Solar Power Charge Controller

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Solar Power Charge Controller

Solar Power Charge Controller
Introduction
 Charging batteries with solar power is great on the environment and for
batteries. Charging and maintaining batteries through solar will result in
better battery performance and longer battery life.
 The solar energy is converted to electrical energy by photo-voltaic cells, this
energy is stored in batteries during day time for utilizing the same during
night time.
 Precise Charge Controller for Solar Photo Voltaic Panel used Embedded
based Micro controller concept.
 The main scope is, the photovoltaic cells are converting the sunlight in to
electricity a charge controller is used.
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Solar Power Charge Controller
Description:
 In solar power system, charge controller is the heart of the system which
was designed to protect the rechargeable battery
 It deals with a controlled charging mechanism which over charge, deep
discharge and under voltage of the battery.
 In this a solar panel is used to charge a battery. A set of op-amps are used
as comparators to continuously monitor panel voltage, load current etc.
 Indications are also provided by a green LED for fully charged battery
while a set of red LEDs to indicate under charged, overloaded and deep
discharge condition.
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Solar Power Charge Controller
 Charge controller also uses MOSFET as power semiconductor switch to
ensure cut off the load in low battery or overload condition.
 A transistor is used to bypass the solar energy to a dummy load while the
battery gets fully charged.
 This protects the battery from getting over charged.

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Solar Power Charge Controller
Block Diagram

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Solar Power Charge Controller
Hardware Requirements
 Solar panel
 Op-amps
 MOSFET
 Power Diodes
 LEDs
 Potentiometers
 Battery
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Solar Power Charge Controller
MOSFET(IRF 510)
 The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor
(MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a device used
for amplifying or switching electronic signals.
 The basic principle of the device a voltage on the
oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a
conducting channel between the two other contacts
called source and drain.
 It is by far the most common transistor in both digital
and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction
transistor was at one time much more common.
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Solar Power Charge Controller
OPAMP LM324
Features:
 Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
 Large DC voltage gain 100 dB
 Wideband with 1Mhz (Temperature compensated)
 Wide power supply range:
Single supply 3V to 32V
or dual supplies ±1.5V to ±16V
Very low supply current drain (700 μA) essentially
independent of supply voltage
Low input biasing current 45 nA (temperature
compensated)
Low input offset voltage 2mV and offset current:5
nA
Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ − 1.5V
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Solar Power Charge Controller
BC547 (NPN –Transistor)
 The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor.
 It is used in general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547
series 45 V, 100 mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
 The ratio of two currents (Ic/Ib) is called the DC Current Gain of the device
and is given the symbol of hfe or nowadays Beta, (β).

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Solar Power Charge Controller
1N4148
 The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon
diode used in signal processing.
 The 1N4148 is generally available in a DO-35
glass package and is very useful at high
frequencies with a reverse recovery time of no
more than 4ns.
 This permits rectification and detection of radio
frequency signals very effectively, as long as
their amplitude is above the forward conduction
threshold of silicon (around 0.7V) or the diode is
biased.
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Solar Power Charge Controller
Photovoltaic cells
 Photovoltaic (PV) cells are made of special materials called
semiconductors such as silicon, which is currently the most commonly
used.
 Basically, when light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is absorbed
within the semiconductor material.
 PV cells also all have one or more electric fields that act to force
electrons freed by light absorption to flow in a certain direction.
 This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts on the
top and bottom of the PV cell, we can draw that current off to use
externally.
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Solar Power Charge Controller
Solar panel
 Expose the cell to light, and the energy from each
photon (light particle) hitting the silicon, will liberate
an electron and a corresponding hole.
 If this happens within range of the electric field’s
influence, the electrons will be sent to the N side and
the holes to the P one, resulting in yet further
disruption of electrical neutrality.
 This flow of electrons is a current the electrical field
in the cell causes a voltage and the product of these
two is power.
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Solar Power Charge Controller
Battery
 An electrical battery is a combination of one or
more electrochemical cells, used to convert
stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
 The battery has become a common power
source for many household, robotics and
industrial applications.
 Larger batteries provide standby power for
telephone exchanges or computer data centers

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Solar Power Charge Controller
Advantages
 No noise
 Easy to install
 Simple to operate
 Pollution free working
 Low maintenance cost
 Generating panel has a long life

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Solar Power Charge Controller
Conclusion
 In future, we will have to depend on renewable energy. The only source
available around us is sunlight, and we can easily convert sunlight energy
into electrical energy by using PV cells to meet our requirement.
 However to extend use of solar power energy to industrial and commercial
areas, the price of PV cells need to be brought down through low-cost
manufacturing techniques.
 By using the solar energy power generation technology the usage of nonconventional resources can be minimized which not only reduces the
resource extinction but helps widely in reducing the environmental
pollution.
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Solar Power Charge Controller
 By Generating Power Through Solar Energy The Cost Of Electricity
Can Be Minimized And Occasionally Can Be Provided With Free Of
Cost. Electricity Can Be Supplied Even To Remote Areas With Out
The usage Of Transmission Lines.

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Railway Track Security by GSM With User
Programmable Number Features

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