Solar Energy and Pakistan

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Business Communication Report on

Solar Energy and Pakistan One thing is common between Sun Flower and Energy Umara Rashid (12307) Solar Panel that they reliant on Sun and and Syed Khurram Saleem difference between them is we are in initial (12236) Pakist stage and nature is far beyond from our 0 an knowledge.

Solar REP ORT

2010

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Business Communication Report on

Solar Energy and Pakistan

Table of Contents
Foreword 3 4 Executive summary Solar Generation 5 Solar Basics 6 Solar Energy Future 9 10 Pakistan’s indulgence in Solar Energy

Solar activity in Pakistan………………. ………………………………………………………………11 Activities of Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) 12 Pakistan’s Solar Energy Development Plan Conclusion 16 13

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Business Communication Report on

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FOREWORD
The report is a realistic outline showing that solar power is able to supplying electricity to more than one billion people within two decades. It has become unambiguous that energy access has become a priority if we are to enable sustainable and fair growth for future generations. The report highlights the global benefits and Pakistan’s Initiative in solar energy for the climate and environment, social development, the economy and supply chain as well as for industry and employment. Solar Generation targeted to define the role that solar electricity will take part in in the lives of a population born today and growing up as an important energy saving and consumption group. We have examined how solar electricity will be perceived from both the consumer and the solar business perspective within the timescale of this single generation. EMPLOYMENT AND SOLAR INDUSTRY The global photovoltaic industry has already made great investments and to make sure this investment continues into the future there must be a stable political framework to support it. Solar photovoltaic (PV) can and should play a significant role within a future sustainable energy system. PV is one of the key technologies for generating decentralized electricity for private households around the world, and the technology is currently maturing. The market has grown by more than 40% a year for almost a decade and the industry is investing large sums to increase production facilities. The further development of PV solar electricity from a niche market to a mainstream technology will be crucial in 2006 and 2007. For the expansion of solar energy to be successful there must be a clear commitment from governments. SECURITY OF AFFORDABLE ENERGY SUPPLY As oil, gas and coal prices continue to rise with the supply often coming from politically unstable countries, the question of an affordable, clean and secure energy supply points to a need for renewable energies. Renewable energies and energy efficiency can cover future energy needs, but a long-term strategy is needed if this is to become reality. The shift in the energy sector will takes a Page | 3

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Solar Energy and Pakistan
least one generation – the ‘Solar Generation’. Security of energy supply – both through access to fuels and price stability – is an increasingly important part of the current global energy debate. Large solar thermal power plants can harvest the sun’s power in dry and hot desert-like areas; PV solar electricity can provide decentralized energy supply at the very place it is consumed. Renewable energies and in particular PV solar electricity have long-term potential. The benefits of solar power are compelling: environmental protection, economic growth, job creation, secure and distributed generation, diversity of fuel supply and rapid deployment, as well as the global potential for technology transfer and innovation. Most decisions on energy made today overlook solar power as a decentralized and modular technology, which can be rapidly deployed to generate electricity in developing areas.

CLIMATE CHANGE Climate change is increasingly accepted as one of the biggest man-made threats to the planet. We have now reached a point where CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have already induced excessive floods, droughts and intensified hurricanes and typhoons. If we do not rigorously change our addiction to fossil fuels we will very soon cross a point when not only will more floods, droughts and heavier storms occur, but changes in ocean circulation and the melting of glaciers and arctic ice will also produce destructive results for mankind. Fortunately, we have technologies at hand – the portfolio of renewable energies – that could change this downward spiral and lead to a green and sustainable future.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
GLOBAL STATUS OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS The solar electricity market is roaring. In 2005 the cumulative installed capacity of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems around the world passed the landmark figure of 5000MWp The worldwide photovoltaic industry, particularly in Europe and Japan, is investing heavily in new production facilities and technologies. At the same time, political support for the development of solar electricity has led to far-reaching promotion frameworks being put in place in a number of countries for instance Pakistan. Page | 4

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Since the first issue of Solar Generation was formed in 2001, the worldwide market has continued to expand at the rate then predicted. While some countries, such as the United States, have lagged behind in their expected development, others such as Germany has exceeded expectations. This the third issue of our global solar PV market forecast Solar Generation after its first appearances in 2001 and in 2004. Since then, our estimates have been proved to be realistic, even a little conservative, as the market grew faster. Compared to the first market forecast, the market volume in 2005 was three years ahead of schedule, and the market volume in 2010 is now expected to be over 5500MW – twice our expectation in 2001. At the same time, there is a need to transmit to as wide ambience as possible the message that solar electricity will bring socio-economic, industrial and environmental benefits to regions which proactively encourage its uptake. SOLAR GENERATION: A PROJECTION TO 2025 The results which have emerged from this extensive analysis point to a technology that is going to have a significant future impact on the everyday lives of the population born today. Clearly, this transformation will not happen by itself. It will require the far-reaching commitment of consumers and industry, as well as significant political will. The level of commitment needed, however, has already been demonstrated in those countries which show the greatest growth in their solar electricity industries. We must learn from them and adapt.

Deploy the corresponding catalysts at global level if solar electricity is to fulfil the potential that we need it to.

SOLAR GENERATION
MARKET GROWTH RATES: Page | 5

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Initial growth is likely to be fastest in the grid-connected sector; by 2010 the offgrid sector will play an increasing role. The average annual growth rate of the worldwide PV market up to 2009 is projected to be 35% and 26% between 2010 and 2015. Between 2016 and 2025, the market will slowly consolidate at a high level, growth rates going down to 19% until 2020 and 11% between 2021 and 2025. ELECTRICITY GENERATION: Figures for the growth in universal electricity demand up to 2020 (on which comparisons with expected PV development are based) have been taken from projections by the International Energy Agency. These show total world power demand increasing to 23,000 Terawatt hours (TWh) by 2025. DLR has been asked by Greenpeace International and EREC to conduct a study on global sustainable energy pathways up to 2050. The scenarios are based on the reference scenario from IEA World Energy Outlook (2004). The energy demand is split up in electricity and fuels. A low energy demand scenario has been developed based on the IEA reference scenario: For the year 2025, the energy efficiency scenario estimates a global electricity demand of 16.845 TWh in 2025. CARBON DIOXIDE SAVINGS: Over the whole situation period it is approximate that an common of 0.6 kg of COc would be saved per kilowatt-hour of yield from a solar generator. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: In order to provide up to a billion people with solar electricity by 2025, and go on to get a global electricity share of 20% or more by 2040, a major shift in energy policy will be needed. Experience over the past few years has demonstrated the effectiveness of joint industrial and political commitment to achieving greater penetration of solar electricity into the energy mix at local, national, regional and global levels.

SOLAR BASICS
THE SOLAR POTENTIAL:
The US National Solar Radiation database, for example, has logged 30 years of solar radiation and additional meteorological data from 337 sites. There is more than enough solar radiation available around the world to satisfy the demand for solar power systems. The proportion of the sun’s rays that reaches the earth’s surface is enough to provide for global energy consumption 10,000 times over. On average, each square meter of land is exposed to enough sunlight to produce 1,700 kWh of power every year. The statistical information base for the solar energy resource is very solid.

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The US National Solar Radiation record, for example, has logged 30 years of solar radiation and additional meteorological data from 237 sites around the globe.

Figure 1.2 shows the estimated potential energy output from solar PV generators in different parts of the world. The calculation used here takes into account the average efficiency of modules and converters as well as the correct angle to the sun required at different latitudes. In terms of final demand, the report Solar Electricity in 2010 (European Photovoltaic Industry Association, 2001) shows that only the market segment comprising grid-connected PV rooftop systems, the most dynamic growth area in the market, has the potential to generate an average of 16% of electricity consumption across the OECD (industrialized) countries.

WHAT IS PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY?

“Photovoltaic” is a combination of two words: “photo”, meaning= light, and “voltaic”, meaning electricity. Photovoltaic technology, the scientific term used to describe what we use to convert solar energy into electricity, generates electricity from light. We use a semi-conductor material which can be adapted to release electrons, the negatively charged particles that form the basis of Page | 7

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electricity. The most common semi-conductor material used in photovoltaic (PV) cells is silicon, an element most commonly found in sand. All PV cells have at least two layers of such semi-conductors, one positively charged and one negatively charged. When light shines on the semi-conductor, the electric field across the junction between these two layers causes electricity to flow, generates DC current. The greater the intensity of the light; the greater the flow of electricity. A photovoltaic system therefore does not need bright sunlight in order to operate. It also generates electricity on cloudy days by a rationing of the energy output that depends on the density of the clouds. Due to the reflection of sunlight, days with slight cloud can even result in higher energy yields than days with a completely cloudless sky. Generating energy through solar PV is quite different from how a solar thermal system works, where the sun’s rays are used to generate heat, usually for hot water in a house, swimming pool etc.

THE ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR POWER:
• • • • • The fuel is free. There are no moving parts to wear out, break down or replace. Only minimal maintenance is required to keep the system running. The systems are modular and can be quickly installed anywhere. It produces no noise, harmful emissions or polluting gases.

TECHNOLOGIES OF PHOTOVOLTIC Concentrator cells: focus light from a large area onto a small area of photovoltaic material using an optical concentrator (such as a Fresnel lens), thus minimising the quantity of PV cells required. The two main drawbacks with concentrator systems are that they cannot make use of diffuse sunlight, and must always be directed towards the sun with a tracking system. Spheral solar technology: uses minute silicon beads bonded to an aluminium foil matrix. This offers a big cost advantage because of the reduced requirement for silicon. Two companies, from Canada and Japan, are planning to commercialize modules with Spheral solar cells, with one of them already predicting a module efficiency of 11%. This represents an excellent example of the rapid technical progress in photovoltaic.

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Modules: are clusters of PV cells incorporated into a unit, usually by soldering them together under a sheet of glass. They can be adapted in size to the proposed site, and quickly installed. They are also robust, reliable and weatherproof. Module producers usually guarantee a power output of 80% of the nominal power even after 20-25 years. When a PV installation is described as having a capacity of 3 kWp(peak), this refers to the output of the system under standard testing conditions (STC), allowing comparisons between different modules. In central Europe a 3 kWp rated solar electricity system, with a module area of approximately 27 square meters, would produce enough power to meet the electricity demand of an energy-conscious household. Inverters are used to convert the direct current (DC) power generated by a PV generator into alternating current (AC) compatible with the local electricity distribution network. This is essential for grid-connected PV systems. Inverters are offered in a wide range of power classes, from a few hundred watts through the most frequently used range of several kWp (3-6 kWp) up to central inverters for large-scale systems with several hundred kWp. COMPONENTS FOR STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEMS Stand-alone (off-grid) PV systems contain a BATTERY, frequently of the lead acid type, to store the energy for future use. New high-quality batteries designed especially for solar applications with lifetimes of up to 15 years are now available. However the lifetime of the battery strongly depends on the battery management and the user’s behaviour. The battery is connected to the PV array via a CHARGE CONTROLLER. The charge controller protects the battery from overcharging or discharging, and can also provide information about the state of the system or enable metering and pre-payment for the electricity used. If AC output is needed, an INVERTER is required to convert the DC power from the array. TYPES OF PV SYSTEM:

1. GRID CONNECTED:

This is the most popular type of solar PV system for homes and businesses in the developed world. Connection to the local electricity network allows any excess power produced to be sold to the utility. Electricity is then imported from the network outside daylight hours. An inverter is used to convert the DC power produced by the system to AC power for running normal electrical equipment. In countries with a premium feed-in tariff, this is considerably higher than the usual tariff paid by the customer to the utility, so usually all electricity produced is fed into the public grid and sold to the utility. This is the situation in countries such as Germany or Spain. 2. OFF-GRID: Page | 9

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Completely independent of the grid, the system is connected to a battery via a charge controller, which stores the electricity generated and acts as the main power supply. An inverter can be used to provide AC power, enabling the use of normal appliances without mains power. Typical off-grid applications are industrial applications such as repeater stations for mobile phones or rural electrification. Rural electrification means either small solar home systems (SHS) covering basic electricity needs or solar mini grids, which are larger solar electricity systems providing electricity for several households.

3. HYBRID SYSTEM: A solar system can be combined with another source of power - a biomass generator, a solar turbine or diesel generator – to ensure a consistent supply of electricity. A hybrid system can be grid connected, stand alone or grid support.

THE SOLAR ENERGY FUTURE
METHODOLOGY AND ASSUMPTIONS If PV is to have a promising future as a major energy source it must build on the experiences of those countries that have already led the way in stimulating the solar energy market. In this section we look forward to what solar power could achieve - given the right market conditions and an anticipated fall in costs - over the first two decades of the twenty-first century. As well as projections for installed capacity and energy output we also make assessments of the level of investment required, the number of jobs that would be created and the crucial effect that an increased input from solar electricity will have on greenhouse gas emissions. This scenario for 2025, together with an extended projection forwards to 2040, is based on the following core inputs. • PV market development over recent years both globally and in specific regions. • National and regional market support programmers. • National targets for PV installations and manufacturing capacity. • The potential for PV in terms of solar irradiation, the availability of suitable roof space and the demand for electricity in areas not connected to the grid. POWER GENERATION The global installed capacity of solar power systems would reach 433 GWp by 2025. About two thirds of this would be in the grid-connected market, mainly in industrialized countries. Assuming that 80% of these systems are installed on residential buildings, and their average size is 3 kWp, each serving the needs of three people, the total number of people by then generating their own electricity from a grid-connected solar system would reach 290 million. In Europe alone Page | 10

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there would be roughly 41 million people receiving their supply from gridconnected solar electricity. In the non-industrialized world approximately 40 GWp of solar capacity is expected to have been installed by 2020 in the rural electrification sector. Here the assumption is that on average a 100 Wp stand-alone system will cover the basic electricity needs of 3-4 persons per dwelling. Since system sizes are much smaller and the population density greater, this means that UP TO 950 MILLION PEOPLE IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WOULD BY THEN BE USING SOLAR ELECTRICITY. By 2025, more than 1.6 billion people could get electricity from off grid photovoltaic systems. This would represent a major breakthrough for the technology from its present emerging status EMPLOYMENT More jobs are created in the installation and servicing of PV systems than in their manufacture. Based on information provided by the industry, it has been assumed that, up to 2010, 20 jobs will be created per MW of capacity during manufacture, decreasing to 10 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020. About 30 jobs per MW will be created during the process of installation, retailing and providing other local services up to 2010, reducing to 27 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020. As far as maintenance is concerned it is assumed that with the more efficient business structures and larger systems in the industrialized world, about one job will be created per installed MW. Since developing world markets will play a more significant role beyond 2010, however, the proportion of maintenance work is assumed to steadily increase up to two jobs per MW by 2020. The result is that by 2025, AN ESTIMATED 3.2 MILLION FULL-TIME JOBS WOULD HAVE BEEN CREATED BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR POWER around the world. Over half of those would be in the installation and marketing of systems.

Pakistan’s indulgence in solar energy
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ISLAMABAD, April 29-2010 - President Asif Ali Zardari has asked for an early adoption and utilization of modern solar and geothermal technologies including solar cookers, geothermal heat pumps, solar water heaters and solar water pumping etc. to take full advantage of the available natural energy resources, on one hand and to meet the energy requirements of the country, on the other. “The energy crisis has forced upon a vigorous search for out of box, imaginative and bold solutions,” the President said during a briefing given to him on alternate Pakistan on industrial grid linked electricity production program, the Government of Pakistan has determined to establish 100 MW Solar Power Farm by June 2011. This program initiated by the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB), involves financing through private sector, land from Government of Sindh and power purchase by NTDC for HESCO. The Government of Pakistan guarantees are backed through NEPRA. The Board has recently issued LOIs to 30 national and international companies for generation of 1500 MW power through solar energy.

Solar activity in Pakistan
(2x50) MW Solar Power Generation Project at Gharo, Sindh: A solar corridor at Gharo-Keti Bandar, Sindh has been identified with an actual potential of 50,000 MW. The pre-feasibility study of the site has been done by AEDB. AEDB drafted the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and the Implementation Agreement. 8 companies with financial and technical viability have been short-listed. OEMs/Suppliers like GE, VESTAS and GAMESA have been short-listed for the project. Three companies have submitted applications to NEPRA for obtaining Generation License. NTDC has submitted the request for Power Acquisition Permission to NEPRA for procuring power from the proposed solar plants. HESCO has agreed to purchase the initial 100 MW Solar Power generated through this project. Private investors have entered the PPA negotiations with NTDC/WAPDA. Sindh Government has leased out approximately 5000 Acres of land for the project. AEDB has allocated 1000 acres Page | 12

Business Communication Report on

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of land each to five (5) investors, namely M/s New Park Energy Ltd., M/s Green Power, M/s Zephyr Ltd., M/s Win Power Ltd. and M/s Tenaga. Tariff would be determined by NEPRA in consultation with the IPP and the Power Purchaser i.e. NTDC, as per Government of Pakistan’s Policy for Power Generation 2002. Once the initial target of generating 100 MW through Solar Energy is achieved, it will be upgraded to 700 MW by the year 2010 and 9700 MW by the year 2030. 100 Solar Homes Program Narian Khorian, Islamabad The project was successfully executed and implemented by AEDB. The Honorable Prime Minister of Pakistan inaugurated it on 19th June 2005. Each of the 100 households has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels, 4 LED lights, a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. In addition, a Solar Geyser and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household. As part of the community welfare, a Solar Water Desalination Plant has also been installed and commissioned at the village ensuring the availability of clean drinking water to the villagers. A Children’s Playground with Solar Powered Lights has also been developed at the Village. Two Solar Powered Computers have been provided to the village Mosque/Community Center, which has been airconditioned using Solar Energy as well. In addition, an electric vehicle has also been developed which will act as the first ever Electric Rickshaw in Pakistan. The batteries of this vehicle are charged with Solar Energy. 100 Solar Homes Program per Province: The project was executed and implemented in the following villages: 1. 2. 3. 4. Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar, District Kech, Balochistan, Bharo Mal, District Thar, Sindh, Janak, District Kohat, N.W.F.P., Lakhi Bher, Distrcit D.G. Khan, Punjab.

Each of the 100 households in each village has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels, 4 LED lights, a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. In addition, a Solar Disinfecting Unit and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household. Pilot Project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel: A 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel Turbine has been imported from China to reverse engineer the technology. An R&D lab is being setup for this purpose.

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Another 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel turbine has been indigenously manufactured and installed at the Khanpur Dam Canal near the village of Mohra Morado, Taxila. This turbine is being used to provide electricity to the village Pilot Project for Installation of Indigenously Developed Micro Solar Panel: A total of 140 Micro Solar Pannel have been installed at various sites within Sindh and Balochistan, for providing electricity to the rural households, Innovative Lighting Systems: LED Lights, Solar Lanterns, Pedal Generators, Hand Generators and Solar Mobile Phone Chargers have been indigenously developed by the private sector with AEDB’s facilitation. These products have also been provided to the rural areas that have been electrified with Solar Energy.

Activities of Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies

(PCRET)
Photovoltaic (PV) Technology ○ Solar-Solar-Diesel High hybrid system installed to provide electricity to two villages in Balochistan through M/s Empower International, New Zealand.


Two other villages in Balochistan were electrified using PV system. 3000 Laser Detectors were designed and fabricated for incorporating in the laser land leveling system of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). 4000 Solar Cells and 300 Solar Modules of different sizes were fabricated indigenously.





Solar Thermal Appliances A number of appliances including solar water heaters, solar fruit and vegetable dryers, solar distillation stills for producing clean water, solar room heating systems and solar cookers have been developed and disseminated for domestic and commercial applications. Electrification through Micro Solar Panel: ○ 600 houses have been electrified in the remote coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan through installation of small solar panel (stand alone) systems.


4 Coast Guard Check Posts at Lasbela have been electrified. Page | 14

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○ ○


5 villages have been provided with battery charging facilities through a solar-powered battery-charging center. 500-Watts Solar Turbine has been manufactured locally. The second (improved) model is under field test. A reverse osmosis unit is being installed near village Mubarak, Kemari Town, Karachi for desalination of brackish water.

Pakistan’s Solar Energy Development Plans
MEDIUM TERM SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011-2020 Year Capaci ty Install ed (MW) 700 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 100 100 150 200 250 250 300 300 350 300 Cumulative MW of Solar Energy Installed by Year End

Short Term Plan (2005-2010) 700 800 900 1,050 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,050 2,350 2,700 3,000

Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan

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DETAILS OF MICRO SOLAR PANNEL INSTALLED IN SINDH & BALOCHISTAN

SINDH - District Thatta S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name of Village Goth Gul Muhammad Khaskheli – Thakani, Mirpur Sakro Goth Haji Jumo Khaskheli – Thakani, Mirpur Sakro Goth Ismail Khaskheli 1 – Thakani Goth Ismail Khaskheli 2 – Thakani Goth Mohd Hasan Khaskheli – Thakani, Mirpur Sakro Goth Haji Abdullah Channo – Thakani, Mirpur Sakro Goth Jamot Hussain Khaskheli – Thakani, Mirpur Sakro Goth Baboo Pahwar – Thakani, Mirpur Sakro Goth Sher Muhammad Hamaiti – Gujjo Goth Daandaari – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi Goth Lukman – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi Goth Sammo – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi Total Homes Electrified 16 23 15 05 18 07 11 06 40 250 16 14 356 Pannel Installed 04 06 04 01 05 02 03 02 10 40 04 03 85

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Daandaari – Ghorabari, U.C. Udaasi

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Pumping Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan

BALOCHISTAN - Kund Malir, District Lasbela S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name of Village Goth Meer Isa – Kund Malir, Lasbela Goth Ramzan – Kund Malir, Lasbela Goth Haji Sher Muhammad – Kund Malir, Lasbela Goth Yaaqoob – Kund Malir, Lasbela Goth Mir Abdullah – Kund Malir, Lasbela Goth Haji Washi / Daghari – Kund Malir, Lasbela Totals Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan BALOCHISTAN - Quetta S.No 7 Name of Recipient Governor Balochistan on behalf of the Government of Balochistan Location F.C. Warehou se Quetta Pannel 39 Current Status To be installed as per the direction and advice of the Irrigation & Power Department Balochistan Homes Electrified 03 15 35 18 08 32 111 Pannel Installed 01 02 05 02 01 04 15

Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan

VILLAGES ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2004-05
Village Name Narian Khorian Allah Baksh Bazar Lakhi Bhair Bharomal Jhanak District Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Turbat D.G. Khan Chachro Kohat Province Punjab Punjab Balochista Punjab Sindh N.W.F.P No. of Houses 53 57 121 135 115 120 Page | 17

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Total 601 Source: Board of Investment, Government of Pakistan

VILLAGES TO BE ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2005-06 Village name Khirzaan Basti Bugha Pinpario Shnow Garri District Khuzdar D.G. Khan Chachro Kohat Province Balochista n Punjab Sindh N.W.F.P Total No. of Houses 100 100 100 100 400

RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FOR 2005-06 No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Project Title Roshan Pakistan: National Rural Electrification Programe through Alternative / Renewable Energy Technologies Solar Homes Project in Each Province Development of Supply Chain Mechanism for Pedal Generators, Hand Generators and LED Lanterns Pilot Project of Production Plant of Bio-Diesel Research on Development of 1 kW Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle in Pakistan using Existing Fuel Cell Solar Water Pumping & Desalination Solar Thermal Power Plant Technologies (Demonstration Units) Electrification of Villages through Micro Solar Pannel Pilot project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel Page | 18

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10. Pilot project for Emerging Alternative Energy Technologies Demonstration in Pakistan

CONCLUSION
Reports are a helpful channel, but it is people’s behaviour that really changes things. We encourage politicians and policymakers, global citizens, energy officials, companies, investors and other interested parties to support solar power. Solar energy is very useful, particularly in a time when we are concerned about greenhouse gas emissions from other energy sources. By taking the crucial steps to help ensure that more than a billion people obtain electricity from the sun in the future we can harness the full potential of solar power for our common good.

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