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History…………………………………….………………………….2 Game…………………………………………………………………2 Equipment………………………………………….…….…………..3 Umpires…………………………………………….…….…………..4 Traditional scorekeeping……………………………….…………….4 Position………………………………………………………….……6 Rules………………………………………………………………….7 Terminologies……………………………………………………..…7


Passed by: Morales, Alexandra Regina Q. IV-Rationality Passed to: Ms. Emma Laxa

History: The earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club to hear the outcome of the Yale and Harvard football game. When the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The other person grabbed a stick and swung at it. George Hancock called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat. This first contest ended with a score of 41-40. The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded. George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of a 19" ball and an undersized bat in the next week. The Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread quickly to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball". Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, and the first rules were published in 1889. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters; this game was known as kitten ball (after the first team to play it), lemon ball, or diamond ball. Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches (305 mm) in circumference, rather than the 16-inch (406 mm) ball used by the Farragut club, and eventually the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one. Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897. The name "softball" dates back to 1926. The name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA] at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress. (In addition to "indoor baseball", "kitten ball", and "diamond ball", names for the game included "mush ball", and "pumpkin ball".) The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. The formation of the Joint Rules Committee on Softball in 1934 standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States. THE GAME:  There are 9 players on a softball team.  The playing field is divided into the infield and outfield  The lines between the bases are 60’ apart and when joined they form a “diamond”, inside the baseline is known as the infield  Outside the baseline but inside the playing field is called the outfield.  Any ball going outside the 1st or 3rd base line is a foul ball ( runners can not advance and the batter gets another try unless the ball was caught in the air, which translates to an out)  An official game is 7 innings (a inning is when both teams have had their turn to bat)

Equipment:  Ball  The size of the ball varies according to the classification of play; the permitted circumferences in international play are 12±0.125 in (30.5±0.3 cm), in weight between 6.25 oz (178 g) and 7.0 oz (198.4 g) in fast pitch; 11±0.125 in (29.7±0.3 cm), weight between 5.875 oz (166.5 g) and 6.125 oz (173.6 g) in slow pitch. For comparison, the rules of Major League Baseball stipulate the ball must weigh no less than 5 ounces (142g) and no more than 5 and 1/4 ounces (149g). A 12-inch circumference ball is generally used in slow pitch, although in rare cases some leagues (especially recreational leagues) do use a 14-inch circumference ball.  Bat The bat used by the batter can be made wood, or composite materials (carbon fiber, etc.). Sizes may vary but they may be no more than 34 inches or 86 cm long, 2.25 inches or 6 cm in diameter, or 38 oz. or 1.2 kilograms in weight. In fast pitch softball, wooden bats are not allowed. The Slowpitch and Fastpitch softball bat barrel standard is 21⁄4 inches. Many players prefer a smaller barrel that lightens weight and provides more swing speed.  Gloves All defensive players wear fielding gloves, made of leather or similar material. Gloves have webbing between the thumb and forefinger, known as the "pocket". The first baseman and the catcher may wear mitts; mitts are distinguished from gloves in that they have extra padding, and no fingers. No part of the glove is allowed to be the same color as that of the ball, including that of its seams. Gloves used in softball are usually larger than the ones used in baseball. No glove can be larger than 14" (36 cm) can be used in ASA sanctioned play.  Uniform Each team wears distinctive uniforms. The uniform includes a cap and/or visor, a shirt (usually no sleeves), an undershirt, tight sliding undershorts, socks, and shorts or pants; these are the components for which standards are set. Caps, visors, and headbands are optional for female players, and do not have to be the same color. Caps are mandatory for male players. A fielder who chooses to wear a helmet is not required to wear a cap. At the back of the uniform, an Arabic numeral from numbers 1 through 99 must be visible. Numbers such as 02 and 2 are considered identical. Also, on the back of the uniforms players' names are optional. All players are required to wear shoes. They may have cleats or spikes. The spikes must extend less than 0.75 inch (19 mm) away from the sole. Rounded metal spikes are illegal, as are ones made from hard plastic or other synthetic materials. High school athletes are sometimes permitted to wear metal cleats such as in Ohio.  Protective equipment A helmet must have two ear flaps, one on each side. Helmets and cages that are damaged or altered are forbidden. Helmets must be worn by batters and runners in fastpitch. Helmets are optional in slowpitch. In NCAA fastpitch softball you have the option to wear a helmet with or

without a face mask. In fast pitch, the catcher must wear a protective helmet with a face-mask and throat protector, shin guards and body protector. Shin guards also protect the kneecap. In slow pitch, the catcher must wear a helmet and mask at youth levels. At adult levels, there is no formal requirement for the catcher to wear a mask, although the official rules recommend it. In any form of softball, any player (other than fast pitch catchers on defense) can wear a protective face mask or face guard. As usual, it must be in proper condition and not damaged, altered, or the like. This is intended to prevent facial injuries. Umpires: Decisions about plays are made by umpires, similar to a referee in American football. The number of umpires on a given game can range from a minimum of one to a maximum of seven. There is never more than one "plate umpire"; there can be up to three "base umpires", and up to a further three umpires positioned in the outfield. Most fast pitch games use a crew of two umpires (one plate umpire, one base umpire). The plate umpire often uses an indicator (sometimes called a clicker or counter) to keep track of the game Official umpires are often nicknamed "blue", because of their uniforms – in many jurisdictions, most significantly ISF, NCAA and ASA games, umpires wear navy blue slacks, a light powder blue shirt, and a navy baseball cap. Regardless of what uniform is worn, all umpires in the same game are required to have matching clothing. All decisions made by the umpire(s) are considered to be final. Only decisions where a rule might have been misinterpreted are considered to be protestable. Traditional scorekeeping: Scorecard for first ever MLB perfect game, by Lee Richmond, 1880. Abbreviations: A, B, C, for first, second and third, P and H for pitcher and catcher, S for shortstop, L, M, and R for left, center, and right field . In the traditional method, each cell in the main area of the scoresheet represents the "lifetime" of an offensive player, from at-bat to baserunner, to being put out or scoring a run.  Outs When an out is recorded, the combination of defensive players executing that out is recorded. For example: If a batter hits a ball on the ground to the shortstop, who throws the ball to the first baseman to force the first out, it would be noted on the scoresheet as 6–3, with 6 for the shortstop and 3 for the first baseman. If the next batter hits a ball to the center fielder who catches it on the fly for the second out, it would be noted as F8, with F for flyout and 8for the center fielder. (This is just one of several

approaches to scoring a fly out. Normally, the letter 'F' is reserved for foul outs. A fly out would normally be scored simply as '8'.) A vertically reflected K is the standard notation for a strikeout looking. If the following batter strikes out, it would be noted as K, with the K being the standard notation for a strikeout. If the batter did not swing at the third strike, a "backwards K" (see right) is traditionally used. Other forms include "Kc" for a called third strike with no swing, or "Ks" if the batter did swing. A slash should be drawn across the lower right corner to indicate the end of the inning. If in another inning, a baserunner is caught stealing second base, the basepath between first and second is filled-in halfway, then ended with a short stroke perpendicular to the basepath. It is then noted CS, with some scorers adding the uniform number or batting position of the batter to indicate when the runner was put out. Then the defensive combination of the put out, normally 2–4 or 2–6 for a catcher-to-second-base play, is written.  Reaching base If a batter reaches first base, either due to a walk, a hit, or an error, the basepath from home to first base is drawn, and the method described in the lower-righthand corner. For example: If a batter gets a base hit, the basepath is drawn and 1B is written below. If a batter gets a walk, the basepath is drawn and BB (for Base on Balls) or W (for Walk) is written below. IBB is written for an intentional base on balls. If the batter reaches first base due to fielder's choice, the basepath is drawn and FC is written along with the sequence of the defense's handling of the ball, e.g., 6–4. If the batter reaches base because the first baseman dropped the throw from the shortstop, the basepath is drawn and E3 is written below. If the batter hits a triple, however, the basepaths from home to first, first to second, and second to third are all drawn, and 3B is written in the upper lefthand corner. This change of position is done to indicate that the runner did not advance on another hit.  Advancing When a runner advances due to a following batter, it can be noted by the batting position or the uniform number of the batter that advanced the runner. This kind of information is not always included by amateur scorers, and there is a lot of variation in notation. For example: If a runner on first is advanced to third base after the 4th batter, number 22, hits a single, either a 4 or 22 could be written in the upper left hand corner. If a runner steals second while the 7th batter, number 32, is up to bat, SB followed by either a 7 or 32 could be written in the upper right hand corner. To advance a player home to score a run, a runner must touch all 4 bases and cross all four base paths, therefore the scorer draws a complete diamond and, usually, fills it in. However, some scorers only fill in the diamond on a home run; they might then place a small dot in the center of the diamond to indicate a run scored but not a home run.  Miscellaneous

**End of an inning – When the offensive team has made three outs, a slash is drawn diagonally across the lower right corner of the cell of the third out. After each half-inning, the total number of hits and runs can be noted at the bottom of the column. After the game, totals can be added up for each team and each batter. **Extra innings – There are extra columns on a scoresheet that can be used if a game goes to extra innings, but if a game requires more columns, another scorecard will be needed for each team. **Substitutions – When a substitution is made, a vertical line is drawn after the last at-bat for previous player, and the new player's name and number is written in the second line of the Player Information section. A notation of PH or PR should be made for pinch hit and pinch run situations. **Batting around – After the ninth batter has batted, the record of the first batter should be noted in the same column. However, if more than nine batters bat in a single inning, the next column will be needed. Draw a diagonal line across the lower left hand corner, to indicate that the original column is being extended. Position of Players:

Softball Rules:  PITCHING The pitcher must have both feet on the pitcher’s rubber and can only take one step forward while pitching. The ball must be thrown underhand. Both hands must be on the ball at the start of the pitch.  BATTING Batters must follow the same order throughout the whole game The batter is out if and when: a) three strikes have been called b) a fly ball is caught c) the batter does not stand in the batter’s box  BASE RUNNING Runners must touch each base in order. Runners may overrun 1st base only, all other bases the runner may be tagged and called out if they are off the base. Runners can not lead off a base, they must be on base until the ball as left the pitcher’s hand After a fly ball has been caught the base runner must tag the occupied base before advancing to the next base. One base runner can not pass another base runner that is ahead of them. Stealing a base is not permitted A runner is out if: a. they are tagged with the ball before reaching a base b. the ball gets to 1st base before the runner c. they run more than 3 feet out of the base line to avoid being tagged TERMS:  Ball- a legally pitched ball that does not enter the strike zone (four balls equals a walk)  Grounder- A ball that is hit on the ground  Force out- when the runner has to advance to the next base to make room for the following base runner.  Fly ball- ball hit up in the air to the infield  On deck- the next batter  Pop up- ball hit up in the air to the infield  Strike- term used when a ball is swung at and missed or is called when the ball enters the strike zone and is not swung at all.  Strike zone- the ball passes the batter over the plate between their chest and knees

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