Security Systems in the Chemical Industry

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SECURITY SYSTEMS IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY By Aaron Nicholas Moses ABSTRACT: In a chemical industry, due to the sensitive nature of the products like explosives manufactured the security infrastructure is of prime importance. As these institutions are highly vulnerable to terrorist activities, the security protocols have to be fool proof and carried out to perfection. This research paper focuses on the vulnerabilities of the security system currently in operation in a chemical industry and how these can be rectified using the latest technology without too much dependence on the use of manpower. KEYWORDS: Security Systems, Chemical Industry INTRODUCTION: The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. It is central to modern world economy, converting raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, minerals) into more than 70,000 different products. The chemical industry includes large, medium, and small companies that are located worldwide. Chemical industry is one of the most profitable industries of today. This is mainly due to the fact that millions of dollars of investment is made in them and most importantly due to the fact that the products made by them are of high value in both the legitimate market and the underground black market. This has led to these industries being highly vulnerable to subversive activities. Security Systems is the set of electronic and technical systems as well as the protocols that are currently in place in industries the world over to ensure protection to their facilities as well as their products being manufactured. It also includes all the personnel employed in the security department of the facility. The Security Cover for a chemical industry presents a unique challenge due to the sensitive nature of its products as well as the remote location of the facility. The main concern is to ensure a comprehensive foolproof system that will both minimise the cost and the level of manpower required as well as ensure adequate protection to the facility without causing any interference in the financial or the technical operations of the company.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

GAO (Government Accountability Office) Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate: This article is an analysis of the vulnerability of the chemical industries in the United States, their threat assessment and the risk involved to the people around these industries. The DHS has made an analysis of the threat and the measures to be taken to correct this risk.

Mike Tyler (2005), in his study on Integrated Building Systems has conducted a study on integrating the security systems in to the infrastructure of a building and thus improve security and overall building performance. Aghahowa Enoma, Stephen Allen (2007) in their study on Performance Indicators for Airport Safety and Security has stated that the airports now in the current world scenario are highly vulnerable targets and hence even though they must be run profitably, they must be run without any negligence to the safety and security of the people. Richard A. Riley Jr., Virginia Frankie Kleist (2005) in their study on Biometric Technologies has done a study on the benefits and limitations of biometrics technology and the use of biometrics to enhance corporate security for access control, identification and verification applications. Biometrics must be carefully used to maximize the benefits to the organization and to minimize the loopholes in the system which can be used for illegal activities. Scott Muir (2007), in his study on RFID Security Concerns has highlighted the prominence that RFID is getting in library management and that it is slowly but steadily taking over the place of bar coding system in a library. This report also draws our attention to the potential limitation of RFID systems like exposing its patrons to potential violations of patron privacy both inside and outside the library. In the present situation of privacy battles between institutions the introduction of such a system as RFID requires careful and thorough investigation.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study is mainly done as a descriptive research. This is due to the fact that this study is a one-shot research at a given point of time for the analysis of the given problem i.e. Security Systems in the Chemical Industry and consists of a sample of the population of interest. Primary data with reference to the study will be collected using a self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 11 questions and has questions regarding personal details, ordinal scale questions, rating scale questions and a section devoted to the performance of the security duties at a chemical facility. The secondary data has been collected from the employees and officers and other documentation of the security department of the facility. A sample size of 80 has been selected for the study. This sample size has been arrived at by taking 14% of a generic group of employees of a chemical facility, giving equal importance to all departments. This number has been selected based on the employees’ knowledge about the security systems in place at the facility. Stratified Random Sampling has been used to separate the target population on the basis of department for the purpose of the study. The limitations that have been observed in the study are the scope of the study is limited as only 80 people based on their knowledge about the security systems currently in place at the company and that certain data which would have been useful for the study could not be obtained due to their sensitive nature.

The Chi Square test has been used to carry out cross tabulations between important variables to find out the significance in the relationship between the variables. Reliability analysis is carried out to test the reliability of the instrument and also the agreement level of the respondents over the items tested.

TABLE 1: RELIABILITY SCALE ALPHA Scale Reliability Alpha ITEM 1 – 25 Gender Education Department Experience Present Level of Security Staff Area Present Level of Security for Female Staff Security Systems Should Be Improved Latest Technology Be Incorporated CCTV RFID Remote Sensor Biometrics Suspension Dismissal Demotion Leave Without Pay Overtime Without Pay Mustering In Mustering Out Maintenance of Registers Production Area In Compound Perimeter Intelligence Security

MEAN 1.10 1.84 3.13 3.80 1.64 2.55 2.15 2.24 2.13 1.98 2.44 1.89 1.61 3.03 2.21 2.56 2.78 2.78 2.99 3.90 1.73 4.03 3.94 4.15 3.75

. CCTV

CCTV Frequency Valid highly useful useful undecided least useful Total 29 26 23 2 80 80 Percent 36.3 32.5 28.8 2.5 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 36.3 32.5 28.8 2.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 36.3 68.8 97.5 100.0

Total

Table 2

Inference: On the question regarding the utility of cctv for the security systems, 36.3% have expressed that it will be highly useful. 32.5% believe that it will be useful. 28.8% are undecided and 2.5% believe that it will have least utility. RFID
RFID Frequency Valid highly useful useful undecided least useful useless Total 15 23 35 6 1 80 80 Percent 18.8 28.8 43.8 7.5 1.3 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 18.8 28.8 43.8 7.5 1.3 100.0 Cumulative Percent 18.8 47.5 91.3 98.8 100.0

Total

Table 3

Inference: On the question regarding the utility of rfid for the security systems, 43.8% are undecided. 28.8% believe that it will be useful. 18.8% believe that rfid will be highly useful to the security infrastructure. 7.5% believe that it will have least utility and 1.3% think that it will be useless. REMOTE SENSOR

REMOSEN Frequency Valid highly useful useful undecided least useful Total 34 23 21 2 80 80 Percent 42.5 28.8 26.3 2.5 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 42.5 28.8 26.3 2.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 42.5 71.3 97.5 100.0

Total

Table 4

Inference: On the question regarding the utility of remote sensor for the security systems, 42.5% of the respondents believe that it will be highly useful. 28.8% believe that it will be useful. 26.3% are undecided. 2.5% believe that it will have least utility. BIOMETRICS
BIOMET Frequency Valid highly useful useful undecided least useful Total 50 13 15 2 80 80 Percent 62.5 16.3 18.8 2.5 100.0 100.0 Valid Percent 62.5 16.3 18.8 2.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 62.5 78.8 97.5 100.0

Total

Table 5

Inference: On the question regarding the utility of biometrics for the security systems, 62.5% believe that biometrics will be highly useful to the security infrastructure. 18.8% are undecided. 16.3% believe that it will be useful. 2.5% believe that it will have least utility.

CHI SQUARE TEST

CHI SQUARE TEST for CROSS TABULATION 1 Between Department and the Improvement of Security Systems H0: There is no relationship between the Department of an Employee and his/her opinion on the Improvement of the Security Systems.
DEPT * SECSYSIM Crosstabulation Count strongly agree 13 3 SECSYSIM agree nor agree disagree 7 2 14 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 2 5 36 1 9 11 3 strongly disagree 1

disagree 10

DEP T

security production purchase marketing edp quality control personnel & admin finance & accounts

1 1 1 2 21

1 1 1

Total 22 32 2 1 4 7 4 8 80

Total

Table 6
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 28 28 1 .028 .021 .717

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 43.935 45.131 .132 80
a

df

a. 36 cells (90.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04.

Table 7

Inference:

Since the calculated value of the CHI SQUARE test is .028 which is less than 0.5, Null Hypothesis rejected and Alternate Hypothesis accepted. H1: There is a significant relation between the Department of an Employee and the Improvement of Security Systems. Hence, there is significant relationship between the Department of an Employee and the Improvement of Security Systems.

CHI SQUARE TEST for CROSS TABULATION 2 Between Experience and the Improvement of Security Systems H0: There is no relationship between the Experience of an Employee and his/her opinion on the Improvement of the Security Systems.
EXP * SECSYSIM Crosstabulation Count strongly agree 1 13 1 2 4 21 SECSYSIM agree nor disagree 7 6 7 16 36 1 6 9 1 10 11 1 2 3 2 strongly disagree

agree

disagree

Total 1 22 7 12 38 80

EXP

0 - 5 yrs 6 - 10 yrs 11 - 15 yrs 16 - 20 yrs 21 - 25 yrs

Total

Table 8

Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) 16 16 1 .009 .004 .000

Value Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases 32.467 35.362 19.707 80
a

df

a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04.

Table 9

Inference: Since the calculated value of the CHI SQUARE test is .009 which is less than 0.5, Null Hypothesis rejected and Alternate Hypothesis accepted. H1: There is a significant relation between the Experience of an Employee and the Improvement of Security Systems. Hence, there is significant relationship between the Experience of an Employee and the Improvement of Security Systems.

These two tables highlight the fact that employees irrespective of their department and their experience feel that the security infrastructure in their facilities must be improved with the help of the latest technologies.

RELIABILITY
R E L I A B I L I T Y Reliability Coefficients A N A L Y S I S S C A L E (A L P H A)

N of Cases =

80.0

N of Items = 25

Alpha =

.7164

Inference: The reliability value is .7164 which is higher than .6. Hence it is proven that the data under consideration is reliable.

FINDINGS The study has been able to point out that in this present world scenario, the security of the chemical facility is a very crucial role that is not to be taken lightly. It has be found out that physical security by people is now being slowly replaced by the latest technology available and that people are not averse to this development. The study has been able to identify four products which will be highly useful in securing the premises of a chemical facility, they are CCTV at all the important locations, RFID for company vehicles, Remote Sensor surveillance along the perimeter of the compound and Biometric Devices to maintain the sanctity of limited access controlled areas. In the light of the electronic era that we are in, companies must find out a means to integrate a cost effective electronic surveillance system in their facilities while slowly reducing the need for human monitoring. These are the products of the future and the sooner these are introduced into an organisation, the better it would be for the chemical facility and for the industry as a whole.

CONCLUSION The study carried out on the security systems currently in place in the chemical industry gave a detailed view over the protective barriers that are currently in place and also helped in understanding the discrepancies that exist and how they can be solved.. And this made it possible to suggest corrective measures that would enhance its protection and keep the company safe from subversive activities both from inside and outside the plant. The author thus concludes that electronic surveillance is the need of the hour and compnies that choose to ignore this do so at their own peril and leave their facilties vulnerable and open to attack.

REFERENCE 1. GAO (Government Accountability Office) Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate
2.

Mike Tyler (2005), “Integrated Building Systems: Strengthening Building While Decreasing Operating Costs”, Journal of Facilities Management

3. Aghahowa Enoma, Stephen Allen (2007), “Developing Key Performance Indicators for Airport Safety and Security”, Facilities, Vol. No. 25, Issue 7/8, Page Nos. 296 315 4. Richard A. Riley Jr., Virginia Frankie Kleist (2005), “The Biometric Technologies Business Case: A Systematic Approach”, Information Management and Computer Security
5. Scott Muir (2007), “RFID Security Concerns”, Library Hitech, Vol. No. 25, Issue 1,

Page Nos. 95 – 107
6. Fred Aftalion A History of the International Chemical Industry. University of

Pennsylvania Press. 1991 7. Micheal McCoy, et al., "Facts & Figures of the Chemical Industry", Chemical & Engineering News, 84(29), July 10, 2006, pp. 35-72. 8. American Chemistry Council. Guide to the Business of Chemistry. Arlington, Va.: American Chemistry Council, 2002. 9. Shreve, R. Norris, and Joseph A. Brink Jr. The Chemical Process Industries. 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1977.

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