by which it might work. Hence the scientific community does not regard telepathy as a real phenomenon. It is hard to unambiguously distinguish telepathy from a number of other parapsychological hypotheses such as clairvoyance.[4] Telepathy is a common theme in modern fiction and science fiction, with many superheroes and supervillains having telepathic abilities.

Contents
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1 Origins of the concept 2 Telepathy in parapsychology o 2.1 Types of Telepathy 3 Skepticism and controversy 4 Telepathy in popular culture 5 Technologically enabled telepathy

Research On Telepathic Humans
Telepathic When we stop to take a look around ourselves at the world in which we live, we will see planes flying people all over the planet. Computers and other high tech devices communicate with each other. We live in a world where something as simple as a lighter can conjure up a flame in someone's hand. Yet, there are people who dismiss the possibility of telepathy as merely the stuff of fiction. Some have said that a technology that is advanced enough becomes so similar to magic that they cannot be distinguished between. Thanks to what we have accomplished through science and technology we have been able to do things that people would have insisted to be impossible, nothing more than delusions of grandeur. Yet not only have we managed to explore the unchartered ocean depths but we have even walked upon the moon itself, and explored the universe. While this would astound the people of yesteryear, we ourselves notice its primitiveness as we envision other more advanced things in the future. With what we have learned we have harnessed the energy of the wind, water and even the sun. And most of us carry a small gadget that allows us to communicate with anyone, anytime, anywhere on earth. With all the things that mankind has accomplished that to people living only one hundred years ago would have seemed beyond our abilities, surely then it could be that people who

are telepathic are merely operating under scientific principles that we do not yet understand. Yet so often these people are viewed as fake and operating in a world of mysticism. Paraphysicists and parapsychologists scientifically study telepathy and telepaths. The neither try to prove telepathy, nor disprove it. They only want to know if it is an authentic phenomenon and if it can be better understood if it is. Some telepath experiments have produced intriguing results. But nothing is accepted as 'scientific' unless it's shown to be measurable, consistent, and repeatable. Unfortunately, telepathy experiment results usually fall short on the consistent or repeatable parts, so that many doubt the truth of telepathy. Then there are researchers who argue that this is merely like Edison's experiments to create the light bulb-he failed 10,000 times before he finally got it right, but that never meant that electric lights were 'not real'. They say we just have to design better experiments around this phenomenon. Science has not disproven the existence of telepathic people. But is it possible to communicate without using any of our five senses? Just by thought alone? The answer is somewhat of an obvious one. We would have to use a means that we cannot employ our senses to detect but the means exists nonetheless. Science and technology have already done it in the high tech way. Consider radio waves. True, we cannot see them, touch them, taste, hear or smell them, but we all know that they most certainly do exist. ..Or, is it? Electrical and magnetic fields generated by the brain have been scientifically proven to exist-and they are called 'thought waves'. MRI technology and a lot of neuroscience investigations depend on these thought waves. To put it simply, this is the key that should open up the door on telepathy. Whenever we have a thought, there are a series of biochemical processes in our brains, which include the transmission from neuron to neuron of tiny electrical impulses. These are measurable impulses, small as they are. Like any other electrical charge, they create a magnetic field as well. In our minds there are tens of thousands of these impulses happening at any moment. Is it not possible that the waves previously mentioned might be transferring content? It they do not then they would amount to nothing more than the brain's version of static. It would seem plausible to think that thought waves carrying content would play a part in people being able to communicate only with their minds. If this is so then one must wonder if, with the proper training, people might be able to exercise control over these waves. It could be possible that certain techniques like meditation and mind control could help to actually form these waves into a meaningful communication without the use of the five senses. One potential problem is the weakness of these energy fields. They are weak enough to be drowned out by the many other, more powerful electrical and magnetic fields which are creates by the technology we use every day.

Some research has been done into how to increase the power of these signals ? it is known that when people are in a heightened emotional state (usually fear, pain or surprise) there is an increased amount of synaptic activity, leading to stronger brainwaves. And in fact, parapsychologists have documented short instances of telepathic communication in these moments. One of the most well-known examples is when a mother knows that her child is hurt or in jeopardy even though she is miles away and there has been no direct communication made between them. So, is this an example of brainwave boosting? Do blood-ties matter? Is it all just coincidence (mothers always worry about their children anyway, for instance)? At this moment, parapsychologists and paraphysicists have not yet learned enough about telepathic communication to positively verify that telepathy is a real phenomenon, at least as far as the mainstream scientific community is concerned. However, the evidence is mounting up and research is continuing, with many already convinced that with the right training, anyone can develop and use their natural telepathic communication abilities.

Proving Minds Talk through Telepathy Research
Added: 11/23/2006

Establishing the possibility of mental communication, that is the ability to telepathically communicate with another through thought transfer may appear a fanciful idea expected from a sci-fi adventure novel but in reality the ability to speak with your mind is potentially possible for everyone to achieve. Some telepathy research suggests that mental communications appear linked to emotions with women seemingly able to more easily access a telepathic capability than men possibly because women tend to be more in sync with their emotions and intuition than men. Telepathy research offers fascinating insight into the functions of the brain that for the majority of us operates outside our consciousness. Psychic abilities are often referred to as phenomena suggesting this ability is akin to a miracle. That kind of suggestion works against the very human ingredient involved in the power of telepathy which is that telepathic communications is the ability inherent within human kind. Much in the way as it is a high probability that it exists in other creatures with which we share this planet that do not speak to one another verbally. Some telepathic research reasons that telepathy is a primitive resource lost through the evolution associated with man's development which can still manifest itself particularly when an individual is under emotional pressure. Scientists continue telepathy research in order to assess whether telepathy is a future or primitive evolution. In addition research in psychic research suggests that distance and obstacles such as buildings do not appear to

block communications. Also some researchers have concluded that telepathy and clairvoyance share the same psychic function which simply manifest in alternative ways. Telepathy research has provided one convincing conclusion in that the telepathic ability is a difficult one to quantify. There is an argument from telepathy research to suggest that emotional states contribute greatly to the strength and manifestation of telepathic communications. Additionally where synchronization of thought occurs as it may between twins when a telepathic communication happens as a result of a physical or emotional incident prompting one twin to trigger a telepathic communication registered by the other. It may be argued that genetics play a role in relative telepathic communications which they may well do but the argument could also be stretched to include genetics being a part of the telepathic process between non-related individuals as well. Although currently there is no evidence to substantiate this, it does however seem possible that genetics do also play a part in telepathy and because our knowledge base in regard to genetics is increasing it will become possible for telepathy research will in the future be able to factor in the genetic ingredient into their investigations. Whether telepathic research is able to link other categories of uncommon abilities to telepathy which may include fortune telling or future predictions is difficult to assess because our limited knowledge relating to the scope of telepathy is too thin. However, by including the genetic factor it might be possible to identify whether genes passed on from parents to their children possess knowledge that can be accessed through the child's mind and, if this is the case, it may answer why some individuals have a 'deje vu' experience in which they recognize either a location, people and even situations that they may never have encountered during their current life. Since the 1 9th century telepathy research has provided convincing records relating to the existence of thought transference and during the next millennium with scientific advances now incorporating genetic factors the potential for substantiating and obtaining a greater understanding of human mental capabilities and whether that includes predicting the future or fortune telling?

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